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DESIGN, FABRICATION AND EXPERIMENTAL

INVESTIGATION OF SOLAR DISH STIRLING


SYSTEM

SESSION 2010-2014
Project Supervisor
Dr. Muzaffar Ali

Submitted by:
Aitazaz Ahsan

(10-ME-04)

Naeem Nawaz

(10-ME-28)

M. Umer

(10-ME-36)

Umair Masood

(10-ME-82)

Department of Mechanical Engineering


University of Engineering &Technology, Taxila

DESIGN, FABRICATION AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SOLAR DISH STIRLING SYSTEM

ABSTRACT
In order to satisfy the rising energy demands of global consumption, a new cleaner and
renewable power source needs to be explored, conceptualized, and developed. Solar energy is a
free and clean energy resource which can be used to generate power without damage to humans or
the local ecosystems. To efficiently capture this solar energy as a feasible power source, a Stirling
engine is developed and will use sunlight as a source via a solar concentrator. This project
intends to utilize methods of gathering solar energy that have not yet been commercially
implemented, and modifications to the external heating of the receiver will be made in order
to maximize the efficiency of solar Stirling engines via hybrid mechanism. These modified
solar Dish Stirling engines can produce power for a wide variety of applications. The nature
of the engine allows for both the scalability to create a solar farm as well as use for producing
power in remote areas and disaster relief. Concentrating solar power (CSP) is a unique renewable
energy technology. CSP systems have the ability to provide electricity, refrigeration and water
purification in one unit. This technology will be extremely helpful in improving the quality of life
for many people around the world who lack the energy needed to live a healthy life.

DESIGN, FABRICATION AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SOLAR DISH STIRLING SYSTEM

DEDICATIONS
We dedicate this project to all those humble human beings who have aided us in
any way to become what we are today, whose sacrifices seeded us success,
especially our parents who felt our pain beyond us and showered with never ending
prayers and support
We deem them as a divine source of inspiration

DESIGN, FABRICATION AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SOLAR DISH STIRLING SYSTEM

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
First of all thanks to ALLAH ALMIGHTY who has guided us through every step and it is only
because of His blessings that we gathered enough audacity and will to accomplish this project.
Then we would like to thank Dr. Muzaffar Ali for showing us the path of learning. He spread his
valuable time to guide us in the selection and implementation of knowledge to practical work. His
guidance is inevitable part of our successful project. Naturally, we would also like to thank our
family for giving us the gift of education. Finally, we would like to take this opportunity to
express our thanks and gratitude to all the persons who have directly or indirectly availed us in
guiding our project.

DESIGN, FABRICATION AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SOLAR DISH STIRLING SYSTEM

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1 INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................................................. 11
1.1 Energy Crises in Pakistan: ................................................................................................................ 11
1.2 Causes Of Energy Crises: ................................................................................................................. 11
1.2.1 Aging of the Equipment: ............................................................................................................ 11
1.2.2 Wastage of Energy: .................................................................................................................... 11
1.2.3 High Cost of Fuel: ...................................................................................................................... 12
1.2.4 Mismanagement and Monopoly in Business: ............................................................................ 12
1.2.5 Wastage of Energy: .................................................................................................................... 12
1.3 Motivation and Justification: ............................................................................................................ 12
1.3.1 Energy Mix of Pakistan: ............................................................................................................ 13
1.4 Solar Potential of Pakistan: ............................................................................................................... 14
1.4.1 Government Policy: ................................................................................................................... 15
1.4.2 Annual Insolation: ...................................................................................................................... 15
1.5 Solar Technologies: .......................................................................................................................... 15
1.5.1 PV/Solar Cells:........................................................................................................................... 15
1.5.2

Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants: ........................................................................ 16

2 SOLAR THERMAL POWER TECHNOLOGIES & THEIR SIGNIFCANCE ............................. 18


2.1 Parabolic and Fresnel Trough Technology: ...................................................................................... 19
2.2 Central Receiver Systems: ................................................................................................................ 20
2.3 Dish-Engine Systems: ....................................................................................................................... 22
2.4 Solar Updraft Tower Plant: ............................................................................................................... 23
2.5 Technology Comparison: .................................................................................................................. 24
2.6 Weak Points and Barriers: ................................................................................................................ 25
2.7 Strong Points and Diffusion Factors: ................................................................................................ 25
2.8 Main Drivers Influencing Future Technology Development: ........................................................... 26
2.8.1 Climate Protection: .................................................................................................................... 26
2.8.2 Objective of Security of Supply: ................................................................................................ 26
2.8.3 Enforced Direct Market Support for Renewable Energies (feed-in-laws): ................................ 26
2.8.4 Preferring Non-Intermittent Electricity Suppliers:..................................................................... 26
2.8.5 Advanced Side Applications and Side Products: ....................................................................... 26

DESIGN, FABRICATION AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SOLAR DISH STIRLING SYSTEM

2.8.6 Increasing Demand for Local Added Value: ............................................................................. 26


2.8.7 Aiming at Conflict Neutral Technologies: ................................................................................. 27
3 DISH ENGINE SYSTEM PROJECT DESCRIPTION ..................................................................... 28
3.1 Project Background:.......................................................................................................................... 29
3.2 Brief History of Solar Thermal Plant: ............................................................................................... 30
3.3 Previous Work: ................................................................................................................................. 31
3.5 Modern Feats in Solar Dish Stirling System: .................................................................................... 34
3.5 Basic Units of Concentrating Solar Power Dish/Engine System: ..................................................... 36
3.5.1 Solar Concentrator: .................................................................................................................... 36
3.5.2 Power Conversion Unit: ............................................................................................................. 36
3.5.3 Advantages:................................................................................................................................ 37
4 LITERATURE REVIEW OF RESEARCH PAPERS ....................................................................... 38
5 STIRLING ENGINE/ RECEIVER ...................................................................................................... 46
5.1 Brief History: .................................................................................................................................... 46
5.2 Study of Stirling Engine Components and Functional Description: ................................................. 49
5.2.1 Heater / Hot Side Heat Exchanger: ............................................................................................ 49
5.2.2 Regenerator: ............................................................................................................................... 50
5.2.3 Cooler / Cold Side Heat Exchanger: .......................................................................................... 50
5.2.4 Heat Sink:................................................................................................................................... 51
5.2.5 Displacer: ................................................................................................................................... 51
5.2.6 Power Piston: ............................................................................................................................. 51
5.2.7 Crank Shaft: ............................................................................................................................... 51
5.2.8 Connecting Rod: ........................................................................................................................ 51
5.3 Basics of Stirling Engine: ................................................................................................................. 51
5.3.1 The Stirling Engine Cycle: ......................................................................................................... 52
5.3.2 Isothermal Expansion (2-3):....................................................................................................... 52
5.3.3 Constant Volume Heat Rejection (3-4):..................................................................................... 52
5.3.4 Isothermal Compression (4-1): .................................................................................................. 52
5.3.5 Constant Volume Heat Addition (1-2): ...................................................................................... 52
5.5.1 Increase Power Output in Stage One: ........................................................................................ 54
5.5.2 Decrease Power Usage in Stage Three: ..................................................................................... 55
5.6 Stirling Engine Configurations: ........................................................................................................ 56
5.6.1 Alpha Stirling Engine: ............................................................................................................... 57

DESIGN, FABRICATION AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SOLAR DISH STIRLING SYSTEM

5.6.2 Beta Stirling Engine: .................................................................................................................. 57


5.6.3 Gamma Stirling Engine:............................................................................................................. 57
5.7 Solar Stirling Engine: ........................................................................................................................ 59
5.7.1 Lubricants and Friction: ............................................................................................................. 59
5.7.2 Pressurization: ............................................................................................................................ 60
5.8 Comparison of Stirling Engine with an Internal Combustion Engine: ............................................. 60
5.8.1 Advantages:................................................................................................................................ 60
5.8.2 Disadvantages: ........................................................................................................................... 60
5.9 Design and Analysis of Stirling Engine: ........................................................................................... 61
5.9.1 Non Dimensional Parameters Used in the Analysis: ................................................................. 61
5.9.2 Beale Number Bn:...................................................................................................................... 63
5.9.3 Estimating Stirling Engine Power Using Bn: ............................................................................. 64
5.9.4 West Number Wn: ...................................................................................................................... 64
5.9.5 Estimating Stirling Engine Power Using Wn: ............................................................................ 65
5.10 Online Design Calculations: ........................................................................................................... 65
5.11 Final Calculated Results Achieved From Engine Calculations: ..................................................... 66
6 SOLAR CONCENTRATOR ................................................................................................................ 67
6.1 Parabolic Dish Design: ..................................................................................................................... 69
6.2 Parabolic Dish Calculator: ................................................................................................................ 72
6.3 Parabolic Trough:.............................................................................................................................. 73
6.3.1 Parabolic Trough Design: .............................................................................................................. 74
7 SOLAR RADIATION STUDY OF TAXILA ...................................................................................... 76
7.1 Method of Calculations: .................................................................................................................... 76
7.1.1 Prediction of diffuse solar radiation: .......................................................................................... 76
7.1.2 Results and Discussions: ............................................................................................................ 77
7.1.3 Diffused Solar Radiation:........................................................................................................... 77
7.1.4 Sky Condition at Taxila: ............................................................................................................ 77
7.1.5 Statistical Distribution: .............................................................................................................. 77
7.1.6 Variation of Direct and Diffuse Solar Radiation: ...................................................................... 78
8 FABRICATION OF SOLAR DISH STIRLING SYSTEM ............................................................... 81
8.1 Theoretical Part: ................................................................................................................................ 81
8.2 Concentration Ratio: ......................................................................................................................... 82
8.3 Optical Energy Absorbed by the Receiver:....................................................................................... 84

DESIGN, FABRICATION AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SOLAR DISH STIRLING SYSTEM

8.4 Experimental Work: .......................................................................................................................... 85


8.5 Gamma Type Stirling Engine Receiver: ........................................................................................... 86
9 PROJECT INNOVATION ................................................................................................................... 88
9.1 Hybrid Mechanism: .......................................................................................................................... 88
9.2 Why Solar Generator: ....................................................................................................................... 89
9.3 Aim of Our Project: .......................................................................................................................... 89
9.4 Research & Development/Constraints: ............................................................................................. 90
9.5 Experimental Setup: .......................................................................................................................... 91
9.5.1 Coil:............................................................................................................................................ 91
9.5.2 Temperature Sensor: .................................................................................................................. 92
9.5.3 The Battery: ............................................................................................................................... 92
9.5.4 Charge Controller:...................................................................................................................... 93
9.5.5 Primary Dish Engine System Setup: .......................................................................................... 94
9.5.6 Hybrid Setup: ............................................................................................................................. 94
9.5.7 Results: ....................................................................................................................................... 95
APPENDEX A ........................................................................................................................................... 96
DETAILED ENGINEERING DRAWINGS OF ALL PARTS AND PRO-E ANIMATIONS ...... 96
APPENDIX B .......................................................................................................................................... 107
DEFLECTION ANALYSIS OF PARTS ................................................................................... 107

DESIGN, FABRICATION AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SOLAR DISH STIRLING SYSTEM

TABLE OF FIGURES
Figure 1.1 Pakistan's Direct Normal Solar Radiation (Annual) .................................................................... 14
Figure 1.2 Anatomy of Solar Cell................................................................................................................. 16
Figure 1.3 Working of PV Cell ..................................................................................................................... 16
Figure 2.1 Schematic illustration of the component parts of solar thermal power plants ........................ 18
Figure 2.2 Parabolic Trough System............................................................................................................ 19
Figure 2.3 Fresnel Trough ........................................................................................................................... 20
Figure 2.4 Central Receiver System ............................................................................................................ 21
Figure 2.5 10 MW PS10 central receiver plant in Spain.............................................................................. 22
Figure 2.6 Solar Dish Engine System ........................................................................................................... 23
Figure 2.7 Solar Dish Engine System Prototype (25 kW) ............................................................................ 23
Figure 2.8 Solar Updraft Tower Schematic ................................................................................................ 23
Figure 2.9 Solar Updraft Tower ................................................................................................................... 24
Figure 2.10 Technology Comparison .......................................................................................................... 24
Figure 2.11 Strong and Weak points of Solar Thermal Technology ............................................................ 25
Figure 3.1 Dish Engine Systems .................................................................................................................. 28
Figure 3.2 Dish Engine System Schematic ................................................................................................. 29
Figure 3.3 Pifre's 1878 Sun-Power Plant Driving a Printing Press............................................................... 30
Figure 3.4 Basic Configuration of Dish Engine System ................................................................................ 31
Figure 3.5 Schematic of Solar 1 ................................................................................................................... 32
Figure 3.6 Concentrator Assembly for Receiver 1 ...................................................................................... 33
Figure 3.7 Receiver Assembly for Solar 1 .................................................................................................... 34
Figure 3.8 Stirling Energy Systems Stirling Power Units ............................................................................. 35
Figure 3.9 Stirling Engine System - SunCatcher .......................................................................................... 35
Figure 3.10 Dish Engine Power Plant .......................................................................................................... 36
Figure 5.1 The Original Stirling Engine Patent of 1816 ............................................................................... 46
Figure 5.2 Automotive Stirling Engine ........................................................................................................ 47
Figure 5.3 Brayton Rotating Unit (BRU) ...................................................................................................... 48
Figure 5.4 Stirling based Fission Surface Power System ............................................................................. 48
Figure 5.5 Cut-away diagram of a rhombic drive beta configuration Stirling engine design ..................... 49
Figure 5.6 Ideal Stirling Cycle ...................................................................................................................... 53
Figure 5.7 Operation of Ideal Stirling Cycle Engine (Displacer at lower dead centre) ................................ 53
Figure 5.8 Operation of Ideal Stirling Cycle Engine (Displacer at lower upper dead centre) ..................... 53
Figure 5.9 Expansion Driving the Power Piston Upwards ........................................................................... 55
Figure 5.10 Transfer of warm gas to the upper cool end ........................................................................... 55
Figure 5.11 Contraction (Driving the Power Piston Downward) ................................................................ 56
Figure 5.12 Transfer of Cooled Gas to the Lower Hot End) ........................................................................ 56
Figure 5.13 Alpha Stirling Engine ................................................................................................................ 57
Figure 5.14 Beta Stirling Engine ................................................................................................................ 57
Figure 5.15 Gamma Stirling Engine ............................................................................................................. 58
Figure 5.16 Gamma Stirling Engine ............................................................................................................. 58
Figure 5.17 Solar Stirling Schematic .......................................................................................................... 59

DESIGN, FABRICATION AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SOLAR DISH STIRLING SYSTEM

Figure 5.18 Non-dimentional output power, LSmax* as a function of non-dimentional engine speed,
nmax*.......................................................................................................................................................... 62
Figure 5.19 Non-dimentional engine speed, nmax* as a function of non-dimentional non-dimentional
engine specification, S* .............................................................................................................................. 62
Figure 5.20 Online Design Calculations 1 .................................................................................................. 65
Figure 5.21 Online Design Calculations....................................................................................................... 66
Figure 6.1 Solar Concentrator (Dish Type) ................................................................................................ 67
Figure 6.2 The ANU 400m2 Solar Concentrator Dish.................................................................................. 68
Figure 6.3 The Focus of ARUN160 on focus plate at the receiver mouth .................................................. 69
Figure 6.4 ARUN160, installed at Latur for milk pasteurization - June 2005 .............................................. 69
Figure 6.5 Parabolic Dish Schematic ........................................................................................................... 70
Figure 6.6 Parabolic Dish Schematic Showing the Design Terms ............................................................... 71
Figure 6.7 Parabolic Dish Calculator ........................................................................................................... 72
Figure 6.8 Parabolic Trough Schematic....................................................................................................... 73
Figure 6.9 SGES(Solar Energy Generating Systems) Plant in California ...................................................... 73
Figure 6.10 SGES(Solar Energy Generating Systems) Plant in California .................................................... 74
Figure 6.11 Parabolic Trough Design .......................................................................................................... 74
Figure 6.12 Parabolic Trough Animation .................................................................................................... 75
Figure 7.1 Statistical Distribution of Global Solar Radiation ....................................................................... 78
Figure 7.2 Input parameter for estimation of monthly Global Solar radiation at Taxila, Pakistan (Table-1)
.................................................................................................................................................................... 78
Figure 7.3 Calculated Solar radiation data for Taxila .................................................................................. 79
Figure 7.4 A plot of the monthly variation of total direct and diffuse solar Radiation for Taxila, Pakistan
.................................................................................................................................................................... 79
Figure 7.5 Shows the variation of direct and diffuse radiation for Taxila, Pakistan ................................... 80
Figure 7.6 Behaviour of the cloudiness index Kt,D/H and D/H0 during a year for Taxila, Pakistan. .......... 80
Figure 8.1 Parabolic Geometry ................................................................................................................... 81
Figure 8.2 Fabricated Model of Dish Engine System .................................................................................. 86
Figure 8.3 Fabricated Gamma Type Stirling Engine .................................................................................... 87
Figure 9.1 Multi Mirror Collectors .............................................................................................................. 90
Figure 9.2 Coil for Circulating Hot Fluid (Hybrid Mechanism) .................................................................... 92
Figure 9.3 Temperature Sensor .................................................................................................................. 92
Figure 9.4 Battery to Provide Electricity during the Night ......................................................................... 92
Figure 9.5 Charge Controller ...................................................................................................................... 93
Figure 9.6 The Project Setup ....................................................................................................................... 94
Figure 9.7 Parabolic Trough Setup .............................................................................................................. 94
Figure 9.8 Project Schematic ...................................................................................................................... 95
Figure 9.9 Relationship between Time of the day & Rpm .......................................................................... 95
Figure: Dish Engine System Animation on Pro-E...................................................................................... 106
Figure: Parabolic Trough Animation on Pro-E ......................................................................................... 106
Figure: The resulting deflection from the expected loading on the hot endof the engine. The highest
level of deflection is expected to be 11.7 m. .......................................................................................... 107
Figure: The resulting deflection from the expected loading on the body of engine. The highest level of
deflection is expected to be 3.0 mm ........................................................................................................ 108

