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2 Chemistry Matthew Di Meglio

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Metal and non-metal oxides!

identify oxides of non-metals whichact as acids and describe the
conditions under which they act as acids!
Acidic oxides are oxides of non-metals and dissolve in water to produce HO ions
and/or neutralise strong bases. eg. SO(g) + 2NaOH(aq) NaSO(aq) + HO(l)%
Basic oxides are oxides of metals and dissolve in water to produce OH ions and/or
neutralise strong acids. eg. CuO(s) + 2HCl(aq) CuCl(aq) + HO(l)%
Amphoteric oxides neutralise both strong acids and strong bases. These lie on the
boundary of the metal and non-metal sections of the periodic table. These include
oxides of Al, Zn, Sn, Pb, Sb.%
Neutral oxides include CO, NO, NO and do not react with acids or bases or form acids
or bases when dissolved in water.%
Note there is no need for it to dissolve in aqueous solution for an oxide to be acidic/
basic/amphoteric, this is why there is the and/or.%

analyse the position of these non-metals in the Periodic Table and

outline the relationship between position of elements in the Periodic
Table and acidity/basicity of oxides.!









16 17


Neutral H2O



Na Mg

Transition metals






Zr Nb Mo Tc









G Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As
Ru Rh

W Re Os



Ag Cd






Au Hg






Lower oxidation state oxides basic

Higher oxidation state oxides amphoteric or acidic

Basic oxide

Mostly amphoteric
oxides (depends on
oxidation state)

Amphoteric oxide

No oxides
has been

Acidic oxide
N Neutral oxides also occur
Figure 7.5
The periodic table shows that metallic oxides are mostly basic and that non-metallic
oxides are mostly acidic. The elements with amphoteric oxides lie between these
two groupings.


Basicity/acidity of oxides is similar to the

relative reactivity of metals/non metals.%
Basicity of oxides (of metals) increases
going down groups and decreases going
right along periods.%
Acidity of oxides (of non-metals) increases
going up groups and decreases going left
along periods.%


Le Chateliers principle!
of transition metal oxides

Le Chateliers
Chromium oxides
If a system at equilibrium
is disturbed, it will adjust to minimise the disturbance.%
MnO basic
MnO amphoteric
Equilibrium occurs when
the rate of the forward reaction equals the rate of the reverse
CrO acidic
Mn O strongly acidic
reaction. Thus a system is dynamic. %
CrO basic

Cr2O3 amphoteric


ric to acidic

identify factors which can affect the equilibrium in a reversible reaction!

of the oxides of Groups III, IV and V


eric to basic

eric to basic

ric to basic

(V) oxides pressure of a particular species (force the reaction in
concentration or gas
to remove the
NO added
CO acidic
N O neutral
or volume
on a reaction involving gases (force reaction in direction with
NO acidic


less moles of gas or with liquid
or solid)%
GeO amphoteric to slightly acidic
P O acidic
P O acidic in direction to absorb (endothermic) or release
(force reaction
SnO amphoteric
As O amphoteric
(exothermic) heat to counter
temperature change)%
As O amphoteric to acidic
PbO basic to amphoteric
Group (IV) oxides

PbO2 amphoteric


Sb2O3 amphoteric
Sb2O5 amphoteric to acidic
Bi2O3 basic
Bi2O5 amphoteric to acidic

es behave in different ways in different chemical environments so have more

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catalysts do not alter the position of a system already in equilibrium, however they can
reduce the time to reach equilibrium%
Be careful about what the question asks for - is it specific effect on the yield of a
species or the overall effect on the reaction direction?!

describe the solubility of carbon dioxide in water under various

conditions as an equilibrium process and explain in terms of Le
Chateliers principle!
1. CO(g) CO(aq)%
2. CO(aq) + HO(l) HCO(aq) (HCO is a covalent molecule)%
3. HCO(aq) + HO(l) HCO(aq) + HO(aq)%
4. HCO(aq) + HO(l) CO(aq) + HO(aq)%

an equilibrium shift to the left or right in any of the equations above leads to a change

in the concentration of the reactants and products in that reaction. This influences the
concentrations in the other three reactions causing the equilibrium in those reactions
to also shift to the left or right respectively.%
addition of acid (increased concentration of HO) shifts equilibrium to the left in
equations 3 and 4 above to remove added HO ions, and therefore results in a
decrease in dissolved carbon dioxide%
addition of base (reacts with and reduces the concentration of HO) shifts equilibrium
to the right in equations 3 and 4 above to form more HO ions to counter change,
and therefore leads to an increase in the concentration of dissolved carbon dioxide.%
addition of a soluble carbonate (increased concentration of CO) shifts equilibrium in
equation 4 above to the left and therefore results in a decrease in dissolved carbon
additions of cations which form insoluble carbonates such as Ca or Mg will remove
CO from equation 4 and thus force 1, 2, 3 to move to the right.%
The overall dissolution reaction is exothermic. Hence decreasing temperature will
force CO to dissolve (which releases heat countering the change) and increasing
temperature will force the reaction the other direction (to absorb the added heat).%

