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Technical Report 5

Bearing Assembly
1. For each arrangement:- number the different parts and list the
names of the different parts (spacers, shafts, covers, washers,
flanges, etc)
The parts are numbered 1- 11 for arrangement under figure A (1).
11

9
2

R
A

1
6

12
10
7
Bearing A Tapered Roller Bearing; Bearing B CARB Bearing
1. Shaft
2. Taper Roller Bearings
3. CARB Bearings
4. Centering Flange(Spigot)
5. Screw (For Pre-loading)
6. Spacer
7. Shims
8. Ring Nut
9. Hole for Lubrication
10. Casing
11. Shims

The parts are numbered 1- 11 for arrangement under figure A (2).


6
9

12

Bearing C Tapered Roller Bearing; Bearing D Cylindrical Roller


Bearing
1. Shaft
2. Taper Roller Bearings
3. Cylindrical Roller Bearings
4. Centering Flange (Spigot)
5. Screw (For Pre-loading)
6. Spacer
7. Shims
8. Ring Nut
9. Hole for Lubrication
10. Casing
11. Shims
12. Spring for preload
2. For each bearing point out if it is locating or not locating
For figure A (1), the taper roller bearing (Bearing A) is in locating and
the CARB bearings (Bearing B) are non-locating. A locating bearing is
one which reacts to the external forces by taking in axial and radial forces
whereas a non-locating bearing is one which reacts to the external forces by
taking in only radial forces. There is some amount of axial displacement also
allowed in the current non-locating configuration. The same stands true for
Figure A (2) where the taper roller bearings (Bearings C) are locating
and the cylindrical roller bearing (Bearing D) are non-locating.

3.

Highlight if the bearing rings are mounted with shrink fit or with
slide fit and why;

For figure A (1), the inner ring of the bearings A and B are shrink fitted ( Red
Line) with the shaft in order to prevent any free motion in between the shaft
and the inner ring of the bearing. The outer ring for bearing A is slide fit
(green line) in order to allow motion in between the outer ring and the
housing during the pre-load action. The outer ring of bearing B is also slide fit
((green line)) in order to minimize assembling difficulties, but it can change
depending on the operational requirement.
For figure A (2), the inner ring of bearing C is slide fit in order to allow motion
in between the inner ring and the shaft during the pre-load action. The outer
ring for one pair (i.e. left bearing) of bearing C is also slide fit in order to take
the movement in between the outer ring and the housing as the result of the
spring action which helps in maintaining a constant pre-load at all time. The
other pair (i.e. right bearing) has an interference fit to prevent any sliding
motion. This further allows for the pre-load action to take place for this part of
the bearing pair. The bearing Ds both inner race and outer race are shrink
fitted.
4. Draw on the figure arrows indicating external axial loads and radial
loads
and
arrows
indicating the forces exerted by each bearing.
The forces are marked on the figure with the red arrows. For figure A (2), the
blue dotted arrow shows the constant spring force. The shaft forces are also
shown in blue.
5. describe the function of each separated part (covers, spacers,
springs)
Spacers: Spacers helps to maintain a constant distance in between the
bearings when they are being assembled onto the shaft. The help in locating
the bearing onto the shaft during assembly.
Spacers or shims help to maintain a minimum axial clearance between the
bearings when they are mounted. This also helps to cope with the
temperature differential between the shaft and the casing. They are further
assembled in such a way that the right amount of pre-load is achieved during
adjustment.
Springs: Springs are used to provide a pre-load force to the inner or the
outer race or both. The preload force remains practically constant even when
there is axial displacement of the bearing as a result of thermal expansion.
Covers: Covers are provided to protect bearing arrangements at the ends of
shafts and to avoid accident risks with free shaft ends. In certain cases, the
ring nuts used for pre-load are accessed through the cover.

6. Compare the two solutions proposed for each Figure highlighting the
differences
and
advantages of one with respect to the other;
a. The use of CARB bearings in solution A (1) helps take in angular
misalignments caused by off-centre point of action of the tooth forces with
no reduction in life. Another advantage is that it does not require the
flanges to exactly parallel during mounting. This is not true in the case of
cylindrical roller bearing used in figure solution A (2).
b. The tapered roller bearings in solution A (2) are always under load
irrespective of the direction of the load. As a result, this arrangement is
less sensitive to vibrations. This is not true for the case in figure A (1)
since one roller is always completely unloaded depending on the direction
of the load. Hence, these are more sensitive to vibrations.
c. Solution A (2) proposes some mounting difficulties and is more complex
compared to Solution A (1). Outer ring of one of the tapered roller bearing
are shrink fitted to the flange. As a result it required heating of the flange.
Another problem is that the there is no intermediate ring between the
taper roller bearings which have to be adjusted on mounting. The radially
free outer ring of the taper roller bearing at the cover side is prevented
from
turning by an O-ring.

1. For each arrangement:- number the different parts and list the
names of the different parts (spacers, shafts, covers, washers,
flanges, etc)

Bearing A Tapered Roller Bearing; Bearing B Tapered Roller


Bearing (FF arrangement)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Shaft
Tapered Roller Bearing
Casing
Cover
Shims

One of the bearing pair takes


the load depending on the
direction

Bearing A Tapered Roller Bearing; Bearing B Tapered Roller


Bearing (FF arrangement)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
2. For each bearing point out if it is locating or not locating.
Solution B (1) consists of taper roller bearings. Both the bearings are locating
since both types can take axial and radial loads in response to the external
load.
Solution B (2) consists of paired angular contact bearing at one end which is
of locating type since it can take both the radial as well as the axial load. The
cylindrical roller bearing on the other end is of non-locating type owing to its
capacity to take only radial loads.

3. Highlight if the bearing rings are mounted with shrink fit or with
slide fit and why;
For solution B (1), the inner ring is interference fit and the outer ring is slide
fit to allow for the preload adjustments.
4. Draw on the figure arrows indicating external axial loads and radial
loads
and
arrows
indicating the forces exerted by each bearing.
The forces on the bearing are indicated in the draw with the help of red
arrows and external forces from the shaft to bearing are indicated with the
help of blue arrows.
5. Describe the function of each separated part (covers, spacers,
springs).
a. Covers: In solution B (1), the left tapered roller bearing is adjusted by the
cover in order to give adequate preload.
b. Spacers: Not Used.
c. Springs: Not used.
6. Compare the two solutions proposed for each Figure highlighting the
differences
and
advantages of one with respect to the other;
a. Solution B (1) consists of both the bearings as tapered roller bearings. As
a result, care must be taken while performing the adjustment since they
are very sensitive to excessive preload which will lead to failure of the
bearings.
b. The bearings used under solution B (2) are paired angular contact
bearings which in this configuration have a higher load carrying capacity
than the single row tapered roller bearings in solution B (1). Another
advantage is related to the fact that since these bearings are in pairs,
individual adjustment is not required. This solution is comparatively
expensive when compared to solution B (1).