DESIGN, FABRICATION AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SOLAR DISH STIRLING SYSTEM

Figure: The resulting deflection from the expected loading on the base of the displacer piston. The
highest level of deflection is expected to be 1.8 mm. .............................................................................. 108
Figure: The resulting deflection from the expected loading on power piston rod for the engine. The
highest level of deflection is expected to be 26 m ................................................................................. 108
Figure: The resulting deflection from the expected loading on displacer piston rod for the engine. The
highest level of deflection is expected to be 17 m ................................................................................. 108
Figure: The resulting deflection from the expected loading on the crankshaft for the engine. The
highest level of deflection is expected to be 96 m ................................................................................. 108
Figure: The resulting deflection from the expected loading on engine bolts/ linear shaft. The highest
level of deflection is expected to be 45 m .............................................................................................. 108

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DESIGN, FABRICATION AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SOLAR DISH STIRLING SYSTEM

1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Energy Crises in Pakistan:
An adequate and reliable supply of energy is a prerequisite for development. The energy demand
is expected to grow rapidly in most developing countries over the next decades. For Pakistan,
population and energy demand has been increasing day by day. Most of the power generation of
Pakistan is based on fossil fuel sometimes which is playing a negative impact on finance in the
long run operation. The burning of fossil fuels has given rise to global warming with the increasing
amount of greenhouse gases. For meeting the expected energy demand as the population will rise
and to sustain economic growth, alternative form of energy renewable energy needs to be
expanded. In future fossil fuel will not be able to supply the electricity to the user as it will be
finished & not environment friendly also.
Owing to the existing energy crises, incorrect energy mix and the aging of the equipment it has
become important that we change our energy system and move towards sustainable renewable
energy sources. Solar power is perceived as an environment-friendly, low-cost source of electricity
that relies on proven technology. In order to satisfy the rising energy demands of global
consumption, a new cleaner and renewable power source needs to be explored, conceptualized,
and developed. Solar energy is a free and clean energy resource which can be used to generate
power without damage to humans or the local ecosystems.

1.2 Causes Of Energy Crises:


Energy is now the talk of town in Pakistan. Starting from house wives, traders, businessmen,
students, ministers all the victims of the shortage of energy. Karachi the biggest city experiencing
up to 12 hours load shedding in peak hot weather and during the board exams are on the way.
Everybody now became the expert of energy and all the figures are on finger tips, sometimes the
shortage is 200 MW sometimes 2500 MW.
1.2.1 Aging of the Equipment:
One very important reason attributed to this energy shortage is the aging of the generating
equipment which could not develop the electricity as per the design requirement. This is the
responsibility of continuous updating the equipment and keeping the high standard of maintenance.
we sincerely think a serious thought should be given for general overhaul and maintenance of
existing equipment to keep them in good working order. Due to aging of equipment change over
in energy system is required towards a more sustainable system.
1.2.2 Wastage of Energy:
So far energy conservation is limited to newspaper ads lip service in seminars. No serious thought
is being given to utilize the energy at the optimum level. A new culture need to develop to conserve
energy. Some times on government level illiteracy is blamed for the failure of the energy
conservation program. this is not true,. Maximum energy is consumed by elite class which have
all the resources of knowledge and communication. But for their own luxury they themselves
ignore the problem. Government should seriously embark on energy conservation program.

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DESIGN, FABRICATION AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SOLAR DISH STIRLING SYSTEM

1.2.3 High Cost of Fuel:


The cost of crude has increased from 40 $ to 140 $/barrel. It means the generation from thermal
units are costing exorbitant price. WAPDA and KESC when purchasing electricity on higher cost
are not eager to keep on selling the electricity on loss. Therefore they do not move on general
complain of load shedding. One simple solution is to increase the energy cost. Again the theft of
electricity from the consumers adding the misery of common citizen who wants to pay the bills
honestly, the problem of the energy losses is being discussed for more than a decade and in spite
all efforts no solution has been found.
1.2.4 Mismanagement and Monopoly in Business:
WAPDA and KESC are two generation and dispatch units in Pakistan. Although NEPRA is a
government authority to settle the tariff issues but the fact remains that once the question of
WAPDA comes the authority has a very little influence. This is suggested that private sector should
be allowed to install power plant and settle the electricity to consumers. Once the rates are settled
on competitive basis and the service and uninterrupted power supply will be insured then
consumers will be benefited.
1.2.5 Wastage of Energy:
So far energy conservation is limited to newspaper ads lip service in seminars. No serious thought
is being given to utilize the energy at the optimum level. A new culture need to develop to conserve
energy. Some times on government level illiteracy is blamed for the failure of the energy
conservation program. This is not true. Maximum energy is consumed by elite class which have
all the resources of knowledge and communication. But for their own luxury they themselves
ignore the problem. Government should seriously embark on energy conservation program.
Technical and economic constraints, political issues, incompetent and discontinuity of energy
policies, international embargoes, depletion of fossil fuels like natural gas etc. are other causes for
the energy crises.

1.3 Motivation and Justification:


The political, economical, environmental concerns over traditional fossil fuel power generation
have led to an overwhelming amount of innovation and research into cleaner renewable sources.
The Islamic Republic of Pakistan currently gets 63% of our energy through fossil fuels and less
than and very little from renewable energy (Systems, Technology, 2009). It is in the nations best
interest to invest heavily in renewable energy so that we could reap the benefits to the
economy, environment, politics, and human health.
Of the existing sources of renewable energy, the most promising is the sun. It is the most abundant
source of energy on the planet and it is a phenomenal source of light and heat. Scientific American
magazine states, The energy in sunlight striking the Earth for 40 minutes is the equivalent to
global energy consumption for one year. (Systems, Technology, 2009). Therefore, it behooves
engineers to design way of capturing this incredible natural resource for use in power generation
as an alternative to other methods such as fossil fuels.
During a national disaster Pakistan has a difficult time quantifying the exact number of lives that
are lost in nature disaster. Perhaps more surprising is not the amount of death that occur from

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DESIGN, FABRICATION AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SOLAR DISH STIRLING SYSTEM

natural disasters, but the deaths that occur after disaster hits. The lack of clean water, food,
and electricity can sometime cause more deaths than the actual disastrous event. Creating
a technology that provides power to such disastrous areas can provide much needed clean
water, and desperately needed electricity for life saving operations such as medical equipment,
communications, and food preparation. Remote power can provide a real survival opportunity
for disaster victims who have been left without a home, food, water, or power.
1.3.1 Energy Mix of Pakistan:
Total installed capacity of electricity :22477MW
Total production of electricity : 11362 MW
Total Demand of electricity : 16814 MW
Shortfall :5000 6000 MW (approx.)
Thermal Installed Capacity (Fossil Fuels) : 15000MW (approx.) : 62% share. (Oil 35.1%
& Gas 27%)
Hydropower : 6595MW (33% share in summers) and 2300 MW in winters
*(In 1995 the energy mix of hydro-thermal was 50-50%)
Nuclear : 462 MW (3.9% share)
Coal : 0.16 MW
Renewables: 42 MW (Solar/Wind)
Annual Increase in demand 8 10%
*These figures are not exact and may vary depending upon season and energy demand, policies

Energy Consumption Share of Pakistan


Domestic Users

Industrial Users

7.50%
11.60%
46.50%

Agriculture Sector
27.50%
Commercial Sector

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DESIGN, FABRICATION AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SOLAR DISH STIRLING SYSTEM

The energy consumption share pie chart shows that 46.5% of the users are domestic putting a
significant amount of load on the national grid so it is important to use decentralized energy for
domestic use so that the load on the national grid can be reduced and more share can be given to
industrial sector contributing in national development.

1.4 Solar Potential of Pakistan:


Pakistan being in the sunny belt is ideally located to take advantage of the solar energy
technologies. This energy source is widely distributed and abundantly available in the country.
During last twenty years Pakistan has shown quite encouraging developments in photovoltaic
(PV). Currently, solar technology is being used in Pakistan for standalone rural telephone
exchanges, repeater stations, highway emergency telephones, cathodic protection, refrigeration for
vaccine and medicines in the hospitals etc. The Public Health Department has installed many solar
water pumps for drinking purposes in different parts of the country. Both the private and public
sectors are playing their roles in the popularization and up grading of photovoltaic activities in the
country. A number of companies are not only involved in trading photovoltaic products and
appliances but also manufacturing different components of PV systems. They are selling PV
modules, batteries, regulators, invertors, as well as practical low power gadgets for load shedding
such as photovoltaic lamps, battery chargers, garden lights etc.
PCRET and other public and private organizations have developed the know-how and
technology to fabricate solar cells, modules, and systems. In addition to generate electricity,
thermal energy can also be used for desalination of saline water.

Figure 1.1 Pakistan's Direct Normal Solar Radiation (Annual)

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DESIGN, FABRICATION AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SOLAR DISH STIRLING SYSTEM

1.4.1 Government Policy:


Raja Pervaiz Ashraf, the then Federal Minister of Water & Power has announced on July 2, 2009
that 7,000 villages will be electrified using solar energy in the next five years Chief Ministers
senior advisor Sardar Zulfiqar Khosa has also stated that the Punjab government will begin new
projects aimed at power production through coal, solar energy and wind power; this would
generate additional resources.
The Government of Pakistan has allowed the provincial government of Sindh to conduct research
on the feasibility of solar power. The government is planning to install a water filtration plant to
make the seawater sweet through solar energy, said Sindh Minister for Environment and
Alternative Energy, Askari Taqvi.
1.4.2 Annual Insolation:
Insolation is very high in Pakistan, at 5.3 kWh/m/day.
Pakistan has also set a target to add 5% approximately 10,000 MW electricity through renewable
energies by year 2030 besides replacement of 5% diesel with bio-diesel by year 2015 and 10% by
2025.

1.5 Solar Technologies:


There are two types of solar technologies used for power generation:
PV Cells.
Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants.
1.5.1 PV/Solar Cells:
Photovoltaic energy is the conversion of sunlight into electricity. A photovoltaic cell, commonly
called a solar cell or PV, is the technology used to convert solar energy directly into electrical
power. A photovoltaic cell is a non mechanical device usually made from silicon alloys. Sunlight
is composed of photons, or particles of solar energy. These photons contain various amounts of
energy corresponding to the different wavelengths of the solar spectrum. When photons strike a
photovoltaic cell, they may be reflected, pass right through, or be absorbed. Only the absorbed
photons provide energy to generate electricity. When enough sunlight (energy) is absorbed by the
material (a semiconductor), electrons are dislodged from the material's atoms. Special treatment
of the material surface during manufacturing makes the front surface of the cell more receptive to
free electrons, so the electrons naturally migrate to the surface.
When the electrons leave their position, holes are formed. When many electrons, each carrying a
negative charge, travel toward the front surface of the cell, the resulting imbalance of charge
between the cell's front and back surfaces creates a voltage potential like the negative and positive
terminals of a battery. When the two surfaces are connected through an external load, electricity
flows.

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DESIGN, FABRICATION AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SOLAR DISH STIRLING SYSTEM

Figure 1.2 Anatomy of Solar Cell

Photons in the sunlight hit the solar panel and are absorbed by semiconducting materials,
such as silicon.
Electrons (negatively charged) are knocked loose from their atoms allowing them to flow
through the material to produce electricity.
An array of solar cell converts solar energy into usable amount of DC electricity.

Figure 1.3 Working of PV Cell

1.5.2 Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants:


Using concentrating systems solar power plants produce electric power by converting the sun's
energy into high-temperature heat. The heat is then channeled through a conventional generator.
The plants consist of two parts:

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1. That collects solar energy and converts it to heat, and


2. That converts heat energy to electricity.
Concentrating solar power systems can be sized from (10 kilowatts up to hundreds of
megawatts).
Some systems use thermal storage during cloudy periods or at night.
Others can be combined with natural gas and the resulting hybrid power plants provide
high-value, dispatchable power.
Concentrating solar power plants generate their peak output during sunny periods when
peak electricity demand occurs as air conditioning loads are at their peak.

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SOLAR THERMAL POWER TECHNOLOGIES & THEIR


SIGNIFCANCE

Solar thermal power generation systems capture energy from solar radiation, transform it into heat,
and generate electricity from the heat using steam turbines, gas turbines, Stirling engines, or
pressure staged turbines.

Figure 2.1 Schematic illustration of the component parts of solar thermal power plants

The four main types of solar thermal power plants developed and tested so far are:

Parabolic trough and Fresnel trough technology


Central receiver system (also called power tower or solar tower)
Dish-Stirling system
Solar updraft tower plant

Parabolic and Fresnel trough, central receiver, and dish-engine systems concentrate the sunlight to
gain higher temperatures in the power cycle. The primary resource for concentrating solar power
(CSP) technology is the direct solar irradiance perpendicular to a surface that is continuously
tracking the sun (direct normal irradiance, DNI). CSP systems have their highest potential in the
"sun belt" of the earth, which is between the 20th and 40th degree of latitude south and north. Solar
updraft towers do not concentrate the sunlight. They use the direct fraction of the sunlight as well
as the diffuse fraction. As a consequence, the working temperature is much lower than those of
concentrating systems, and thus the efficiency.
The electricity is produced by different ways:

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Troughs and central receivers usually use a steam turbine to convert the heat into
electricity. As heat transfer fluids oil, molten salt, air, or water can be used. Central
receivers can achieve very high operating temperatures of more than 1,000 C enabling
them to produce hot air for gas turbines operation combined with downstream steam
turbine operation resulting in high conversion efficiencies.
Dish-Stirling systems can use an engine at the focus of each dish or transport heat from an
array of dishes to a single central power-generating block.
Solar updraft towers work with a central updraft tube to generate a solar induced
convective flow which drives pressure staged turbines.

2.1 Parabolic and Fresnel Trough Technology:


Parabolic trough systems consist of trough solar collector arrays and a conventional power block
with steam turbine and generator. A heat transfer fluid, currently synthetic thermo oil, is pumped
through the collector array and heated up to 400 C. This oil is used to produce steam in heat
exchangers before being circulated back to the array. The steam is used in a conventional steam
turbine-based power plant.

Figure 2.2 Parabolic Trough System

In general, parabolic trough systems using thermo oil can be considered as most mature CSP
technology. Further developments of the original system are aiming at the replacement of the
synthetic heat transfer oil with direct steam or with molten salt. Direct steam generation (DSG)
allows the collection of energy at higher temperatures as well as the elimination of one heat
exchange step which increases the overall efficiency of the plant. Furthermore it avoids the need

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to replace the heat transfer fluid as it is necessary in case of thermo oil and it avoids the use of
energy intensive manufactured and toxic oil. Both improve the plants economic and ecological
balance. The first DSG plant commercially being built will be the 50 MW project Andasol 3 in
Spain. The utilization of molten salts as primary fluid shows similar advantages like the increase
of the solar field operating temperature and therefore a better efficiency, and the elimination of the
heat exchanger in case of using a molten salt storage system. On the other hand, the solar field and
the heat transfer fluid require continuous heat tracing to avoid refreezing of the salt. Currently
there are only few studies concerned with this innovation.
The Fresnel trough simplifies the concentration system by using a plain surface of nearly flat
mirror facets, which track the sun with only a single axis and approximate the classic parabolic
mirror. The efficiency is smaller than with a classic parabolic mirror. The idea is that the lower
costs over-compensate the energy losses in the final economic assessment.

Figure 2.3 Fresnel Trough

2.2 Central Receiver Systems:


Central receiver (CR) systems consist of a field of heliostats (almost plane mirrors), a tower, and
a receiver at the top of the tower. The field of heliostats all move independently to one another and
beam the solar radiation to one single point, the receiver. Heliostat fields can either surround the
tower or be spread out on the shadow side of the tower. Two generic approaches to heliostat design
have been used: a plane structure and a "stretched membrane" approach. Major investigations
during the past 20 years have focused on four heat transfer fluid systems: water/steam, molten salt,
atmospheric air, and pressurized air.
Central receivers have the advantage that the energy conversion takes place at a single fixed point,
which reduces the need for energy transport. By the high concentration factor operation

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temperatures of more than 1,000 C can be reached. This rises the conversion efficiency and allows
for advanced energy conversion systems (combined cycle instead of steam cycle). Figure 2.2
shows the 11 MW PS 10 tower power system operated near Sevilla. One of the newest
developments is the "beam-down" concept proposed and tested partly by the Weizmann Institute
of Science in Israel. Rather than converting the concentrated solar energy at the top of the tower,
a hyperbolically shaped secondary mirror directs the converging radiation vertically downward to
a focal point at the bottom of the tower.

