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Wireless Power Charger

Wirelessly power your iDevices!


Wow, I'm really surprised at how many views this is getting! Thank you
everyone for reading!
I recently made a boost converter (for those unfamiliar with them, they effectively
boost the voltage up to a useable amount) to make a USB Ipod charger using 2
AA batteries.
Now that that was done and over, tested tried and true, I decided I wanted to
make something a little more snazzy!
Video:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MDSYJowwFWM

Behold, the wireless ipod charger!


Uses all 12 volts of 6 (2 in parallel for each cell) lithium batteries!
Draws under 3 amps all the time!
Perfect for kids parties!
Now in 5 new flavors!
I've searched around on this website, and noticed that almost all of the
instructables on here with wireless power seem to lack a proper explanation
about how to build one; Or, when they did build one, they used an inefficient
method of doing so...
This transmitter works fantastic, and can run on pretty much any voltage above
12 volts, and below 24! It's also extremely efficient (little power lost) and, it
generates almost no interference. (one wireless power instructable used a
square wave in the primary; Square waves have a lot of harmonics, and can
cause havoc on computer systems, radios, and other sensitive electronics)
I've come to solve all of these problems!

Step 1: So you want to make it, right?

Show All 8 Items

You'll need some parts.


2 MOSFETS - I understand that this is a rather vague statement. You can use the
IRFP250, if you want to. However, the lower the on-state resistance is, the less
heat will be generated. You can get these from any ol electronics supplier.
Farnell, mouser, digikey, ebay
2 10k ohm resistors. (brown black orange) You can use 1/4 watt ones. Again, you
can get these at the listed ones above, and even radioshack should have these.
2 Ultrafast Diodes - They need to be above 400 volts. I used UF4007's. Farnell,
Mouser, Digikey, ebay...
2 Twelve volt zener diodes - Nothing special to say here! Again, Farnell, Mouser,
and Digikey.

1 7805 - I know I said I used a boost converter. However, a boost converter is a


whole another instructable, and I can't explain how to build one in this. So, for
now, we'll just use a 7805. Radioshack has these in addition to the places listed
before!
2 18k ohm resistors - 1/4 watt (brown - gray - orange) Radioshack, and the listed
places.
2 12k ohm resistors - 1/4 watt (brown - red - orange) " "
1 Ferrite toroid - it can be around 1/2 inch in diameter. Wind roughly 30 turns of
enameled wire on it, and you'll be set! You can get these from old Tube
televisions scrapped, ATX PSU's. Basically anything you can take apart *should*
have one of these.
USB Female Port - I scavenged mine from an old adapter PCI board we had
from 2000. We didn't need it, so I figured why not? If you don't know where to get
one, you should be able to get them from Mouser, Digikey, Farnell, and ebay.
Two sets of tank capacitors - I used 4 1 uF capacitors for mine. You can use two
2 uF capacitors instead, if you want to. You NEED to make sure they're MKP, or a
better type! Polyester ones, electrolytics, anything along those lines will not work,
and will overheat! WIMA makes some nice capacitors that work fantastic for this
project. You can alternatively use Farnell, Digikey, or Mouser to find some MKP
capacitors to use. Ebay will have some too.
You'll also need some 14 gauge wire, and tape!

Step 2: The Schematic

To build it, just follow the schematic as shown. (If you need help, please, do not
hesitate to message me!)
If you're having trouble identifying the MOSFET's pins, look up the part number
of the MOSFET you're using, and follow what it says on there.
For those following it to the book, the IRFP250's pin out goes like this, from left to
right; Gate, Drain, and then Source.
Make sure when you're making this, the diodes are put in the correct way. Don't
mix up your zeners with your regular ones!
If you mess this up, your MOSFETs will almost certainly go boom!
You could use a SMPS laptop cord to power it, which puts out around 18 volts. (if
you do decide to go this route, make sure your power supply can handle a good
amount of current draw. Mine is rated at 3.5 amps, and occasionally the OC
(overcurrent) detection will trip!)
I will add a word of warning; If you plan on just using a 7805, you must NOT
exceed 15 volts input, on the transmitter. Due to resonant rise, the capacitor will
charge over what the 7805 is capable of handling. Be careful please!
If you want to put more juice in your transmitter, you must use a buck converter,
otherwise things will be very unhappy on your receiving end.
For the diodes, the black band on it, or the white band on the UF4007's indicates
the cathode. The other end is the anode. (for simpler terms, the cathode is the
pointy end of the diode symbol, where the line goes across it. The anode is the
flat base of the triangle)
Mind you, this is just for the transmitter!
Changing the inductor value will change the amount of current draw. A smaller
value inductor will equal more current, a larger value one, less current. I've gotten
it all the way down to 1.5 amps max draw, but the inductor overheated! (the wire
gauge was too small)
Changing the coil turns will ALSO additionally change the current draw, as well
as the frequency. More turns, lower frequency, lower current. (I believe, this is a
result of the resistance of the wire, and the frequency change)

Also note; the higher the input voltage, the more distance, you should get out of
your transmitter. As an additional bonus, you will also receive more voltage at the
receiving end as well! Remember, though, at this comes a cost; the mosfets will
get warmer, and your current draw will increase!

