Sei sulla pagina 1di 382

Office of Air Quality

United States
Environmental Protection Planning and Standards
Research Triangle Park NC 27711
Agency

EPA453/R-93-050a
October 1993

Air

&EPA

Pulp, Paper, and Paperboard


Industry - Background
Information for Proposed
Air Emission Standards
Manufacturing Processes at
Kraft, Sulfite, Soda, and
Semi-Chemical Mills

EPA-453/R-930050a

Pulp, Paper, and Paperboard IndustryBackground Information for


Proposed Air Emission Standards

Manufacturing Processes at
Kraft, Sulfite, Soda, and Se&-Chemical

Emission

Standards

Division

U.S. ENVIRONMEMAL PROTECTIONAGENCY


Offm of Air and Radiation
Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards
Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711
October 1993

Mills

This report has been reviewed by the Emission Standards Division


of the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, EPA, and
approved for publication. Mention of trade names or commercial
products is not intended to constitute endorsement or
Copies of this report are available
recommendation for use.
through the Library Services Office (MD-351, U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park NC 27711, (919) 5412777, or from National Technical Information Services, 5285 Port
Royal Road, Springfield VA 22161, (703) 487-4650.

ii

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGmCY


Background
Ipfonuation
and Draft
Environmental
Impact Statement
Industry
for Pulp, Paper, and Paperboard
.'

Prepared by:
J

/o/ZLh

&eJ&

(Date)

an
Director, 2 mission Standards Division
u. s. Environmental Protection Agency
Research Triangle Park, NC 27711
Bfke

1.

2.

C. Jo

National emission standards for hazardous air pollutants


(NESHAP) are being proposed for the pulp and paper industry
,
under authority of Section 112(d) of the Clean Air Act as
amenlded in 1990. The proposed NESHAP requires controls for
hazardous air pollutant emissions from wood pulping and
bleaching processes. at pulp mills and integrated mills
(i.e., mills that combine on-site production of both pulp
and paper).
Copies of this document have been sent to the following
Federal Departments: Labor, Health and Human Services,
Defense, Transportation, Agriculture, Commerce, Interior,
and Energy; the National Science Foundation; the Council on
'Environmental Quality; members of the State Territorial Air
Pollution Program Administrators; the Association,of Local
Air Pollution Control Officials; EPA Regional
Administrators; and other interested parties.

3.

The comment period for review of this document is 90 days


from the date of publication of the proposed standard in the
Federal Resister. Mr. Stephen Shedd may be contacted at
(919) 541-5397 regarding the date of the comment period.

4.

For additional information contact:


Mr. Stephen Shedd
Chemicals and Petroleum Branch
U. S. Environmental Protection Agency
Research Triangle Park, North Carolina
(919) 541-5397
Telephone:

5.

27711

Copies of this document may be obtained from:


U. S. EPA Library (MD-35)
Research Triangle Park, North Carolina
(919) 541-2777
Telephone:
.
National Technical Information Service
5285 Port Royal Road
Springfield, Virginia 22161
(703) 487-4650
Telephone:

27711

TABLE

OF CONTENTS-

Section

1.0

2.0

3..0

INTRODUCTION

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.1

SCOPE

1.2

DOCUMENT

PROCESS

OF THE

BACKGROUND

ORGANIZATION

DESCRIPTIONS

AND

INFORMATION

l-2

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

l-4

EMISSIONS

DOCUMENT

l-l

ESTIMATES

. . . .

2-l

2.1

INDUSTRY CHARACTERIZATION
. : .........
2.1.1
Pulp Production
............
2.1.2
Paper Production
............

2.2

PROCESSES
AND THEIR EMISSION POINTS ......
2.2.1
The Pulping Process
..........
2.2.2
The Bleaching Process
.........

2-5
2-5
2-22

2.3

BASELINE
EMISSIONS
..........
2.3.1
Summary of Feierai Reguiakon:
2.3.2
Summary of State Regulations
......
2.3.3
Baseline Emission Controls
.......
2.3.4
Baseline Emissions
............

2-30
2-31'
2-31
2-34
2-38

2.4

REFERENCES

2-40

EMISSION

CONTROL

TECHNIQUES

. . . . . . . . . -. . .

INTRODUCTION

3.2

APPLICABLE
CONTROL TECHNIQUES
FOR VENTS
3.2.1
Vent Gas Collection
and Transport
System . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.2
Applicable
Vent Control Devices'

3.4

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3-l

3-l

. .

3-3

. .
. .

.
.

.
.

3-6
3-9

APPLICABLE
CONTROL TECHNIQUES
FOR
WASTEWATER
EMISSION POINTS
. . . .
3.3.1
Wastewater
Collection
!&em
. .
3.3.2
Steam Stripper with Vent Con&oi
. .
3.3.3
Air Stripper with Vent Control
. . .

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

3-21
3-21
3-21
3-26

REFERENCES

3-27

M.ODEL PROCESS
ENVIRONMENTAL
4.1

2-l
2-l
2-3

..................

3.1

3.3

4.0

Paae

MODEL
4.1.1
4.1.2

: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

UNITS, CONTROL OPTIONS, AND


IMPACTS
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4-l

PROCESS UNITS .
. . . . . . . . .
Pulping Model Proceis*Units
. .
. .
Bleaching Model Process Units' . . J . .

4-l
4-2
4-6

iii

TABLE

OF CONTENTS

(Continued)

Section

Pace
4.1.3

5.0

6.0

Use of Model Process Units


National Emissions
.......

4.2

CONTROL

4.3

ENVIRONMENTAL
IMPACTS
4.3.1
Air Impacts
4.3.2
Energy Impact:
4.3.3
Water Impacts
4.3.4
Other Impacts

4.4

REFERENCES

ESTIMATED

OPTIONS

in Estimating
.-. . .

..............

4-8

4-9

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

4-11
4-12
4-17
4-20
4-20

4-21

5-l

COSTS
..........
.
Enclosure'&&
...
.
Ductwork and Conv~y&e'C&'
. .
Thermal Incineration
System Co&
. .
Scrubber System Costs
.......
.
Steam Stripping Costs
.......
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

5-l
5-3
5-4
5-7
5-12
5-18

5-21

5-34

6-l

................

CONTROL

5.1

CONTROL
5.1.1
5.1.2
5.1.3
5.1.4
5.1.5

5.2

CONTROL

5.3

REFERENCES

COSTS

OPTIONS

DATABASE. SYSTEM

...........
...........
...........
...........
...........

.............

COSTS

...........

................
FOR ESTIMATING

INPUTS

NATIONAL

IMPACTS

6.1

DATA

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6-l

6.2

CALCULATION
OF NATIONAL EMISSIONS
AND
CONTROL IMPACTS . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6-3

6.3

GENERATION

. . .

6-4

6.4

REFERENCES

. . . . . . . . .

6-5

A-l

B-l

..

C-l

OF SUMMARY

OUTPUT

. . . . :.

APPENDIX

.................

APPENDIX

.........

APPENDIX

......

FILES

.' .......
0'. .........

iv

LIST

OF TABLES

Table

2-l

2-2

2-3

DISTRIBUTION
PROCESSES

OF CHEMICAL AND SEMI-CHEMICAL


PULP
IN THE UNITED STATES . . . . . . :.

MAJOR HAZARDOUS
AIR POLLUTANTS
POINTS......................

EMITTED

FROM

. .

2-4

PROCESS
2-6

TYPICAL VENT AND WASTEWATER


STREAM CHARACTERISTICS
FOR KRAFT PULPING EMISSION POINTS
. . . . . -. . .

2-10

2-4

TYPICAL UNCONTROLLED
EMISSION FACTORS FOR KRAFT
PULPING
FACILITIES
. . . . . v . . . . . . . . . 2-11

2-5

COMPARISON
OF COMMON CHEMICALS
USED IN PULP
BLEACHING
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-23

2-6

MOST

. . . . . . . . .

2-26

2-7

TYPICAL VENT AND WASTEWATER


STREAM CHARACTERISTICS
FOR KRAFT BLEACH PLANT EMISSION POINTS . . . . . .

2-27

COMMON

KRAFT

BLEACH

SEQUENCES

2-8

SUMMARY OF TYPICAL
FOR KRAFT BLEACH

UNCONTROLLED
EMISSION
FACTORS
PLANT FACILITIES
. . . . . . . . 2-28

2-9

SUMMARY OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS


FROM KRAFT PULPING FACILITIES

(NSPS) FOR EMISSIONS


. . . . . . . . . .

2-32

2-10

SUMMARY OF STATE REGULATIONS


FOR EMISSIONS
FROM
PULPING
FACILITIES
. . . . . . . . . . . . . f . . 2-33

2-11

SUMMARY OF EXISTING TECHNIQUES


TO CONTROL
HAP EMISSIONS
FROM PULPING VENT SOURCES

2-12

SUMMARY OF EXISTING TECHNIQUES


TO CONTROL
HAP EMISSIONS
FROM BLEACH VENT SOURCES
. . . . . . 2-36

2-13

SUMMARY OF ADD-ON CONTROL STATUS OF WASTEWATER


EMISSION
SOURCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-37

2-14

SUMMARY OF ESTIMATED NATIONAL BASELINE EMISSIONS


FROM CHEMICAL AND SEMI-CHEMICAL
PULPING AND
BLEACHING
OPERPiTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2-39

PULPING
PROCESS MODIFICATIONS
AND BLEACHING
PROCESS
SUBSTITUTIONS
. . . . . . . .. . . . . . .

3-2

PERCENT OF KRAFT MILLS USING COMBUSTION


CONTROL
DEVICES
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3-4

3-l

3-2

. . . . . 2-35

LIST OF TABLES

(.Continued)

Paae

Table

3-3

TYPICAL VENT CHARACTERISTICS


FOR KRAFT PULPING
EMISSION
POINTS
. . . . . . . . . . . . . : . .

3-4

SCRUBBER

3-5

STEAM

. . . . . . .

3-25

4-l

PULPING PROCESS CHARACTERISTICS


AFFECTING
EMISSIONS
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4-3

4-2

PULPING

. . . . . . . . . . .

4-4

4-3

BLEACHING

. . . . . . . . . .

4-7

4-4

SELECTED
CONTROL OPTIONS AND CONTROL TECHNOLOGYEFFICIENCY
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4-10

4-5

UNCONTROLLED

. .

4-13

4-6

PRIMARY

AIR

. . . . .

4-14

4-7

EXAMPLE

MILL

SECONDARY

4-8

EXAMPLE

MILL

ENERGY

5-l

ELEMENTS
INCLUDED IN CONTROL
FOR VARIOUS POINTS/DEVICES

5-2

5-3

REDUCTION

STRIPPER

MODEL

ESTIMATES

REMOVAL

PROCESS

MODEL

EFFICIENCIES

UNITS

PROCESS

EMISSIONS
IMPACTS

. . . . . . . . . . .

3-5

UNITS

FOR AN EXAMPLE

FOR AN EXAMPLE

MILL

AIR POLLUTION

IMPACTS

FACILITY

IMPACTS

3-20

. . .

4-16

. . . . . . . . . . .

4-19

COST CALCULATIONS
. . . . . . . . . . .

5-2

DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS
FOR VENTING
COMBUSTION
DEVICE . . . . . . . . .

5-5

THERMAL
INCINERATOR
GENERAL DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS
FOR HALOGENATED
VENT STREAMS . . . . . . . . . . .

5-8

DUCTWORK
GENERAL
TO AN EXISTING

DESIGN PARAMETERS
SCRUBBER
SYSTEM

FOR POST INCINERATION


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5-14

5-5

DESIGN

FOR STAND-ALONE

5-16

5-6

STAINLESS

5-7

SUMMARY OF COSTS FOR CONTROL OPTIONS FOR AN


EXAMPLE
FACILITY
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5-23

COST FOR MODEL MILL PULPING VENTS NOT REQUIRING


ENCLOSURES
USING AN EXISTING COMBUSTION
DEVICE

5-25

5-4

5-8

PARAMETERS
STEEL

COST

FACTORS

vi

SCRUBBER

SYSTEM

. . . . . . . . . . .

. .

5-22

LIST

Table

OF TABLES

(Continued)
Pacre

5-9

COSTS FOR MODEL MILL PULPING VENTS REQUIRING


ENCLOSURES
(FUGITIVE SOURCES) USING AN EXISTING
COMBUSTION
DEVICE
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-26

5-10

COSTS FOR CONTROL OF MODEL MILL BLEACHING


VENT
STREAMS USING A STAND-ALONE
SCRUBBER
. . . . . . . 5-27

5-11

COSTS FOR CONTROL OF MODEL MILL BLEACHING


VENT
STREAMS USING AN INCINERATOR
FOLLOWED BY
A SCRUBBER.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 . . 5-28

5-12

COST FOR CONTROL OF MODEL MILL PULPING WASTEWATER


STREAMS USING A STEAM STRIPPER
. . . . . . . . . . 5-30

5-13

COMPARISON
OF TOTAL CAPITAL INVESTMENT
(TCI) AND
TOTAL ANNUAL COST (TAC) FOR MODEL MILLS WITH
VARYING
CAPACITIES
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-33

LIST OF FIGURES

I
Figure

Page

Segment of pulp and paper industry discussed


in this document
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

l-3

2-l

Percentage

. .

2-2

2-2

Breakdown
pulping

of emission points in typical kraft.


and bleaching processes
. . . . . . . . .

2-7

Typical kraft process with chemical recovery


practices
. . . . . . . . . . . . . '. . . . . . . .

2-9

l-1

2-3

2-4

2-5

of wood

pulp

produced

Typical
sulfite pulping process
recovery.....................

by each

process

practicing

chemical
2-18

Typical neutral sulfite semi-chemical


pulping
process
. . . . . . . . . . . . . *.
. . . . . .

2-6

Typical

down-flow

3-l

Discrete

burner,

3-2

Packed

3-3

Continuous

4.-l

Example

6-l

National

tower

bleach
thermal

absorption

integrated

air

pollution

impacts

tower

and washer

incinerator
process

steam

estimation

viii

. . 2-24

. . . . . . . .

3-14

. . . . . . . . . .

3-18

stripper

impacts

. . :

2-20

system

. . . .

3-23

. . . . . . . . . . . 4-18

process

. . . . . . . .

6-2

1.0

National
(NESHAP)
under

emission

are

under

authority

amended

This

developed

efforts

used

limitations

is in separate

include

air

emission

options

considered

factors

for establishing

as
(BID)

in the
Effluent
are being

Water

Act.

The U. S.
is coordinating
these
for the air and

industry.

of effluent

documents.

impact

used

mills

and paper

for the development

Air Act

NESHAP.

and paper

(EPA)

industry

document

decision-making

for the pulp

information

Clean

and paper

the Clean

integrated

regulations

and paper

and analyses

Agency

air pollutants

information

pulp

under

Protection

to produce

of the

background

for pulp

concurrently

Environmental

for the pulp

information

limitations

for hazardous

112(d)

of the proposed

guidelines

water

of Section

technical

development

standards

development

in 1990.

provides

INTRODUCTION

Technical
guidelines

However,
this BID does
for the process technology
effluent

guidelines

limitations.
The
review
joint
.draft

EPA has

and
air

the technical

and water

regulations.

considered

provided

were

emission

modify

at the public

factors,

the

this

accurate

conclusions

proposed

approach

rule
proposal

meetings

to

to developing

these

An April 1994 preliminary


was revie.wed by the public.
All of the

incorporated

is technically

documented

of public

on the preliminary

in revising

corrections

the

document

received

information

BID

a number

discuss

of this

comments

conducted

meetings,

into

analyses

were

to

reviewed

Comments and
the BID to ensure

the control

costs,

is based.

in addition

and

document.

and describes

about

control

draft,

were
l-l

the

the Agency's
technologies,

and other

Comments

that

impacts

and data

considered

upon

received

and

which
that

evaluated

to

determine

the

impact

on proposal,

incorporated

into

The

continue

EPA will

the proposal's

with

rule,

and all comments


final

SCOPE

1.1

The

public

OF THE

on-site

mills

would

typically

classification

the

document.

Detailed

2611

consists

paper

products,

mills

use

a variety

types

of pulping

not

Chemical
focus

processes

are not

included.

As shown

in Figure

processes
and

chemical

operations

are

discussed

separate

spent

recovery

recovery

include
cooking

operations

and

the production
is not

1-r

in this
of paper

included

in

of the industry,

pulp

from

recycled

to separate
Pulp mills

to pulp wood.

into

common

in this

will
The

the pulping

process

of wood

(not included
l-2

BID;

be evaluated

and pulp

integrated

three

main
and

of the three

pulping
pulping

and semi-chemical

Air emissions

in detail

process

Mechanical

two groups:

recovery.

and

The

and semi-chemical
BID.

the

semi-chemical,

is the most

l-l, chemical

liquor,

Figure

industry

segment

chips.

of this

documents.

Such

and paper).

discussed

mills)

are divided

operations

weak

and paper

about

(mills

included.

pulping

are the

mills

industrial

are chemical,

processes

and

respectively.

industry

of methods

processes.

BID

standard

is designed

processes

pulping

of both pulp

fibers

in the wood

Chemical

wood

that manufacture

process

fibers

in this

development

and integrated

and 2621,

secondary

is also

cellulose

in

mills

of the

of mills

pulping

mechanical.

covers

information

The

which

date

DOCUMENT

or non-integrated

document.

chemical

on the proposed

INFORMATION

of the pulp

segment

(at integrated

the

and data,

in the

fall under

codes

identifies

pulping

document.

comments

be considered

production

an overview

pulping

not

or this

received

document

at pulp

combine

The

will

of this

that

this

comments

BACKGROUND

processes

provides

those

were

NESHAP.

scope

bleaching

analyses

to evaluate

along

of the

other

but they

bleaching.

in this

process
from process
emissions

from

at a later

operations

chips,

covered

evaporation
Chemical

document)

include

of

Pulp and Paper


lndurtry

Pulp Production
(Pulp Mill#
and Integrated Mill8)
I
4

PulP
PrOdWtiOn

PW@r
Produotion

I
I
I
I- -

II

II
I

Process
Operationa

Pulping

Chamlod
Reoowry

I
1

-II

I
-1

Blaaohing

I
. I.
J

L--w-m---

Note: Aotivklrs within the dashed liner


are disouared in this document.

Figure l-1.

Segment of Pulp and Paper Industry Discussed in This Document.

the

equipment

strong

spent

The

RAP

emissions,

national

environmental

DOCUMENT

from

the

the Agency's
(HAP)

technologies

and the costs

and cost

available

and other

Regulatory
impacts

emissions

will

to

impacts

alternatives

from

of
and the

be presented

in

ORGANIZATION
2.0 presents

estimated

units

are

that

on the

were

discussed

bleaching
impacts

vents
are

emissions

shown

from

paper

industry

gives

a brief

environmental

industry

discussed

Development
(Appendix

A),

(Appendix

4.0.

emission
in Chapter

of the data
and cost

base

impacts

The

appendices

Emission

Estimates

above.
Air

regulatory
4.0,

along

process
impacts

with

from pulping and


Example environmental
streams.

in Chapter

are discussed

national

The model

RAP emissions

the various

overview

(Appendix

in Chapter

and wastewater

also

the

points,

Control

3.0.

to estimate

and paper

air emission

emissions.

in Chapter

are discussed

for controlling

of the pulp

descriptions,

baseline

developed

industry

options

an overview

process

national

technologies

Data

air pollutant

technologies.

including

industry,

RAP

chemicals

EPA documents.

Chapter

and

cooking

is to document

the demonstrated

these

1.2

BID

hazardous

applying

other

the

liquor.

of this

about

industry,

control

to recover

cooking

purpose

conclusions
this

used

B), and Model

C).

l-4

Costs

for controlling

points

in the pulp
Chapter 6.0

5.0.

developed

to

for the pulp

Process

include

Units

estimate

and paper

Field

and Emission

and

Test
Factors

PROCESS

2.0

This

chapter

DESCRIPTIONS

presents

industry,

focusing

processes

used

character

and distribution

United
emission

2.1

CHARACTERIZATION

The

and paper

pulp

manufacture

pulp,

Converting

(e.g.,

United

they

sulfite)

and paper

mills

the

in the
and their

2.3 describes

baseline

emissions.

and boxes)

pulp

one type

pulp

pulps

process

and a mechanical

(chemical,

of paperboard

using

there

semi-chemical,

or

and paper

industry.

of Water

facilities

in the

facilities

process;

a chemical

for example,

(e.g.,

kraftor

or semi-chemical

are 253 wood

and mechanical)

survey

Information),1

and paper

of pulping

that

pulp.

coating

Business

and paper

of these

survey,

from

and

in the pulp

produce

on this

products

Confidential

Many

facilities

to a 1992 EPA Office

565 operating

than

includes

as the piroduction

included

considered

more

may

Based

not

States.

operate

such

on responses

are
are

2.1 describes

processes

or other

containers

are

Based

there

bleaching

unit

industry

paper,

operations

laminating

(which

and

and paper

technologies.