Figure 2.4 Central Receiver System

One of the newest developments is the "beam-down" concept proposed and tested partly by the
Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel. Rather than converting the concentrated solar energy at
the top of the tower, a hyperbolically shaped secondary mirror directs the converging radiation
vertically downward to a focal point at the bottom of the tower.
The largest central receiver solar system formerly realized was the 10 MW "Solar Two" plant in
southern California. In February, 2007 the 11 MW solar thermal power plant PS10 started its
operation in Southern Spain as the first central receiver which has been built for the last years.
Currently being built in Spain is the 15 MW power tower SolarTres equipped with a 16 hours
thermal storage. Worldwide projects with a total capacity of 566 MW are planned, therein the 2 x
20 MW power tower PS20 as a successor of PS10 and a 400 MW power tower announced by
Bright Source Energy for California.

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Figure 2.5 10 MW PS10 central receiver plant in Spain

2.3 Dish-Engine Systems:


Paraboloidal dish concentrators focus solar radiation onto a point focus receiver. Like parabolic
trough systems they require continuous adjustment of its position to maintain the focus. Dishbased solar thermal power systems can be divided into two groups: those that generate electricity
with engines at the focus of each dish and those that transport heat from an array of dishes to a
single central power-generating block. Stirling engines are well suited for construction at the size
needed for operation on single-dish systems, and they function with good efficiency. Dish-stirling
units of 25 kW have achieved overall efficiency of close to 30%. This represents the maximum
net solar-to-electricity conversion efficiency achieved by any non-laboratory solar energy
conversion technology.
Within this study parabolic dish systems will not be considered further because they are relatively
small power generation units (5 to 50 kW), making stand-alone or other decentralized applications
their most likely market. Figure 2.3 shows a dish-engine system of type EuroDish.
The cost for such prototype unit (25 kW) is about $150,000. Once in production the cost could be
reduced to less than $50,000 each, which would make the cost of electricity competitive with
conventional fuel technologies.

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Figure 2.6 Solar Dish Engine System


Prototype (25 kW)

Figure 2.7 Solar Dish Engine System

2.4 Solar Updraft Tower Plant:


A solar updraft tower plant (sometimes also called solar chimney) is a solar thermal power plant
working with a combination of a non-concentrating solar collector for heating air and a central
updraft tube to generate a solar induced convective flow. This air flow drives pressure staged
turbines to generate electricity. The collector consists of a circular translucent roof open at the
periphery and the natural ground below. Air is heated by solar radiation under this collector. In the
middle of the collector there is a vertical tower with large inlets at its base. As hot air is lighter
than cold air it rises up the tower. Suction from the tower then draws in more hot air from the
collector, and cold air comes in from the outer perimeter.

Figure 2.8 Solar Updraft Tower Schematic

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Continuous 24 hour operation can be achieved by placing tight water-filled tubes or bags under
the roof. The water heats up during day-time and releases its heat at night. Thus solar radiation
causes a constant updraft in the tower (although this storage system has never been installed or
tested up to now). The energy contained in the updraft is converted into mechanical energy by
pressure-staged turbines at the base of the tower, and into electrical energy by conventional
generators.
An experimental plant with a power of 50 kW was established in Manzanares (Spain) in 1981/82.
For Australia, a 200 MW solar updraft tower, shown in Figure 2.4, was planned but cancelled in
summer 2006. Currently a 40 MW updraft tower project is announced in Spain (Campo3 2006).
Due to the uncertain perspectives of this technology, the absence of a reference project, and
therefore the lack of cost and material data the solar updraft tower is not considered furthermore
in this study.

Figure 2.9 Solar Updraft Tower

2.5 Technology Comparison:


Here is a brief technology comparison of all solar thermal power technologies:

Figure 2.10 Technology Comparison

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2.6 Weak Points and Barriers:


Solar thermal power plants currently cause high electricity generation costs which have to
be decreased by technological innovations, volume production, and scaling up to bigger
units.
Although there is a huge solar irradiation supply only locations with irradiations of more
than 2,000 kWh/m2, y are suited to a reasonable economic solar thermal performance. This
means that Europe (except Mediterranean part) can only benefit from this potential by use
of high voltage direct current lines connecting South Europe and Nord Africa with Central
Europe which raise the electricity costs by 1.5 to 1 ct/kWh.

2.7 Strong Points and Diffusion Factors:


An advantage of solar thermal systems is their relatively high energy density. With 200 300 GWh electricity produced per km2 land use they require the lowest land use per unit
electricity produced among all renewables.
Solar thermal power plants can store the primary energy in concrete, molten salt, phase
change material, or ceramic storage systems and produce electricity by feeding steam
turbines with the stored heat over night. This means that balancing power can be delivered
and therefore solar thermal power plants could be used as a back-up system even for
intermittent photovoltaics and wind energy.
Solar thermal power plants need big areas but there are huge areas available especially in
the desert regions of the earth. For example, to meet Europes electricity demand (about
3,500 TWh/a) only by solar thermal electricity, an area of only 120 x 120 km in a North
African desert would be necessary (that means 0.14% of the Saharas area).
Solar thermal power plants can be operated as co-generation plants by using its steam not
only for electricity generation but also for steam delivery, cooling, and desalting water.

Figure 2.11 Strong and Weak points of Solar Thermal Technology

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DESIGN, FABRICATION AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SOLAR DISH STIRLING SYSTEM

2.8 Main Drivers Influencing Future Technology Development:


2.8.1 Climate Protection:
Climate protection is one of the major drivers for solar thermal technologies, but since it is a
general driver for renewable energies it is only mentioned at this place. The following drivers are
more STP specific ones.
2.8.2 Objective of Security of Supply:
In the technical perspective, the objective of security of supply is a pushing factor for solar thermal
technologies. With the option of thermal storage or hybrid co-firing STP is able to deliver
balancing power. STP thus is a stabilizing factor for the energy supply system. In South European
countries which are highly dependent on fossil fuel imports like e.g. Spain or Portugal, STP
generation is a high potential source for diversifying energy sources and increasing the share of
domestic energy supply.
2.8.3 Enforced Direct Market Support for Renewable Energies (feed-in-laws):
The establishment of preferential market conditions for renewable energies in several countries
world-wide (e.g. feed-in laws in Germany, Spain, Portugal, and Algeria) and obvious resulting
success stories like the wind energy expansion in Germany and Spain turn out as an important
driver for solar thermal power plants. In Spain and Algeria STP technologies were firstly explicitly
included into the support scheme. As a result, the first large-scale parabolic trough plants (3 x 50
MW) after the power plants in Southern California are being setup in Spain.
2.8.4 Preferring Non-Intermittent Electricity Suppliers:
Energy sources with low intermittency mean an economic advantage. STP will be able to offer
balancing power at a competitive price level. By incorporating thermal storages and co-firing
options, it internalizes the costs of compensating the intermittency of the solar energy resource, at
still a competitive price level.
2.8.5 Advanced Side Applications and Side Products:
STP technologies have the capability of co-generation. The joint production of electricity and heat
for operating adsorption cooling facilities and heat for water desalination respectively is the most
interesting application. The concept of solar fresh water production by parabolic trough plants has
been investigated in several studies (Wilde 2005, DLR 2007). Both cooling and fresh water
provision meet pressing demands in sun-rich, arid countries. Their demand appears at the same
time and the same region which are suited to a reasonable economic solar thermal performance.
Other processes are solar reforming of natural gas or other organics, or thermo-chemical hydrogen
production which are partly demonstrated and may open up high potential markets. Sargent &
Lundy state that CSP could thus potentially get a major source of energy in the fuels and chemical
sector.
2.8.6 Increasing Demand for Local Added Value:
Many developing and transitional countries put more and more emphasis on local added value in
investment decisions. They recognize the employment of national workers, the accumulation of
local expertise and a high cope of national supply as a value for development. Moreover, local

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DESIGN, FABRICATION AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SOLAR DISH STIRLING SYSTEM

added value also promotes socio-economic stability. Solar thermal power stations belong to the
technologies with a high potential for local added value. They have a little fraction of high-tech
components, and about 50% of the investment is expended for steel, concrete, mirrors, and labor
which creates high local value.
2.8.7 Aiming at Conflict Neutral Technologies:
The fossil fuel energy supply system and nuclear energy technologies are increasingly involved in
military conflicts and instable political environments. The discussion is concentrated on the
possible transition from peaceful nuclear energy use to the production of weapon relevant material
(Iran). Moreover, proliferation of weapons-grade plutonium is a latent threat. STP technologies do
not incorporate conflict relevant materials. Even more important, the solar resource is abundant
and inexhaustible, and thus wont give rise to conflicts about using rights. This may reveal as an
important pushing factor for STP technologies, even more as STP addresses the same market
segment as fossil and nuclear power plants.

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3 DISH ENGINE SYSTEM PROJECT DESCRIPTION

Figure 3.1 Dish Engine Systems

A dish/engine system uses a mirrored dish (similar to a very large satellite dish).
The dish-shaped surface collects and concentrates the sun's heat onto a receiver, which
absorbs the heat and transfers it to fluid within the engine.
The heat causes the fluid to expand against a piston or turbine to produce mechanical
power.
The mechanical power is then used to run a generator or alternator to produce electricity
by an electric generator or alternator.
Dish/engine systems use dual-axis collectors to track the sun.
The ideal concentrator shape is parabolic, created either by a single reflective surface or
multiple reflectors.
There are many options for receiver and engine type, including Stirling engine and
Brayton receivers.
Dish/engine systems are not commercially available, although ongoing demonstrations
indicate good potential.
Individual dish/engine systems currently can generate about 25 kilowatts of electricity.
More capacity is possible by connecting dishes together.
These systems can be combined with natural gas and the resulting hybrid provides
continuous power generation.
The dish-Stirling system works at higher efficiencies than any other current solar
technologies, with a net solar-to-electric conversion efficiency reaching 30%.
One of the systems advantages is that it is somewhat modular, and the size of the
facility can be ramped up over a period of time.
That is compared to a traditional power plant or other large-scale solar technologies that
have to be completely built before they are operational.

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3.1 Project Background:


Heat and power production with lower emission, lower fossil fuel consumption and higher
efficiency is one of the most important issues in the energy industry. Electricity generation using
renewable energy sources especially solar energy is getting more popular. On the other hand, using
small-scale energy system in decentralized electric power generation is gaining significance in
electric power industries.
It is well known that dish-engine systems demonstrate the highest solar-to-electric
efficiencies, compared to other solar technologies. High efficiency, hybridization potential,
modularity and low cost potential make them excellent candidates for small-scale decentralized
power generation. A number of units can be grouped together to form a dish-engine farm
and produce the desired electrical output.
Dish-engine uses a collector which technically is a mirror to concentrate direct normal sun
radiation onto a receiver. In most contemporary dish-engine systems, Stirling engines have been
used as the power conversion unit; however, externally fired micro gas turbines (EFGT) are under
development to be operated in such a system as power conversion unit. Using a highly effective
heat exchanger called recuperator in the cycle results in higher cycle efficiency and lower level of
purity requirement for the gas supplied to the combustor. Integrating this system with a solar
receiver can decrease fossil fuel consumption and related environmental emissions. In a
geographical location with enough solar irradiation, solar energy can be used as a heat source when
it is available and biogas can be used as the second fuel in the system.
In this project the receiver operates in parallel or series with the combustor in a conventional micro
gas turbine and increases temperature of the air in order to drive the turbine and compressor
with the maximum possible efficiency. Since dish-engine systems have demonstrated the highest
solar electric efficiency amongst all solar technologies (29.4%).Considering above mentioned
issues, further investigation in this area is necessary.

Figure 3.2 Dish Engine System Schematic

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3.2 Brief History of Solar Thermal Plant:


Concentrating solar power is a method of increasing solar power density. Using a magnifying glass
to set a piece of paper on fire demonstrates the basic principle of CSP. Sunlight shining on the
curved glass is concentrated to a small point. When all the heat energy that was spread across the
surface of the magnifying glass is focused to a single point, the result is a dramatic rise in
temperature. The paper will reach temperatures above 451oF and combust. CSP has been theorized
and contemplated by inventors for thousands of years. It is possible that as far back as ancient
Mesopotamia, priestesses used polished golden vessels to ignite altar fires. The first documented
use of concentrated power comes from the great Greek scientist Archimedes (287-212 B.C.).
Stories of Archimedes repelling the invading Roman fleet of Marcellus in 212 B.C. by burning
their ships with concentrated solar rays were told by Galen (A.D. 130-220). In the seventeenth
century, Athanasius Kircher (1601-1680) set re to a woodpile at a distance in order to prove the
story of Archimedes. This is considered the beginning of modern solar concentration. Solar
concentrators then began being used as furnaces in chemical and metallurgical experiments. They
were preferred because of the high temperatures they could reach without the need for any fuel.
Further applications opened for concentrated power when August Mouchot pioneered generating
low-pressure steam to operate steam engines between 1864 and 1878. Abel Pifre made one of his
solar engines operate a printing press in 1878 at the Paris Exhibition, but after extensive testing he
declared the system too expensive to be feasible. His press is shown in Figure 1.2. Pifre's and
Mouchot's research began a burst of growth for solar concentrators.

Figure 3.3 Pifre's 1878 Sun-Power Plant Driving a Printing Press

The early twentieth century brought many new concentrating projects varying from solar pumps
to steam power generators to water distillation. A 50 kW solar pump made by Shuman and Boys
in 1912 was used to pump irrigation water from the Nile. Mirrored troughs were used in a 1200
m2 collector field to provide the needed steam [15]. In 1920 J.A. Harrington used a solar-powered
steam engine to pump water up 5 m into a raised tank. This was the first documented use of solar

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storage. The water was stored for continual use as power for a turbine inside a small mine.
Concentrating technology had made a huge leap from the nineteenth century but was halted by
World War II and the resulting explosion of cheap fossil fuels. The advantages of solar power lost
their luster and the technology would merely inch forward for nearly five decades.
Starting in the late seventies and early eighties, solar power came back to the forefront of
researchers' agendas with oil and gas shortages. In 1977 in Shenandoah, GA, 114 7-meter parabolic
dishes were used to heat a silicon-based fluid for a steam Rankine cycle. The plant also supplied
waste heat to a lithium bromide absorption chiller. The plants total thermal efficiency was 44%,
making it one of the most efficient systems ever implemented. More modern systems like the
Department of Energy's Dish Engine Critical Components (DECC) project, which was built at the
National Solar Thermal Test Facility, consisted of a 89 m2 dish with a peak system electrical
efficiency of 29.4%. This system utilizes the high. The efficiency of the stirling engine to convert
the heat generated into electricity. This efficiency is unmatched by any concentrator that utilizes a
steam cycle, with one or two working fluids.

Figure 3.4 Basic Configuration of Dish Engine System

3.3 Previous Work:


An economic solar dish system was built in 2006 by graduate student C. Christopher Newton. This
first dish system built at SESEC, nicknamed Solar 1, attempted to complete the same goal as the

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one addressed in this paper, which is to provide 1 kW of electrical energy for an installation cost
of only $1000 dollars. A parabolic concentrator reflected solar radiation to a central receiver. The
receiver produced intermittent steam that was injected into a steam turbine. The turbine was
connected to an electric generator that produced electricity.
The concentrator used was a fiberglass Channel Master satellite dish with an aperture diameter of
3.66 m. Solar 1 pivoted on a steel alt-azimuth type frame. Two independent linear actuators move
the dish throughout the day. The actuators were controlled automatically by a set of photo-sensing
modules. The modules consisted of light sensing LEDs that sent signals to the actuators when the
module was not oriented normal to incoming solar radiation. The power for the sensors and
actuators was provided by 2 small thin film photovoltaic panels, which charged two 24 V deep cell
batteries. The reflective material used to coat the fiberglass surface was aluminized mylar, which
has an optical reflectivity of 76%.

Figure 3.5 Schematic of Solar 1

The system utilized an external type receiver that had an absorber diameter of 15 cm. The absorber
was coated with a high temperature black paint, which has an absorptivity and emissivity both
equal to 90%. The receiver was filled with draw salt to act as a heat storage and heat transfer
medium. Draw salt is a 1:1 molar ratio of potassium nitrate and sodium nitrate. The melting
temperature of this eutectic mixture is 223oC.
The heat exchanger in the receiver consisted of an abbreviated water tube boiler, which consisted
of copper tubes coiled around the outer rim of the salt bath. They connected to a water drum in
contact with the flat absorber at the base of the receiver. The steam in the water drum exited
through copper tubes in the center of the receiver. Figure 21 shows the Solar 1 receiver assembly.
The maximum steady state thermal output for the system was 1 kW. The resulting thermal
conversion efficiency was estimated at 9.03%.