calculate volumes of gases given masses of some substances in

reactions, and calculate masses of substances given gaseous volumes,
in reactions involving gases at 0 C and 100kPa or 25 C and 100kPa!
Write a balanced equation for the equilibrium, use information given to calculate moles
of what is known, use equation to calculate moles of what is unknown with reasoning
using the stoichiometric coefficients of equation, hence calculate volume of gas or
mass using data sheet. Always write units, and think carefully about significant figures.
Can work entirely with volumes in the stoichiometric ratios since equal volumes of gas
contain the same number of molecules (avogadros law). Be careful about limiting
reagents. Think in terms of ratios: g/mol, L/mol, mol/L etc.%

identify data, plan and perform a first-hand investigation to decarbonate

soft drink and gather data to measure the mass changes involved and
calculate the volume of gas released at 25 C and 100kPa!
Remember: use past tense passive voice%

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1. The mass of an unopened can of soft drink, of an empty 500mL beaker and of a
100mL beaker filled with salt, was measured using an electronic balance.%
2. The can was opened and the drink poured into the 500mL beaker and allowed to
drip out.%
3. Salt was transferred from the 100mL beaker with a plastic spoon into the 500mL
beaker, and then the drink was stirred with a stirring rod, alternately until no more
bubbles were released.%
4. The mass of the 500mL beaker with flat soft drink and salt, of the 100mL beaker with
less salt was measured using an electronic balance%
5. The can was allowed to dry and then its mass was measured using an electronic
6. The mass of the soft drink with and without the dissolved CO was calculated and
then the volume of CO released was calculated%
By measuring the mass of the carbonated soft drink in its unopened can, instead of
opening the can and pouring it into a beaker on an electronic balance, the validity
(and accuracy and reliability) of the experiment is improved since such an opening
would immediately cause CO to escape by the change in total pressure of the
system, and hence the calculated amount of CO would not be the total amount of
CO which was evolved from the mixture, i.e. the method would not properly suit the
aim of the experiment.%
By using salt and a stirring rod to ensure all CO evolved from mixture, accuracy,
reliability and validity are all increased.%
Accuracy because if not all the CO was evolved, then the final volume of evolved
CO gas calculated would be biased to be less than the true amount of CO initially
dissolved in the soft drink.%
Reliability because without this procedure which ensures all the gas is evolved,
replication of the results would be difficult, on repetition of the experiment there
would be a randomness in the results due to sometimes more CO being evolved
than other times.%
Validity since if not all the CO is evolved, then the final calculated volume of CO
would not the volume of CO which was initially dissolved in the can and thus the
experimental method would not test the aim of the experiment.%
By ensuring that the empty soft drink can is completely dry before remeasuring its
mass, accuracy is increased since any amount of liquid left in the can would bias the
calculated mass of soft drink with dissolved carbon dioxide to be less than it was, and
hence the calculated amount of released carbon dioxide to be less than it was.%
If the mass of each spoon of salt added was measured separately and the total
amount salt added were calculated by adding them together, the error in the
individual measurements would be compounded by the addition. By measuring the
total amount of salt added in one go, the precision of measurements is increased.%

Sulfur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen:!

Oxides of nitrogen include NO (nitric oxide, nitrogen monoxide) NO (nitrogen dioxide)
and NO (nitrous oxide).%

identify natural and industrial sources of sulfur dioxide and oxides of

nitrogen and describe, using equations, examples of chemical reactions

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which release sulfur dioxide and chemical reactions which release

oxides of nitrogen!

Natural Sources

Geothermal hot springs

Industrial Sources

Power stations in combustion of coal containing



sulfur impurities:
S (in compound) + O(g) SO(g)%
Smelting of sulfide ores:
metal sulfide + O metal OR metal sulfide + SO
ie. 2ZnS(s) + 3O(g) 2ZnO(s) + 2SO(g)

Combustion in power stations%

Combustion in automobiles

In all cases: O(g) + N(g) 2NO(g) due to the high temperatures present
NO Produced by oxidation of NO in atmosphere: 2NO(g) + O(g) 2NO(g); hence it has all the
same natural and industrial sources of NO.
NO Bacteria in soil in the process of
nitrification and denitrification