INDUSTRY

products

Section

2.2 discusses

ESTIMATES

of the pulp

pulping

of pulp

and Section

points;

and control

industry.

Section

EMISSIONS

an overview

on the chemical

in the

States;

AND

pulping

process.
processes

operating

in the

industry.
2.1.1

most

Pulp

Production

Although

other

commonly

used

on 1992
pulp

estimates,

are produced

illustrates
States

the

by each

raw materials

can be used,

in the manufacture
approximately
annually

percentage
pulping

of pulp

71.8 million

in the United
of wood

process

pulp

the material
is wood.
tons

States.1
produced

and the approximate


2-l

Based

of wood
Figure

2-l

in the United
number

of

so

80

70

60

60

Note: MillsRoduclngMom
Than One PulpType
Are camted Once
For EachType.

40

30

20

10

Figure 2-1.

Percentage of Wood Pulp Produced by Each Process

2-2

;;

mills

of each

document

(kraft,

approximately
wood

pulp

The pulping

type.

soda,

68.4

production

tons

being

considered

for the NESHAP

Table

2-l shows

the distribution

State

by type

used.2

The

pulp

States

with

Kraft

(including

85 percent

primarily

in the

provides

over

pulp

southeastern

60 percent

in each
process
of chemical

and Georgia.

wood

149 kraft

are

document.

pulping

production

of U.S.

are approximately

by this

for

U.S.

that

concentration

Alabama,

soda)

of total

of the 565 mills

the highest

are Washington,

There

supported

in this
account

at 161 mills

or semi-chemical

mills

approximately

or 95 percent

and are present

of chemical

discussed

and semi-chemical)

sulfite,

million

processes

pulp

pulping

United

accounts

production.lr3.
processes,l
This

States.

of the wood

for

pulp

located

region

in the United

States.3
Figure
pulping

2-l

also

processes

shows

in the United

approximately

4 percent

The majority

of sulfite

northwest,
(spruce,
sulfite
poplar

where

the

and

can

pulping,

are

which

wood

located

species

production.1

in the north'and
in sulfite

pulping

However,

prevalent.

using

16 sulfite

contribute

pulp

used

hardwoods

technology

variety

of wood

given

region

such

2.1.2

Paper

as

species

pulp

approximately

production.lr3

the technology

and,

thus,

There

is no

semi-chemical
can use

a wide

is not restricted

to a

country.

to the

and Allied

on responses

contributes

States

Production

According

were

in the United

of mills.employing

because

of the

processes

which

wood

concentration

pulping

Of paper

U.S.

be produced

of nationwide

geographic

Paper

States,

are more

32 pulping

semi-chemical'

6 percent

fir)

are currently

eucalyptus.4

Approximately
use

mills

softwood

also

there

of total

and

hemlock,
pulp

that

1991

Trades,

produced
to the

Lockwood-Post's

approximately
in the United

1992

EPA Office

2-3

Directory

38.7 million

for Pulp,,
short

States

in 1991.5

of Water

survey,

tons

Based

TABLE

2-l.

DISTRIBUTION
OF CHEMICAL AND SEMI-CHEMICAL
PULP PROCESSES
IN THE UNITED STATESarb
Kraft/soda

Alabama
Alaska
Arizona
Arkansas
California
Florida
Georgia
Idaho
Indiana
Iowa
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine
Maryland
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi
Montana
New Hampshire
New York
North Carolina
Ohio
Oklahoma
.Oregon
Pennsylvania
South Carolina
Tennessee
Texas
Virginia
Washington
Wisconsin

Semi-chemical

16

-2
2

2
7
3
11
13
1

2
11
8
1
3
3
5
2
2
1
7
1
1
7
4
6
3
8
5
12
4

1
3

1
2
1.
2
1
3
1
1

Total

Sulfite

Based on Reference
2.
Mills producing
more than
for each pulp process.

one pulp

2-4

5
5

3
3
2

16

32

process

are

counted

once

integrated

mills

accounted

integrated

mills

for approximately

fiber

mills

for approximately

PROCESSES

2.2

This
emission

AND THEIR

section
points

as well

wood,

section

suggests

supplement

existing

emissions

data

These

any

and

for review

regulatory

analysis.

is given
of this

in Table

digester

diagram

process

operations
air

.system)

will

The
pulping

2.2.1

The
The

kraft,

sulfite,

the

and

industry.

points
scope

to as process
are the

the

area),

coproduct

2-2 provides

operation

and depicts
Chemical

points.

than

be

final

1.0, the

system,

recovery

(other

EPA will

of points

Figure

pulping

in future

the evaporator

documents.

can be divided

for pulping

pulping

group

recovery

and the bleaching

Puloins

documentation
sulfite,

production

used

pulp.

points

be-discussed

process

of the

kraft

mills.

emission

referred

process.

and chemical

emission

pulp

processes

bleaching

pulp

in Chapter

the washer

to

into the

process

to points
in this

in this

to'the

incorporation

points.

some

several

provided

with

pulping

from these

be conducted

As discussed

of a typical

recovery

data

associated

mills

has provided

(in the chemical

the

secondary

of process

presented

testing

the knotter,

system
and

recovery,

test

Included

system,

evap'orator

Industry

is limited

points.

testing

and for

2-2.

document

oper'ation

flow

of HAP's

emitted

factors

is currently

additional

discussion

semi-chemical

HAP's

further

data.

considered

A list

and

of the emission
that

and

non-

POINTS

a detailed

as the specific

review

10 percent,1

EMISSION

provides

of production,

65 percent.l

for chemical

Industry

and

for 25 percent

process.

and bleaching

the

into two steps:


.The
depend

exact
on the end use

Process
processes

discussed

semi-chemical,

semi-chemical.pulping
These

differences

2-5

document

soda.

Detailed

between

the kraft

and

of the differences

in this

processes
are being

was

and

are

soda,

provided

considered

by

in the

TABLE

2-2.

MAJOR

HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS


PROCESS POINTS
Chemical

name

1,4-Dichlorobenzene
2,4,5-Trichlorophenol
2-Butanone

(MEK)

Acetaldehyde
Acetophenone
Acrolein
Carbon

disulfide

Carbon

tetrachloride

Chlorine
Chloroform
Formaldehyde
Hexane
Hydrochloric

Acid

Methanol
Methyl

chloroform

Methylene

chloride

Pkopionaldehyde
Toluene

2-6

EMITTED

FROM

Process Operations
(Covered by this BID)

Chemical Recovery

---.-..e----

-e-

I
I
wood
Preparation

Coproduot
Aooovory

I
*

wood Chips
,
d

Coproduot
Recovery.

Pulping
Area

Weak Black
Liquor Evaporation
and Concentration

I
pulp

-----Jt,
Washing
Area

I
I

f+JlP
f

l-

I
-

Weak Black Liquor


-

I
I

Recovery
Furnace

Smelt

Green Liquor
Praparation

To Wastewater
Treatment Plant
or Condensate

pulp

I
I

-ww

--

-mw

Cooking Uquor

-mm

To Wastewater
Treatment Plant
(a)

I
I

Weak Black
Liquor Storage

I
I

-m

-----

"';l;;l"

-W

I
Strong
Black
Liquor

I
-

Black Liquor
Oxidation with
Direct Contact
Evaporator
(in older mills)
or Concentrator
(in newer mills)

Prooess operationa discussed in this document


include evaporation of weak blaok liquor.

Figure 2-2. Breakdown of Emission Points


in Typical Kraft Pulping and Bleaching Processes

Green
Liquor

I
I

rule;

they

however,

are not

included

specifically

in this

document.
The

remainder

pulping

processes

preparation
through

knots

three

of wood

The

process

and oversize

digestion

process

processes,

such

reuse

goes

process.

three

chips

pulping

the

the chips
steps

chemicals

where

from the

Some

pulping

the spent

chemicals

The remainder

of this

processes

their

are sent

several

from the pulp.

recover

with

reduce

through

three

Despite

begin

Wood

and spent

are removed
as kraft,

these

processes

to chemically

then

these

points.

chips.

particles

in the pulping

discusses

pulping

pulp

discusses

emission

into wood

a digestion

a pulp.

section

and their

all

differences,

into

of this

and their

for
section

emission

points.
2.2.1.1
typical

The

kraft

Kraft

pulping

identified.

Table

Process.

process,

Figure
with

2-3 presents

and the HAP emission

emission

points

shown

presents

emission

ranges
Table

are given
2-4 provides

developed

and

emission

technical

in Figure
screening,
kraft
liquor

solution

cooking

The

the

digestion

and weak
lignin,

black
water,

for the
2-4

Emission

In most

factor

emission

points.

factors

cases,

the

2-4 are of the same

by industry

of the kraft

in June

process

1993

hydroxide

process

lignin
process
liquor,

cooking

breaks

that holds

order
(NCASI

the wood

unbleached

which

is a solution

salts,
2-8

chips

and sodium
down

as shown
washing,

recovery.

wood

produces

hydrolysis

process,

brownstock

and coproduct

involves

of sodium

pulping

deknotting,

recovery,

or digestion

dissolving

in Table

are digestion,

chemical

pulping

points.

stream

650).

components

2-3,

Table

of the emission

B.

supplied

points

characteristics,

for the various

in Appendix

as those

key

2-4

presented

bulletin

The

for these

and wastewater

2-3.1r3t6t7

only a summary

shown

factors

of magnitude

in Figure

in Table

the emission

the vent

characteristics

factors

2-3 presents

The
in a white

sulfide.

the wood
fibers
pulp

This
structure by

together.
(brownstock)

of solubilized

and sulphonation

products.*

To Wartswater

12

tz?oz;~

11

h
Turpantins
RcNl~vary

16

Condensate Stripper (Not Shown)


May Strip Condsnrate or
Wastewater from Emission
Point8 15, 16, end/or 17.

5
Ot

wood Chips
l

Digortrr
Syvtem

slow
Tank

I
-

6
Ot
I
-

Knotter

Screens
or Decker

Warher

Oxygen
Delignifioation

I
I

Oxygen
Delignification
Slow Tank

Cooking Liquor
4

15

+
To Wastewater
Treatment Plant
or Condensate Stripper

Iu
\b

10
6

Post Oxygen
Washer

To Storage
or Bleaching

LEGEND

0
-

I
t-

Prooerr Stream
-

Weak Slaok Liquor


Storage Tank

Points of Possible HAP Releare


(Souroe Identification)

Vent Stream
Liquid Stream

ci

Crude Tall Oil

To Wastewater
Treatment Plant or
Condensate Stripper

To Tall
Oil Storage

Figure 2-3.

Typical Kraft Process with Chemical Recovery Practices

8
2

TABLE

Emission
point
Vent

2-3.

TYPICAL

Emission
point
ID

VENT

AND WASTEWATER
STREAM CHARACTERISTICS
EMISSION POINTS

Emission point

klinimus
capaci tya
(ADT/day)

Haxirmn
capaci tya
(ADT/day)

Average
capaci tya
(ADT/day)

FOR KRAFT

Tellp.b
(c)

Moisture
cantent b
(Xl

Heat
contentd
(Kj/scm)

FL0

rateb
(scWMs

pulp/day)

PULPING

Batch digester blow gas

94

1800

720

1.3

82.5

30-99

70

Continuous digester blow

94

1800

720

0.026

112.5

35-70

gas

Wastewater

Digester relief gas

94

1800

720

0.0026

42.5

3-20

18,400

Knotter hood (vibratory


screens)

94

1800

720

0.9

30

NAc

20

Uasher

65

1625

650

0.9

32.5

2-10

40

Uasher real and foam tank

65

1625

650

0.18

65

15-35

20

Decker/screen

65

1625

720

0.9

NA

NA

0.2

Oxygen delignification
blow tank

498

1300

930

0.026

NA

NA

150

Oxygen delignification
washer and seal tank

498

1300

930

0.18

NA

NA

50

10

Evaporator/hotwelI

65

1625

650

0.0027

112.5

SO-90

21,300

11

Condensate stripper

94

1800

720

0.0027

112.5

NA

WA

12

Turpentine condenser

94

1800

720

0.00257

42.5

IA

18,800

13

Tall oil reactor

65

1625

720

0.000069-0.00763

40

NA

210

14

Ueak black liquor/storage


tank

65

1625

650

0.00274

NA

NA

2,000

15

Digester blow condensates

94

1800

720

0.69-l .4

40

NA

NA

16

Turpentine decanter
underf Low

94

1800

720

0.11

40

IA

IA

17

Evaporator condensates

65

1625

650

4.2-4.9

40

IA

%A

I
a
b

Capacities are from Reference 3. ADT/day = Air dried short tons/day.


Based on References 1, 3, and 7. Flow rates are reported at standard conditions of dry gas (21.lC and 760 rmr Hg).
NA = Not available at this time.
The heat content is the heating value released by the organics in the vent stream. Turpentine concentrations vary based on wood type and could
increase these estimated values.

TABLE

2-4.

TYPICAL

UNCONTROLLED

EMISSION

FACTORS

FOR KRAFT

PULPING

Emission factor range


Emission
source

Vent

Emission
point ID

Emission point

Batch digester blow gas

Continuous digester blow gas

Digester

relief gas

Knotter hood (vibratory screens)


Uasher
Uasher seal and foam tank
Decker/screen

N
I
=:

Uastewater

'

FACILITIESasb

(Kg/Rg pulp)

Total HAP'

Total VOCc

Methanol

Acetone

TRS

0.1

2.4-4.4

0.0062-0.091

0.0015

2.37-4.02

0.00035-0.00039

4-4.9

0.000240.0003

0.00004-0.0002

2.4-4-O

0.004

2.6-2.7

0.003

0.00006

2.6-2.7

0.1-0.6

0.8-2.6

0.02-0.03

0.005-0.007

NAd

O-026-0.35

1.8-3.4

0.0022-0.15

0.0005-0.033

1.4-2.1

0.2

1.6-5.8

0.18-0.19

0.01-0.04

0.22

0.003-0.005

0.01-0.023

0.002-0.003

0.005-0.007

NA

Oxygen delignification

blow tank

0.019-0.050

0.14

0.05-0.005

0.001

WA

Oxygen delignification
seal tank

washer and

O-24

0.41

0.076

0.073

NA

0.002-0.02

3.1-5.4

0.0014-0.02

0.000007-0.002

3.5

NA

NA

NA

NA

HA

0.004

4.1

0.003

0.0001

2.7

NA

0.006

NA

NA

0.10

10

Evaporator/hotwelI

11

Condensate

12

Turpentine condenser

13

Tall oil reactor

14

Ueak black liquor storage tank

0.043-0.1s

0.069-0.15

o-043-0.1

0.0005-0.01

WA

15

Digester blow condensates

0.10-0.62

0.34-l .20

0.1-0.59

0.0012-0.0043

0.33

16

Turpentine decanter underflow

0.51

0.97

0.5

0.004

0.07

17

Evaporator

0.17-3.04

0.17-3.04

0.15-3.0

0.0039-0.01

0.52

18

Evaporator surface condenser


condensates
I

O-039-0.63

0.11-0.71

0;031-0.62

0.0025-0.001

0.26

stripper

condensates

Capacities are shown on Table 2-3.


Specific emission factors for these and other coqxsmds
are given in Appendix 8. .These ranges represent the variability of the emission factors
associated with the model plants given in Appendix C.
Total HAP and VOC emission factors are based on the sue of individual RAP and VDC emission factors.
NA = Not available at this time.

The

pulp

through
The

and

spent
which

a knotter,

spent

washing

chemicals

process

recovery

slurry

removes

are then

The pulp

oversize

wood

removed

delignification

to remove

deknotting,

brownstock

evaporation,

and

coproduct
Diaester

2.2.1.1.1
may

be a batch

components

completed

in the

discharged

into

Heat

tank.
the

blow

(TRS)

recovery

pulp

quality

ID's
gases
blow

may

tank

be vented

which

comprises

gases

cooking

liquor

is

and pulp
called

are

a blow

is often

to an accumulator

Based

on the total
of the

be incinerated,

part

of

blow

may then

chemical

2).

or condensed

for

for recovering
2.2.1.1.6)

a defibering

to produce

two emission

2-3 for digester

when

continuous

are

enter

washing

emissions,

in Section

gas emissions

Specifically,

in surges

digesters

blow

digesters,

in Figure

rate.

to pulp

gas

sulfur

or

a higher-

pulp.

digester

constant

tank

prior

blow

(The processes

from.the

or a vapor

reduced

stripped,

are discussed

stage

tank;

system,

After

black

digestion

1 and

digestion,

vess.el typically

concentrations

then

and continuous
shown

to storage

is one of the key

vessel.

from the blow

of turpentine.

Because

prior

delignification,

from

deknotting

oxygen

system.

may

coproducts

undergoes

and generally

the weak

a low-pressure

and terpene

the

is removed

describe

process,

or similar

for collection.

gases

water

The digester

process

digester,

gases

the

The

tank

recovery

tank

Blow
sphere

system.

in the pulping
and blow

chemical

recovery.

or continuous

digester

lignin

oxygen

wood.

to remove

the pulp

sections

pass

in the

in the

and excess

additional

washing,

the pulp

screened

particles

following

or undigested

from

is then

In some processes,

The

the digester

for reuse

in the decker.

or bleaching.

from

oversize

and are recovered

process.

additional

chemical

Thus,
less

blow

overall

than

those

point
gases

the batch

the digester
digester

differ

blows

emissions
volumes
from
2-12

identifiers
(emission

digester

batch
are

point

releases

its entire

load

are released

of gases

batch

between

from

digesters.

into a

at a
continuous
High-

pressure

gases

primary

condenser

discharges
tank

from

and then

foul

condensate

are recovered

organic

the blow

tank

are typically

sent

to an accumulator.
and blow

and condensed

gas.

The

Vapors

to recover

some

to a

accumulator

from

the

blow

of the

compounds.

Digester
emissions
Figure

relief

gases

(emission
relief

2-3,

condensed

and

point

ID 3).

gases

retained

are alSO

a point

However,

as shown

from the pulping

to recover

of potential
in

of softwoods

turpentine

can be

(see Section

2.2.1.14.7
A wide
reduced

sulfur

digestion
vents,

of volatile

compound

process.

the

blow

emissions

produced

of HAP

16, 17, and

15,

2.2.1.1.2

are

fully

broken

defined

as shown

Deknottina
is often

large

pieces

down

in Table

nrocess.

of fiber

The

bundles

digestion.
of pulp

chips

or fiber

bundles)

on a 3/8-inch

Knots

are

for

discarded

further
Two

older

types

which

is being

as waste,

of knotters

releases

phased

washer.10

Emission

The
enclosed,

[emission

step

in'the

in Figure

or wood

that

2-3.
were

not

are generally

is retained

prior

lowers

in Table
second

are

(as-wood

perforated

plate.9

to washing

and are

or returned

in current
vibratory

emissions

out because

which

shown

that

burned,

is the open-top

generated,

are

emissions

to the digester

digestion.

design,

screen,

from the pulp

next

They

fraction

either

underflows,

2-4,

as shown

as the

removed

process

181).

deknotting,

during

from process

by the digestion

is a point

(VOC) and

by the

emissions

condensates)

point

Knots

to HAP

decanter

methanol,

process

are produced

turpentine

(predominantly

kraft

compounds

condensates,

evaporator

ID's

organic

In addition

wastewater

(digester
and

variety

large

the efficiency

factors

One type,

screen.

directly

of the

use.