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Figure 3.6 Concentrator Assembly for Receiver 1

To produce electricity, water was held in the receiver where it pressurized and released in intervals
at a 6.67% duty cycle. The maximum electrical conversion efficiency was estimated at 1.94%,
which equated to a turbine efficiency near 15%. The maximum gross electricity production by
Solar 1 was 220 W.
The majority of the thermal losses for Solar 1 are believed to be from three major factors. First,
the concentrator efficiency was extremely poor. The reflected focal area was much larger than the
receiver. Much of the radiation was reflected onto the side of the receiver, which was heavily
insulated and thus lost. Second, the reflective material had incredibly poor weathering abilities. In
the few months before testing the surface was exposed to the elements and pollution in the
atmosphere. During final testing the mylar was visibly cloudy and turning yellow, clearly
indicating a greatly reduced reflectivity.
The last major factor hurting system efficiency was the absorber. The at plat absorber, although
compact, was extremely exposed and lost tons of energy to the environment through convection
and radiation. This type of receiver is extremely sensitive to wind, and the results show dramatic
drops in receiver temperature with any wind at all. These three factors are primarily responsible
for the low thermal conversion energy and must be improved in the second concentrator if it is to
be successful.

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Figure 3.8 Receiver Assembly for Solar 1

3.5 Modern Feats in Solar Dish Stirling System:


Solar Stirling has made a tremendous impact on alternative energy in the certain years with
companies like Stirling Energy Systems (SES) leading the way. This company in partnership with
Sandia National Lab managed to break the world record for solar-to grid conversion efficiency at
an amazing 31.25 % on January 31, 2008. SES Serial #3 was erected in May 2005 as part of the
Solar Thermal Test Facility which produced up to 150kW of grid ready electrical power during
the hours of sunlight. Each dish consisted of 82 mirrors that can focus the light into an intense
beam.
SES solar Stirling engine, named SunCatcher, was awarded the 2008 Breakthrough Award
winner by Popular Mechanics for its role as one of the top 10 world-changing innovations.
The SunCatcher is a 25 kW solar dish Stirling system which uses a solar concentrator structure
which supports an array of curved glass mirror which are designed to follow the sun and collect
the focused solar energy onto a power conversion unit. The diagram below illustrates the workings
of SESs SunCatche.

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DESIGN, FABRICATION AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SOLAR DISH STIRLING SYSTEM

Figure 3.9 Stirling Energy Systems Stirling Power Units

Figure 3.10 Stirling Engine System - SunCatcher

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3.5 Basic Units of Concentrating Solar Power Dish/Engine System:


The dish/engine system is a concentrating solar power (CSP) technology that produces relatively
small amounts of electricity compared to other CSP technologiestypically in the range of 3 to
25 kilowatts. Dish/engine systems use a parabolic dish of mirrors to direct and concentrate sunlight
onto a central engine that produces electricity. The two major parts of the system are the solar
concentrator and the power conversion unit. It consists of two basic units:
Solar Concentrator.
Power Conversion Unit.
3.5.1 Solar Concentrator:
The solar concentrator, or dish, gathers the solar energy coming directly from the sun. The resulting
beam of concentrated sunlight is reflected onto a thermal receiver that collects the solar heat. The
dish is mounted on a structure that tracks the sun continuously throughout the day to reflect the
highest percentage of sunlight possible onto the thermal receiver.
3.5.2 Power Conversion Unit:
The power conversion unit includes the thermal receiver and the engine/generator. The thermal
receiver is the interface between the dish and the engine/generator. It absorbs the concentrated
beams of solar energy, converts them to heat, and transfers the heat to the engine/generator. A
thermal receiver can be a bank of tubes with a cooling fluidusually hydrogen or heliumthat
typically is the heat-transfer medium and also the working fluid for an engine. Alternate thermal
receivers are heat pipes, where the boiling and condensing of an intermediate fluid transfers the
heat to the engine.
The engine/generator system is the subsystem that takes the heat from the thermal receiver and
uses it to produce electricity. The most common type of heat engine used in dish/engine systems
is the Stirling engine. A Stirling engine uses the heated fluid to move pistons and create
mechanical power. The mechanical work, in the form of the rotation of the engine's crankshaft,
drives a generator and produces electrical power.

Figure 3.11 Dish Engine Power Plant

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3.5.3 Advantages:
The main advantages of Stirling dish CSP technologies are that:
The location of the generator - typically, in the receiver of each dish - helps reduce heat
losses and means that the individual dish-generating capacity is small, extremely modular
(typical sizes range from 5 to 50 kW) and are suitable for distributed generation.
Stirling dish technologies are capable of achieving the highest efficiency of all types of
CSP systems.
Stirling dishes use dry cooling and do not need large cooling systems or cooling towers,
allowing CSP to provide electricity in water-constrained regions.
Stirling dishes, given their small foot print and the fact they are self-contained, can be
placed on slopes or uneven terrain, unlike PTC, LFC and solar towers.

These advantages mean that Stirling dish technologies could meet an economically valuable niche
in many regions, even though the levelised cost of electricity is likely to be higher than other CSP
technologies. Apart from costs, another challenge is that dish systems cannot easily use storage.
Stirling dish systems are still at the demonstration stage and the cost of mass-produced systems
remains unclear. With their high degree of scalability and small size, Stirling dish systems will be
an alternative to solar photovoltaic in arid regions.

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4 LITERATURE REVIEW OF RESEARCH PAPERS


We went through a series of research papers regarding concentrated solar dish stirling technology
in order to get a grip on latest innovation going on in the field of CSP. Following is a brief overview
of research papers that we went through.
1) Thermal model of a dish/Stirling system:
This research paper represent global model of energy conversion of 10KW of dish/Stirling unit.
Using optical measurements made by DLR, the losses by parabola reflectivity and spillage are
calculated. A nodal method, thermodynamic analysis of solar Stirling engine is made.
Conclusion: Temperature, mass, density of working gas, heat transfers and the mechanical power
are calculated for one Stirling engine cycle of 40 ms and for a constant direct normal irradiation
(DNI).
Reference: F. Nepveu et al. / Solar Energy 83 (2009) 8189
2) Monthly average clear-sky broadband irradiance database for worldwide solar heat
gain and building cooling load calculations:
This paper establishes the formulation of a new clear-sky solar radiation model
appropriate for algorithms calculating cooling loads in buildings. The aim is to replace the
ASHRAE clear-sky model of 1967.New model derived in two step, 1st obtaining a reference
irradiance dataset from the REST2 model, 2nd consists of fits derived from a REST2-based
reference irradiance dataset. The resulting model, and its tabulated data, are expected to be
incorporated in the 2009 edition of the ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals.
Reference: Christian A. Gueymard a,*,1, Didier Thevenard b

3) Convection heat loss from cavity receiver in parabolic dish solar thermal power
system:
This paper aims to present a comprehensive review and systematic summarization of the state of
the art in the research and progress in the convection heat loss from cavity receiver in parabolic
dish solar thermal power system can significantly reduce the efficiency and consequently the cost
effectiveness of the system.
Conclusion:
It is believed that this comprehensive review will be beneficial to the design, simulation,
performance assessment and applications of the solar parabolic dish cavity receivers.
Reference: Shuang-Ying Wua,*, Lan Xiao a, Yiding Cao b, You-Rong Li a

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DESIGN, FABRICATION AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SOLAR DISH STIRLING SYSTEM

4) Field-test of a solar low delta-T Stirling engine:


The aim is to develop a simple solar pumping system, using the concept of low delta-T Stirling
engines. This paper describes the main parts of the engine and presents several experimental
measurements made under laboratory and field-test conditions in Morocco.
Conclusion:
Measurements with flat plate cooler and discontinuous motion of the displacer were conducted to
verify two essential recommendations of Kolin in expectation of power-output improvements of
the gamma-type engine.
Reference: Noureddine Boutammachte a,, Juergen Knorr b
5) Environmental evaluation of dish-Stirling technology for power generation:
The aim of this paper is to provide a comparative environmental assessment of a dish-Stirling
technology with respect to a similar photovoltaic facility. The Life Cycle Assessment procedure
has been applied, and the results have been analysed in terms of CO2-equivalent emissions as well
as using two impact evaluation methods: Eco-indicator 99 and CML2.
Conclusion:
The results show that the level of environmental impacts is similar for both technologies.
Reference:Y. Bravo, M. Carvalho , L.M. Serra, C. Monne, S. Alonso, F. Moreno, M. Munoz
6) Thermo-economic multi-objective optimization of solar dish-Stirling engine by
implementing evolutionary algorithm:
Muhammad H. Ahmadi, Husyn Sayyaadi, Amir H. Muhammadi and Macro A.Brranco Jimenes
has shown the study in which the dimensionless thermo economic objective function, thermal
efficiency and dimensionless power outputs are optimize for a dish stirling system using finite
time thermo-economic analysis and NSGA-II Algorithm.
Reference: Muhammad H. Ahmadi, Husyn Sayyaadi 15 May 2013, a Faculty of Mechanical
Engineering-Energy Division, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, P.O. Box 19395-1999, No.
15-19, Pardis Str., Mollasadra Ave., Vanak Sq., Tehran 1999.
7) Designing a solar powered Stirling heat engine based on multiple criteria:
Maximized thermal efficiency and power:
In this paper a thermal model was developed so that the output power and thermal efficiency
of the solar Stirling system with nite rate of heat transfer, regenerative heat loss, conductive
thermal bridging loss, nite regeneration process time and imperfect performance of the
dish collector could be obtained. The solar absorber temperature and the highest and lowest
temperatures of the working uid were considered the decision variables. It was found that multi-

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DESIGN, FABRICATION AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SOLAR DISH STIRLING SYSTEM

objective optimization could yield results with a relatively low deviation from the ideal solution
in comparison to the conventional single objective approach.
Reference: Mohammad Hossein Ahmadi, Hoseyn Sayyaadi , Saeed Dehghani, Hadi Hosseinzade
19 June 2013 Faculty of Mechanical Engineering-Energy Division, K.N. Toosi University of
Technology, P.O. Box 19395-1999, No. 15-19, Pardis Str., Mollasadra Ave., Vanak Sq., Tehran
1999 143344, Iran
8) An experimental study on the development of a b-type Stirling engine for low and
moderate temperature heat sources:
In this paper the beta type Stirling engine is used and cylinder displacer is modified by integrating
the receiver. Actually they have provided the three cavities (receiver) of Aluminum, copper and
stainless steel. The best results are obtained by Aluminum followed by stainless steel and then
copper respectively.
Reference: Fatih Aksoy a, Halit Karabulut b, 2 August 2013, Department of Automotive
Engineering, Faculty of Technology, Afyon Kocatepe University, 03200 Afyonkarahisar, Turkey.
9) Performance of a low cost solar parabolic dish generating system:
Indian students have worked on low cost steam generating system using innovated material and
design of dish concentrator. Preliminary field measurements and cost, as well as performance
analyses of the system, indicate a solar to steam conversion efficiency of 70-80% at 450oC and a
collector system cost of Rs 8000-9000/m2 .
Reference: N.D. Kaushika, K.S. Reddy, 17 August 1999, Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute
of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi, 110 016, India.

10) A parabolic dish/AMTEC solar thermal power system and its performance
evaluation:
In this paper researchers have modified the collector and have used an alkali metal thermal to
electric converter AMTEC. For assessing the overall performance efficiency of the system a
theoretical analysis have been undertaken along with the parametric investigation. Results show
that the efficiency can reach up to 20.6% with an power output of 18.54kW corresponding to
operating temperature of 1280 K. optimal condenser temperature is found out to be 600 K. The
parabolic dish/AMTEC solar power system exhibits a great potential and competitiveness over
other solar dish/engine systems.
Reference: Shuang-Ying Wu a, Lan Xiao a, Yiding Cao b, You-Rong Li a, 27 August 2009,
Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Florida International University, Miami,
FL 33174, USA.

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DESIGN, FABRICATION AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SOLAR DISH STIRLING SYSTEM

11) Techno Economic Study of the Utilization of Solar Dish Stirling Technology for
Electricity Generation at the Algerian Sahara:
Students of Algeria have undertaken the research on solar to electric energy generation using
100MW Stirling engine in Africa desert as it have very large amount of wasteland suitable for
solar energy utilization. Hydrogen is used as working gas. They have used SAM (Solar Advisor
Model) to evaluate the monthly energy production, annual energy output and localized cost of
energy (LCOE). Tamanrasset is found out to be suitable place for installation of solar thermal
power plant among Algeria, Sahara and Tamanrasset with lowest LCOE of 11.5 c$/kWh and
highest annual energy output of 221 GWh/y.
Reference: Mohamed Abbas, Bousaad Boumeddane, Noureddine Said, Ahmed Chikouche 23
December 2010, Center of Renewable Energy Development (CDER), Road of Observatory,
Bouzareah, Algiers, Algeria.

12) A Methodology of Computation, Design and Optimization of Solar Stirling Power Pla
nt:
In this paper the researchers have developed a methodology has been devised to find out no of
houses that can be fueled using Stirling modules. Minimum area of fuel cell is determined to
facilitate each user for daily use of energy. Fuel cell efficiency as a function of electric current
density is determined. Stored hydrogen is used as working fluid in stirling engine. An example
illustrates all the parameters in detail.
Reference: Stoian Petrescu a, Camelia Petre a, Monica Costea a, Octavian Malancioiu a, Nicolae
Boriaru a, 28 October 2009, Department of Engineering Thermodynamics, University
POLITEHNICA of Bucharest, Splaiul Independentei, 313, 060042 Bucharest, Romania.

13) Analysis and design consideration of mean temperature differential Stirling engine
for solar application:
This article presents design and analysis of a mean temperature differential stirling engine for solar
application. The target power source is solar dish which will supply a source temperature of 320oC.
The system is designed for a temperature difference of 300oC with sink at 20oC. In the analytical
model during the design stage the critical parameters of engine design are determined with energy
losses and pressure drop in the heat exchangers. The heat exchangers are designed to be of high
effectiveness and low pressure drop. The optimal swept volume at which the power is maximum
is 75 cm3 for operating frequency of 75Hz with the power 250W and the dead volume is 370cm3.
Reference: (Iskander Tlili, Youssef Timoumi, Sassi Ben Nasrallah, Laboratoire dEtude des
Syste`mes Thermiques et Energetiques Ecole Nationale dIngenieurs de Monastir, Rue Ibn El
Jazzar, 5019 Monastir, Tunisie)

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DESIGN, FABRICATION AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SOLAR DISH STIRLING SYSTEM

14) An Analysis of Beta Type Stirling Engine with Rhombic Drive Mechanism:
The aim of the study is about the design methodology of beta-type stirling engine with rhombic
drive mechanism to provide a clear understanding of system design considerations, the
optimization of phase angle, considering the effect of overlapping volume between compression
and expansion spaces. It is also noticed that variation of compression space volume with phase
angle remains sinusoidal for any phase difference. The aim of the present work is to find a feasible
solution which should lead to a design of a single cylinder, beta type Stirling engine of 1.5 kWe
capacity for rural electrification.
Reference: (D.J. Shendage, S.B. Kedare, S.L. Bapat, Department of Energy Science and
Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400 076, India)

15) Dynamic simulation of a beta-type Stirling engine with cam-drive mechanism via the
combination of the thermodynamic and dynamic models:
The aim of study is the dynamic simulation of a beta-type Stirling engine with cam-drive
mechanism used in concentrating solar power system. A dynamic model of the mechanism is
developed and then incorporated with the thermodynamic model so as to predict the transient
behavior of the engine in the hot-start period. The transient variations in gas properties inside the
engine chambers and the dynamic behavior of the engine mechanism should be handled
simultaneously via the coupling of the thermodynamic and dynamic models. An extensive
parametric study of the effects of different operating and geometrical parameters has been
performed, and results regarding the effects of mass moment of inertia of the flywheel, initial
rotational speed, initial charged pressure, heat source temperature, phase angle, gap size, displacer
length, and piston stroke on the engine transient behavior are investigated.
Reference: (Chin-Hsiang Cheng, Ying-Ju Yu, Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics,
National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, Ta-Shieh Road, Tainan, Taiwan 70101, R.O.C)

16) Prediction and optimization of the performance of parabolic solar dish concentrator
with sphere receiver using analytical function:
The aim of the research is to optimize the performance of parabolic solar dish concentrator with
sphere receiver using analytical function. The results indicate that the intercept factor is related to
the rim angle of reflector and the ratio of receiver angle to the optical error when the optical error
is larger than or equal to 5 mrad, but is related to the rim angle, receiver angle and optical error in
less than 5 mrad optical error. Also the research includes a quick process to optimize the system
to maximum solar energy to net heat efficiency of solar dish concentrator with sphere receiver
which is 20% more than solar trough and tower system including higher cosine factor and lower
heat loss of the receiver.

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DESIGN, FABRICATION AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SOLAR DISH STIRLING SYSTEM

Reference: (Weidong Huanga, Farong Huang, Peng Hu, Zeshao Chen, Department of Earth
Chemistry and Environmental Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai
Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026, China)

17) Why we prefer parabolic dish over all solar collectors?