Fertillisers in agriculture accelerate the natural

process of nitrification%

production of nylon%
burning of fossil fuel in internal combustion engines

assess the evidence which indicates increases in atmospheric

concentration of oxides of sulfur and nitrogen!
technology to accurately measure the atmospheric concentrations of such
substances, which exist in small concentrations on the order of 0.001ppm, has only
developed recently and thus there is not enough data to extrapolate trends.%
most evidence for such increases is indirect, such as the observation of the effects
of increased acid rain, ie. acidification of waterways and corrosion of foliage on
forest trees of limestone buildings and sculptures. Validity of such evidence is
questionable since such effects are not easily linked to increased atmospheric
concentrations of these gases as the cause.%
Whilst there is a clear increase in industrial production, this doesnt equate to
increase in atmospheric concentration since natural processes like rain regularly
clean the atmosphere of such pollution.%
On the other hand, Antarctic ice cores show significant recent increase in
atmospheric concentration of NO, most likely due to increased fertiliser use which
accelerates the nitrification of soil by bacteria.%
Evaluation: Hence there is little evidence of sufficient validity to support the claim that
atmospheric concentration of SO and NO and NO has increased, whilst there is
some reliable evidence to suggest that concentration of NO has increased.%

explain the formation and effects of acid rain!

In high atmospheric concentrations, NO&x and SO will dissolve in water droplets

in the atmosphere and washed out as acid rain%

For SO%

SO(g) + HO(l) HSO(aq) (sulfur dioxide dissolves to form sulfurous acid)%

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2HSO(aq) + O(g) 2 HSO(aq) (sulfurous acid is oxidised to sulfuric acid due

to impurities catalysing reaction)%

Similarly nitrogen dioxide dissolves to form nitrous acid, which in turn is oxidised to
nitric acid by catalyst impurities in air%
increases acidity of lakes which reduces the population of certain marine species
which cannot reproduce in acidified conditions. This in turn kills off populations
dependant on this marine life for food and resulting in an abundance of
populations which used to be eaten by this marine life. Such effects in turn are
amplified as they disrupt further along the food chain%
corrodes the surfaces of leaves of forests thus killing the trees which rely on their
leaves for photosynthesis and thus the production of glucose to burn for energy.
The death of trees has disastrous consequences for the ecosystems in forests
which rely on the trees for protection from sunlight and birds of prey and for food.%
destroys limestone buildings and sculptures%

Limestone is mostly CaCO%

HSO(aq) + CaCO(s) CaSO(aq) + CO(g) + HO(l)%
the sulfuric acid rain converts the calcium carbonate into calcium sulfate or
gypsum, a black crumbly soluble substance which is thus easily eroded by

analyse information from secondary sources to summarise the

industrial origins of sulfur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen and evaluate
reasons for concern about their release into the environment!
For industrial origins, see industrial sources column of table above.%
Reasons for concern:!
Reason for concern


Respiratory irritation SO and NO are respiratory irritants, particularly bad for asthmatics
and people with emphysema.
destruction of
buildings and
sculptures (acid

see above

Photochemical smog is a mixture of unburnt hydrocarbons, nitrogen

oxides, VOCs, derived from car exhaust, which can cause peoples
eyes to water and sting and also results in low visibility.

9.3.2 Chemistry Matthew Di Meglio

Reason for concern


production of ozone
at ground level by
smog (see Module

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Sunlight will cause nitrogen dioxide to decompose producing an

oxygen free radical which forms ozone with oxygen molecules:%

NO -sunlight NO + O%
O + O O%
However, in normal conditions ozone will react with nitric oxide to
reverse the reaction%
NO + O NO + O%
In photochemical smog, hydrocarbons in air, such as unburnt
petrol, catalyse conversion of NO and O in presence of sunlight to
This in turn means that by Le Chateliers principle, the forward rate
of production of ozone will be greater than the backward rate (by
concentration ratio of reactants and products) and atmospheric
ozone concentration will increase.%
Ozone is toxic to living beings causing breathing difficulties,
headaches and fatigue.

acidification of lakes see above

(acid rain)
destruction of plants see above
(acid rain)
destruction of
stratospheric ozone
(see Module 9.4.4)

In the atmosphere, the following reactions will occur, initiated by UV

NO + O NO + O%
NO + O NO + O%
O O + O%
The net effect is: O + O 2O%
Note this works the same as the way chlorofluorocarbons deplete
stratospheric ozone.%
Stratospheric ozone is needed to shield the earth from UV radiation
from the sun, the result of depletion is increased rates of skin cancer
in animals and humans due to mutations in cells caused by the UV

global warming

NO is a greenhouse gas with about 300x warming capacity of CO, a

problem since increased fertiliser usage for food production has lead
to 130% increase in its atmospheric concentration

Evaluation: there is significant cause for concern over the release of SO, NO, NO and
NO due to great human (respiratory problems, limestone buildings) and environmental
(global warming, ozone hole, haze, destruction of plants, acidification of lakes) impacts.