The vibratory

to the
quantity

atmosphere,
of foam

of the brownstock

for vibratory

screen

knotters

2-4.

type

pressurized,

of knotter

consists

cylindrical,
2-13

of a totally

perforated

an

screen.

rotating
vacuum

foil

in this

and pressure

type

of knotter

Lower

and reduces

foam

buildup.

this

type

of knotter

second

Brownstock

2.2.1.1.3
and knotter
brownstock

is washed

washing

is to remove

recover

sodium

and

industry

of washers

include

horizontal

belt

Washers
black

from

(fresh

the black

oversize

particles

to
during

of washer
Other

pressure

used

All washers

The rinsed

and thickened

type

of

types

washers,

and dilution/extraction.

or recycled)

liquor.

purpose

washer.

to the method
pulp.

called

the pulp

rotary

press,

according

brownstock

of water

recover

washers,

tank

commonly

common

with

system.

contamination

vacuum

clean

the blow

The

from

The most

wash

from

2-3.

and to avoid

is the rotary

washers,

Pulp

liquor

of

associated

it is an enclosed

in Figure

steps.

are

in a process

black

diffusion

differ

liquor

addition

sulfur

processing

'used in the

water

a series

the perforations

emissions

washinq.

with

weak

keeps

because

as shown

washing,

subsequent

which

pulses,

produces

to rinse
pulp

to separate
require

the

the pulp

and

is screened

in a decker

for

(emission

point

ID 7), where excess water is removed prior to oxygen


delignification,
bleaching,
or storage.
The diluted

or llweaktU

black

to the

liquor

chemical

recovery

A foam
separated
which

up the

Tables

using

foamed

mass.
to the

2-3 and
liquor

tanks.

process.

tanks

and

form

Foam

sent

2-4

centrifugal
force

atmosphere,
(emission

is typically

the

is formed

cooking

process,

piped

ID 6).

2-14

the pulp,

reducing

the

is completed
force

in Figure
The

to the chemical

process.

goes

air trapped

as shown

soap,

are extremely

thereby

or mechanical

point

when

with

that

defoaming

allows

foam

liquors,

"pellets!* on wood

Generally,

This

to capture

If foam remains

in the washing

tank

to vent

used

by the caustic

efficiency.11

foam

black

filtrate

and

to disperse

mass

is typically

in the

saponify

washing
the

tank

the washing

it can

in filtrate

process.

is dissolved

through

hard

is recovered

in

to break
in the

foam

2-3 and

defoamed
recovery

weak

Emissions
entrained

occur

in the pulp

typical

vent

and

characteristics
Tables

2-3 and

digestion

from

a brownstock

of wood

of shower
lower

pulped

in temperature

varies

with

the

Washers
typically
washers

such

require

dilute

and
HAP

Washers

or have

with

these

higher

.step prior

when

used

as a step

chemicals,

can help

chemical

effluent

of the

Vent

oxygen
2-4,

are
These

and vent

consequently,
heat

will

to ambient
will

have

have

belt

washer

air.

Vent

lower

flow

lignin

it may

stage

characteristics
stage

plant

and HAP

Because

2-15

In addition,

the

emission

with

the
the

resulting

recovery

wastewater

are presented

respectively.

use by

is compatible

chemical

for

chlorine

chemical

the pulp.

process. l2

be used

delignification,

with

plant

effluent

to the

also

Oxygen

from

of

as a delignification

to bleaching

in the bleach

delignification

cases

bleach

Treatment

stage.

content).

exposure
therefore,

reduce

can be recycled

stream

washer

or horizontal

however,

prior

recovery

organic.loading

vent

enclosed.

a. lower

conditions.

delignification

kraft

point

digester

washer

washer

in some

to bleaching;

more

the

considerably

than

drum

delisnification

is used

in alkaline

oxygen

limited

the

on the washer.

fully

and,

and

HAP concentrations.

bleaching

removing

not

(and thus

Oxvaen

oxygen

are

content

vacuum

emissions

washers,

and also

of air to capture

as the diffusion

from

with

volumes

of emissions

or continuous),

used

therefore,

large

2.2.1.1.4
pulp

as the rotary

As

of the pulp

brownstock

of enclosure

concentration

enclosed

rates

of the

in

ID.5).

and type

from washers

content

fugitive

such

streams

streams

in moisture

and,

point

or hardwood),

and

type

hooded

moisture

are

Vent

emission

are summarized

(emission

(batch

(softwood

The heat

washer

The

volatilize.

and HAP

are a function

of digestion

as HAP compounds

slurry

the quantity

process,

water.

streams.

liquor

respectively

washer

type

process

characteristics

stream

2-4,

the

production,

and black

of the brownstock

with

type

from the washing

sy-stem,

is reduced.12
factors

in Tables

for the
2-3

and'

Chemical

2.2.1.1.5
the

kraft

from

pulp

the weak

and

oxygen

The

general

shown

black

steps

(recovery

2-2)

recovery
For

efficient

chemical

solids)

concentration

typically
effect

removed

so that

the vapor

supply

to the

process

containing

of concentrating

emissions
because
from

also
of the

the

and Tables

2-3

produces
oil).
shown

two

pulped.

have

chemical

Large

per kilogram
black

liquor

of

liquor

The water

is

in multiple-

of direct

or

at different

pressures

body

the steam

becomes

phase.
and

2-4

saleable

vaporized

liquor

evaporator

of certain

These

points

(emission

Generally,

the evaporation

recoverv.

resinous

the digester

the gas moisture

separator

to remove

any small

wood

from the

condensate

streams

to the -air

are depicted

in Figure

2-3

.ID's 10, 17, and 18).

The

kraft

digester

relief

to reduce

the process

air pollutant

softwoods

condenser

2-16

during

turpentine

from

gases

compounds

point

coproducts:

when

from

are emitted

Hazardous

is recovered
2-3)

emitted

Non-condensible

been

from the

Cooroduct

in Figure

are

and hotwells.

Turpentine

This

is required.

a series

one evaporator

partitioning

2.2.1.1.6

cooking

mechanisms.

that

occur

liquid

black

documents.

a desired

operated

the cooking

vents

(as

evaporator.

basic

HAP's

.evaporator

from

2-3.

inorganic

of water

comprise

air pollutants

by two

water

to achieve

evaporators

next

Hazardous

of excess

the spent

which

evaporators,
contact

of the

of 60 to 65 percent.13
from

indirect

remaining

in future

recovery

evaporated

chemicals

and calcining.

the

(5 to 7 kilograms

are

in Figure

combustion/oxidation/reduction

be discussed

evaporation

washing

or concentration,

evaporation;

will

of water

of cooking

in

and sulfur

brownstock

as shown

and recausticizing

discusses

the

from

are evaporation

element

of sodium

processes,

processes

chemicals,

solids

recovered

(optional),

furnace),
only

amounts

liquor

in the recovery

oxidation

section

is the recovery

delignification

in Figure

liquor

dry

process

An essential

recovery.

gases

content
chips

pulping

process

and soap
relief
such

(tall

gases

(as

as pine

are

are vented

to a

and to a cyclone

or fines.

The

turpentine

and water
The

a decanter.
overflows
removed
other

from
from

Table

the decanter
decanter

(emission

turpentine

decanter

are

separated

which

than

water,

is lighter

to a storage

tank.

overflow

through

During

vents.

at a level

similar

with

the decanting

As shown

ID 16), methanol

point

in

The water

is combined

for treatment.

are emitted

2-4

by the condenser

bottom

condensates

HAP's

process,

turpentine,

the

process

removed

in

is emitted

to that

from

from

the

a decker

or screen.
Tall

oil
Tall

process.
are

can

recovered

reactor,
are not
weak

oils
from

expected

the.digester

from

the

steam
such

and

waste

and to destroy

characteristics

are

not

Emission

the

same

available

sulfite

The

sulfite
basic

coproduct

pulping

are transferred
cooking

pulps

wood

solution.

to take

diagram.

Typical

bases

combustion

The

with

or batch

(emission

absorbed

include
2-17

calcium,

point

stripper
. -

process
the

digester

vent

a
follows

exception

process,

the sulfite

dioxide

vent

practiced

As in the kraft

device,

2-4 presents

sulfite

system

VOC

of the heat

stripping

Figure

from

The VOC-laden

2-3 provides

is not typically

However,

sulfur

for

to remove

to a continuous

using

factors

for the condensate

as the kraft

process.

in the

turpentine

odors.

Table

Process.

liquor.

as from

steam

data

which

the

Condensates

advantage

Sulfite

steps

after

emission

to an existing

time.

process

oil

emissions

it occurs

and steam-stripped

at this

recovery,

with

as well

the VOC.

factor

HAP

striwinq.

for condensate

2.2.1.2
typical

steam

sent

boiler,

a tall

of volatiles

and to reduce

typically

using

and

ID 13).

combined

streams

because

pulping

softwoods

Significant

2-4 provides

evaporator,

as the power

ID 11).

point

the kraft

in resinous

stripped

Table

are often

from

process

2-3.
step

Condensate

is then

content

this

has been

(emission

2.2.1.1.7

recovery,

Figure

process.

point

found

the evaporation

from

liquor

evaporation

be recovered

are.also

as shown.in

black

this

also

of

in the
wood

chips

and cooked

process

chemically

in an acidic
magnesium,

ammonium,

A
I

wood chips

Digester
Syrtem

I
I
I
I
I
1
Blow
Tank

Cooklng Liquor

I
I
ti

A
I
I

A
I
I
I

A
1

A
I
I

Knotter
Washer

I
-1

I-

i
To Wartewater
Treatment Plant

I-~--~
-s-s
-

~~

LEGEND

A
,

.I

Proorra Stream
Vent Stranm
Liquid Stream

I
I

To Wartewater
Treatment Plant

Figure 2-4.

Typical Sulfite Pulping Process Practicing Chemical Recovery

I
Seal
0
Tank

shown

AS

or sodium.
particles

are

is washed

to remove

in Figure

particles,

chemicals

removed

after

in the deknotting

removed

oversize

2-4,

the

spent

digestion,

process

chemicals,

and thickened
in the washing

and the pulp

screened

to remove
process

to remove

excess

may

oversize

water.

then

'The

be recovered

for reuse.
Spent

cooking

be collected
recovered
cost

from

Chemical
sulfite

the

because

process

type

(i.e.,

bases

recovery

economically

of the pollution

general

steps

of sulfite

of base

being

recovered.

this

BID

only

as discussed

focuses

recovery

process

Appendix

C includes

wastewater

a description
to Sections

process

and

mechanical

follows
discussed

similar

in Sections

is also

calcium-based

vary

the process

operation

points,

in further
factors

with
begins

Because
the sulfite

detail.

and vent

for the

and

sulfite

process.

processes,

process

For

refer

semi-chemical

The

to the kraft

pulping

and was developed


Figure

pulps.14

process.

2.2.1.1

The

of the chemical

pulping

chemical

semi-chemical
steps

which

2.2.1.1.5.

Process.

is a combination

a typical

of calcium)

and 2.2.1.1.3.

Semi-Chemical

high-yield

The

washers).

recovery

and washing

process

to produce

the

However,

on process

pulping

the

can be

achieved.

chemical

characteristics

The

feasible,

in Section

of the deknotting

2.2.1.3

stock

may

is not cost-effective.

HAP emission

2.2.1.1.2

red

with

is not discussed

stream

process

chemicals

control

is not practiced
recovery

evaporation,

the washing

(with the exception

because

with

from

In addition,

streams

soluble

recovery

The
the

gaseous

chemical

attractive

removed

and recovered.

of all

makes

liquor

2-5 presents

semi-chemical

or sulfite

and 2.2.1.2,

process

processes

namely,

digestion

and washing.
In the
digested
the

semi-chemical

with

lignin

and

process,

cooking.chemicals
the wood.

wood

chips

to weaken

Oversize

the

particles

are partially
bonds

between

are removed

the softened wood chips, then the chips are mechanically


reduced to pulp by grinding them in a refiner, as in the
2-19

from

Wood Chips
I
I
I

Digester
Syrtem

Cooking Liquor

&iP
*

Knotter

I
1

To Wartewatsr
Treatment Plant

I
I
I

I
I
I

1
1 ,-

- -

- ; - -

- -

To Storage

- ,

h)
t!J
0

LEGEND

A
I
I

A
I
I

I
I
Intermediate

Crude Tall Oil


Evaporator
I

A
I
I
------------m-

Spent Liquor

;
To Wastawater
Treatment Plant

To Tail
Oil Storage
is
z
9

Figure 2-5. Typical Neutral Sulfite Semi-Chemical Pulping Process

mechanical
Based

mills

mills

spent

industry

that

combine

The

process.

on a voluntary

chemical

with

pulping

liquor

liquor

from

is then

survey,

practice

spent

pulp

there

chemical
from

to storage.

are no semiHowever,

recovery.

on-site

an adjacent

sent

semi-chemical

kraft

process

some

process

for chemical

recovery.
There
neutral

are two main

sulfite

NSSC

The

(NSCM).

major

kraft/sulfite

wood

pulp
the

rates

essentially

strength

and

discussed
BID
soda

Data
factors
little

processes,

HAP

are dependent
used

HAP

on

to weaken

emission

characteristics

sodium

cooking

hydroxide

Kraft

recovery

for the

2.2.1.1.5.

on process

process

and stream

soda

to the kraft

process

is added

in the

points;

not available.

cooking

2-21

and

2.2.1.1.3,

process

are

process,

the

liquor,

as

discussed,
therefore,

in further

characteristics
are

greater

evaporation,

As previously

is not discussed

of sodium

and washing

2.2.1.1.1

operation

except

to maintain

with

is

are

amount

digestion

begins

process

process,

in the washing

Similar
process

pulping

process

A small

removed

recovered.

soda

pulping

in Sections

Chemicals

for the

The

in the

yield. 16

for vent

sulfur

process

stream

hydroxide.

to the

and

focuses

recovery

and

delignifies

pulping

C includes

to the kraft

used

in Section

only

partially

and the chemicals

Process.

are.discussed

chemical

and only

Appendix

Soda

sodium

respectively.

soda

type,

identical

is added

collected

process

is that. the semi-chemical

and wastewater

chemicals

processes

semi-chemical

semi-chemical

the semi-chemical

wood

The

predominantly
sulfide

sulfite

process.

2.2.1.4

pulp

from

and vent

the

common

the kraft/sulfite

in the wood.

semi-chemical

that

is shorter

production,

factors

and neutral

between

processes

As with

chips.

bonds

The most

difference

pulping

process

emission

(NSSC)

pulping:

process.15

only

digestion

of semi-chemical

semi-chemical

chemimechanical
is the

types

this
the

detail.

and emission
Because
sulfur

compound

emissions
similar

will

to those
The

2.2.2

. The

from

Bleaching

purpose

physical

and

However,. organic

be small.

the kraft

optical

qualities

Two

approaches

of pulps.

One

approach,

chemicals,

such

groups

process

called

brightening,

peroxide,

a product

bleaching)

seeks

to almost

totally

chemicals

to the pulp

depending

of sequences,
produce

stable

methods

paper

that

selective

approach

-(true

residual

lignin

in varying

pulp

delignify

the

a temporary

on the end use of the

a high-quality,

paper) I bleaching

remove

bleaching

attack

with

The other

as newspaper).

of

destroy

but do not materially

produces

the

brightness)

uses

that

(such

oxidizing

and

in the chemical

brightness

adding

is to enhance

(whiteness

are used

as hydrogen

Brightening

lignin.

be

process.

of the bleaching

chromatographic

will

Process

pulp.

the

emissions

the

combinations

product.

(such

by

To

as for bond

pulp

must

be

used.
The

most

chlorine

chlorine,
(sodium
common

common

compounds

dioxins,

presently

and hypochlorite

and toward
as chlorine

Table

2-5 provides

these

bleaching
Typically,

separate

stage,
where

bleaching

the

the washer

the

combinations

Two

from

such

dioxide

and

of chlorine

bleaching

in the bleaching

of the basic

and

as

the pulp

the application
of other

less

are ozone

compounds

prompted

caustic

functions

process.
of each

of

chemicals.
the pulp

is treated

as shown

in Figure

bleaching

occurs;

and dissolved

next

effluent

or to be sewered.

have

are

oxygen,

in the industry

the use

a summary

chemicals

to entering

peroxide,

chlorinated

away

agents

hypochlorite.17

used

over

to shift

such

hydrogen

and chloroform

furans,

chemicals

and brightening

and sodium

Concern

industry

tower,

dioxide,

hydroxide),

hydrosulfite.

paper

bleaching

with
2-6.

each

chemical

Each

stage

a washer,
lignins

which

from

stage;, and a seal tank,


to be used

Bleaching

of chemical

as wash

processes

stages

called

2-22

water
use

in a

includes
removes

the pulp

which

prior

collects

in other

stages

various

bleaching

sequences.

TABLE

Bleaching
c80mpounds

2-5.

COifPARISON

OF'COMMON
CHEMICALS
PULP BLEACHING

Bleaching
notation

USED

IN

Function

Chlorine

Oxidize

Caustic
(sodium
hydroxide)

Hydrolyze
chlorolignin
solubilize
lignin.

and

Hypochlorite

Oxidize

lignin.

Chlorine
dioxide

Oxidize and,solubilize
lignin.
In amounts with Cl2 protects
against degradation
of pulp.

Oxygen

Oxidize

Hydrogen
peroxide

Oxidize and solubilize


chemical and high-yield

lignin in
pulps.

Ozone

Oxidize

lignin.

Hydrosulfite

S or Y

and chlorinate

and solubilize

.and solubilize

and solubilize

Reduce and decolorize


high-yield
pulps.

2-23

lignin.

lignin.

l&in

in

Pulp to
Next Tower

w8dl

Towu

pulp/aldcd

Plant
slwry

vmt to sonlbbu
I

: 00@0
I

Bleaching
ammiod8

Recycle to ~sotmtmWamh Staae

LEGEND
Point of Pomible HAP Reieme~
(Souroo ldanMkdon)

Pmoa8stmml
. -

VWltstnm
LlqUM!3tmml

Figure 2-6. Typical Down-flow Bleach Tower and Washer


2-24

Table

2-6 presents

the most

common

sequences

used

in kraft

bleaching.
Sections
typical
vent

2.2.2.1

bleach

through' 2.2.2.6
Tables

stages.

and wastewater

stream

present

2-7 and

typically
the

emission

order

of magnitude

(NCASI

technical

in the

bleaching

primary

function

delignify
tower

as those
bulletin

the

or stage
process,

that

are water-soluble

aids

in delignifying
stage

During

These

the

these

the

plants
cases,

2-8 are of the

same

in June

or soluble

stage

1993

stage

The

is to further
pumped

into a
During
2-6.

in Figure

lignin

to form

in an alkaline

before

first

chlorination.

is generally

with

the pulp

The

(C-Stase).

to the one shown

it proceeds

side reactions

produce

and other

phenolics,

as well

chlorination

Tables

tank.

compounds
medium,

which

to the next

chlorinated

as unreacted

stage

2-7 and

chloroform,

tower,

2-8 provide

organics.

chlorine,

the washer,

emissions

may
and

data

for

points.
Extraction

2.2.2.2.
after

chlorination

stage

and

the

pulp.

chlorinated

and
After

remove

excess

largest

amount

stages

The

stages

(E-Stase).

serve

lignin

the extraction
chemicals

of unwanted

(chlorination

The

the extraction

extraction

oxidized

solution.
the

Stase

is typically

remaining

delignified

two

In most

by industry

is typically

emissions,

from

seal

Stase

reacts

bleaching,

byproduct

.be vented

bleach

or stages.18

chlorinated

phenol,

supplied

The pulp

chlorine

this

bleaching

in Table

of the chlorination

similar

from

chlorine,

650).

process

pulp. I8

include

and methanol.

presented

Chlorination

2.2.2.1

vents

The wastewater

chloroform

factors

the typical

for bleaching
kraft
Some of the
respectively.

and methanol.
contains

2-8 provide

on

characteristics

factors,
pulps, and HAP emission
identified
HAP's emitted by bleaching
chloroform,

information

removes

lignin

is removed

and extraction).17
2-25

the

the
in a caustic

the pulp

and solubilized

This

and whiten

by solubilization
stage,

stage

stage.

to bleach

stage

next

is washed
The
lignin.
in these
A portion

to

first
of the

TABLE

2-6.

MOST

COMMON

KBAFT

BLEACH

Number
Bleach

sequencesb

SEQUENCES'

of mills

bleach

sequence

C-E-H

C-E-HE-D

C-EO-HE-H-DE

CD-E-D-E-D

CD-E-H-D

3.