A study was performed by Weidong Huang , Peng Hu which indicates the result of rim angle,
receiver angle, and optical error less than 5mrad percent and the result shows tha parabolic
collectors with sphere receiver has high solar energy to net efficiency which is 20% more than
solar updraft tower and solar trough system including high cosine factor and low loss of heat
receiver.
References: Weidong Huang, Peng Hu,17Oct 2012, Department of Earth Chemistry and
Environmental Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei,
Anhui 230026, China.

18) Why we preferred to work on 100W Stirling Rather than 15-50w?


A study was performed on the performance of different kind of stirling engines operating at low
temp and operating with solar energy. The results indicate that stirling engines working at low
temp air are not potentially attractive for future especially solar powered low temperature stirling
engines like of 12-25W of vertical, double-acting, gamma-configuration.
References: Bancha Kongtragool, Somchai Wongwises, 3 October 2002, Department of
Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkuts University of Technology
Thonburi, 91 Prachautit Road, Bangmod, Thungkru, Bangkok 10140, Thailand.

19) Feasibility of Solar work Technologies (Economically):


Study is carried out in Cyprus by considering all the economic resources available and current
renewable resources policy of the island. Results show that installation of solar dishes is feasible
but it is affected by two main parameters. Firstly the size of parabolic dish and secondly the
capital cost.
So we people are working for decreasing the size as well as capital cost to make this renewable
resource feasible to everyone.
Reference: Andreas Poullikkas*, George Kourtis, Ioannis Hadjipaschalis , 15 July 2010,
Electricity Authority of Cyprus, P.O. Box 24506, 1399 Nicosia, Cyprus.

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DESIGN, FABRICATION AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SOLAR DISH STIRLING SYSTEM

20) Experimental Model and Evaluation?


In this study of parabolic solar dish collector they proposed a mathematical model for dish and
thermal performance of a cavity receiver. For the validation of the model, the results obtained
were compared with theoretical and experimental results reported in the literature. The results
showed errors of 14% to the average losses of thermal model and 3% in absorber temperature.
So we are following their steps in modeling of Dish for Parabolic system hope so will decrease
the error present.
Ricardo Beltran, Alma Cota Espericueta, Guillermo Perez, May 3, 2012, Centro de Estudios de
las Energas Renovables, Universidad Autnoma de Baja California, Blvd. Benito Jurez y Calle
de la Normal s/n, Mexicali, Baja California 21280, Mxico
21) Mathematical Modeling of thermoelectric generator driven by Parabolic Dish

Collector:
This paper presents mathematical modeling of thermoelectric power generator driven by solar
parabolic dish collector. The system is modeled by set of mathematical equations from the first
law of thermodynamics for the subcomponents of solar parabolic dish collector and thermoelectric
power generator. The model is solved analytically for the a set of operating and design parameters.
Modeling results can be useful for further development of the system to study it economic viability.
Reference: S. Shanmugam, A. R. Veerappan, Dec08,2010, Faculty of mechanical engineering,
National Institute of Received Technology, Trichirappalli 620015, India.
22) Why working on Solar Energy Conversion? Benefits of solar systems?
In this paper a survey of the various types of solar thermal collectors and applications is presented.
Initially, an analysis of the environmental problems related to the use of conventional sources of
energy is presented and the benefits offered by renewable energy systems are outlined. The results
showed that solar system are proved to be useful for various applications which include solar water
heating, which comprise thermo syphon, integrated collector storage, direct and indirect systems
and air systems, space heating and cooling, which comprise, space heating and service hot water,
air and water systems and heat pumps, refrigeration, industrial process heat, which comprise air
and water systems and steam generation systems, desalination, thermal power systems, which
comprise the parabolic trough, power tower and dish systems, solar furnaces, and chemistry
applications and therefore, they should be used whenever possible because they are economically
feasible.
Reference: Soteris A. Kalogirou, 10 February 2004, Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Higher Technical Institute, P.O. Box 20423, Nicosia 2152, Cyprus

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DESIGN, FABRICATION AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SOLAR DISH STIRLING SYSTEM

23) Numerical model for predicting thermodynamic cycle and thermal efficiency of a
beta-type Stirling engine with rhombic-drive mechanism:
The purpose is to develop a numerical model for a beta-type stirling engine with rhombic-drive
mechanism. The energy equations for the control volumes in the expansion chamber, the
compression chamber, and the regenerative channel are derived and solved. A fully developed
flow velocity profile in the regenerative channel, in terms of the reciprocating velocity of the
displacer and the instantaneous pressure difference between the expansion and the compression
chambers, is derived for calculation of the mass flow rate through the regenerative channel. The
internal irreversibility caused by pressure difference in the two chambers and the viscous shear
effects due to the motion of the reciprocating displacer on the fluid flow in the regenerative channel
gap are included. Periodic variation of pressures, volumes, temperatures, masses, and heat transfers
in the expansion and the compression chambers are predicted. A parametric study of the
dependence of the power output and thermal efficiency on the geometrical and physical
parameters, involving regenerative gap, distance between two gears, offset distance from the crank
to the center of gear, and the heat source temperature, has been performed.
Reference: (Chin-Hsiang Cheng, Ying-Ju Yu, Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics,
National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, Ta-Shieh Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan R.O.C)

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DESIGN, FABRICATION AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SOLAR DISH STIRLING SYSTEM

5 STIRLING ENGINE/ RECEIVER


Stirling engines are external combustion engines which can function by using a wide variety of
fuel sources such as a combustible gas, nuclear head, or solar energy. The heat supplied to the
engine causes the working fluid to expand; thereby, moving a displacer piston. This piston
then displaces the working fluid from the hot end into the cold end of the engine where the working
fluid is compressed and the piston retracts. The displacer piston then moves the fluid into the hot
end where it will once be expanded and then displaced into the cold end where it will compress
and this cycle will continue as long the temperature difference exists. The Stirling cycle is a
reversible cycle which closely follows the Carnot principal, making it a highly efficient cycle.
Stirling engines are the simplest form of heat engine and are arguably the most efficient
engine.
The Stirling engine is noted for its high efficiency compared to steam engines, quiet operation, and
the ease with which it can use almost any heat source. This compatibility with alternative and
renewable energy sources has become increasingly significant as the price of conventional fuels
rises, and also in light of concerns such as peak oil and climate change. This engine is currently
exciting interest as the core component of micro combined heat and power (CHP) units, in which
it is more efficient and safer than a comparable steam engine.

5.1 Brief History:


The first patent containing a Stirling engine was written in 1816 by the Rev'd Dr. Robert Stirling.
He patented an economizer which is synonymous with todays regenerator, used to increase the
efficiency of the engine. The Stirling engine did not gain wide popularity compared to the steam
engine due to the limits that currently available materials offered. Stirling engines went relatively
unnoticed and not improved on until the late 1930 when Philips selected Stirling engines to power
radios for remote areas. The decision to use Stirling was based on its low audible and E&M noise
and ability to run on any heat source from heating oil to wood.

Figure 5.1 The Original Stirling Engine Patent of 1816

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DESIGN, FABRICATION AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SOLAR DISH STIRLING SYSTEM

In 1972 Ford Motor Company teamed up with Philips to develop an automotive Stirling engine,
and gage its potential for automobiles. What was produced was a four cylinder, 170 Horse Power
Stirling engines which used a swash plate to transfer the power from the Stirling engines
into torque that could be connected to a traditional transmission. The engine ended up having
little potential for use in automobiles due to the nature of external combustion engines inability to
produce immediate power.
There is however concepts to revive the automobile Stirling engine for use in hybrid electric
vehicles because of its higher power to weight ratio and overall efficiency.

Figure 5.2 Automotive Stirling Engine

Beginning in the 1970s NASAs Glenn Research Center began investigations and development
of high efficiency Stirling engines to be used in space applications. The decision to use
Stirling engines was centered on their relative reliability compared to other mechanical
engines, simplicity, low noise (audible, E&M), essentially nonexistent vibration (when convertors
were paired), and most importantly high power to weight ratio. The Brayton Rotating Unit
(BRU) Project aim at obtaining higher efficiency power conversion system for isotope, reactor,
and solar receiver hear sources.

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DESIGN, FABRICATION AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SOLAR DISH STIRLING SYSTEM

Figure 5.3 Brayton Rotating Unit (BRU)

NASA is now taking a serious interest in Stirling engines for their potential use on other planetary
bodies. One of the most prominent possibilities is the use of a Stirling based Fission Surface Power
System which can generate power of about 50kWe per unit. This form of power generation is
a viable solution to the monumental problem of attempting a manned mission to the Lunar
and Martian Surfaces for extended periods of time. This type of system could be used to
provide power for rovers, remote science experiments, or as a utility power source for an outpost
in any of our celestial orbiting bodies.

Figure 5.4 Stirling based Fission Surface Power System

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DESIGN, FABRICATION AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SOLAR DISH STIRLING SYSTEM

5.2 Study of Stirling Engine Components and Functional Description:


The engine is designed so that the working gas is generally compressed in the colder portion of
the engine and expanded in the hotter portion resulting in a net conversion of heat into work.[2] An
internal Regenerative heat exchanger increases the Stirling engine's thermal efficiency compared
to simpler hot air engines lacking this feature.
As a consequence of closed cycle operation, the heat driving a Stirling engine must be transmitted
from a heat source to the working fluid by heat exchangers and finally to a heat sink. A Stirling
engine system has at least one heat source, one heat sink and up to five heat exchangers.

Figure 5.5 Cut-away diagram of a rhombic


drive beta configuration Stirling engine
design

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Pink Hot cylinder wall.


Dark grey Cold cylinder wall.
Yellow Coolant inlet and outlet pipes.
Dark green Thermal insulation separating the two cylinder ends.
Light green Displacer piston.
Dark blue Power piston.
Light blue Linkage crank and flywheels.

*Not shown: Heat source and heat sinks. In this design the displacer piston is constructed without a
purpose-built regenerator.

5.2.1 Heater / Hot Side Heat Exchanger:


In small, low power engines this may simply consist of the walls of the hot space(s) but where
larger powers are required a greater surface area is needed in order to transfer sufficient heat.
Typical implementations are internal and external fins or multiple small bore tubes.

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DESIGN, FABRICATION AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SOLAR DISH STIRLING SYSTEM

Designing Stirling engine heat exchangers is a balance between high heat transfer with low viscous
pumping losses and low dead space (unswept internal volume). With engines operating at high
powers and pressures, the heat exchangers on the hot side must be made of alloys that retain
considerable strength at temperature and that will also not corrode or creep.
5.2.2 Regenerator:
In a Stirling engine, the regenerator is an internal heat exchanger and temporary heat store placed
between the hot and cold spaces such that the working fluid passes through it first in one direction
then the other, taking heat from the fluid in one direction, and returning it in the other. It can be as
simple as metal mesh or foam, and benefits from high surface area, high heat capacity, low
conductivity and low flow friction. Its function is to retain within the system that heat which would
otherwise be exchanged with the environment at temperatures intermediate to the maximum and
minimum cycle temperatures, thus enabling the thermal efficiency of the cycle to approach the
limiting Carnot efficiency.
The primary effect of regeneration in a Stirling engine is to increase the thermal efficiency by
'recycling' internal heat which would otherwise pass through the engine irreversibly. As a
secondary effect, increased thermal efficiency yields a higher power output from a given set of hot
and cold end heat exchangers. It is these which usually limit the engine's heat throughput. In
practice this additional power may not be fully realized as the additional "dead space" (unswept
volume) and pumping loss inherent in practical regenerators reduces the potential efficiency gains
from regeneration.
The design challenge for a Stirling engine regenerator is to provide sufficient heat transfer capacity
without introducing too much additional internal volume ('dead space') or flow resistance. These
inherent design conflicts are one of many factors which limit the efficiency of practical Stirling
engines. A typical design is a stack of fine metal wire meshes, with low porosity to reduce dead
space, and with the wire axes perpendicular to the gas flow to reduce conduction in that direction
and to maximize convective heat transfer.
The regenerator is the key component invented by Robert Stirling and its presence distinguishes a
true Stirling engine from any other closed cycle hot air engine. Many small 'toy' Stirling engines,
particularly low-temperature difference (LTD) types, do not have a distinct regenerator component
and might be considered hot air engines, however a small amount of regeneration is provided by
the surface of the displacer itself and the nearby cylinder wall, or similarly the passage connecting
the hot and cold cylinders of an alpha configuration engine.
5.2.3 Cooler / Cold Side Heat Exchanger:
In small, low power engines this may simply consist of the walls of the cold spaces, but where
larger powers are required a cooler using a liquid like water is needed in order to transfer sufficient
heat.

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DESIGN, FABRICATION AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SOLAR DISH STIRLING SYSTEM

5.2.4 Heat Sink:


The heat sink is typically the environment at ambient temperature. In the case of medium to high
power engines, a radiator is required to transfer the heat from the engine to the ambient air. Marine
engines can use the ambient water. In the case of combined heat and power systems, the engine's
cooling water is used directly or indirectly for heating purposes.
Alternatively, heat may be supplied at ambient temperature and the heat sink maintained at a lower
temperature by such means as cryogenic fluid or iced water.
5.2.5 Displacer:
The displacer is a special-purpose piston, used in Beta and Gamma type Stirling engines, to move
the working gas back and forth between the hot and cold heat exchangers. Depending on the type
of engine design, the displacer may or may not be sealed to the cylinder, i.e. it may be a loose fit
within the cylinder, allowing the working gas to pass around it as it moves to occupy the part of
the cylinder beyond.
5.2.6 Power Piston:
Power piston is the piston located in the expansion chamber. The expanding gases in the cylinder
exert a pressure on the power piston which in turn rotates the crank and provides the system with
the power stroke.
5.2.7 Crank Shaft:
The crankshaft, sometimes casually abbreviated to crank, is the part of an engine which translates
reciprocating linear piston motion into rotation.

5.2.8 Connecting Rod:


Transfers power from the power piston to the crankshaft.

5.3 Basics of Stirling Engine:


Stirling engine uses an external heat source that could be concentrated solar energy through the
use of parabolic troughs, flame, combustion of fuel etc, this heat energy flows in and out through
the walls and creates a temperature difference which is the key in the operation of the Stirling
engine. Due to the external heat source it is known as external combustion engine in contrast to
internal combustion engine where the heat source is the combustion of fuel inside the working
fluid. Stirling engine uses a permanently sealed gaseous working fluid (air, helium or hydrogen)
much like a refrigerant or airconditioner.

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DESIGN, FABRICATION AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SOLAR DISH STIRLING SYSTEM

In a Stirling engine, a fixed amount of a gas is sealed inside the engine. The Stirling cycle involves
a series of events that change the pressure of the gas inside the engine, causing it to do work. There
are several properties of gases that are critical to the operation of Stirling engines:
If you have a fixed amount of gas in a fixed volume of space and you raise the temperature of that
gas, the pressure will increase.
If you have a fixed amount of gas and you compress it (decrease the volume of its space), the
temperature of that gas will increase.
5.3.1 The Stirling Engine Cycle:
The Stirling cycle engine consists of four thermodynamic process cycles as show in Figure
12 Constant Volume Heat Addition
23 Isothermal Expansion
34 Constant Volume Heat Rejection
41 Isothermal Compression

5.3.2 Isothermal Expansion (2-3):


The expansionspace and associated heat exchanger are maintained at a constant high
temperature, and the gas undergoes isothermal expansion absorbing heat from the hot source.

5.3.3 Constant Volume Heat Rejection (3-4):


Constantvolume (known as isovolumetric or isochoric) heatremoval. The gas is passed
through the regenerator, where it cools transferring heat to the regenerator for use in the next
cycle

5.3.4 Isothermal Compression (4-1):


The compression space and associated heat exchanger are maintained at a constant low
temperature so the gas undergoes isothermal compression rejecting heat to the cold sink.

5.3.5 Constant Volume Heat Addition (1-2):


ConstantVolume (known as isovolumetric or isochoric) heataddition. The gas passes back
through the regenerator where it recovers much of the heat transferred in 2 to 3, heating up on its
way to the expansion space.

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DESIGN, FABRICATION AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SOLAR DISH STIRLING SYSTEM

Figure 5.6 Ideal Stirling Cycle

5.4 Operation of Stirling Cycle Engine:


A simple Stirling engine uses two cylinders and two pistons: power piston and displacer piston.
The vertical cylinder (see Figure 32) is constantly heated up on the top while it is cooled at the
lower part. The displacer piston does not seal with the walls of cylinder, and lets air pass through.
If the displacer piston is now in the lower deadcenter, air is strongly heated up and the pressure
pushes on the working piston on the right, which slides to the right now. The left piston (see Figure
33) now gets pulled upward by the coupling of the two pistons. Air is strongly cooled, and together
with compression work from the flywheel the working piston is brought again to the left, the
displacer piston slides down and the air is heated up again.