Step 3: Making the coils

I understand that making the coil wasn't explained at all, and I figured it deserved
its own step!
To make the coil for the transmitter, take your 14 gauge wire, and get around 7 -

9 feet of the stuff off your source. Take this, and find the middle point of the wire;
cut here, with a pair of wire cutters. (or, if you're good at stripping, you can try to
take the jacket of the wire off, without cutting the conductor inside) Strip around 1
inch of wire off of all of the ends, so you have nice shiny copper glaring back at
you.
Then, get some masking tape, and wind it around two parts of the coil. This
makes sure that nothing gets out of place when you're getting the rest of the tape
on! Once you have that bit done, just wrap the coil as you see fit!
And there, you have your coil done!
To make the receiving coil, basically repeat the process; Just leave out the center
tap part.

Step 4: Receiving...

The receiving end is less complex. Make sure you use the same capacitor value,
as well as following the USB pinout as I have written in the schematic.
You can try and experiment with different turns ratio's of the coils and see what
kind of performances you get! This has to do with resonance, and step-up / stepdown ratios.
Try adding more voltage, and see if you get more distance; another way of
possibly increasing distance is to increase the resonant frequency a bit.
Increasing the frequency should give you more distance, with additional current
draw.
To increase the frequency, just lower the capacitor values. Personally, the lowest
I'd go would be around 1 uF. Make sure when you lower the cap value, you do it
for both the receiving, and the transmitting ends!
Also, remember, the idea does not have to apply only to USB. I've noticed that
due to resonant rise, the filter capacitor charges to the peak of the output sine
wave....
At 12 volts into the transmitter, I was getting around 24 volts at the receiver end!
(this isn't the effective voltage however; once you put a load on it, it drops a bit)
At 15 volts in, I was getting 35 volts on the receiver! (wow, that's quite a bit of a
jump, huh?)
This means that you should be able to power other things as well. Use whatever
your mind comes to!

Step 5: Thoughts, and Explanation

The ZVS driver is used for a lot of things due to it's simplicity. Your laptop might
be using the same oscillator format to run its backlights!
However, in this case, the reason it works is because the ZVS driver begins by
oscillating at around 50 - 60 khz. We can't hear it since it's above our hearing
range.
Resonance can be thought of like a Pendulum. If you hit a pendulum, it will move
forward, and then back. If you hit the pendulum again, right as it starts to swing
downwards, the pendulum will travel faster and higher than before. It's very much
the same in electronics, just instead of speed and height, it's voltage and current!
You can observe it pretty easily with a cup of water. If you shake it just the right
way back and forth the water will spill right out of the cup, due to resonance.
Due to this magic called resonance, the voltage swings in the tank (between the
3 + 3 coil and the 2 uF capacitor) are much higher than what the input voltage is.
Resonance helps with transmission distance, and also, as a result of how the
MOSFETS turn on, they're in what's called Zero Voltage Switching, where they
turn on and off when the voltage across them is zero. (meaning, they generate
little/no heat due to switching losses). However, due to on-state resistance, they
still make a little bit of heat.

ANYWAY, going away from the complicated bits of it, the reason it can transmit
power is caused by magnetism. As the coil oscillates, it sends an alternating
magnetic field through the air, which is picked up by the receiving coil (and again,

due to resonance, the voltage rises upwards!) and thus, power is transmitted
through air! The same basic concept is behind radio waves; though, amplifiers
are needed to get the audio out of the air, and the frequency is much higher!
I made all of the pictures shown in, though, the transmitter picture is a modified
version of the famous Mazzilli flyback driver. (a great, versatile circuit... Used for
so much, thanks Vladmiro Mazzilli for this!)
And, one more thing; In another instructable, once I get some protoboard, I'll
explain how to make a buck converter. It's relatively easy, and requires just a few
parts.
And as a safety note; I'm not responsible for any "oopsies" you make if you
decide to construct this circuit. You NEED to make sure everything is connected
properly!

If I do somehow end up winning the Epilog contest, I would use the laser etcher
to first and foremost, make PCB's. I don't like the traditional way of etching (with
chemicals and nasty fumes) and plus, I could additionally sell the PCB's to other
electronics enthusiasts for smaller amounts of money, than most etching
companies make you pay. I'll try my best to bring this hobby back into the
spotlight!
Thanks for reading, and please rate, and vote :)