CD-E-Hi-D-E-D

CD-EO-D
CD-EO-H-D

..

with

9
-

CD-EOP-D

DC-EOP-D

DCD-EOP-D

a Bleaching
sequences
performed
at three or more mills are
listed.
Approximately
90 other sequences
are used at one or
two mills for each sequence.
b Key:

C
E
D
H
0
P
CD
EO
EOP

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

Chlorination
Extraction
Chlorine dioxide
Hypochlorite
Oxygen
Peroxide
Chlorine dioxide substitution
Oxygen added to extraction
stage
Peroxide and oxygen added to extraction
stage

2-26

TABLE

2-7.

TYPICAL

Emission
source
Vent

Uasteuater

VENT

AND WASTEWATER

Emission point

Hinimun
capaci tya
fADT/day)

STREAM
EMISSION
Haximun
capaci tya
fADT/day)

CHARACTERISTICS
POINTS

FOR KRAFT

BLEACH

PLANT

Average
cepaci tya
fAOT/day)

ratell
(scmn/Hg pulp/day)

klilp.b
("c)

Moisture'
content b
co

neat
content d
fKj/scm)

FlO

C-stage tower

90

1500

600

0.024

60

NAC

20

C-stage uasher

90

1500

600

0.362

60

WA

C-stage seal tank

90

1500

600

0.014

60

NA

1900

E-stage tower

90

1500

600

0.024

60

NA

30

E-stage washer

90

1500

600

0.362

60

NA

10

E-stage seal tank

90

1500

600

0.014

60

WA

230

D-stage tower

90

1500

600

0.024

60

NA

0.2

D-stage uasher

90

1500

600

0.362

60

WA

0.2

D-stage seal tank

90

1500

600

0.014

60

NA

0.02

H-stage tower

90

1500

600

0.024

60

WA

0.1

R-stage uasher

90

1500

600

0.362

60

WA

20

H stage seal tank

90

1500

600

0.014

60

NA

Acid sewer (C,D, and H-stage

90

1500

600

NA

--

--

-.

90

1500

600

NA'

--

--

-_

filtrate)
Caustic sewer (E-stage filtrate)

z
c
d

Capacities are from References 1 end 3. ADT/day = Air dried short tons/day.
Based on Reference 8. Flowrates are reported at standard conditions of dry gas (21.1'C and 760 mn Hg).
NA = Not available at this time.
The heat content is the heat released based on compounds in the vent stream (reference 6) and is at.standard dry conditions.

TABLE

2-8.

SUMMARY

OF TYPICAL UNCONTROLLED
EMISSION
KRAFT BLEACH PLANT FACILITIES

FACTORS

FOR

Emission factor rangea


(Kg/M9 pulp)
Emission
source

Vent

Wastewater

a
b

Emission pointb

Total HAP'

Total VOCc

Chlorine

Chloroform

Methanol

C-stage touer

0.054-0.252

0.008-0.041

0.0009-0.01

0.05-0.21

0.00062-0.029

C-stage washer

0.062-0.647

0.012-0.439

0.0009-0.0113

0.05-0.21

0.009-0.415

C-stage seal tank

0.0084-0.323

0.007-0.32

5.5 x 105 7.2 x 1O-4

0.00127-0.0053

0.0067-0.311

E-stage touer

0.013-0.026

0.011-0.026

0.0014-0.01

0-0.003

0.0027-0.0054

E-stage washer

0.031-0.168

0.044-0.091

0.0014-0.01

o-0.003

0.0035-0.078

E-stage seal tank

0.013-0.101

0.023-0.161

0.00009-0.0005

0-0.000076

0.0026-0.029

D-stage tower

0.011-0.036

0.00004-0.018

0.00003-0.02

0.01

0.0000007-0.0002

D-stage washer

0.01-0.06

O.OODl-0.042

D.O0003-0.02

0.01

0.00001-0.003

D-stage seal tank

O.ODOS-0.02

0.00006-0.02

0.000003-0.001

0.0003

0.000008-0.002

H-stage tower

0.088-0.62

0.056-0.119

0.04-0.05

0.01

D.D0049-0.0063

H-stage washer

0.15

0.15

0.04

0.01

0.091

H stage seal tank

0.074

0.076

0.003

0.0003

0.068

Acid sewer (C,D, and H-stage


filtrate)

0.12-0.52

O-12-0.53

0.0008-0.005

0.05-0.5

Caustic seuer (E-stage


filtrate)

0.042-O-32

D-04-0.32

O.ODD2-0.0023

D-03-0.3

Specific emission factors for these and other compounds are given in Appendix 6. These ranges represent the variability of the emission
factors associated uith the model plants given in Appendix C.
Key: C-stage = Chlorination
1
I
E-stage = Extraction
D-stage = Chlorine dioxide
H-stage = Hypochlorite
Total HAP and WC emission factors are based on the sun of individual HAP and VOC emission factors.

filtrate

from

filtrate

sewered

chlorolignin

stage

precipitation
Emission

tower,

washer,

used

Staae

substitute

chlorine

for total

released

similar

times

basis)

from

tank

HAP,

the

are

shown

in

brightness

When

chorine

points.

oxidizing

dioxide

Chlorine

reaction

dioxide
stage.

dioxide

The

stage

has

(on a pound-per-pound

of cellulose

dioxide

before

all high--

and

bleaching

agent

that

destroys

it also

the

on site

as a gas

in an acidic
vent

factor

and wastewater

data

degradation

stage

(H-Stase).

for the

certain

Hypochlorite
for sulfite

chromophoric

in kraft

to kraft

pulp

sequence

can also
pulps.
2-29

common

is a true

the cellulose

occurs

of the

Another

Hypochlorite

attacks

of hypochlorite

agent

generated

Stase

is hypochlorite.

pulps.

characteristics.21

2-8 provide

stage

intermediate

using

effluent

chlorate

bleaching

application

Consequently,

components.

Hvoochlorite

cellulose

less chlorinated

improved

and emission

stage

however,

chlorine

step has

is typically

2-7 and

in destroying

or hemicellulose.

effluent.

dioxide

of sodium

Tables

2.2.2.4

bleaching

Chlorine

selectivity

of the pulp

characteristics

bleached

(as a

to the chlorination

has a high

into the

dioxide

solution.22

lignin;

stage

dioxide

for nearly

chlorine

delignification

chlorine

is often

- chlorine

chlorine

power

is added

are released

the

usage

is used

degradation

additional

stream

emission

dioxide

without

organics

dioxide

pul~s.2~

Chlorine
lignin

is similar

and

and

in the chlorination

of the chlorine

chlorine

(D-Stase)

Chlorine

stage

greater

than

Stase

or as an additional

dioxide

and has

Dioxide

either

for some

'substitution)

as an

of the solubilized

and seal

(C/D-Staae).

in bleaching,

High

the remaining

factors

and chlorine

Chlorine

Substitution

from

be reused.and

2-8.
2.2.2.3

the

may

to prevent

methanol,

extraction

2.63

stages

compounds.1g

chloroform,

Table

these

groups

to some

pulp,

used

or to produce

However,

extent.

so the

is usually

be used

of

only

semi-

as an effective

the hypochlorite

stage

has

points

been

identified

of chloroform

NCASI

show

that

lower

chloroform

as one of the most

emissions.23

bleaching

sequences

emissions.23
and HAP emission

stage

in Tables

given

Ozone

2.2.2.5

Bleachins

bleaching

is effective

bleaching

and

the

scale
HAP

bleaching

emissions

from

2.2.2.6

Peroxide

stage

Stase

peroxide,

are effective

agents.

Peroxides

are frequently

first

extraction

process.

Peroxides

losses

in the

generate

yield

fewer

this

stage

2.3

BASELINE
This

have

bleaching
agents

in

of the bleaching

lignified

presents

emissions.

national

These

operation

emission

emission

in place

on these

points.

through
and
their

summarize

baseline

stages

of highly

to account

pulp

generally

as bleaching

strength

adjusted

for the

potential

Peroxides,

without

organic

and

measured.

brightness

chapter,

2.3.2

States,

lignin-preserving
used

full-

significant
pulps

and

Emissions

from

EMISSIONS

uncontrolled

regarding

compounds

Another

stage.

in

not been measured.

paper- industry.

regulations

not been

as

not result

one

increase

for the process

determined

is only

as well

in the United

or in later

chlorinated

section

estimates

on the

stage

does

organic

fP-Stase).

hydrogen

the

bleaching

havd

is the peroxide

Ozone

delignification

there

this process

stream

respectively.

IZ-Stase).

line operating

have

for the hypochlorite

of chlorinated

Currently

ozone

bleaching

Ozone

or emission

'such as chloroform.24

Staqe

for further

brightening.

formation

2-8,

by

hypochlorite

and wastewater

factors

2-7 and

conducted

without

Vent

characteristics
are

Studies

Significant

from

controls

factors

in the pulp
were

control

level

Federal

and State

provided

and

developed

presented

of applicable

current

level
levels

State

of control
were

and Federal

by many

facilities

Sections 2.3.1 and


regulations,
respectively,

Section 2.3.3 summarizes


to be in place because of these

2-30

based

in this

of control.

industry.

assumed

emission

for the baseline

information

and paper

points

estimates

Baseline

a review

baseline

Section

regulations.
baseline
The
(NSPS)

of Federal

EPA has

limits

digester

systems,

of

summarizes

the

Federal

points

concentration

affected

Table

for these

the maximum

2-9

processYoperation

emission

rates

on a

basis.

Although
from

and provides

include

systems,

strippers.

regulations

two

that

evaporator

and condensate

standards

established

from points

multiple-effect

washers,

these

the

regulations

pulping

by this

through

the

thereby

reducing

do not

facilities

process,

rule

are achieving

collection

specifically
with

address

new processes

the required

TRS

limits

and combustion

organic

of vent gases, and are


from these vents by at
emissions

HAP

98 percent.
Summarv

2.3.2

of State

In addition
sources,

existing

sources.

to process
Table
States

are

systems,

facilities
dioxide

in States

are

has

may

additional

provided

Carolina,

that

emission

points
plant

the vents
States

survey

that

condensate
combustion,

chlorine
from

assumed

and

and chlorine

these

reported

stages.
in Table

was

used

if no information

2-10

as a

was

responses.26

Maryland,
2-31

regulations.

on digester

through

This. information

to the regulations
Tennessee,

and

in

in the United

it was

limits

for

specifically

and paper

washers,

some

limits

are summarized

of control,

of control

industry

pertaining

pulp

bleach

control.

determination

In addition

TRS

scrubbing

commented

through

current

these

with

similar

of the facilities

brownstock

in States

Industry

secondary

with

to new and

adopted

points

levels

controlling

limits

have

with

baseline

applies

regulations

60 percent

in States

are

have

emission

evaporators,

strippers

which

States

State

Over

.In determining
facilities

many

operation

2-10.

Resulations

to the NSPS,

modified

North

estimates

performance

The NSPS

for TRS compounds

brownstock

emission

new source

mills. 25

pulp

emission

least

national

Regulations

developed

for kraft

HAP's

presents

emissions.
Summarv

2.3.1

2.3.4

summarized

in Table

and Michigan

have

2-10,
passed

TABLE

SUMMARY OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS


(NSPS) FOR
EMISSIONS FROM KRAFT PULPING FACILITIESa

2-9.

Process

unit

limitsb

Method

of control

Kraft digester
system

5 ppm of TRSC

Lime kiln, recovery


furnace, or
combustion
at a
minimum of 1200 OF
for 0.5 set

Kraft brownstock
washer system

5 ppm of TRScrd

Lime kiln, recovery


furnace, or
combustion
at a
minimum of 1200 oF
for '0.5 set

Multiple-effect
evaporator
system

5 ppm of TRSC

Lime kiln; recovery


furnace, or
combustion
at a
minimum of 1200 oF
for 0.5 set

Condensate
system

5 ppm of TRSyc

Lime kiln, recovery


furnace, or
combustion
at a
minimum of 1200 oF
for 0.5 set

5 ppm

Lime kiln, recovery


furnace, or
combustion
at a
minimum of 1200 OF
for 0.5 set

stripper

New, modified,
or
reconstructed
kraft
digester
system

.a
b

Emission

New Source
Key :
TRS
wm

Performance
=
Total
parts
=

of TRSc

Standards,
40 CFR 60, Subpart BB.
Reduced Sulfur
per million
(by volume, dry basis)

Corrected
to 10 percent oxygen.
Standard
does not apply to facilities
where implementation
has been demonstrated
to be technically
or economically
unfeasible.

2-32

TABLE

2-10.

Process

SUMMARY

unit

Xraft digester
system

OF STATE

REGULATIONS

FOR EMISSIONS

Emission

limitsa

States

5 ppm of TRS

1.2 lb TRS/ton

ADP

Xraft digester
system/multipleeffect evaporators

0.6 lb TRS/ton
20 ppm of,TRS

ADP

Xraft multipleeffect evaporators


.

5 ppm of TRS

1.2 lb TRS/ton

h)
I

W
W

ADP

FROM

PULPING

regulating

FACILITIES

Method

of control

ME, VA
SC, GA, FL
ID, IN, CA, MS, LA
AL

Combustion
Incineration
Not specified
Incineration

MD
PA

Not specified
Not specified

VA, ME
FL, SC, GA
MS, TN, LA, CA
AL

Combustion
Incineration
Not specified
Not specified

Xraft brownstock
washer

5 ppm of TRS

MEb
CA

Combustion
Not specified

Xraft condensate
stripper

5 ppm

VA, ME
CA, LA
SC

Combustion
Not specified
Incineration

Bleach

3 lb/hr of Cl2
0.2 lb/hr of Cl2
3 lb/hr of clo2
0.1 lb of cl02

ME
GA
ME
GA

Not
Not
Not
Not

0.5 lb TRS/ton

oil

FL

Incineration

9.1 kg TRS/ton

ADP

NH

Not specified

Tall

plant

oil plant

Sulfite
Effluent
a Key:

b After

mills
ponds
1
TRS
wm
ADP
January

of TRS

50 ppm H2S

MT

=
=
=

Total Reduced Sulfur


parts per million
Air-Dried
Pulp
1994.

Cl2
Cl02
H2S

specified
specified
specified
specified

Not specified

I
=
=
=

Chlorine
Chlorine
Hydrogen

dioxide
sulfide

regulations

that

regulations

limit

toxic

by dispersion

achieves

additional

some

controls

into

the baseline

place

to comply

2.3.3

Baseline

and bleaching

vent

all kraft

being

mills

pulping

of kraft

evaporator

systems

A smaller

percentage

well.

Steam

and

and

deckers,

devices

of first
and gas

2-11

relief

of the

turpentine

hotwell

are

vents

are
Much

at kraft

being
As shown

ranges

extraction

in

from
stage

chlorine

absorbers

gases

mills.

mills.

stage

from

vents,

and knotters

vents

and

semi-

decanter

washers

plant

for pulping

emissions

from some

of individual

vents

dioxide

(scrubbers)

are

3.0.

summarizes

25 percent

blow

However,

90 percent

treatment

sulfite,

regulations.

and some sulfite

of bleach

processes

kraft,

put-into

used

2-11,

of all sulfite

30 percent

wastewater

Chapter

half

in Chapter

unit

digester

kraft

controlled.

scrubbing

2-13

in Table

of washers,

Combustion

Table

of the

in Tables

and evaporator

at most

to.-approximately

discussed

likely

techniques

as are those

at almost

approximately

pulping

incorporated

air pollutant

In addition,

percentages

vents.

sulfite

noncondensibles,

2-12,

regulations

Some
and

were

are presented

As shown

digesters.

are being

Table

reduction.

control

points

controlled,

controlled

the

as

air concentration

by facilities

toxic

these

from

ambient

evaluation

these

and

controlled

smaller

reported

of existing

nearly

evaporator

these

HAP emission

with

respectively.

chemical

with

facilities,

Although

HAP emissions

control

2-12,

being

the pulping

Emission-Controls

Summaries

are

limit

emissions.

These
air concentrations
of

ambient

modeling.

to compliance

process,

air pollutant

surrounding

not specifically

limits

toxic

the maximum

air pollutants

determined
do

limit

the extent

is pretreated
system.

mill

prior

Condensates

turpentine

are pretreated

with

semi-chemical
and air

strippers

3.0.
2-34

from

units

tank

from
to the

approximately

air or steam

blow

mills

wastewater

to discharge

recovery

of the digester

strippers.

to which

and
stripping.

condensates

are pretreated

as

are discussed

in

in

TABLE

SUMMARY OF EXISTING TECHNIQUES


TO CONTROL
EMISSIONS
FROM PULPING VENT SOURCESa

2-11.

Percent
Vent

emission

Batch

relief

source
gas

Continuous

relief

Batch

gas

blow

gas

controlled

in industryb

Kraft

Sulfite

Semichemical

97

100

95

33

91

92

88

25

Continuous

blow

Turpentine
vent

decanter

73

NAC

Evaporator
(hotwell
noncondensibles)

88

55

NAc

11

57

38

- 0

Deckers

Knotters

NAc

Washer

screens

Washer

filtrate

Washer

hood

vent

gas

tanks

HAP

Data taken from Reference


3.
Sources are assumed to be controlled
with at least
98 percent destruction
efficiency
for VOC and organic
HAP.
only one semi-chemical
mill was
For this analysis,
known to practice chemical recovery and none'were
known to practice turpentine
recovery or bleaching.

2-35

TABLE

2.

Stage

SUMMARY OF EXISTING TECHNIQUES


TO CONTROL
EMISSIONS PROM BLEACH VENT SOURCES

Emission
points
controlled

Bleach lines
controlling
at baselinea
(%)
69

HAP

Assumed
Control
efficiencyb
(%)

Tower
Washer
Seal tank

69
62

First
extraction

Tower
Washer
Seal tank

28
34
51

99% Cl and HCl

Hypochlorite

Tower
Washer
Seal tank

18
26
41

99% Cl and HCl

First
chlorine
dioxide

Tower
Washer
Seal tank

95
79
92

99% Cl and HCl

Second
extraction

Tower
Washer
Seal tank

32
41
59

99% Cl and HCl

Second
chlorine
dioxide

Tower
Washer
Seal tank

76
57
76

99% Cl and HCl

Chlorination

99% Cl and HCl

a Percent controlled
at baseline for individual
bleach stages.
However,
when the level of control is evaluated
on a
sequence
basis, 15 percent of facilities
have all equipment
controlled.
b Control
applied is a scrubber.

TABLE

2-13.

SUMMARY OF ADD-ON CONTROL STATUS


WASTEWATER
EMISSION SOURCESa
Percent

Wastewater

Digester

blow

Turpentine
"Foul"

emission

decanter

evaporator

a
b

plant

of unit processes
controlled

Kraft

SemiChemical

Sulfite

12

underflow

22

NAb

condensates

26

NAb

NAb

condensates

t8Cleantf evaporator
Bleach

source

OF

condensates

wastewater

Data taken from References


1 and 3.
only one semi-chemical
For this analysis,
practice
chemical
recovery and none were
turpentine
recovery or bleaching.

2-37

mill
known

NAb

was known to
to practice

2.3.4

Baseline

Baseline
adjusted

Emissions

emissions

for the effects


as well

regulations,
currently

in place.

operation

points

in Table
total

are essentially

TRS,

VOC,

presented
largest

VOC

emissions

Estimated

in the pulp

and

in Table

the

as additional

Estimates

2-14.

2-14.

for the

contributing
included

using

database

developed

for this

emissions
specific

6.0,

regulations

(Tables

reduction

(Chapter

3.0).

purpose
The

on emission

(e.g.,

emission

estimation

respectively.

are based
data

used

2-11

industry

from process

of total

contributors

to total

HAP,

are

methanol

HAP

is

and total

points.

to estimate
process,

including

the models

are given

in Chapter

estimated

baseline

(Appendix

and
4.0

C), mill-

Federal/State

and capture

of the control

2-38

to be

are summarized

production),

and 2-12),

efficiency

known

in the table,

factors

pulp/bleach

Federal

emissions

emission

of the process

emissions

emissions

and VOC

As shown

emissions

Chapter

baseline

HAP

and

controls

for baseline

national

and

State

and paper

15 major

constituent

Descriptions

of current

uncontrolled

efficiency

devices

and

TABLE

2-14.