Figure 5.7 Operation of Ideal Stirling Cycle


Engine (Displacer at lower dead centre)

Figure 5.8 Operation of Ideal Stirling Cycle


Engine (Displacer at lower upper dead centre)

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DESIGN, FABRICATION AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SOLAR DISH STIRLING SYSTEM

Because the Stirling engine is a closed cycle, it contains a fixed mass of gas called the "working
fluid", most commonly air, hydrogen or helium. In normal operation, the engine is sealed and no
gas enters or leaves the engine. No valves are required, unlike other types of piston engines. The
Stirling engine, like most heat engines, cycles through four main processes: cooling, compression,
heating and expansion. This is accomplished by moving the gas back and forth between hot and
cold heat exchangers, often with a regenerator between the heater and cooler. The hot heat
exchanger is in thermal contact with an external heat source, such as a fuel burner, and the cold
heat exchanger being in thermal contact with an external heat sink, such as air fins. A change in
gas temperature will cause a corresponding change in gas pressure, while the motion of the piston
causes the gas to be alternately expanded and compressed.
The gas follows the behaviour described by the gas laws which describe how a gas' pressure,
temperature and volume are related. When the gas is heated, because it is in a sealed chamber, the
pressure rises and this then acts on the power piston to produce a power stroke. When the gas is
cooled the pressure drops and this means that less work needs to be done by the piston to compress
the gas on the return stroke, thus yielding a net power output.
The ideal Stirling cycle is unattainable in the real world, and the actual Stirling cycle is inherently
less efficient than the Otto cycle of internal combustion engines. The efficiency of Stirling
machines is linked to the environmental temperature; a higher efficiency is obtained when the
weather is cooler, thus making this type of engine less interesting in places with warmer climates.
As with other external combustion engines, Stirling engines can use heat sources other than from
combustion of fuels.
When one side of the piston is open to the atmosphere, the operation is slightly different. As the
sealed volume of working gas comes in contact with the hot side, it expands, doing work on both
the piston and on the atmosphere. When the working gas contacts the cold side, its pressure drops
below atmospheric pressure and the atmosphere pushes on the piston and does work on the gas.
To summarize, the Stirling engine uses the temperature difference between its hot end and cold
end to establish a cycle of a fixed mass of gas, heated and expanded, and cooled and compressed,
thus converting thermal energy into mechanical energy. The greater the temperature difference
between the hot and cold sources, the greater the thermal efficiency. The maximum theoretical
efficiency is equivalent to the Carnot cycle, however the efficiency of real engines is less than this
value due to friction and other losses.

5.5 How to Increase the Power Output of a Stirling Engine:


The stirling engine only makes power during the first part of the cycle. There are two main ways
to increase the power output of a stirling cycle:
5.5.1 Increase Power Output in Stage One:
In part one of the cycle, the pressure of the heated gas pushing against the piston performs work.
Increasing the pressure during this part of the cycle will increase the power output of the engine.
One way of increasing the pressure is by increasing the temperature of the gas. A look at a two

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DESIGN, FABRICATION AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SOLAR DISH STIRLING SYSTEM

piston Stirling engine later in this article, shows how a device called a regenerator can improve the
power output of the engine by temporarily storing heat.
5.5.2 Decrease Power Usage in Stage Three:
In part three of the cycle, the pistons perform work on the gas, using some of the power produced
in part one. Lowering the pressure during this part of the cycle can decrease the power used during
this stage of the cycle (effectively increasing the power output of the engine). One way to decrease
the pressure is to cool the gas to a lower temperature.
The four phases of the cycle are explained in a clear manner as follows:
Expansion: The majority of the gas is in contact with the warmer plate. The gas heats and expands,
driving the power piston upward

Figure 5.9 Expansion Driving the Power Piston Upwards

Transfer: Flywheel momentum carries the displacer downward, transferring the warm gas to the
upper, cool end of the cylinder

Figure 5.10 Transfer of warm gas to the upper cool end


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DESIGN, FABRICATION AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SOLAR DISH STIRLING SYSTEM

Contraction: Now the majority of the gas is in contact with the cool plate. The gas cools and
contracts, drawing the power piston downward.

Figure 5.11 Contraction (Driving the Power Piston Downward)

Transfer: Flywheel momentum carries the displacer up, transferring the cooled gas back to the
lower, hot end of the cylinder.

Figure 5.12 Transfer of Cooled Gas to the Lower Hot End)

5.6 Stirling Engine Configurations:


Stirling engines are commonly found in three different configurations; alpha, beta, and gamma.
There is also a variation of each one named free-piston but due to its complexity and high
cost, it will not be discussed in details for this project. Each of the three main configurations has
unique advantages and disadvantages due their variation in geometry and arrangement.

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DESIGN, FABRICATION AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SOLAR DISH STIRLING SYSTEM

5.6.1 Alpha Stirling Engine:


An Alpha Stirling engine is composed of two power pistons which are housed in two separate
cylinders where one cylinder is exposed to heat while the second is subjected to cold and
heat dissipation. Alpha Stirling engines will sometimes utilize a regenerator as part of its
configuration. The regenerator function is to store heat as it moves from the hot end to the cold
one and re-supplying the fluid with heat as it returns to the hot end.

Figure 5.13 Alpha Stirling Engine

5.6.2 Beta Stirling Engine:


A Beta Stirling Engine configuration uses one cylinder which houses both the power and
displacement piston. The displacer piston purpose is to shuffle the air between the hot end
and the cold end while not extracting any power from the expanding gas.

Figure 5.14 Beta Stirling Engine

5.6.3 Gamma Stirling Engine:


A Gamma Stirling engine is similar to a Beta configuration expect save for the power piston which
is housed in a separate cylinder but still connected to the same flywheel as the displacer piston.

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DESIGN, FABRICATION AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SOLAR DISH STIRLING SYSTEM

Figure 5.15 Gamma Stirling Engine

The stirling engine what we have utilized in our project is Gamma Stirling Engine, due to its
simple design and easy availability of the components.

Figure 5.16 Gamma Stirling Engine

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DESIGN, FABRICATION AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SOLAR DISH STIRLING SYSTEM

The hot cylinder is heated by the solar concentrator which provides the necessary heat for the
stirling engine to operate whereas the cold cylinder in insulated from the heat of the solar
concentrator.

5.7 Solar Stirling Engine:


Due to Stirling engines unique ability to produce power in the presence of any heat source, a wide
variety of fuels can be utilized for the purpose of power generation which includes Solar. Using
sunlight as a viable heat source for Stirling engines yields a method of producing power without
harmful emissions and without using manufacturing methods which deplete the Earths of its
precise natural resources.
Solar energy has been utilized before for power production in heat engines, however, most
of the previous applications were for steam turbines that would be only practical for very large
scale installations. Stirling engines provide a methodology for generating power for use in a small
system to drive an electrical generator.
The schematic below illustrates a small scale electric power from solar thermal energy system
which utilizes solar Stirling. In this system, the solar heat collector provides heat for the
solar Stirling engine which in turn provides AC power. The electrical power can be transferred
to a battery charger, then to DC control unit which can either go into a battery or into an inverter.
Efficiencies for this type of small scale system can range from 18% to 23%.

Figure 5.17 Solar Stirling Schematic

5.7.1 Lubricants and Friction:


At high temperatures and pressures, the oxygen in airpressurized crankcases, or in the working
gas of hot air engines, can combine with the engines lubricating oil and explode.

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DESIGN, FABRICATION AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SOLAR DISH STIRLING SYSTEM

Thus, nonlubricated, lowcoefficient of friction materials (such as graphite), with low normal
forces on the moving parts, are preferred, especially for sliding seals. At times sliding surfaces
are avoided altogether by using diaphragms for sealed pistons. These are some of the factors that
allow Stirling engines to have lower maintenance requirements and a longer life than internal
combustion engines.
5.7.2 Pressurization:
In most high power Stirling engines, both the minimum pressure and mean pressure of the working
fluid are above atmospheric pressure. This initial engine pressurization can be realized by a pump,
or by filling the engine from a compressed gas tank, or even just by sealing the engine when the
mean temperature is lower than the mean operating temperature. All of these methods increase the
mass of working fluid in the thermodynamic cycle.

5.8 Comparison of Stirling Engine with an Internal Combustion Engine:


5.8.1 Advantages:
In contrast to internal combustion engines, they can use renewable heat sources more
easily.
Are quieter than internal combustion engines.
More reliable with lower maintenance dues to lesser moving components.
More efficient and cleaner (creation of pollutants such as NOx can be avoided).
Since the fuel is burned slowly and constantly outside the engine, there are no explosions
to muffle. Thus there are no violent vibrations.
A Stirling cycle is truly reversible (this means that if you heat and cool the heat exchangers
of the engine you get power out or if you power the engine you get heating or cooling
out).
Most Stirling engines have the bearing and seals on the cool side of the engine, and they
require less lubricant and last longer than other reciprocating engine types.
No valves are needed.
A Stirling engine uses a singlephase working fluid which maintains an internal pressure
close to the design pressure, and thus for a properly designed system the risk of explosion
is low. In comparison, a steam engine uses a twophase gas/liquid working fluid, so a
faulty relief valve can cause an explosion.
Since they run without an air supply, they can be used for airindependent propulsion in
submarines.
Easy to start, though slowly after warming up.
5.8.2 Disadvantages:
Lower power output as compared to an internal combustion engine of the same size.
Gas leakage may pose design problems.
The Stirling engine must successfully contain the pressure of the working fluid, where the
pressure is proportional to the engine power output/temperature. In addition, the expansion

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DESIGN, FABRICATION AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SOLAR DISH STIRLING SYSTEM

side heat exchanger is often at very high temperature, so the materials must resist the
corrosive effects of the heat source, and have low creep.

5.9 Design and Analysis of Stirling Engine:


Stirling Engine used is Gamma type stirling engine of 50 W. We have chosen gamma type stirling
engine because of its simple and easy configuration and design. The design terms employed are as
follows:
5.9.1 Non Dimensional Parameters Used in the Analysis:
Following non-dimentional numbers is used in this prediction method.
Non-dimentional engine speed, n*:
Non-dimentional work, WS*:
Non-dimentional output power, LS*:
Non-dimentional engine specification, S*:
Design pressure ratio, P*:
Non-dimentional temperature, T*:
Ws: Output work in one cycle (J)
Pm: Mean pressure (Pa)
Plim: Design pressure (Pa)
VSE: Swept volume of expansion space (m3)
R: Gas constant (J/kgK)
TE: Gas temperature of expansion space (K)
TC: Gas temperature of compression space (K)
Tlim: Maximum temperature in design process (K)
: Viscosity coefficient at temperature, TE and pressure, Pm (m2/s)
2
lim: Viscosity coefficient at temperature, Tlim and pressure, Plim (m /s)
n: Engine speed (rps)
* When you check 'Use the design and permitted values', Plim=Pmand Tlim=TE.
We have reduced the experimental data of Ecoboy-SCM81 and other high performance and low
temperature difference Stirling engines.
Following figures show the relation between the non-dimentional engine speed, nmax*, and the
non-dimentional output power, LSmax*, and the relation between the non-dimentional engine

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DESIGN, FABRICATION AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SOLAR DISH STIRLING SYSTEM

specification, S*, and the non-dimentional engine speed, nmax*. Experimental equations which are
shown in the figures are estimeating the characteristics of the engines well.

Figure 5.18 Non-dimentional output power, LSmax* as a


function of non-dimentional engine speed, nmax*

Figure 5.19 Non-dimentional engine speed, nmax* as a function


of non-dimentional non-dimentional engine specification, S*

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DESIGN, FABRICATION AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SOLAR DISH STIRLING SYSTEM

As the former simple performance prediction methods for the Stirling engines, Beale number,
BN, or West number, WN is used.

Pm: Mean pressure (Pa)


VSE: Swept volume of expansion space (m3)
n: Engine speed (rps)
TE: Gas temperature of expansion space (K)
TC: Gas temperature of compression space (K)
In the case of the high temperature difference Stirling engines, a standard value of Beal number is
0.15.
The output power can be calculated approximately, when these numbers are used. But, it is
necessary that the engine speed when the engine gets the maximum output power is supposed.
In the case of the simple performance prediction method which is proposed on my web page, the
output power and the engine speed can be predicted easily. And effects of the kind of the working
gas is estimated when the non-dimentional engine specification is introduced.

5.9.2 Beale Number Bn:


In mechanical engineering, the Beale number is a parameter that characterizes the performance
of Stirling engines. It is often used to estimate the power output of a Stirling engine design. For
engines operating with a high temperature differential, typical values for the Beale number range
from (0.11) to (0.15); where a larger number indicates higher performance.
The Beale number can be defined in terms of a Stirling engine's operating parameters:

where:

Bn is the Beale number


Wo is the power output of the engine (watts)
P is the mean average gas pressure (Pa) or (MPa, if volume is in cm3)
V is swept volume of the power piston(m3) or (cm3, if pressure is in MPa)
F is the engine cycle frequency (Hz)

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DESIGN, FABRICATION AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SOLAR DISH STIRLING SYSTEM

A Beale Number (Bn ) of 0.07 is taken.


5.9.3 Estimating Stirling Engine Power Using Bn:
To estimate the power output of an engine, nominal values are assumed for the Beale number,
pressure, swept volume and frequency, then the power is calculated as the product of these
parameters, as follows:

Bn = 0.07
P = 0.8 MPa
F= 25 Hz
Wo= (0.07)*(0.8)*(36)*(25) = 49.8 ~ 50W

5.9.4 West Number Wn:


The West number is an empirical parameter used to characterize the performance of Stirling
engines and other Stirling systems. It is very similar to the Beale number where a larger number
indicates higher performance; however, the West number includes temperature compensation. The
West number is often used to approximate of the power output of a Stirling engine.
The West number may be defined as:

Wn is the West number


Wo is the power output of the engine (watts)
P is the mean average gas pressure (Pa) or (MPa, if volume is in cm3)
V is swept volume of the expansion space (m3) or (cm, if pressure is in MPa)
f is the engine cycle frequency (Hz)
TH is the absolute temperature of the expansion space or heater (kelvins)
TK is the absolute temperature of the compression space or cooler (kelvins)
Bn is the Beale number for an engine operating between temperatures TH and TK

Wn= (0.07)*((873+313)/(873-313) = 0.14


When the Beale number is known, but the West number is not known, it is possible to calculate it.
First calculate the West number at the temperatures TH and TK for which the Beale number is
known, and then use the resulting West number to calculate output power for other temperatures.

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DESIGN, FABRICATION AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SOLAR DISH STIRLING SYSTEM

5.9.5 Estimating Stirling Engine Power Using Wn:


To estimate the power output of a new engine design, nominal values are assumed for the West
number, pressure, swept volume and frequency, and the power is calculated as follows:

Wo = (0.14*0.8*36*25)*((873-313)/(873+313)) = 47.9 ~48 W

5.10 Online Design Calculations:

Figure 5.20 Online Design Calculations 1

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DESIGN, FABRICATION AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SOLAR DISH STIRLING SYSTEM

Figure 5.21 Online Design Calculations

5.11 Final Calculated Results Achieved From Engine Calculations:

Bore x Stroke: 3.6x10 cm


Phase angle: 90 deg.
Working gas: Helium / Air
Target shaft power: 50 W
Target efficiency: 15-20 %
Heating method: Solar Concentrating/Cooking Oil
Cooling method: Water cooling
Rated operation Rated engine speed 400 rpm (Helium)
Mean pressure 0.7 MPa
Expansion space temp. 200-250 C
Compression space temp. 40 C
Design ( Allowable ) Maximum pressure 0.7 MPa
Heater wall temp. (max.) 250 300C

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DESIGN, FABRICATION AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SOLAR DISH STIRLING SYSTEM

6 SOLAR CONCENTRATOR
A solar concentrator uses lenses, called Fresnel lenses, mirrors or aluminium foil which take a
large area of sunlight and direct it towards a specific spot by bending the rays of light and focusing
them. A solar concentrator dish converts energy from the sun and can be used to boil water into
steam to drive a steam engine or steam turbine. It can also be used to concentrate the sun onto a
solar cell, like the ones produced by Boeing-Spectrolab who claim a conversion efficiency of 40.7
percent.

Figure 6.1 Solar Concentrator (Dish Type)

The ANU 400 m2 solar concentrator dish system, seen below is a prototype and was completed in
1994. It is a prototype high performance solar concentrator intended for use in large arrays for
multi-megawatt scale electric power generation. Since its completion, the prototype has been
operated experimentally and been the subject of ongoing design refinement and research and
development.
A second dish prototype was sold and installed at the Ben Gurion University in Israel by
ANUTECH Pty Ltd. The prototype on the ANU campus is currently configured to produce
superheated steam at 500C, 4.5MPa. The campus unit drives a small reciprocating steam engine
with a grid connected generator. The intention for commercial scale solar thermal power
generation, is that an array of dishes would feed steam via a steam line network to a single high
efficiency central power block using standard turbine or engine technology.

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DESIGN, FABRICATION AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SOLAR DISH STIRLING SYSTEM

Figure 6.2 The ANU 400m2 Solar


Concentrator Dish

The solar concentrator dish system below, named ARUN [Trademark Registered] is a Fresnel
Paraboloid Concentrating Solar Collector System, with two-axes tracking flat reflector dish of 160
sq.m aperture area having 800 mm diameter cavity receiver at focal point. This one was installed
at Latur (India) to supply thermal energy (heat) to a milk pasteurization plant, and reduces costs
incurred from normal power sources.
It is a solar device providing medium range temperatures for industrial thermal applications. The
dish and support structure are made up of mild steel (MS). The reflectors made up of flat mirrors
are inclined at pre-calculated angle. They reflect and concentrate the solar beam radiation at its
focus having about 500 mm diameter area and generate high temperature heat energy. It is
absorbed by hat-shaped downward facing cavity receiver designed for minimum thermal loss This
receiver has low view factor of about 0.1 that reduces radiative losses.
The ARUN Solar Concentrator Dish System can be used in ADD ON mode and can be retrofitted
to the existing boiler or heater system in many industries. This mode delivers energy whenever
beam radiation is available and saves fuel used. This uses minimum storage capacity. The thermal
energy generated can also be stored in thermal storage to supply energy requirements during
evening and night. Pressurized water system is used for evacuation and storage of thermal energy.
The unit is best suited for the industrial applications using thermal energy from electricity or liquid
fossil fuels. The thermal medium can be high or low pressure process steam, hot water, hot air, hot
thermic fluid or oil.

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DESIGN, FABRICATION AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SOLAR DISH STIRLING SYSTEM

Figure 6.3 ARUN160, installed at Latur for milk


pasteurization - June 2005

Figure 6.4 The Focus of ARUN160 on focus


plate at the receiver mouth

It can be used for providing process heat for a wide range of industries and chemical processing
plants using boilers or heaters, textile mills, sugar mills, vegetable oil mills, agro and food
processing industries, timber industry, milk processing, drying of horticultural, food and fruits
products, drying of chemicals as well as units using vapour absorption refrigeration for space
cooling. It is also suitable for hotels and hospitals for providing hot water, steam and cooling.
A dish Stirling or dish engine system consists of a stand-alone parabolic reflector that concentrates
light onto a receiver positioned at the reflector's focal point. The reflector tracks the Sun along two
axes. The working fluid in the receiver is heated to 250700 C (523973 K (4821,292 F) and
then used by a Stirling engine to generate power. Parabolic-dish systems provide high solar-toelectric efficiency (between 31% and 32%), and their modular nature provides scalability.
The world record for solar to electric efficiency was set at 31.25% by SES dishes at the National
Solar Thermal Test Facility (NSTTF) . The SES installation in Maricopa, Phoenix was the largest
Stirling Dish power installation in the world until it was sold to United Sun Systems. Subsequently,
larger parts of the installation have been moved to China as part of the huge energy demand.
A wide variety of solar concentrators are currently commercially available in order to
concentrate solar rays for the purpose of power generation. There are many forms of solar
concentrators, but the most common forms are those which utilize curved, parabolic mirrors and
those which use Fresnel lenses.

6.1 Parabolic Dish Design:


In our project we basically tried to concentrate solar energy by using aluminum foil type parabolic
dish collector on a gamma stirling engine.

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DESIGN, FABRICATION AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SOLAR DISH STIRLING SYSTEM

When Sun light (parallel rays) falls onto a correctly aligned parabolic mirror it will be reflected
back towards a single point known as the focus. The parabolic mirror therefore directs the energy
arriving over its surface to a 'hot spot' at the focus. You can use this energy to heat something.
The basic shape of a parabola is derived from the equation:
y = 4ax--------- [1]
Where y represents the distance away from the mirror Centre and x represents the 'height above'
the center. The constant a is known as the focal length - the distance from the origin to the focus
point.

Figure 6.5 Parabolic Dish Schematic

The basic geometry of a parabola mirror. Light rays coming from infinity will tend to be reflected
towards a point called the focus.
As we want to make a parabolic reflector to our own particular specification i.e. in terms of its size
D (i.e. having maximum y = D/2), height h and focal length a, then equation 1 becomes:
a = D/16h------------------------- [2]
D= 1.82 m, h=0.3048
Focal length=a= (1.82)2/16(0.3048) = 0.679 m

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DESIGN, FABRICATION AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SOLAR DISH STIRLING SYSTEM

Area = (/4)*(1.8288)2 = 2.62 m2

Figure 6.6 Parabolic Dish Schematic Showing the Design Terms

Where as
D-length, h-height, a-focus and j (an offset used to make the template version
I chose to design the mirror surface height (h) to be the same value as a - the focus distance above
the canter of the mirror (so a = h in this example 0.3048 m). In this case finding the focus is simple
- imagine a line going across the top of the device, the centre of this line is where the focus is.
Rearranging equation 2 we get the diameter / length of the solar heater D to be:
D = 16ah, so using h = a = 0.679m we get:
D = (16x0.679 x0.3048) = (3.31) = 1.82 m=6 ft=6/3.2808=1.82 m Linear Dia of our dish for
50 W stirling.
We have y = 4ax and a = 0.679 m= 2.23 ft approx.
For our solar dish shown above we get x = y/12ft

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DESIGN, FABRICATION AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SOLAR DISH STIRLING SYSTEM

Whereas the y axis represents the distance away from the mirrors Centre while x represents the
'height' above the base, the lowest point of the mirror (its Centre).

6.2 Parabolic Dish Calculator:

Figure 6.8 Parabolic Dish Calculator

Linear Diameter

06.42 ft

Diameter

06.00 ft

Depth

01.00 ft

Focal Length

02.25 ft

Volume

14.14 ft

Area

28.27 ft

X
-3.00
-2.63
-2.25
-1.88
-1.50
-1.13
-0.75
-0.38
0.00
0.38
0.75
1.13
1.50
1.88

72

Y
1.00
0.77
0.56
0.39
0.25
0.14
0.06
0.02
0.00
0.02
0.06
0.14
0.25
0.39

DESIGN, FABRICATION AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SOLAR DISH STIRLING SYSTEM

6.3 Parabolic Trough:


In such systems the sun's energy is concentrated by parabolic curved, trough-shaped
reflectors onto a receiver pipe running along the inside of the curved surface.
This energy heats oil flowing through the pipe, and the heat energy is then used to
generate electricity in a conventional steam generator.
A collector field comprises many troughs in parallel rows aligned on a north-south axis.
This configuration enables the single-axis troughs to track the sun from east to west
during the day to ensure that the sun is continuously focused on the receiver pipes.
Trough designs can incorporate thermal storagesetting aside the heat transfer fluid in
its hot phaseallowing for electricity generation several hours into the evening.
Currently, all parabolic trough plants are "hybrids," meaning they use fossil fuel to
supplement the solar output during periods of low solar radiation.
Parabolic concentrators have been successfully operating commercially since 1984.

Figure 6.9 Parabolic Trough Schematic

The receiver is a tube positioned directly above the middle of the parabolic mirror and filled with
a working fluid. A working fluid (e.g. molten salt) is heated to 150350 C (423623 K (302
662 F)) as it flows through the receiver and is then used as a heat source for a power generation
system. Trough systems are the most developed CSP technology. The Solar Energy Generating
Systems (SEGS) plants in California, the world's first commercial parabolic trough plants.
In UET Taxila we already have the facility of parabolic trough, which is coated with aluminium
sheet. This is used as secondary source of heating for our hybrid mechanism. In the parabolic
trough we use cooking oil as working fluid which is heated in the pipe along the central axis of
parabolic trough.

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DESIGN, FABRICATION AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SOLAR DISH STIRLING SYSTEM

Figure 6.10 SGES(Solar Energy Generating Systems) Plant in California

6.3.1 Parabolic Trough Design:


Calculation approach adopted is same as that of parabolic dish but now number of segments are
decreased because we are getting line focus and the values computed are as given:

Figure 6.11 Parabolic Trough Design

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DESIGN, FABRICATION AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SOLAR DISH STIRLING SYSTEM

Figure 6.12 Parabolic Trough Animation

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DESIGN, FABRICATION AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SOLAR DISH STIRLING SYSTEM

7 SOLAR RADIATION STUDY OF TAXILA


In this chapter the solar radiation for Taxila, Pakistan (33.74oN, 72.74oE) has been studied for
efficient utilization of solar energy employing sunshine hour data. The results obtained
exhibit the variation of direct and diffuse radiation at Taxila. The diffuse radiation is
maximum in the month of July. From the estimated results it is found that with the exception
of monsoon months solar energy can be utilized very efficiently throughout the year .

7.1 Method of Calculations:


In the present work the H/Ho , the monthly global solar radiation falling on a horizontal
surface at particular location and the monthly mean daily radiation on horizontal surface in
the absence of atmosphere is given by the following expression.
H/Ho = a + b(n/N)

(1)

Where n is the monthly mean daily no. of sunshine hour and N is the day length at particular
location and a and b are the climatological determined regression constant. n/N is also called
the possible percentage of sunshine hour The regression constant a and b have been
obtained from the relationship given as (6) and also confirmed by Frere et.al method (Fere et.al
1980) as given below:
a= -0.110+0.235 cos +0.323(n/N)

(2)

b=1.449-0.553 cos -0.694(n/N)

(3)

The value H may be determined by the following expression


H =24/ ISC ([1+0.033 cos (360n/365)] [cos*cos*sinws +2ws /360 sin*sin]

(4)

Where ISC is the solar constant, is the latitude of the area, is the solar declination and
ws is the sunset hour angle.
d= 23.45 sin[360*248+n/365]

(5)

Cos w = -tantan

(6)

7.1.1 Prediction of diffuse solar radiation:


The diffuse solar radiation H can be estimated by an empirical formula which co-relates
the diffuse solar radiation component Hd to the daily total radiation H. The co-relation
equation which is widely used are given below:
Hd /H =1.00-1.13KT

(7)

Hd /H =1.390-4.027K+5.53(K) 2-3.108(KT)3

(8)

Where Hd is the monthly mean of daily diffuse solar radiation and K = Hd/H is the clearness index.

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DESIGN, FABRICATION AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SOLAR DISH STIRLING SYSTEM

7.1.2 Results and Discussions:


The input parameters for the estimation of monthly average daily global solar radiation at
Taxila, Pakistan are shown in Table: 1
From table1, it is observed that sunshine duration of Taxila is between 60 to 80% throughout the
year. Employing these parameters the regression constant 'a' and 'b' are evaluated. Inserting these
values in equations (1) the monthly average daily global solar radiation H is estimated. The
value of Ho, H, Hb and D for Taxila is shown in Figure (1).Table 2 gives the below .calculated
values for Ho, H , K and Hd for Taxila. It also shows the ratio. D/H and D/HO. It indicates
that the value of diffuse radiation to extraterrestrial radiation is not more than 16% with the
exception of July which is 19%.
7.1.3 Diffused Solar Radiation:
The diffuse solar radiation for Taxila by Liu and Jorden, Page method, as no station in Pakistan
measures diffuse solar radiation. From the estimated result it is seen that contribution of diffuse
solar radiation is very low throughout year with the exception of monsoon months, i.e from June
to August. The Liu & Jorden method predicts lower values then the page co-relation. The
contribution of diffuse radiation is below 35 %.
The availability of direct radiation is therefore encouraging from utilization point of view. The
transmission of D/Ho is between 14 and 19 % whereas of D/H is between 20 and 33 % which
means that presence of cloud is only in January and July and mostly the sky is clear which is very
favorable condition for solar energy utilization.
In case of direct radiation a dip is seen in the month of July for Taxila. The sky is fairly clear
throughout the year except for the month of July.
7.1.4 Sky Condition at Taxila:
The transparency of the atmosphere is indicated by fraction of Extraterrestrial radiation that
reaches the earth surface as global solar radiation. It is the measures of the degree of the clearness
of the sky which is given as below:
KT = H/Ho

(9)

Where KT is the clearness index. H is the global solar radiation and Ho the extraterrestrial
insulation. The Taxila is very clear throughout the year except July.
7.1.5 Statistical Distribution:
Statistical distribution of global solar radiation indicates that the availability of global solar
radiation at Taxila is 65% during the month of May-June and 68% during the month of September
to December. In monsoon period it is 60%.

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Figure 7.1 Statistical Distribution of Global


Solar Radiation

7.1.6 Variation of Direct and Diffuse Solar Radiation:


There is a large variation in the intensities of direct and diffuse solar radiation due to cloud. The
results indicate that during the month of April to June are quite appreciable. The percentage of
diffuse radiation contribution to the global is low in the month of April, May, June will be very
useful for utilizing it for solar concentrator solar cookers and solar furnaces. The Angstorm model
for the determination of the global solar radiation and Liu and Jorden model for the estimation of
diffuse solar radiation exhibit the validity of estimation for the location under study.

Figure 6.2 Input parameter for estimation of monthly Global Solar radiation at Taxila, Pakistan (Table-1)

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Figure 6.3 Calculated Solar radiation data for Taxila

Figure 6.4 A plot of the monthly variation of total direct and diffuse solar Radiation for
Taxila, Pakistan

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Figure 6.5 Shows the variation of direct and diffuse radiation for Taxila, Pakistan

Figure 6.6 Behaviour of the cloudiness index Kt,D/H and D/H0 during a year for Taxila,
Pakistan.

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8 FABRICATION OF SOLAR DISH STIRLING SYSTEM


In this work we design and fabricate a of solar dish concentration with diameters (1.82)
meters for application solar steam or Stirling engine, the dish fabrication by metal of
galvanized steel and Its interior surface is covered with a reflecting layer of aluminum foil
with reflectivity up to(76%) and equipped with receiver in its focal position, The measurement for
temperature and solar power were given.
The basic principle of solar thermal collection is that when solar radiation is incident on
a surface (such as that of a black body) part of this radiation is absorbed and causes to
increase the temperature of the surface. The typical solar flux concentration ratio typically
obtained is at the level of 30 100, 100 1000, and 1000 10000 for trough, tower and
dish systems, respectively. -The Australian National University has re-engineered its Big
Dish design for commercialization and mass production, building the 'SG4' 500m2. Big Dish
solar parabolic concentrator for solar-thermal to electric energy conversion using direct-steam
generation. The SG4 Dish implements two-axis tracking and may be incorporated into a disharray for large-scale power production. The parabolic dish system uses a parabolic dish
shaped mirror or a modular mirror system that approximates a parabola and incorporates
two-axis tracking to focus the sunlight onto receivers located at the focal point of the dish,
which absorbs the energy and converts it into thermal energy. This can be used directly
as heat for thermal application or for power generation. The thermal energy can either be
transported to a central generator for conversion, or it can be converted directly into electricity
at a local generator coupled to the receiver. The operation of any solar thermal energy collector
can be described as an energy balance between the solar energy absorbed by the collector
and the thermal energy removed or lost from the collector.

8.1 Theoretical Part:

Figure 8.1 Parabolic Geometry

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A parabola is the locus of a point that moves so that its distances from a fixed line and
a fixed point are equal. This is shown on figure where the fixed line is called the directory
and the fixed point F, the focus. Note that the length FR equals the length RD. The line
perpendicular to the directory and passing through the focus F is called the axis of the
parabola. The parabola intersects its axis at a point V called the vertex, which is exactly
midway between the focus and the directrix.

8.2 Concentration Ratio:


The "concentration ratio" is used to describe the amount of light energy concentration
achieved by a given collector. Two different definitions of concentration ratio are in general
use. They are defined briefly here so that the terms may be used. Optical Concentration
Ratio (CRo).The averaged irradiance (radiant flux) (Ir) integrated over the receiver area (Ar),
divided by the insulation incident on the collector aperture.

Geometric Concentration Ratio (CRg). The area of the collector Aperture Aa divided by the
surface area of the receiver Ar

Optical concentration ratio relates directly to lens or reflector quality; however, in many
collectors the surface area of the receiver is larger than the concentrated solar image
Directory. If the origin is taken at the vertex V and the x-axis along the axis of the parabola,
the equation of the parabola is

where f, the focal length, is the distance VF from the vertex to the focus. When the origin
is shifted to the focus F as is often done in optical studies, with the vertex to the left of
the origin, the equation of a parabola becomes

In polar coordinates, using the usual definition of r as the distance from the origin and the
angle from the x-axis tor, we have for a parabola with its vertex at the origin and symmetrical
about the x-axis

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Often in solar studies, it is more useful to define the parabolic curve with the origin at F
and in terms of the angle ( )in polar coordinates with the origin at F. The angle is measured
from the line VF and the parabolic radius p, is the distance from the focus F to the curve.
Shifting the origin to the focus F, we have

The parabolic shape is widely used as the reflecting surface for concentrating solar collectors
because it has the property that, for any line parallel to the axis of the parabola, the angle p
between it and the surface normal is equal to the angle between the normal and a line to the focal
point. Since solar radiation arrives at the earth in essentially parallel rays and by Snell's law the
angle of reflection equals the angle of incidence, All radiation parallel to the axis of the
parabola will be reflected to a single point F, which is the focus. Careful inspection of the
geometry described in Figure (3) will show that the following is true:

The general expressions given so far for the parabola define a curve infinite in extent.
Solar concentrators use a truncated portion of this curve. The extent of this truncation is usually
defined in terms of the rim angle ( ) or the ratio of the focal length to aperture diameter f/d.
The scale (size) of the curve is then specified in terms of a linear dimension such as the
aperture diameter d or the focal length f. This is readily apparent in Figure (2) which shows
various finite parabola having a common focus and the same aperture diameter.