SUMMARY

Major

OF ESTIMATED NATIONAL BASELINE


EMISSIONS
FROM CHEMICAL AND SEMI-CHEMICAL
PULPING AND BLEACHING
OPERATIONSa
Emissions

Pollutants

(Mg/yr)

-Total

HAP

170,000

Total

VOC

830,000

Total

reduced

350,000

sulfur

120,000

Methanol
Hexane

18,000

Toluene

14,000

Methyl

ethyl

6,000

ketone

Chloroform

3,300

Chlorine

2,800

Formaldehyde

2,100

Acetaldehyde

2,oou

Methylene

1,200

chloride

Propionaldehyde

700

Acrolein

700
60

Acetophenone
Hydrochloric

Methyl

chloroform

Carbon

disulfide

Baked on process
recovery
sources

59

acid

22
8

operation
emission points only
other than evaporation
are not

2-39

(chemical
included).

2.4

REFERENCES

1.

Responses
to the 1990 U.S. EPA National Census
Manufacturing
Facilities
Paper, and Paperboard
308 Questionnaire
and supplements
(Confidential
Information).
1992.

2.

Memorandum
from Wendy Rovansek,
Radian Corporation,
Pulp and Paper Project Team.
Pulp and Paper Mill
Math II.
June 29, 1993.

3.

1991 Lockwood-Post's
Directory
Allied Trades.
San Francisco,
Publications.
1990.
p. 9.

'4.

Handbook for Pulp & Paper Technologists.


Smook, G.A.
GA,
TAPPI
and Montreal,
Quebec, Canada, Canadian
Atlanta,
Pulp and Paper Association.
1987.
p. 39.

5.

Ref.

6.

Memorandum
from Greene, D.B.
Radian Corporation,
Shedd, S.A., EPA/CPB.
Heat Release Factors.
September
30, 1993.

7.

Environmental
Pollution Control, Pulp and Paper Industry,
Part I, Air.
U. S. Environmental
Protection
Agency,
Technology
Transfer.
Publication
No. EPA-625/7-76-001.
October
1976.
p. l-4, and
pp. 2-10 through 2-11.

8..

Ref.

5, p. 67.

9.

Ref.

5, p. 89.

10.

Ref.

5, p. 91.

11.

McDonald,
R.G. and J.N. Franklin,
eds.
Pulp and Paper
Manufacture:
The Pulping of Wood.
Second Edition.
Volume
1.
New York, McGraw-Hill
Book Company.
1969.
486.
P-

12.

Ref.

5, p.

164.

13.

Ref.

5, p.

124.

14.

Casey, J. Pulp and Paper Chemistry


and Chemical
Technology.
Third Edition.
Volume II.
New York,
Wiley and Sons.
1980.

of Pulp,
Section
Business

of the Pulp, Paper,


Miller Freeman

to

and

4, p. 2.

15.

Ref.

5, p. 40.

16.

Ref.

12, p. 350.

2-40

to

John

17.

Ref.

5, p.

154.

18.

Ref.

5, p.

160.

19.

Ref.

5, p.

170.

20.

Ref.

5, pp.

21.

A comparison
of the Order of
Liebergott,
N., et al.
Addition
of Chlorine and Chlorine Dioxide in the
October 1990.
TAPPI Journal.
Chlorination
Stage.
207.
P*

22.

Ref.

23.

Results of Field Measurements


Release From Pulp Bleaching.
New York, National
Council of
and Stream Improvement,
Inc.

24.

Byrd, Medwich,
Chemical
Pulps
March
Journal,

25.

Code of Federal Regulations,


Applicability
Subpart 280.
Washington,
DC.
facility.
June 23, 1989.
Office.

26.

Responses
to Industry Survey discussed
in the following
J.E. Pinkerton,
National
Council of the Paper
letter:
Industry
for Air and Stream Improvement,
Incorporated
EPA: 15B, and P. Lassiter,
EPA:
(NCASI), to J. Telander,
(Responses
were
claimed
February
11, 1992.
CPB.
confidential
business Information).

5, p.

166 through

167.

158.
of Chloroform
Formation
and
Technical
Bulletin No. 558.
the Paper Industry
for Air
December
1988.' p. 2.

V. Jr., et. al., llDelignification


of
TAPPI
A Literature
Review."
with Ozone:
1992.
Title 40, Part
and designation
U. S. Government

2-41

60,
of affected
Printing

EMISSION

3.0

3.1

chapter

be applied

devices

discusses

to reduce

bleaching

process

are typically
stream

wastewater

stream..

Section

3.2

control

applied

to reduce

techniques

options

that

requirements

commented

that

and

strippers
the

However,

analyses

industry

presented

the methanol

information

based

to date,

provides

data

emission

Industry

has

for scrubbers
are overstated.

chapter

documents

As the

data.

these

comments,

these

data

be considered.
Process

formation

of HAP

by changing
operating
presents

modifications

the

compounds
emission

conditions
a summary

substitutions

and

under

substitutions

in pulping
point

affect

the

and bleaching

or by altering

or process

chemicals

processes

the process

used.1

of the process

modifications

consideration

as candidate

*Table

3-l

and process
control

techniques.
The
oxygen
quantity
thereby
organics

pulping

process

delignification,
of lignin
potentially
formed.

modifications
and

improved

in the pulp
reducing
Appendix

going

(extended
washing)
to the

the quantity
C includes

3-l

in

for

for the

document

on available

to support

or-

are presented

efficiencies

in this

or

(wastewater

NESHAP.

in this

provided

vent

are candidates

removal

presented

3.3

the basis

of the pulp

gas

controls

Section

may provide

reduction

steam

and

Control

point

in the vent

can

and

2.0.

to an emission

of these

that

pulping

in Chapter

HAP's

Details

techniques

from the

discussed

(vent controls)
The

controls).

demonstrated

HAP emissions

points

wastewater

will

TECHNIQUES

INTRODUCTION
This

the

CONTROL

cooking,

reduce
bleach

the

plant,

of chlorinated

emission

factors

for

TABLE

3-l.

PULPING PROCESS MODIFICATIONS


AND BLEACHING PROCESS SUBSTITUTIONSa

Puloina
(modified

Process

Modifications

Extended Cooking
continuous
cook [MCC] and rapid
heating
[RDH])
Oxygen
Improved

Delignification
Brownstock

Washing

Bleachina

Process

Substitutions

Chlorine

Dioxide

Substitution

Elimination
Oxygen/Peroxide
Split

displacement

of Hypochlorite
Use

Chlorine

in Extraction
Addition

Ozonation
a

Reference

1.

3-2

several

of the

discussed

bleach

plant

on reduced

reduction
3.2

modifications

process

in chloroform

This

vents.

Many

pulping

vents

by ducting

bleaching

vents

summary

of the

control

different

lime

kilns

control

and

their

such

bleaching

cooking

liquor.

controlled

combustion

devices

currently
such

of
a

used

to
As

devices

are

currently

evaporator

applicable)

controlled

control

Scrubbing

are also

strategy

and rotary

the scrubber

emission
3-3

followed

points

pulp

to a combustion

pulping

points

that

vents,

enclosed

vacuum

identified

for bleaching

emission

but not fully

remove

vents,

incineration

For pulping

to generate

streams.

those

and-ducting

and

vents

For pulping

evaluated.

considered;

pulping

believed.to

for the

points,

fugitive

by some

their

is used

in the vent

and

vents,

of the pulping

which

dioxide,

emission

were

than

are controlled

typically

scrubbers

were

by conveyance

3-3 presents

(where

and washers

mills

device,

as knotters

followed
Table

frequently

scrubbing

hooded

control

gases,

and

some

mills.2

and blow

a control

evaluated.

being

pulp

combustion

of their

3-2 presents

currently
in kraft

and

relief

sulfur

currently

were

device

Table

process

some

facilities

and bleaching

to a combustion

control

and most

of the methanol

alone,

are applicable

boilers,

These

To determine

scrubbing

used

by scrubbing.

to recover

pulping

vents

as knotters

is used

vents.

less

vents

the majority

devices

that

and bleaching

currently

and hotwells,

Sulfite

facilities.

pulping

by scrubbing.

digester

decanter

devices

to a combustion

pulping

power

Although
sources

facilities

commonly

noncondensibles
turpentine

from

combustion

the most

to achieve

FOR VENTS

control

emissions

kraft

substitutions

and hypochlorite

TECHNIQUES

presents

HAP

and

generation.

CONTROL

section

for reducing

shown,

substitutions

modifications

use of chlorine

APPLICABLE

their

and

above.

The
focus

process

that

(i.e.,

device

point

vent

off gases
by scrubbing
may

fugitive

washers),
was

are

be
points

enclosure
evaluated.

stream

TABLE

3-2.

PERCENT

OF KRAFT

MILLS

USING

COMBUSTION

CONTROL DEVICESa

Combustion
Emission
Batch

digester

Continuous
Batch

W
I
P

Sources

relief

digester

digester

gas

relief

gas

blow gas

Continuous

digester

blow

Turpentine

decanter

vent

Evaporator
vents
(e.g., noncondensibles,

gas

Lime
kiln

Power
boiler

44

Recovery
furnace

device
Incinerator

Total

26

27

97

63

20

95

68

17

91

47

30

88

49

16

73

68

20

88

hotwells)
5

11

11

Deckers

Knotters

Washer

screens

Washer

filtrate

Washer

hood

Data

taken

tanks

vent

from Reference

2.

TABLE

3-3.

TYPICAL

VENT

CHARACTERISTICS

Capacity rangea
(ADT/day)

Emission point
Batch digester blow gas

Flow rateb
iscmW%
pulp/day)

FOR KRAFT

PULPING

EMISSION

POINTS

Temp.b
(OC)

Moisture
content
(%I

Heat content'=
(Kj/scm)

Enclosure
needed fc$
capture

94-1800

1.3

65-100

30-99

70

No

94-1800

0.026

75-150

35-70

No

Digester relief gas

94-1800

0.0026

25-60

3-20

18,400

No

Knotter hood (vibratory


screens)

94-1800

0.9

20-75

2-10

20

Yes

Washer

65-1625

0.9

20-45

2-10

40

Yes

Washer seal tank and foam


tank

65-1625

0.18

55-75

15-35

20

No

Decker/screen

65-1625

0.9

20-45

2-10

0.2

Yes

Evaporator/hotwell

65-1625

0.0027

80-145

50-90

21,300

No

Turpentine condenser

94-1800

0.0026

25-60

3-20

18,800

No

Continuous digester blow


gas

l!l

Capacities are from Reference 3. ADT = Air dried short tons/day.


;: Based on Reference 2. Flow rates are reported at standard conditions of dry gas (21.1C and 760 mm Hg).
C
The heat content is the heat released based on the compounds in the vent stream (reference 4) and is at dry
standard conditions.
d If an emission point is open to the atmosphere (i.e., fugitive), an enclosure is needed for complete capture
prior to conveyance; otherwise, the emission point is assumed to be achieving complete capture and only
requires conveyance.

characteristics

and

prior

to routing

point

characteristics

considered
Section
system

that

devices

for pulping
Vent

Gas

must

to alter

control

device.

Typical
the

hoods

employed
and

(i.e.,

safety
Two

methods

are generally

volumetric

an enclosed

rate.

process

the

vent

points

When
washer

device.
in the transport

it reaches

the

and conveyance

or ductwork,

with

system

the prime

equipment

velocity,

type

and will
organic
When

stream.

mover

(if needed),

stream,

and reducing

vent

Hood

hood

depends

gases

or large,

is

of

ambient
flow

device.
such

as a

using

an

to a

is a function

on the creation

to

are examples

hard-piped

efficiency

3-6

point

stream

to a control

and then

the

used

can be hard-piped

may be captured

collection

which

an emission

vent

is diffuse

emissions

affect

the vent

can be hard-piped

streams:

The method

the introduction

and evaporator

point

vent

compound

the vent

a vent,

or well-enclosed

capture

or enclosures.

reducing

an emission

device.

to capture

thereby

that

control

used

and relative

gases

or decker,

enclosure

point

of the vent

Digester

of vent

rate

device,

into

(2) hoods

emission

flow

concentration

air

and

on the

a control

streams

devices.

(1) hard-piping
depends

devices,.vent

before

gas conditioning

fan),

and bleaching

be conditioned

pipe

control

Svstem

to the control

of the capture

or enclosures,

gas to a

streams.

or existing

its characteristics

components

and transport

vent

from pulping

gas may

be

device.

applicable

and Transnort

and transported

the vent

system

vent

emission

should

control

discusses

enclosures

The

gas collection

and bleaching

stand-alone

be captured

needed

table

and convey

3.2.2

HAP emissions

using

Additionally,

are

to capture

Collection

To control
operations

the vent

Section

device.

in this

an appropriate

discusses

is used

points

device.*r3#4

presented

in selecting

3.2.1

which

to a combustion

control

3.2.1

identifies

of an air

of
flow

that

is sufficient

from

the point

to capture

and draw

constant

volumetric

decreases

as the

in flow

enclosure

for pulping

and

used

stainless

vent

when

of the gas

in the pulp

low cost,

Fiberglass

is commonly

and washer

hoods.

The problems

fiberglass

ducting

in the pulp

charge

and

the

used

industry

with

an

by the
Two materials

are

have

the

for venting

bleach

identified
industry

plant

towers

using

its

inability

the buildup

of hydrocarbons

of

resistance.

with

are

fiberglass
advantages

and corrosion

to prevent

absorption

hood

stream.

ducts

light weight,

grounded

A 34-percent

is determined

in the vent

relatively

be electrically

encJosures

capture.

replacinga

used

Fiberglass

steel.

and the hood

streams.'

material

for ducts

At a

efficiency

vendors,

complete

assumed

of duct

characteristics
commonly

was

with

hood.5

capture

the point

on discussions

reduction

type

hood

between

to achieve

air emitted

into the exhaust

flow rate,

distance

can be constructed

The

the air

air

Based

increases.6

the contaminated

to

of static

in its fiberglass

resin.
Stainless

steel

for non-condensible

is the preferred
gas

(NCG) transport

it resists.corrosion

by water

steel

to corrosion

is susceptible

therefore,

not

streams.9

-Ductwork
gas

cooling

freezing

may

that

be insulated
takes

digester

streams
blow

the

control

vent

device.

emission

point,

captured

(such

place

vents,

gases
When

as pulp

to convey

the

vent

desirable

prime

gases.

movers

compounds,

vent

plant

during

industry,

However,

in transport
3-7

is,
gas

of vent

and to prevent

winter.
such

sufficient

the transport

hood

stainless

the amount

in the ducting

the source

washer

Although

bleach

insufficient

or where

systems.8

and

may have

through

of construction

by chlorides

to reduce

in the duct

in the pulp

gas

and sulfur

for conveying

of moisture

Vent

convey

used

material

as those

from

pressure

to

system

pressure

is provided

of emissions
vents),

has

fans must

fans may
systems

to the
by an,

to be
be used

not be the most


conveying

combustible
occur

at any pulp

spark

source

explosive

for explosions

gases

below

their

proof

concentrations
points

In some

lower

such

'(LVHC) streams
the gas

concentration

typical

safety

of the vent
concentration

Steam
systems

ejectors

of sparks

of NCG's

subsequently
potential

with

vented

impact

content

ejectors

are

concentration

or the
control
knockout

gas

the LEL.

lowers

device.

volume

conditioned

the

been

precaution.
in transport
ejectors

and provide
However,
LEL.

the

amount

stream),
LEL,

have

the system

used

may.be

drums,

streams

potential

Steam

and increased

of steam,
Because

which

of the

device,

of vent

is

such

as

streams,

on high-volume,

low-

streams.12
to alter

of the stream
This

on the

on the

on the control

vent

device.

explosive

NCG's.

to the control

(HVLC)

temperature

of the

movers

which

not normally

vent

as prime

from

steam

tank

arrestors

a significant

of this

heat

Vent

steam,

require

vent

be below

as a safety

are preferred

source

would

based

the

depending

design

the

ejectors

steam

the duct

gases,

The

Flame

of turpentine.
into

for handling

however,

storage

greatly

high-concentration

dilution

reduced

varies

allowed

(LEL).lO

25 percent

handling

eliminate

steam

liquor

level. I1

guideline

operation

design

low-volume,.high-concentration

may exceed

streams

incorporated

weak

document

can

to be the

where

designed

limit

in the vent

as with

(e.g.,

systems

can be used;

in this

problems

been.reported

or improper

explosion

of organics

cases,

have

a fan that was

motors

examined

and operating

in transport

maintenance,
to enter

Explosion

from

upsets

and fans

mill,

inadequate

flaws,
gases

Process

gases.

before

it is vented

may be accomplished

or entrainment

the moisture

separators

using

content
to the

condensers,

in the

gas transport

system.
Preheating
stream
may

is controlled

be preheated

enough

of vent

to affect

gases

with

if their
combustion

is only

a combustion
volumetric

performed

when

the

device.

Vent

streams

flow rates

are

in the control

3-8

device.

large
Preheating

is generally
little

only

for

in hardwood

streams

pulping

where

the

LEL.

For this

explosive

incorporated

through

the

discs

explosions.

provide

real-time

observations

Vent

of vent

percent

destroy

may

arresters

of fires
to prevent

venting
also

stream

gases

be used

parameters

of combustible

to
such

compounds

at elevated

dioxide

a wide

fuel

(approximately
gas

has

organic

of vent

First,

if the

100 Btu/scf
stream

compounds

sufficient

oxygen

will

devices

oxidize

have

by at least

a high

enough

ascombustion

content

vent

gas stream

or greater).l6#17

may be used

operate

enough

oxygen

in controlling

has

compound

been

98 percent

and VOC characteristics.15

the vent

stream

control

devices

to a high

Combustion

stream

are used

devices.

auxiliary

vent

range

These

of sufficient

and water. I4

strategies

combustion

heated

Combustion

of the organic

temperatures.

any VOC

to control

Devices.

structure

in the presence

-documented

Two

that

Devices

Control

the chemical

principle

to carbon

Control

Combustion

temperature

stream

by rapidly

be

in transport

are used

equipment

the

LEL).

by oxidation

under

system

Monitoring

and volume

3.2.2.1

the

transport

Applicable

on the

found

Rupture

during

devices

typically

must

Flame

system.

system.

gas

below

devices

the propagation

to the

3.2.2

are components

processes,

potentially

prevent

damage

(percent

contain
safety

streams

assumed.

arresters

duct

as temperature

that

is

vent

pulping

was

with

be more

is sufficiently

the gas transport

discs
Flame

systems.

softwood

concentrations,

into

rupture

streams

of explosion

and washer

no preheating

vent

compound

and

or streams

therefore

as knotter

concentration

analysis,

ducting

would

processes

turpentine

When

such

streams

the risk

Preheating

low.13

applicable

on HVLC

where

or no turpentine,

sufficiently

and

practiced

gases

with

may

be used

heat

content

as

Secondly,
air

if the

(approximately

20 percent).
Because
combustion

the
control

basic

operating

devices

principle

is similar,
3-9

the

of the various
factors

that

affect

their

destruction

efficiency

are also

destruction

efficiency

temperature

of the combustion

time

of these

of the pollutant

mixing

in the

the hot
times

gases

for

chamber

achieving
range

from

of the combustion

amount

content

the moisture

0.25

and the

content

oxygen, and
residence

98 percent
to 1.5 seconds.18

chamber

of the fuel

of the

the residence

chamber,

at least

The temperature

air,

(or zone),

of the pollutant,
Typical
by combustion.14

efficiencies

and heat

is a function

chamber

generated

incinerators

destruction

devices

in the combustion

combustion

The

similar.

depends

burned,

of the stream,

on the

the percent

and the

excess

amount

of

oxygen.
Applicable
include

lime

combustion

kilns,

incinerators,

and

power

devices

98 percent

or greater.
lime

integral
routed

to these

operation

because
these

and

of process
devices

will

correspond

with

emissions.