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In a like manner, the rim angle (B) may be found in terms of the parabola dimensions:

Another property of the parabola that may be of use in understanding solar concentrator
design is the arc lengths. This may be found for a particular parabola from Equation (3) by
integrating a differential segment of this curve and applying the limits x = h and y= d/2 as
pictured in Figure(2). The result is

where d is the distance across the aperture (or opening) of the parabola as shown in Figure
(2) and h is the distance from the vertex to the aperture. The cross sectional area of the
space enclosed between a parabola and a line across its aperture and normal to the axis is
given by

this area should not be confused with the reflecting surface area of a parabolic trough or
dish or their aperture areas[10]

8.3 Optical Energy Absorbed by the Receiver:


To calculate the Optical Energy of receiver and heat transfer the following equation may be used

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All are constants dependent on the materials used and the structure accuracy of the collector.
These constants are nominally lumped into single constant term.
Etta: the optical efficiency of the collector Thus, the quantity of thermal energy produced by the
solar collector is described by

8.4 Experimental Work:


A- Parabolic dish:-we choose concave dish made of sheet galvanized steel and lined with
aluminum and steel foil type reflecting surface. Method of a given focus and directory was
employed in the construction of the parabolic dish. The reflector plain steel dish is covered
with aluminum foil and fixed by screw, this structure or the sheet painted by steel paint
and used miller paper stick with reflective (76%) and high reflectivity on the metal sheet
reflecting surface of the parabolic as shown in figure below
Characteristics of the solar concentrator
..
Diameter of opening of the parabola = 1.82 m
Surface collecting of the parabola = 2.62m2
Depth of the parabola
Focal distance f
Rim angle

85

= 0.018 m
=

0.679 m

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Figure 8.2 Fabricated Model of Dish Engine System

8.5 Gamma Type Stirling Engine Receiver:


The experimental receiver was made of stainless steel stirling engine and a its receiver covered
with a thin coat of black paint to decrease the reflection of the solar rays and it was
located in the focal zone of the parabola dish of (1.82m) diameter to study the radiation and
temperature on a cavity of receiver otherwise the geometrical concentration of this model is
done by applying Equation (2) in order to get the optimum design of the receiver , heat
losses of the receiver should be minimizes, since convection and radiation losses are
normally significant compared to conduction loss, convection and radiation heat transfer
from the receiver to the surrounding should be carefully investigated. On the other hand, it
is difficult to find simple method for predicate surrounding. Since the major concern for most
of the studies. is the convection and radiation are losses approximated by a simple equation
if the operating temperature is low, however , the convection losses are also relatively low to
high temperature. It is found that the magnitude and the direction of the wind can greatly
affect the amount the heat loss .The heat loss became higher in the case of wind parallel to
the aperture plane than that of the case of the headon wind In this of work. The cylindrical
receiver was chosen because ,it has a small area facing the aperture window which lead to
minimize the reflection losses . We have used alpha type Stirling engine at the receiver point of
our parabolic reflector. For circulating secondary fluid we have made a secondary receiver for
external circulation of hot water around the receiver of Stirling focus point. In order to minimize
heat losses the surface of external coil is covered with thick black paint. Thus ,this type of

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receiver design give more chance to absorb the internal reflected photons. The dimensions
of conical cavity are (200 )mm depth and (170)mm a aperture diameter .the length of the
coil (4m) consisting of (13) windings of reduced diameter serially, with tube diameter of
(12.5) mm.
Otherwise study the temperature with time for receiver inlet and outlet and ambient, in
clear day where ambient temperature semi constant and inlet ,outlet temperature increasing
with the time the aperture diameter of the cylindrical receiver is chosen according to the
diameter of the focus of the dish. Two thermocouples of k-type were used for measuring
in inlet and outlet temperature of the heat transfer fluid(HTF).

Figure 8.3 Fabricated Gamma Type Stirling Engine

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9 PROJECT INNOVATION
High temperature can be achieved by concentrating solar radiation. Using concentrating systems
solar power plants produce electric power by converting the sun's heat energy into mechanical
energy via EC heat engines. A dish/engine system uses a reflective surface dish (similar to a very
large satellite dish).The dish-shaped surface collects and concentrates the sun's heat onto a
receiver, which absorbs the heat and transfers it to fluid within the engine. The heat causes the
fluid to expand against a piston or displacer to produce mechanical power. The continuous
expansion and contraction of working fluid helps in producing output work to rotating shaft. The
mechanical power is then used to run a generator or alternator to produce electricity by an electric
generator or alternator.
In our project we basically tried to concentrate solar energy by using aluminum foil type parabolic
dish collector on a gamma stirling engine. We have tried to implement this technology on small
scale for the first 50 W electricity and we have tried to run it on hybrid mechanism.

9.1 Hybrid Mechanism:


Hybrid mechanism mean we have tried to run our prototype model on sun heat as well as we have
circulated cooking oil along the periphery of receiver. So by using multi source heat input our
project proved to be very effective. Currently, most of the solar thermal power are plants are
"hybrid" meaning they use fossil fuel to supplement the solar output during periods of low solar
radiation. At night there is no sun meaning no solar radiation and CSPs cant produce electricity
in the absence of solar radiation so to produce electricity at night they either use thermal storage
in the form of high heat capacity fluids like molten salts or they simply use fossil fuels to produce
electricity.
In our project we have basically combined two technologies, concentrated dish engine system and
parabolic trough to increase the output of the Dish Engine System project. The Dish Engine System
produces electricity by simply focusing a hotspot i.e the receiver of the stirling engine. We have
used cooking fluid heated by parabolic trough as it passes through the pipe mounted in the central
region of the trough. The hot fluid is then passed by means of a pump through the coil mounted
on the outer periphery of the receiver. This hot fluid passing through the coil further heats the
receiver which is already being heated by the aluminium foil coated dish. So in this way we
basically use two concentrators to increase the output of the system. The output of the system can
be incredibly increased if we use nano fluids instead of cooking fluids. Because of high heat
capacity of nano fluids remarkable results can be achieved. But nano fluids use was not feasible
for our project due to economic constraints. Care should be taken not mount the coil on outer
periphery of the receiver when no hot fluid is passing through it because it acts as a heat and tends
to lower the output.
We have also included a battery storage mechanism which charges during the day and can be
utilized to provide electricity when there is no sun around.

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All the work which has done on solar concentrators is based upon single heat source but we are
utilizing two sources at the same time which are:
(i) Heat Energy from Sun
(ii) Heat energy from cooking fluid (hot water) which can be used as a secondary
for night timings. Also it helps in improving efficiency of solar system.

source

9.2 Why Solar Generator:


Due to ongoing energy crises in Pakistan and sky high oil prices, it is the need of the hour
that we implement a change over in our energy system and turn our attention to
renewable sustainable sources of energy.
In UET Taxila, previously work has been done on stirling engine and parabolic trough, in
our project we have combined both the technologies.
Generating electricity through solar power using PV cells has already been done in UET
Taxila so this project is aimed at the use of concentrating solar technology for power
generation.
Our project is multipurpose and can be used as solar evaporator, cooker etc.
The dish-Stirling system works at higher efficiencies than any other current solar
technologies, with a net solar-to-electric conversion efficiency reaching 30%.
One of the systems advantages is that it is somewhat modular, and the size of the
facility can be ramped up over a period of time.
That is compared to a traditional power plant or other large-scale solar technologies that
have to be completely built before they are operational.

9.3 Aim of Our Project:


In order to satisfy the rising energy demands of global consumption, a new cleaner and renewable
power source needs to be explored, conceptualized, and developed. Solar energy is a free and clean
energy resource which can be used to generate power without damage to humans or the local
ecosystems. To efficiently capture this solar energy as a feasible power source, a Stirling engine
is developed and will use sunlight as a source via a solar concentrator. This project intends to
utilize methods of gathering solar energy that have not yet been commercially implemented,
and modifications to the external heating of the receiver will be made in order to maximize
the efficiency of solar Stirling engines via hybrid mechanism. These modified solar Dish
Stirling engines can produce power for a wide variety of applications. The nature of the engine
allows for both the scalability to create a solar farm as well as use for producing power in remote
areas and disaster relief. Concentrating solar power (CSP) is a unique renewable energy
technology. CSP systems have the ability to provide electricity, refrigeration and water purification

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in one unit. This technology will be extremely helpful in improving the quality of life for many
people around the world who lack the energy needed to live a healthy life.

9.4 Research & Development/Constraints:


First of all we tried to use multi mirror collectors but desired temperature to run our
gamma stirling was not achieved so we have changed our collector design.
In our final design we have implemented single dish collector covered with aluminium
foil to make it cost effective as well as handling is easier because of weight reduction.
Following Figure Represents our very first design.

Figure 9.1 Multi Mirror Collectors

Few difficulties which we have faced during development of our project are as follows
When we have tried to implement hybrid technology by using coil with concentrator point
section this coil act as a extended surface so convection heat loss took place. Due to heat
loss by extended surface heat transfer by secondary fluid is not proved very effective on
this scale.
If we will try to implement this research on large scale solar power plants by using
secondary fluid as a liquid having high thermal heat capacity like cooking oil or nano fluids
then this research will prove to be very effective. Typical efficiency of solar dish stirling
unit is 30% approx. But by implementing secondary source mechanism we can minimize
exergetic loss and efficiency can increase up to 40%.

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The major constraint of Stirling engines is the ability to generate enough heat on the hot
end while cooling the cold end in order to produce the necessary change in
temperature so that power generation in feasible. Therefore, the main constraint of this
design is its ability to concentrate enough sunlight on the hot end while chilling the cold
end.
The amount of sunlight that can be concentrated is dependent on a few factors, some of
which can be controlled by the design and some of which are outside of the
engineering design scope. Such factors that are outside of our control are the position of
the engine relative to the Earth and the climate of that region. However, these
environmental factors can be improved by ensuring that there is no aerial coverage near
the engine such as trees and buildings so that the solar concentrator can optimize the solar
rays in that region. Due to the constraints of the sunlight in the operating region, the most
important consideration when conceptualizing the engine is the optimization of the solar
concentrator.
In the event of low solar heat throughout the day, season, or location, the efficiency of the
engine could be optimized by the following factors which work to counteract the loss due
to the availability of the sun.
The efficiency of the engine can be improved significantly by selecting effective
extended finned surfaces to assist in the heat dissipation from the cold end. This
will cause the cold end temperature to be significantly lower than the heat on the hot end
and increase the change in temperature. Another way to increase efficiency is to select a
working fluid within the cylinder which can adequately transfer heat.
The Stirling engine will be a gamma configuration with a power capacity equal to the
amount the solar collector harvests at peak hours of the day. This power capacity will be
achieved via the use of a solar concentrator large enough to supply the hot end
with sufficient heat and by generating a cold end which can efficiently dissipate heat into
the atmosphere or working fluid in order to produce the needed change in temperature
to create the volume changes in the cylinder. The efficiency of the engine can be maximized
by selecting appropriate fins and extended surfaces as well as accurately focusing
sunlight on the hot end.
Other important consideration when designing a solar Stirling engine is to take into
account the locations of where the engine will be placed, since the sunlight reaching the
engine is dependent on its location on the globe. Along the same lines, allotting
adequate space without coverage from trees and building so that the sunlight reaching the
engine is not blocked.

9.5 Experimental Setup:


The experimental setup consists of following components:
9.5.1 Coil:
The coil is used to circulate hot fluid on the outer periphery of the receiver.

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Figure 9.2 Coil for Circulating Hot Fluid (Hybrid


Mechanism)

9.5.2 Temperature Sensor:


The Temperature sensor is used to measure the temperature of the hotspot on the receiver as well
as the outside ambient temperature. It is a non-contacting temperature sensor.

Figure 9.3 Temperature Sensor

9.5.3 The Battery:


The battery is used as storage mechanism to store electricity and provide it during the night. It is
12 V battery.

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Figure 9.4 Battery

9.5.4 Charge Controller:


A charge controller, charge regulator or battery regulator limits the rate at which electric
current is added to or drawn from electric batteries. It prevents overcharging and may protect
against overvoltage, which can reduce battery performance or lifespan, and may pose a safety risk.
It may also prevent completely draining ("deep discharging") a battery, or perform controlled
discharges, depending on the battery technology, to protect battery life.

Figure 9.5 Charge Controller

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9.5.5 Primary Dish Engine System Setup:


The project setup is the primary electricity generating mechanism. A generator is attached with it
to produce electricity.

Figure 9.6 The Project Setup

9.5.6 Hybrid Setup:


The parabolic trough is used to supply the heated fluid to the receiver forming the hybrid unit of
the project.

Figure 9.7 Parabolic Trough Setup

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Figure 9.8 Project Schematic

9.5.7 Results:

Figure 9.9 Relationship between Time of the day & Rpm

The results indicate that hybrid mechanism has increased the rpm at peak solar hour from 240
to 301.

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APPENDEX A
DETAILED ENGINEERING DRAWINGS OF ALL PARTS AND PRO-E
ANIMATIONS

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Figure 7 Parabolic Trough Animation on Pro-E

Figure 6 Dish Engine System Animation on Pro-E

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APPENDIX B
DEFLECTION ANALYSIS OF PARTS

The resulting deflection from the expected loading on the hot end of the engine. The
highest level of deflection is expected to be 11.7 m.

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The resulting deflection from the expected loading on the base of the displacer
piston. The highest level of deflection is expected to be 1.8 mm.

The resulting deflection from the expected loading on the body of engine. The
highest level of deflection is expected to be 3.0 mm

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The resulting deflection from the expected loading on displacer piston rod for the
engine. The highest level of deflection is expected to be 17 m

The resulting deflection from the expected loading on power piston rod for the
engine. The highest level of deflection is expected to be 26 m

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The resulting deflection from the expected loading on engine bolts/ linear
shaft. The highest level of deflection is expected to be 45 m

The resulting deflection from the expected loading on the crankshaft for the
engine. The highest level of deflection is expected to be 96 m

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CONCLUSION:
By utilizing hybrid mechanism we have witnessed an increase in rpm and hence the output. The
hybrid concentrated solar thermal power plants around the world use fossil fuels as their hybrid
mechanism. We have for the first time not only used a renewable hybrid source but also have
combined two technologies of Dish Concentrator and Parabolic Trough. The results obtained are
satisfactory. The rpm of the engine has increased from 240 to 300. The nature of this technology
allows for both the scalability to create a solar farm as well as use for producing power in remote
areas and disaster relief. As Pakistan is often struck with natural disasters like earthquakes, floods,
famine etc. so this technology can prove very vital. The operation Zrb-e-Azb going is on in North
Waziristan these days. This technology can be helpful in providing electricity to the displaced
inhabitants in this hot climate. Also Pakistan geography makes it one the best place to utilize solar
energy. This is the first dish stirling system to be ever made in UET Taxila and it could prove very
helpful in study the characteristics of this technology for future students. This could be one the
most important feat towards renewable energy technology and its significance in the university
and as a stepping stone for future students.

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University, No. 1, Ta-Shieh Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan R.O.C)
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Department of Engineering Thermodynamics, University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest, Splaiul Independentei,
313, 060042 Bucharest, Romania.
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DESIGN, FABRICATION AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SOLAR DISH STIRLING SYSTEM

[29] (Iskander Tlili, Youssef Timoumi, Sassi Ben Nasrallah, Laboratoire dEtude des Syste`mes Thermiques et
Energetiques Ecole Nationale dIngenieurs de Monastir, Rue Ibn El Jazzar, 5019 Monastir, Tunisie)
[30] (D.J. Shendage, S.B. Kedare, S.L. Bapat, Department of Energy Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of
Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400 076, India)
[31] (Chin-Hsiang Cheng, Ying-Ju Yu, Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, National Cheng Kung
University, No. 1, Ta-Shieh Road, Tainan, Taiwan 70101, R.O.C)
[32] (Weidong Huanga, Farong Huang, Peng Hu, Zeshao Chen, Department of Earth Chemistry and Environmental
Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026, China)
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of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026, China.
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Renovables, Universidad Autnoma de Baja California, Blvd. Benito Jurez y Calle de la Normal s/n, Mexicali,
Baja California 21280, Mxico
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P.O. Box 24506, 1399 Nicosia, Cyprus.
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Engineering, King Mongkuts University of Technology Thonburi, 91 Prachautit Road, Bangmod, Thungkru,
Bangkok 10140, Thailand.
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Box 20423, Nicosia 2152, Cyprus
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Received Technology, Trichirappalli 620015, India.
[39] Solar Stirling Engine for Remote power and Disaster Relief, Denisse Aranda, Kevin LaMott, Stephen Wood
[40] Final report on technical data, costs, and life cycle inventories of solar thermal power plants", New Energy
Externalities Developments for Sustainability, by NEEDS.
[41] Modeling and Analysis of a Hybrid Solar-Dish Brayton Engine, by Sara Ghaem Sigarchian, KTH School of
Industrial Engineering and Management.
[42] LOW-COST CONCENTRATING SOLAR COLLECTOR FOR STEAM GENERATION, by JOHN
DASCOMB, FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY

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