For

b-3.

average

unscheduled

combustion
were

element
mud

of the

(calcium

temperatures

after

combustion

kiln.

causticizing

encountered

The

1 and

in the

3-10

may

also
the

processes

furnace
data

goes

show

5 percent

down

an

for pulp

these

is an essential

is used

calcium

lime kiln

gases.

per year.

lime kiln

to produce

time,

generate

purposes,

350 days

and

this

vent

Available

as

down

service

its recovery

cycle,

such

During

pulping

be

the normal

shut

that

of
are

may

devices

device

For costing

to operate

carbonate)

with

to control

between

of these

streams

interfering

reserve.

devices.19

Lime

vent

may halt

thermal

furnace

are occasionally

a mill

section

efficiencies

of the processes

downtime

each

and recovery

in combustion

liquor

assumed

3.2.2.1.1

operated,

or maintenance.

shortly

of limited

furnaces,

not be available

example,

f digestion)

devices

upsets

suspension

because

mill

Mill

boilers

interruptions

-However,

recovery

However,

without

process.

power

in this

destruction

boiler,

processes.

of the

lime kilns

power

devices

discussed

Properly

can achieve

kiln,

to mill

boilers,

flares.

combustion

The

devices

to calcine

oxide.

lime

The high

(950 to 1,250oC)

make

it very

efficient

efficiencies
The

reported

lime

as a control

kiln
device

digester

NCG's,

and evaporator

are generally
been

used

vent

these

vent

practiced

to the

applicable

points

HAP-laden

drum)

kiln.

pulp

to the

liquid

(i.e.,
and

entrainment

a potential

the kiln

exhaust

HVLC

processes

(e.g.,

pulp

depending

on the

volumes

of the

if high
vent

is

of explosions

too

lime kiln

may

from

flow

large

rate

to vent

be less

streams.
from venting

condenser,

in sulfur

washers)

levels

gases

HAP

are the generation

of the
equipment

or knock-out

oxides

compounds

streams

streams

content.

any gas conditioning

due to the TRS

condensate

these

heat

the LEL

system

gas streams

The volumetric

vent

increase

The

LVHC

fuel because

separator,

streams.

as digester

vent

resulting

from

industry

These

is usually

the

pulp

such

of the risk

lime kiln

stream

in the

sufficient

washers

impacts

98 percent.

recovery

stream.13

Therefore,

cross-media

emission

used

in the vent

control

turpentine

exceed

because

with

points

Preheating

for controlling

The

may

present.

by typical

lime

gases.

streams

generally

generated

gases,

to contain

are

turpentine

emission

as supplementary

of turpentine
not

than

demonstrated

blow

demonstrated

However,

the

been

for LVHC

gases,

VOC,

to.,be greater

has

relief

have

in destroying

emissions

in the pulping

may be recycled

back

or sent to wastewater

and characteristics

from
vent

to mill
treatment

of the wastewater

generated.
3.2.2.1.2
coal,

natural

Power
gas,

boiler.

oil,

wood

Power
waste,

boilers,

are designed

to produce

for mill

operations.

Power

than

or equal

temperatures
excellent

(generally

control

destruction
Power

Btu/hr

greater

devices,

than

providing

which

or combination

heat,

boilers

to 150 million

boilers,

steam,

with

fuel-fired

and electricity'

capacities

operate

include

greater

at high -

l,OOOC)

and can serve

at least

98 percent

as

of VOC.*O
boilers

have

as a control

device

be preferred

over

been

demonstrated

for pulping

the

lime kiln

vent

emission

for burning

3-11

in the pulp
points,
vent

gases

industry
and may
because

they

have

than

the

less
lime

downtime

and can handle

kiln.*l

The vent

is generally

the

combustion

air needed

may

also

as auxiliary

vented

to the power

relief
LEL,
the

high

and blow

power

gases

at the

would

be below

fuel

credit

moisture
when

and

Power

these

scrubbed

to remove

power

have

boiler

in an accelerated
Information
techniques

existing

to the
kilns

power

recover

stream

may

prior

streams

would

be

to

However,

boilers

to the

the

likely

result

from

is not available.

gas streams

are discussed

identical

first

to an

in Chapter

venting
to those

HAP

The

5.0.

emission

discussed

points

for lime

3.2.2.1.1.
Recovery

of the kraft
the

are

the

of gas conditioning

to power

resulting

with

the

of the boiler.

for venting

device

boiler

3.2.2.1.3

ducted

considered
devices.23

chlorinated

streams

in the

to control

evaluated.

the use

and basis

impacts

in Section

heart

detailing

combustion

cross-media

rate

The

value.

combustion

associated

vent

streams,

the stream's

of the halogens

fully

of to

and TRS,

were

applied

the

instead

fuel

a halogenated

corrosion

for vents

assumptions

gases

plant

may approach

of heating

of venting

not been

as digester

temperatures,

the majority
impacts

streams

of the organics

to.existing

vent

of bleach

introduction

The

streams

such

However,

methanol

some

of combustion

However,

process.

The

have

streams

system,

in the HVLC

are not currently

bleaching

combustion.

contain

still

po-ints

recovery

to the lime kiln

fuel penalty

halogenated

such

pulping,

concentrations

as the

gases.

or all of
the stream

and HVLC

turpentine

vent

streams

the heat

boilers

unscrubbed

vented

air to combustion

venting

LVHC

softwood

the LEL yet

from

although

of turpentine,

Other

reported

as well

stream,

hood

from

often

boiler.

which

washer

levels

and are more

gas volumes

as part

The emission

gases,

and pulp

contain

fue1.22

and blow

evaporator,

used

boiler,

are both

relief

that

by the

boiler

as digester

vent

..

gas stream

serve

larger

furnace.

liquor

chemicals

used

recovery

The recovery

furnace

is the

process,

is used

to

in cooking

and

liquor.

Furnaces

3-12

generally
least

as excellent

serve

a 98 percent

operating

destruction

temperatures

The

recovery

as a control

However,

this

device

combustion

of the

of explosions.

because

water

gases

furnace. l5
furnace

The

would

controlled

vent

in the

Recovery
halogenated

the majority
of venting

The

points

of lime

on the

dioxide

and water

or burners
Although
example

then
sized

temperature

for

by the

the

recovery

and

LEL to those

receive

with

stream

first

may
prior

streams

impacts

are many

the unscrubbed

the bleaching

process.

be scrubbed

to remove
The

to combustion.

to the recovery

resulting

furnace

impacts
have

that

are

similar

to those

3.2.2.1.1.
Thermal

to a high
amount

chamber

combustion

oxidation

to reach
3-13

vent

streams.

stream,

and a
chamber

cornbusting

at the

completion

an

A discrete

chamber.

time

a burner

designs,

3-l.

of hot

in

A thermal

containing

in a premixing

The mixture

to carbon

temperature

incinerator

for the vent

enough

oxidize

of oxygen.24

in Figure

the mixture

incinerators

enough

VOC-containing

are arranged

the main

HAP

any VOC will

different

mixing.

venting

furnace

incinerator.

an inlet

from

in Section

is shown

inlet

into

to allow

in the

associated

to oxidize

burner,
air

smelt

characteristics

is a refractory-lined

thorough

passes

with

controlled

if heated

incinerator

combustion

controlled

boiler.

principle

used

dual-fuel

gases

for

because

bedin

of a sufficient

there

of turpentine

the

Thermal

operate

incinerator

not preferred

violently

to the recovery

3.2.2.1.4

the presence

levels

points.

moisture

as discussed

kilns,

emission

is generally

vent

in the pulp

evaluated.

cross-media

emission

demonstrated

do not currently

gases

1,000C).15

to remove

of the halogens

fully

exceeding

be conditioned

power

chlorinated

not been

high

The

similar

furnaces
vent

of their

high

streams

a halogenated

However,

ensure

react

have

of VOC because

for HVLC

with

should

may

at

device

vent

furnace

providing

has been

controlling

recovery

devices,

(generally

furnace

industry

risk

control

This

to

gases

chamber

is

elevated
(residence

times

Vent Strwn
Inlet
(21

c
AUXilllsn/
Bumm

TY-)

O@iond Hut
~

/ GL--J

Air
Inlet
(31

(4)

Figure 3-1.

(8;
Combudon
Chmbw
(5)

Discrete Burner, Thermal Incinerator

3-14

of 0.3 to 1.0 seconds


demonstrated
achieve

that

properly

98 percent

Performance

are common)..
operated

or greater

thermal

destruction

tests

have

incinerators

can

efficiency

for most

in the pulp

industry

voc;15
Incinerators

have

as an applicable
and

emissions,
vent

streams.

that

can

been

control
can

streams

standard

cubic

cubic

feet

minute).

with

a heat

for reducing

with

meters

content

streams

from

burning

supplemental

per minute

However,

the pulp
fuel

rates

gaseous

both

thermal

flow

less than

as vent

to control

single-unit

1,400

per

device

be designed

Package

control

demonstrated

LVHC

and HVLC

incinerators
in the

range

of 14 to

(500 to 50,000

combustion

washers,

stream

100 Btu/scf,

usually

to maintain

standard

of a vent

approximately

exist

such.

requires

the desired

combustion

temperature.4rl5
Incinerators
absorbers

can be used

to reduce

However,

thermal

temperatures

to oxidize

in order

through

absorption

scrubber.25
application
It has

the

the vent
flame

due

gas

entrainment

prior

is practiced

auxiliary
survey

33 percent

with

can

fuel
use

whether

heat

operation

that

that

to remove

also'reported
preheating

none

recovery

with
of the

heat

because

explosions.26

3-15

some

responded

Loss

to
from

of

in the

of the vent

recovery

facilities

and

moisture

Although

the use of an incinerator.

be designed

costs,

was

routed

tower

to an incinerator.26

moisture

are

and then

survey

of the mills

separators

to venting

It is not known

incinerators

the

in a literature

higher

compounds.

incinerator

the

been

to excessive

survey. *'

discusses

vents.

requires

as a packed

equipment.

reported

VOC

temperature

such

3.2i3.2.3

the

gas

plant

organic

of absorption

use

gas

their

equipment,

(approximately

survey)

from

with

bleach

of halogenated

streams

to lower

Section

from

the halogenated

exhaust

quenched

mills

HAP emissions

oxidation

The halogenated

in conjunction

to reduce

that

of the risk

responded
of _

to

Cross-media
points

impacts

resulting.from

to an incinerator

from

the gas-conditioning

from

the

vent

nitrogen

carbon

associated

with

condensate

streams

streams

may

the

or sent

volumes

generated.

gases

from

equipment

incinerator
has not been

disposed

and

of,

back

fully

gases

caustic

is typically

sent

moisture

oxides

The

emissions

impact

of

These

processes

(e.g., pulp

depending

is used

brine

generated

hydrocarbons,

evaluated.

scrubber

with

stream

to remove

treatment,

exhaust,

emission

unburned

to mill

If a gas

incinerator
acid

used

exhaust.

to wastewater

neutralizing

liquid

and sulfur

monoxide,

be recycled

washers)

the

and potentially

stream,

oxide,

involve

venting

on

the

to remove

solution,

formed

solution,

must

acid
when

be

to the wastewater

treatment

system.
3.2.2.1.5
which

the

ambient
flares

Flare.

oxygen

air
have

Flares

necessary

shown

of 98 percent

of accepting

fluctuations

and

are

rate

applicable

vent

content

reason,

facilities

devices

such

Gas

sulfur

control

chorine,

plant

absorbers.

dioxide

from

sulfite

hydrochloric

acid,

vent

streams.

Polar

are

also

removed.

This

scrubbers
part

In the
gas mixture
pollutant

and

flow rate

and variable

for proper

as backup

to primary

Gas absorbers

plant

integral

are capable

sufficient

stream

industry

operated,

flow

heat
operation.

systems

at a

combustion

as lime kilns.

recover

methanol

batch,

are only used

in the pulp

3.2.2.2

bleach

flares

Flares

However,

in the vent

by the

Properly

in VOC concentration

applications.

in

destruction

or greater.28

for continuous,

is necessary

For this
few

stream

VOC/HAP

devices

is provided

of the flame.

to have

efficiencies

combustion

for combustion

in the proximity
been

are open

because
of the

chemical

absorption
are

sulfite

diffuses

from

pulping

and chlorine

organic
section

pulping

recovery

process,

dissolved

mill

vent

and to

dioxide
such

discusses
scrubbers

in
as
bleach

are an

process.

soluble

into the

3-16

to

vents

compounds
only

components

in the scrubbing
the gas

are used

medium.
caustic

of a waste
The
solution

when

the

liquid

contains

the gaseous

less than

the equilibrium

The difference

component.

concentration

and the equilibrium

driving

for absorption.2g

force

Figure
tower

3-2 presents

using

compounds

passes

tower,
tower

near

the

to increase
'absorbing

solute

from

mill

the

recovery
from

from

bleach

caustic

caustic

solution.

chilled

water.30

Removal

of the

efficiencies
caustic

as high

chloride

and

Removal
99 percent.
approach
have

thus

lowering

air

the

control
Using

modeling

used

in

and

chemical
(a byproduct

sulfur

vary

fresh

dioxide

based

and

on

and.the

Chlorine

removal

documented

to form

with

sodium

hypochloride.

polar

example,

removal,

compounds

as methanol

the waste

efficiencies

0 to

as chloroform

removal.31
may

treatment
of the

from

as methanol

such

0 percent)

such

range

such

and compounds

from

overall

compounds

compounds

(approximately

atmosphere
the

the

or from

been

reacts

the top

filtrates

solution,

have

For

absorbed

into

chlorine

from

bisulfite

absorbed.

for other

99 percent

back

being

helps

and the

caustic

stage

include

of absorbing

the

tower

solution

absorbers

efficiencies

insignificant

However,

for gas

The

sodium

used

of the

absorbing

operations),

as 99 percent

solution.30

exits

from the

sodium

media

compound

and

flows

absorbing

wash

manufacturing

the type

solution

extraction

liquor,

Other

bottom

is typically

weak

efficiencies

design,

solubility

plant

white

chemical

The

scrubbers

sewer),

process,

some

column

plant

the

to the vapors,

gas phase. 2g

the

containing

soluble.compounds

The absorbing

the

absorption

in the absorber

the

countercurrent

bleach

originates
(i.e.,

between

near

of

actual

provides

stream

material,

The packing

solution.

column,

is introduced

the packing

top.

contact

of the

pulp

through

the

of a packed

The vent

flow.

to be absorbed

between

concentration

a schematic

countercurrent

concentration

volatilize
process,

scrubber

as an

device.
an Advanced

approach,

System

for Process

the scrubber

removal

3-17

Engineering

efficiencies

(ASPEN)
for

(5) ah
Or out
toFldcontrol~
or to Atmosphere

poo&hrJ suppolt

-I-

1
(4)

Absorbing Uquid
with VOC out to Dispowl
or VOCEohmt
Racovcwy

Figure 3-2.

Packed Tower Absorption Process

3-18

(1)voc&@

specific

compounds

scrubber

effluent

to approximate
the modeled

were

estimated.31

The emissions

(due to volatilization)

a net emission

scrubber

were

reduction.3l

removal

from

then

Table

efficiencies

the

estimated

3-4 presents

and net

emission

reductions.
The

cross-media

absorbers

with

plant

into

as the

in the

be removed

streams

from

VOC,

HAP

from

gas

condensation
pressure

approximately

are currently

used

to condition

.Organics,

such

digester

blow

of condensers
some

control

streams
The

gases

resulting

wastewater

they

are sent

(e.g.,

pulp

treatment,

vent

to create

(e.g.,

the partial

to its vapor
limited

in the pulp

industry

to

moisture.

be recovered
The

removal

as high

from
efficiency

as 90 percent

in

be ,used as supplemental
content

compounds

from

to the primary

and

remove

LVHC

and HVLC

control

may

be recycled

washers),

steam

stripped,

depending

on the volumes

3-19

air),

unit.32

moisture

streams

when

system

for a single

also

may also

organic

condensate

enough

are typically

condensers.

to lower

In this

from

by removing

can

HAP's

condensation.

but can achieve

explosive

before

processes

using

Condensers

techniques

potentially

gases

as turpentine,

varies,

cases.33

vent

effluent

and volatile

is equal

scfm)

fresh

process.

(saturation)

compound

This

use

scrubber

is non-condensible

(2,000

primarily

the bleach

In a two-component

phase.

flow capacities

57 scmm

with

are separated

at dew point

volatile

Condensers

using

of a brine

facilities

VOC,

the gas temperature

Condenser

pressure.

streams

components

gas

operations,

and use the

and moisture

occurs

of the

Some

Moisture,

to liquid

one of the

sewered

of the bleaching

vent

using

treatment

4.0.

medium

stage

by lowering

change
where

in Chapter

Condensers.

3.2.2.3

technique,

is typically

scrubbing

extraction

with

is the production

the wastewater

is discussed

caustic

associated

solution

solution

effluent

impact

can

a caustic

This

solution.

impact

device.

back

to mill

or sent
generated.

to

TABLE

3-4.

SCRUBBER

REDUCTION

ESTIMATES

Estimated
Scrubber
Removal
(%)b

Estimated
Reduction
(%)c

Chlorine

99

99

Hioh Solubilitv
Methanol
Acetone
Formaldehyde
2,4,5-Trichlorophenol
Pentachlorophenol
Chlorophenolics
Hydrochloric
Acid
Chlorine
Dioxide

99

75

Medium Solubilitv
Methyl Ethyl'Ketone
Acrolein
Acetaldehyde
Propionaldehyde
Dichloroacetaldehyde

60

35

Low Solubilitv
Chloroform
Carbon Tetrachloride
Methylene
Chloride
Toluene
l,l,l-Trichloroethane
Alpha-Pinene
Beta-Pinene
Chloromethane
p-Cymene

M-w

70

Compound

Classificationa

Average
a

High-solubility
Compounds
are classified
by solubility.
compounds
have solubilities
greater than. or equal to
methanol;
low-solubility
compounds
have solubilities
less
than or equal to chloroform;
medium-solubility
compounds
were between methanol and chloroform.

Based on a model scrubber designed to remove 99 percent of


the chlorine,
99 percent of the methanol was removed and
less than 1 percent of the chloroform
was removed.
(Reference
30)

The volatility
of the speciated
compounds
was evaluated
and
a fraction
emitted was estimated
based on the mass removed
in the scrubber
effluent.

3-20

3.2.2.4
used

in the

pulp

HVLC

vent

APPLICABLE

3.3

generated.

of the

some

streams

from

describes

the

wastewater

to

collection
and

air

to the atmosphere

and

air.34

used

to reduce

HAP

Section

to reduce

system.

Sections
with

Many

ambient

used

strippers

units.

of

to the

devices

points.

are

a series

to treatment

to be emitted

wastewater

compounds

through

are open

control

EMISSION

recovery

HAP

passes

sent

units

techniques

steam

can be -used

and chemical

containing

being

HAP's

discusses

emissions

carbon

FOR WASTEWATER

wastewater

system

of the

section

discuss

bleaching,

before

collection

allow
This

pulping,

units

incineration,

OL TECHNIQUES

Generally,

collection

regenerative

CONT

wastewater

processes,

with

are not currently

streams.

POINTS
In wood

adsorbers

although

industry,

in conjunction

adsorbers,
control

Carbon

Adsorbers.

3.3.1

HAP

emissions

3.3.2

vent

briefly
from

the

and 3.3.3

control,

respectively.
3.3.1

Wastewater
To reduce

wastewater
system

Collection

HAP

points

that

emissions

strippers)

reduce

amount

using

and

covers

treatment

emissions

3.3.2

Steam

pulping

basic
contact

seals

with

in such

can

a way

as to

be accomplished

on collection

the wastewater

by

system
point

provides

Vent

to the

the best

control

Control

Steam

principle
with

used

in condensate

of wastewater

for vaporization

operations

the HAP-containing

This

are currently

loading

processes.

of steam

the collection

to treatment

between

device

and bleaching

from wastewater.

strippers

operating

2.0,

be designed

air.

or control

Strinoer

compound

distillation

ambient

Hard-piping

of HAP

sulfur

of contact

the

system

Steam

should

and water

components.35

in Chapter

the wastewaters

(including

wastewater

from the pulping

described

conveys

the

System

stripping

wastewater.

of the more

organic

stripping
This

volatile
3-21

streams
involves

to remove
of steam

to reduce

generated
the

and

by the

fractional

compounds.

The
is the direct

contact

organic

organic

provides
compounds.37

heat

the steam

At a pulp

mill,

or it can

be integrated

In the
containing

Heat

column.
injection

packing

steam

the vapor

and water

The vapor

as reflux.
combustion

stripper
reused

that

cools

feed

stream.

in the

process

wastewater

treatment

evaporator

overhead
to the

next

direct

the

sent

the

stripper

Steam

the

been

The

steam

the

greatest

compounds

the

is either

or discharged

to

tank

from

the reflux

case,

into

tank

the

is routed

incorporated

effect

and HAP

emission

to

thesteam

are typically

reductions

characteristics,

as the collection
efficiencies

reported

ranging

in the

design

and

as the

(For a given
3-22

and operation

from

operating

of

systems.

75 to

parameters

performance

(or height

In general,

number

as organic

literature.40

of trays
(SFR).

are highly

and treatment

number
ratio

such

and the design

on the removal

packing) increases.

steam,

is also

effect

increases

In this

3-3.

with

device.

stripper

are the

steam-to-feed

efficiency

gases

removal

have

a heat

and preheats

is predominantly

composition,

as well

stripper

99 percent

have

VOC

and

in Figure

which

on wastewater

concentration

in an

3.2.2.39

can be integrated

from the upstream

to a combustion

dependent

through

water)

stripper

A reflux

vent

Achievable

in Section

wastewater

as wash

as shown

effects.

The

incinerated

wastewater

stripped

(i.e.,

stream,

bottoms

stripper.

The

to the-stripper

is then

is passed

the treated

a steam

set,

vapor

stream

stream

operations.

Alternatively,
the

stream

or

partially

back

as described

device,

wastewater

routed

trays

liquid

vapor

is typically

the condensate

with

and

the overhead

industry,

by direct

of the column.38

between

with

exchanger

column

contact

condensed,

treated

to the stripping

wastewater

stripping

are equipped

organics

The

to the

columns

containing

on-site

process,

is pumped

system

effects.

stripping

In the pulp

column

stripping

into the bottom

to provide

phases.

steam

is provided

can be a stand-alone

the evaporator

compounds

of steam

Generally,

into

stand-alone
organic

stripper

of trays
stripper

of organic

of packing)
the

that

and

removal

(height
system,

of
there

will

4
Vent to
Evaporator
Vent to
Control Drvicr

Effect N+ 1 ,
4-

- -

- I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
8
6
I
Reflux Stream

.
To Wastswater
Treatment or

2.J
W

Reused Wkhin
the Process

Stripper Feed Stream

Stream From

Evaporator
Effect N + 1
Stripper Feed
Stream

Feed/Bottomr
Heat Exchanger

Reflux Tank

- -

I
1

Vapor Stream

Figure 3-3.

Continuous Integrated Steam Stripper System

.
.

Steam
d; uP$J
P

be a maximum
additional
An

number

of trays

removal

will

increase

stripping

will

flow through

of organics

increase

into the vapor

heat

is provided

additional

water

is also

volatilized.

in the SFR ratio

is also

normally

rate

beyond

the column.

additional

in the steam

height)

which

no

be achieved.)

in the SFR ratio

the vapor-to-liquid
the

(packing

flowing

when

the ratio

This

phase.

the steam

of

increases

Because

rate

is increased,

Therefore,

an increase
by an increase

accompanied

out of the column

in the overhead

stream.41

on responses to an industry

Based
used

for controlling

pulping

1.5 lb. stream/gal.


then

used

compound

removed

(Fr) and compound

HAP

These

removals

Fr's

the

streams

The Kremser

a relationship

SFR of 1.5 lb/gal.43


Predicted

wastewater

wastewater.

to generate

survey,

between
Henry's

average

is
equation

the

Law

was

fraction

constant

are summarized

at an SFR of 1.5 lb/gal

SFR

of
at an

in Table
range

3-5.

from

90

to 99 percent.42
Steam

strippers

to reduce

TRS

and chemical
Typically,
from

and

the blow

evaporators.

stripped

used

turpentine

Liquid

streams

involve

wastewater

impacts

of nitrogen,

be emitted

being

associated

Criteria

the

fossil

vent

fuel burning

generated

from

feed

and must

analysis,

no auxiliary

stripper
this

overheads

stream

offsets

vent

the fuel

because

required

temperature.23
3-24

be

use of steam
and stripped

sulfur

required

dioxide,
will
to

Sludges _.may be
be disposed.
For this

is necessary

stream

may also

and particulates)

the stripper.

fuel

the

(i.e.,

to operate
tanks

and the

gases

stream

generate the steam


the

streams

sewered.
with

pollutants

carbon monoxide

from

process

any gas-conditioning

the organic-laden

stream.

system,

from vent

before

industry

or condensates.

to condensate

recovery
from

pulp

in pulping

wastewater

moisture

organics

in the

loading

is applied

tank,

cross-media

strippers

also

evaporator

to remove

used

compound

stripping

to remove

The

oxides

organic

recovery
steam

equipment

are currently

for burning
the heat

to bring

the steam

content

of.

to combustion

TABLE

3-5.

HAP

STEAM

STRIPPER.REMOVAL

EFFICIENCIES

Removal

Compound

Efficiencya

Acetaldehyde

99

Acrolein

99

2-Butanone

99

(MEK)

Formaldehyde

99

Methanol

90

Propionaldehyde

99

Total

Reduced

Sulfur

94b

(TRS)

Removal
efficiency
is based on a steam-to-feed
1.5 pounds of steam per gallon of wastewater.
(Reference
42)

Removal
efficiency
for TRS is based on the average removal
efficiencies
for hydrogen
sulfide, dimethyl disulfide,
dimethyl
sulfide, and methyl mercaptan.

3-25

ratio

of

Air

3.3.3

Strioner

Another
wastewater
stripping
volumes

control
is air

of air

rate

phase.43

The

combustion

for reducing

stripping.

through

overhead

The underlying

equilibrium.

the contaminated
resulting

of the organic
vent

HAP

emissions

principle

stream

for air

By forcing

large

water,

air-water

the

in an increase

compounds

from

into

is then

in the

the vapor
sent

to a

device.

Although

recovery

Control

technique

is increased,

transfer

in the

Vent

is vapor-liquid

interface

industry

with

air

strippers

to reduce
condensate

TRS

be effectively

emissions,

streams

operations,

have

from

been

the organic

the blow'tank,

and evaporators

controlled

employed

in the pulp
concentrations
turpentine

are generally

too high

by an air stripper.

3-26

'I

to

3.4

REFERENCES

1.

Summary of Technologies
for the Control and Reduction
of
Chlorinated
Organics from the Bleach Chemical Pulping
Subcategories
of the Pulp and Paper Industry.
Protection
Agency, Office of Water
u* s. Environmental
April 27,
Washington,
D.C.
Regulations
and Standards.
1990.
pp. 20, 22, 25 through 27, 43, 54, and 63.

2.

Responses
to Industry Survey discussed
in the following
National Council of the Paper
J.E. Pinkerton,
letter:
Industry
for Air and Stream Improvement,
Incorporated
EPA: 15B, and P. Lassiter,
EPA:
(NCASI), to J. Telander,
(Responses were claimed
February
11, 1992.
CPB.
confidential
business information).

3.

Environmental
Pollution
Control,
U.S. Environmental
Part 1, Air.
Publication
Technology
Transfer.
October
1976. p. l-4.

4.

Memorandum
from Greene, D.B., Radian Corporation,
Heat Release Factors.
Shedd, S.A., EPA/CPB.
September
30, 1993.

5.

Industrial
Committee
on Industrial
Ventilation.
Ann Arbor, Michigan,
Ventilation.
19th Edition.
p. 4-l.
1986.
Brothers
Incorporated.

Pulp and Paper Industry,


Protection
Agency.
No. EPA/625/7-76-001.

Air Pollution
Alley.
Boston, PWS Engineering.

to

Edwards

Control:
1986.

6.

Cooper, C.D. and


Design Approach.
PP. 219-220.
.

7.
-

Memorandum
from Greene,
and Paper NESHAP File.
costs.
July 21, 1993.

8.

Collection
and Burning of Kraft Non-Condensible
Gases Current Practices,
Operating
Experience,
and Important
Technical
Bulletin
Aspects
of Design and Operation.
No. 469.
New York, National
Council of the Paper
August 29,
Industry
for Air and Stream Improvement,
Inc.
1985.
p. 40.

9.

An Investigation
of Corrosion
in Particulate
Control
Equipment.
U. S. Environmental
Protection
Agency, Office
Publication
Washington,
DC.
of General Enforcement.
February
1981.. p. 38.
No. EPA-340/l-81-002.

10.

Ref.

F.C.

D.G., Radian Corporation,


to Pulp
Brownstock
Washer Enclosure

8, p. 41.

3-27

11.

Fourth Edition.
OAQPS Control Cost Manual.
Protection
Agency, Office of Air
u. s. Environmental
Quality Planning and Standards.
Research Triangle Park,
January 1990.
Publication
No. EPA 450/3-90-006.
NC.
3-26.
P*

12.

Ref.

8, p. 42.

13.

Ref.

8, p. 51.

14.

Hazardous
Air Pollutant
Emissions
from Process Units in
the Synthetic
Organic Chemical Manufacturing
Industry-Background
Information
for Proposed Standard.
Volume lB,
Control Technologies.
U. S. Environmental
Protection
Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.
Agency,
Research
Triangle Park, NC.
EPA-453/D-92-Ol.66.
November
1992.
pp. 2-8 and 2-9.

15.

Memorandum
from Farmer, Jack R., EPA/CPB to Ajax,
Thermal Incinerators
and Flares.
al., EPA/CPB.
August 22, 1980.

16.

Ref.

17.

Memorandum
from Pandullo, R.F., Radian Corporation,
to
Barbour,
W., Radian Corporation,
Evans, L., U.S. EPA, et
al.
Summary of April 11 Meeting to Discuss Thermal
Incinerator
Cost Issues.
April 27, 1990.

18.

Ref.

19.

Telecon.
Bagley, C.J., Radian Corporation,
J
Hartford
Steam Boiler, July 19, 1993.
P&cent
Downtime.

20.

Ref.

14, p. 2-18.

21.

Ref.

8, p. 56.

22.

Memorandum
from Seaman, J.C., Radian Corporation,
to
Project
File.
Control of Pulping Vent Streams in an
Existing
Combustion
Device.
September
29, 1993.

23.

Memorandum
from Greene, D.B.,
Project
File.
Fuel Penalty.

24.

Ref.

14, p. 2-7.

25.

Ref.

14, p. 2-10.

26.

Ref.

8, p. 59.

27.

Ref.

8, p. 60.

28.

Ref.

14, p. 2-6.

B., et

8, p. 50

14, pp.

2-12 and 2-18.

3-28

with Halt,
Discussion
of

Radian Corporation,
October 8, 1993.

to

29.
30.

Ref.

14, PP*

2-48

and 2-49.

Bleach Plant Chlorine and Chlorine Dioxide Emissions


and
New York,
Technical
Bulletin No. 616.
Their Control.
. National
Council of the Paper Industry for Air and Stream
pp 2 to 10.
Improvement,
Inc., September
1991.

31.

Memorandum
from Olsen, T.R., Radian Corporation,
Model Scrubber Removal
Shedd, S.A., EPA/CPB.
September
17, 1993.
Efficiencies.

to

32.

Ref.

33.

Control Technologies
Air and
Handbook.
Office of Research
Protection
Agency,
EPA/625/6-86/014.

34.

Industrial
Wastewater
Volatile Organic Compound
Information
for BACT/LAER
Emissions --Background
U. S. Environmental
Protection
Agency,
Determinations.
Research Triangle
Park, NC.
Control Technology
Center.
January
1990.
p. 3-2
Publication
No. EPA-450/3-90-0.04.
and 3-3.

35.

Ref.

34, p. 4-20.

36.

Ref.

34, p. 4-22.

37.

Ref.

34, p. 4-3.

38.

Ref.

34, p. 4-4.

39.

Ref.

8, p.'30.

40.

Ref.

34, p. 4-14.

41.

Ref.

34;p.

42.

Memorandum
from Fortier, G.E., Radian Corporation,
to
Design Steam-to-Feed
Pulp and Paper NESHAP Project File.
Ration of a Steam Stripper in Pulp Mills and Development
September
3, 1993.
of Fraction
Removed Values.

43.

Ref.

14, p. 2-33.
for Hazardous
Air Pollutants
Energy Engineering
Research
Laboratory
U. S. Environmental
and Development.
Research Triangle Park, NC.
September
1986.
p. 27.

4-13.

34, p. 4-18.

3-29

4.0

This

chapter

developed
pulp

MODEL

the

industry,

and the

controls

and that
options

are

techniques

likely
the

currently

Section

impacts

to estimate

national

emissions.

MODEL
This

model

environmental

in Section
PROCESS

models

were

of control
emission

in estimating

2.0).

washing

processes,

evaporation
applicable).
bleaching

The

and

the units

The

emission

for an example
4.3,

developed
were

control
mill

are

respectively.

as chemical

models

used

document

represents

delignification
area

processes

represents

to analyze
4-l

the

impacts
the

were

divided

in

the pulping

recovery

has commented

and

analysis,

(as discussed

as well

Industry

of the

of

of how these

emissions

of this

areas

bleaching

of the development

national

area

process.

and bleaching

air,

and how

pulping

oxygen

The

include

description

the scope

bleaching

Chapter

the MACT.

units

For the purpose

within

and

exist
Control

future.

process

a discussion

and a brief

options.

pulping

that

control

options

4.2 and Section

units

points

impacts

presents

used

are

UNITS

section

process

units

in analyzing

the model
operations

presented

these

impacts.

bleaching

and

in the

evaluated

and

options

process

emission

for these

4.1 describes

for pulping

4.1

being

were

of processes

to be constructed

set of demonstrated

that

were

on the

of applying

Model

of the types

that

impacts

options

impacts

PND

units

and cost

facility.

energy I and other

water,

process

control

environmental

environmental

used

emission

descriptions
are

the model

environmental

to an example

parametric

into

defines

to analyze

selected,

The

PROCESS UNITS, CONTROL OPTIONS,


ENVIRONMENTAL
IMPACTS

and

through
(where

the chemical.
that

the pulping

environmental

and

cost

impacts

within
test

the pulp

program

manner
the

do not

final

model

all data

development

for review

bleaching
Section

model
4.1.3

briefly

4.1.2.

assignment

of pulping

and bleaching

pulp

within

industry

.emissions
4.1.1

and

control

Puloina

air emission

parameters

Table

4-l

nature

potentially
digestion
the

control

Eighteen

vent

model

total

uncontrolled

HAP

of individual

(TRS)

other

HAP

organic

emission

emission

(e.g.,
Appendix

flow
C.

were

(e.g.,

and,

B and

emissions.

an effect

on

pulping
affect

the

therefore,

(e.g.,

washer

and

therefore,

developed

Table

type,

flow rate
affect

and
of

the

were

emission

(VOC),

and total

are presented
18 model

process
stream

and concentration)
4-2,

The

reduced

units.

sum

process

HAP,

in Appendix

unit

from the

for both

Speciated

the

model

factors.

developed

factors

points.

in Table

each

H.AP emission

and wastewater

shown

to characterize

4-2 describes

factors

emission

for these

stream

As

HAP

have

the concentration

compound

compounds

rate

to

to determine

capacity)

parameters

used

in Appendices

that

formed

and,

were

affect

production

uncontrolled

factors

point

vent

units

emission

and wastewater

volatile

national

data

parameters

streams

area. I,2

process

to

streams.

and presents

vent

Other
affect

point

units

evaluated

process

of the HAP

process)

of these

pulping

of these

emitted.

emission

were

parameters

and pulp

and quantity

process

as presented

data

seven

Some
type,

the

model

and sourcetest

These

identifies

wood

process,

is discussed

Units

of the pulping

emissions.

and

discusses

for estimating

factors,

2.0.

which

HAP

Process

literature

C and Chapter

units

pulping

impacts.

Model

Existing
develop

the

into

of the

4.1.1,

process

in a timely

incorporation

in Section

in Section

mills

and

conducting

Development

is discussed

of the

to the EPA

alternatives.

units

process

of emissions

is currently

provided

be considered

regulatory

the variability

Industry

industry.

and

will

represent

total
sulfur

for each
In addition,

characteristics

are presented
the total

in

uncontrolled

HAP

4-2

TABLE

Process
Chemical

Wood

PULPING PROCESS CHARACTERISTICS


AFFECTING
EMISSIONS

process

Coproduct
Capacity

process

Kraft/soda
Sulfite
Semichemical

Batch
Continuous
Vacuum drum
Improved washinga

type

Additional

parameters

Softwood
Hardwood

type

Washer

Process

characteristics

pulping

Digestion

4-l.

delignification
recovery

Oxygen

delignification

Turpentine
Tall oil
Pulp

production

Horizontal
belt, diffusion,
and baffle
affected
emissions
in a similar manner
versus open or hooded).

4-3

washer
(i.e.,

capacity

systems
enclosed

TABLE 4-2.

PULPING MODEL PROCESS UNITS

Model
process
unit

Pulping
type

Digestion
type

Wood
type

Chemical
recovery

Washer
type

P-l

Kraft

Batch

Hard

Kraft

P-2

Kraft

Batch

Soft

P-3

Kraft

Continuous

P&4

Kraft

P-5

Oxygen
delignification
(Yes or No)

Uncontrolled
HAP emission
factora

Rotary
drum

No

5.02

Kraft

Rotary
drum

No

1.99

Hard

Kraft

Improved
washing

No

4.90

Continuous

Hard

Kraft

Rotary
drum

No

5.05

Kraft

Continuous

Soft

Kraft

Improved
washing

No

1.94

P-6

Kraft

Continuous

Soft

Kraft

Rotary
drum

No

2.26

P-7

Sulfite

NDb

Soft

Sulfite

Rotary
drum

No

1.51

P-8

Sulfite

NDb

Hard

Sulfite

Rotary
drum

No

4.46

P-9

Semichem/
kraft

NDb

Soft

Kraft

Rotary
drum

No

1.64

P-i0

Semichem/
kraft

NDb

Soft

suifite

Rotary
drum

No

' 1.05

P-11

Kraft

Continuous

Hard

Kraft

Improved
washing

Yes

5.16

P-12

Kraft

Continuous

Soft

Kraft

Improved
washing

Yes

2.23

TABLE 4-2.

PULPING MODEL PROCESS UNITS (Continued)

Model
process
unit

Pulping
type

Digestion
type

Wood
type

Chemical
recovery

Washer
type

P-13

Kraft

Batch

Hard

Kraft

P-14

Kraft

Batch

Soft

P-15

Sulfite

Batch

P-16

Suifite

P-17
.P-18

Oxygen
delignification
(Yes or No)

Uncontrolled
HAP emission
factora
(kg/W pulp)

Improved
washing

Yes

5.13

Kraft

Improved
washing

Yes

1.96

Hard

Sulfite

Rotary
drum

Yes

4.68

Batch

Soft

Sulfite

Rotary
drum

Yes

1.75

Kraft

Batch

Hard

Kraft

Improved
washing

No

4.87

Kraft

Batch

Soft

Kraft

Improved
washing

No

1.67

a Includes emissions from vent and wastewater streams (See Appendix C for model process
unit emission factors by individual emission point and compound).
b ND = Not defined.

emission

factors

the model
factor

vary

process

that

units.

most

factors

softwood

emission

available

data,

other

previous

is wood

kg HAP/Mg)

capacity,

type,
being

have

little

for

the

with

hardwood

greater

(1.05 to 2.26 kg HAP/Mg)%

parameters

Model

Process

than

Based

effect

on total

process

units

pulping

model

process

The bleaching

to have

the most

were

developed

units

process

effect

in a similar

described

in the

characteristics

on HAP emissions

are wood

use, and pulp bleaching


capacity.
The use
type, chemical
hypochlorite,
chlorine,
or chlorine dioxide was determined
affect

HAP

From
process

units

units

for hardwood

both

the

caustic
bleach

vents

vent,

bleaching

sewer

of these

twelve

model

the bleaching
model

process

HAP emission

represent

factors

six bleaching

for softwood,

plant

total

and wastewater.
and

sewer.

with

variations

emission

factors

Similar

factors

other

Speciated

stream

decrease

4-6

from

vents

include

for each

points-include
in Table

range

4-3,

from

the

the

0.56

to

the hardwood

higher

than

those

in HAP emissions

of all chlorine
HAP and total

characteristics

4-3

emissions

vent

to pulping,

are generally

the elimination

compounds.

plant

seal tank

the greatest

chlorinated

in Table

The process

As shown

HAP emission

factors

However,

and

vent,

of pulp.

through

bleach

The wastewater.

emission

softwood.

presented

uncontrolled

and acid

kg HAP/MS

achieved

models

factors

washer

stage.

bleaching

data,

uncontrolled

and six

emission
total

process
tower

to

use.

The model
represent

each

the total
The twelve

emissions

to characterize

4-3 describes

model.

in chemical

2.11

developed

and presents

sequences

the

of available

were

Table

for each

of

emissions.
a review

area.lr2

on.

Units

model

section.

determined

pulping

of pulp

emissions.

Bleaching
as the

than

emissions

factors

Bleachina

manner

to 5.16 kg HAP/Mg

(4.46 to 5.16

process

4.1.2

1.05
Other

affects

emission

pulping

from

and
VOC

for each

emission
emission

for
is

TABLE 4-3.
Model
process
unit
B-l
B-2
B-3
B-4
B-5
B-6
B-7
B-8
B-9
B-10
B-11
B-12

BLEACHING MODEL PROCESS UNITS

Wood
type

Bleaching
sequence
(% c102 substitution)a

Hard
Soft
Hard
Soft
Hard

CEHD (0%)
CEHD (0%)
CEDED (0%)
CEDED (0%)
CdEDED (10w)~
CdEDED (10~)~
CdEDED (high)c
CdEDED (high)c
CdEDED (100%)
CdEDED (100%)
O-Ed
O-Ed

Soft

Hard
Soft
Hard
Soft
Hard
Soft

Uncontrolled
HAP
emission factor
(kg/W
pulp)
1.98
1.30
1.75
1.06
2.11
1.04
1.67
1.45
1.66
1.45
0.56
0.59

= Chlorine
C
for chlorine
Cd
= Chlorine dioxide substituted
= Chlorine dioxide
D
= Hypochlorite
H
= Extraction
E
= Oxygen/ozone
0
A low substitution
range is 10 to 50 percent substitution.
Less than 10 percent is considered
to have the same
emissions
as 0 percent substitution.
A high substitution
range is 50 to 90 percent substitution.
Greater than 90 percent is considered
to have the same
emissions
as 100 percent substitution.
The totally chlorine
free model bleaching
sequence is used
in conjunction
with oxygen delignification
in the pulping
model process units.

Key:

4-7

point

for the twelve

Appendix

process

Process

Units

units

are presented

in

C.
Use

4.1.3

model

of Model

in Estimatins

National

Emissions

were
and

To estimate

emissions

constructed

using

12 model

the

of the U.S.

(discussed

in Chapter

production

information

pulp

model

mill

assembled

and

sequence)

was used

location
State

was

used

units

individual

Section

were

mills

estimated

process
based

on the

Because

a mill

baseline

Pulping

to pulp

contain

more

than

for each

facility.

A pulping

multiple
units
models

digesters.

were
were

aggregated
in the

presented
assigned

data

at

emissions

only,one

one pulping

and bleach

a specific

washer,

but

4.1.1

4-8

were

facility

as

In other
could
model

and 4.1.2.

and bleach-line

base.

or

lines

washer.

in Sections

the whole

industry

line was defined

and bleaching

on a pulp

the

model

4-2 and 4-3.

The pulping

to represent

industry

with

contained

how

within

in Tables

evaluated

line

lines

and bleaching

mills

pulp

each

how the model

summarizes

individual

words,

from

models.

presented

associated

type,

levels

and bleaching

process,

digesters

washing

control

discusses

bleaching

the

type,

Geographic

4.1.3.1

assigned

could

information

mills.

Assisnment.

criteria

of each

to individual

4.1.3.2

units.were

location

model

and Section
these

contains

appropriate

to pulping

Model

that

digestion

assigned

using

4.1.3.1

units

and

to assign

to determine

regulations.

process

were

bleaching

type,

pulping

to approximate

Production

States.

mills

A database

and the geographic

wood

and

18 model

designed

6.0) was

capacity,

pulping

were

industry.

in the United

model

composition

pulp

(including
bleach

The

mills

level,

of the

processes.

of these

structure

wood

combinations

bleaching

distribution

on a national

process

These

basis,

for each

contain

and then

facility

Estimating

4.1.3.2
for model

process

unit

the

assigned

multiplying
production

or baseline

points,

or Federal

the

control
vents

device

were

(sulfite

assumed

was

99 percent
on the
were

removal

pollutants

assumed

99 percent

process
the

same

emissions

manner
details

pulp

and

paper

4.2

CONTROL

applies

streams.

Due

reductions,

such

points

HAP's,
plant

points

HAP's,

in Section

baseline

a 70 to

depending

of individual

0 to

depending
3.2.2.2

emissions

streams

on

for a

were- summed
Chapter

emissions.

for baseline

were

achieving

achieving

and one option

option

applies
and

controls

in this

in

2.0

in the

document.

two options
to pulping

apply

to

wastewater

low air emission

are currently

requirements,

Table
and

being

evaluated

4-4 describes

specific

each

emission

points

applies.

option

and

conveyance

mills), assuming

vents,

streams.

control

as a power

cost

options

wastewater
control

the

are discussed

to all pulping

no control

the

collection

options

to the high

for bleaching

The

reduction

bleach

individual

on the basis

control

vents,

to which

from

or scrubbing

industry.

bleaching

option,

HAP

3.0, process

by a scrubber

the total

by

OPTIONS

Four
option

technology

as discussed

State

or documented

wastewater

as for uncontrolled

provides

One

present

of specific

estimated

in Chapter

Applicable

unit

the documented

of individual

efficiency

To obtain

unit,

with

by a steam stripper

to be controlled

absorbers.

were

organic

Applicable

present.

on the pollutants
gas

emissions

of the assumed

efficiency

removal

by the process

by applicable

to use combustion

to be controlled

by

required

As discussed

applied.

calculated
control

and a 98 percent

mills);

emissions

reported

emissions

in place.

assumed

efficiency

were

efficiency

were

factors

baseline

uncontrolled

reduction

points

emission

controls

regulations,

adjusting
emission

emission

If the mill

capacity.

Uncontrolled

Emissions.

boiler

for pulping

vent

to an existing

or lime kiln

a 98-percent

organic
4-9

emission
combustion

points

is

device

(or scrubbing

for sulfite

reduction.

As discussed

TABLE

Option

4-4.

SELECTED

CONTROL OPTIONS

Costing basis

Control
efficiency
(% reduction)

AND CONTROL TECHNOLOGY EFFICIENCY

Process
area

Emission
8ource

Emission points
.

Combustion:
capture and
conveyance to an
existing
combustion device

Individual
conveyance of
vents with
combined
combustion

Scrubbing

Combined and
individual control
of vents

o-9oc

Bleaching

Vent

.
.
.

Bleach plant washerb


Bleach plant tower
Bleach plant Seal
tank

Combustion
followed by
scrubbing

Combined and
individual control
of vents

98/9gCId

Bleaching

Vent

.
.
.

Bleach plant washerb


Bleach plant tower
Bleach plant seal
tank

Steam stripper
w/air emissions
control device:
conveyance to an
existing
combustion device

Combined and
individual control
of,wastewater
streams

80-9ge

Pulping

Wastewater

Digester blow tank


condensates

Evaporator

OP
I

P
0

100/98a

Pulping

Vents

.
.

a
b
C

d
e

Digester blow tank


gases
Digester relief
gases
Washerb
Foam tank
Evaporator vent
Knotterb
02 Delignification
blow tank
02 Delignification
washer
02 Delignification
seal tank
Deckers/screensb
Weak black liquor
storage tank

condensates
Evaporator, surface
condenser
condensates
Turpentine recovery
underflow
1

reduces
With sources requiring enclosure, a 100 percent capture efficiency is assumed. Combustion
(All sources requiring capture are footnoted with "b".)
captured organice by 98 percent.
Emission point8 may require enclosure because they are hooded or partially open to the atmosphere.
The emissions reduction for this control technology is variable and dependent on the solubility of the
compound in the scrubbing medium and the volatility of the organic HAP's present.
Ninety-eight percent reduction of organice/
percent reduction of acid gases.
The removal efficiency and emissions reduction for this control technology is variable and dependent
on the volatility of the organic HAP's present.

in Chapter
some

existing

pulping

vent

vents

for this
Capture
hooded

these

3.0,

streams

option

existing

is also

necessary

or partially

complete

was

control

incinerator

applied

to

(Combustion

of

is possible,

devices

for those

were

emission

but

selected.).

points

to the atmosphere

assumed

option

scrubbing

70 percent

emission
ducting

which

reduction

that

are

(washers,

As discussed

to be achieved

points
the

control

in Chapter
with

option

only

of 75 percent.3

bleaching

vent

emission

by caustic

for organics

and

3.0,

enclosure

hydrochloric

acid.

The

control

of

is collection
generation,
steam

handling

stripping

reduction.
conveyed
Chapter

The

dependent
wastewater

design

device.
total

option

However,
HAP

for

98 percent

reduction

for chlorine

wastewater

and

emission

at the point

of

an 80 to 99 percent

organic

combustion
steam

points

and

stripper

are assumed

to be

device.

As discussed

in

stripper

control

of the HAP's

efficiency

present

is

in the

stream.

This

example

then

system,

the

for

vent

collection

from

volatility

ENVIRONMENTAL

applying

streams

reduction

incineration

to achieve

for pulping

overheads

on the

is thermal

reduction

to achieve

the

control

is

of

first,

an average

in an enclosed

to an existing
3.0,

points

of wastewater

stream

to a combustion

A third

points

average

for bleaching

the vent

scrubbing

option

emission

and 99 percent

achieves

99 percent

vent

a weighted

option

off-gas

reduction

followed

achieves

is scrubbing

scrubber

control

for bleaching

for organics

A second

chlorine.3

section
the

if not

IMPACTS
presents

control

facility.

preliminary
most,

facilities.

combustion

open

being

points.

caustic

4.3

at most

and deckers).

capture

One

this

are currently

in a stand-alone

knotters/screens,

these

controls

draft
all,

the environmental

options
These

discussed

impacts

BID based

have

on internal

of the comments
4-11

impacts

in Section
been

provided

4.2 to an

revised

review,

of

and

from

the

address

by industry.

The

,_

.p
/
/

.,

example
with

facility

batch

sequence
model

HAP

rotary

digestion,

bleach

plant

emissions

emissions
for the

entire

baseline

HAP

baseline

emissions

relief,

No other

cornbusted.

baseline

example.

As discussed

emissions

and

considered

section

application

secondary

Section

air
the

Air

section

air

from

directly

Table
mill,

its digester
are

assumed

for this

in estimating
control

national

levels

Water

impacts

control

were

on this

and
Section

options.

impacts

for

options

the primary

control

and other

and 4.3.4,

on the

attributed

resulting
fuel

of vent

4.3.2

impacts

respectively.

and secondary

air

of all control

options,
Primary

example

pulp

of HAP,

increased

from steam

option.

criteria

generation

cornbusted in the

mill.

VOC and TRS

to the control

are the

pollutant

for steam

incinerator,

Secondary

stripping,

and

from

streams.4

4-6 presents

by control

the primary

the reduction

evaluated

auxiliary

combustion

4.1,

presents

4.3.3

4.2,

include

impacts

emissions

were

from the application

in Section

impacts

emissions

that

noncondensibles

defined

impacts.

presents

resulting

discussed
air

These

4-5.

Imoacts

This
impacts

in Table

analysis.

of these

in Sections

and total
emissions,

the environmental

4.3.1

impacts
energy

are described
4.3.1

presents

as

to uncontrolled

baseline

impacts,

of the previously

mill;

presents

control

tons

as a total

assuming

in Section

air-dried

as well

controls

in a plant-specific

This

example

estimated

uncontrolled

points

points,

and evaporator

gases,

and a CEHD

are presented

emission

are presented

were

facility

C as pulping

1,000

HAP emissions

emission

emissions

blow

pulps

In addition

mill.

washing,

of the total

that

for the pulping

for bleaching

drum

pulping

Bl.)

mill

uncontrolled

hardwood

in Appendix

a summary

for this

The

per day.
total

model

4-5 presents

emissions

vacuum

(designated

PI and bleaching
Table

is a kraft

selected

option

primary

air

(as presented

4-12

impacts

for the example

in Section

4.2).

The

TABLE 4-5.

Line
No.

Process
Type

a
b
c
d

Line
Capacity
(ADTPD)

Assigned
model process
unitb

Total uncontrolled
HAP emission factor
(kg/W ~ulp)~

Total
uncontrolled
HAP emissions
(W/yr) c

Baseline
HAP
emissions
(W/W
d

Pulping

1000

Pl

4.39

1400

1360

Bleaching

1000

Bl

1.98

630

630

6.37

2030

1990

Total Mill

P
I
P
w

UNCONTROLLED EMISSIONS FOR AN EXAMPLE FACILITYa

Kraft hardwood pulping with batch digestion rotary vacuum drum washing and a CEHD bleach
plant.
Definition of pulping and bleaching models and total uncontrolled HAP factors as
presented in Tables 4-2 and 4-7.
HAP Emissions (Mg/yr) = capacity (air dried tons/day) * HAP emission factor
(kg/Mg pufp)*(Mg/l.l,tons) * (Mg/lOOO kg) * (350 days/yr).
Assumes dlgester relief and blow gases and evaporator noncondensibles are being
cornbusted at baseline.

TABLE 4-6.
Emission
Source

TYPO
Pulping
Vents
Bleaching
Vents

Pulping
Wastewater
a
P
I
!G

b
C

d
e
f
4
h
i
j

Baseline Emissions
(Mg/yr)a.
HAP

voc

TRS

160

1160

570

550

420

1200

1300

270

PRIMARY AIR IMPACTS FOR AN EXAMPLE MILL


Control Option

Emission Reduction
(%)

Emission
Reductionb (Mg/yr)

HAP

voc

TRS

HAP

voc

TRS

Collection and
CombustionC
Scrubbinge

98skd

98%d

98%d

150

1090

520

70%f

70%f

NA

380

290

NA

Incineration
and Scrubbingg
Steam
strippingi

98-99%h

98%h

NA

540

410

NA

90%j

90%j

94%j

1080

1200

250

Baseline emissions assume control of digester relief and blow gases and evaporator
noncondensibles using a combustion device with 98 percent efficiency. Emissions
calculated from uncontrolled emission factors for an example 1000 ton/day kraft hardwood
pulp mill with batch digestion, rotary vacuum drum washing, and a CEHD bleach plant
using the following equation:
Emissions (Mg/yr) = 1000 (air dried tons/day) * (Uncontrolled emission factor +
l-O.98 * Emission factor for baseline controlled points
[kg/Mg air dried pulp]) * (Mg/l.l
tons) * (Mg/lOOO kg) * 350
(days/year)
Emission reductions represent additional emission reductions beyond the baseline control
level.
Assumes capture and combustion of emissions from digester blow tank, digester relief
gases, brownstock washer, brownstock foam tank, evaporator vent knotter,
deckers/screens, and weak black liquor storage.
Combustion reduces captured organics by 98%.
Assumes tower, washer, and seal tank vents from all four stages are scrubbed.
Percent emission'reduction as follows: 99% chlorine, 99% Hcl, 70% methanol, 70% average
for other HAP.
Assumes tower, washer, and seal tank vents from all four stages are incinerated and
scrubbed.
98% reduction of organics/99% reduction of acid gases.
Assumes digester blow condensates and evaporator foul condensates are steam stripped.
Percent emission reduction as follows: 90% methanol, 99% MEK, 94% TRS, 90% average for
other HAP.

table
and

presents

TRS

from

uncontrolled
pulping

control

options

streams

and

options

selected,

were

same

for these

in Table

the pollutant
for total

impacts

from

steam

were

estimated

required

and wastewater
control

efficiencies

VOC,

and TRS,

vary

from

as shown

nitrogen

based

including

oxides

stripper

combustion

of TRS 'in the vent

fuel. 4

.as auxiliary

estimated

based

vents

requiring

added

to the

requirements,
devices

from

on the amount

combustion
the
the

device

addition
vent

were

in criteria

vent

of pulping'vents,

dioxide

effect

reduced

result

offsets

to be

was

sulfur

in the

moisture

in additional

to these
the

on-site

assumed

impact

the additional

will

streams

on the fuel

were

dioxide

of total

vent

for existing

streams

sulfur

to be

from the

All HVLC
air

of organics

streams

impacts

of fuel

determined

streams).

Although

control.

secondary

increase

of sulfur

LVHC
The

carbonmonoxide,

The

no significant

while

requirements,

in

to be generated

combustion

as combustion

with

used

values.4r5

the exception

devices,

for

Annual

the amount

overheads,

to be used

of steam

estimated

and the

with

(with

combustion

4-7,

streams.

option.4

the steam

negligible

assumed

the greatest

on calculating

associated

steam

in Table

were

on literature

impacts

impacts

d.ioxide, 172 Mg/yr

for this

based

air pollution

wastewater

sulfur

to generate

The

used

vent

from the generation

the pulping

production

.pollutants

usage

total

As shown

occur

of 63 Mg/yr

123 Mg/yr

were

removal

HAP,

for the different


For the

4-6.

secondary

mill. 4

example

stripping

impacts
and

calculated

4-7 presents

secondary
steam

reductions

VOC

table.

Table
the

emission

are presented

70 to 99 percent
in the

vents,

Estimated

wastewater.

and baseline emissions


of HAP,
bleaching
vents and pulping

fuel

combustion

associated

fuel

requirements.6
Scrubbing
no impact
followed
secondary

bleach

on secondary
by scrubbing
air pollution

plant

vent

streams

air emissions;
of these

vent

impacts,
4-15

was

assumed

however,
streams

resulting

incineration

will
from

to have

result

in

the combustion

TABLE

Emission Source
Type

EXAMPLE MILL

SECONDARY

AIR

POLLUTION

Emissions
Control Optiona

IMPACTS

(Mg/yr)blc

PM

SO2

co

NO,

vocd

Pulping Vents

Collection and
Combustione

67

Bleaching Vents

Scrubbing

Pulping
Wastewater

P
I
!ii

4-7.

El
C

d
e

f
4

Incineration and
Scrubbingf

1.7

0.3,

23

310

Steam Strippingg

.2

27

20

Sources being controlled are defined explicitly in Tables 4-5 and 4-6.
Reference 4.
Criteria pollutapt emissions calculated for an example 1,000 tons/day kraft
hardwood pulp mill with batch digestion, rotary drum washing and a CEHD bleach
plant.
VOC generated from the control devices.
Includes SO2 resulting from incineration of TRS from pulping vents not controlled
at baseline: washer vent and washer foam tank vent. These are HVLC vents routed
to a power boiler assumed to be equipped with a venturi scrubber achieving
90 percent SO2 emissions reduction.
Criteria pollutant emission rates ignore any potential emission reduction of PM or
SO2 emissions that might occur as a result of scrubbing.
Includes SO2 resulting from incineration of TRS from wastewater streams not
controlled at baseline: digester blow and evaporator foul condensates. The
resulting steam stripper overheads are routed to a power boiler assumed to be
equipped with a scrubber achieving 90 percent SO2 emissions reduction and
90 percent PM emission reduction.

of these gases in a stand-alone incinerator.


In addition,
secondary air impacts from the combustion of auxiliary fuel is
included.
Figure 4-1 graphically presents the primary and secondary
of these gases in a stand-alone incinerator.

In addition,
secondary air impacts from the combustion of auxiliary fuel is
included.

air pollution impacts shown in Tables 4-6 and 4-7

for this example mill.

The combined impacts for thecontrol


options for pulping and bleaching vents and pulping wastewater
are shown in the figure.

The control option selected for


bleaching vents depicted in Figure 4-1 is scrubbing only
(i.e., the impact for incineration followed by'scrubbing

is

not shown).
4.3.2

Enersv Impacts
The control options evaluated require additional energy

in the form of electricity to operate fans and pumps, and


additional fuel to generate steam and to combust bleach plant
vents.

Table 4-8 presents these energy impacts for the

example mill, broken down by pulping vents, bleaching vents;


and pulping wastewater control options.4 As stated
previously,
combustion

no additional fuel requirement was assumed for


of pulping vent streams; however, additional energy

will be required to transport the vent streams from the point


to the combustion device.
The amount.of

electricity required to operate the fan or

blower is estimated by calculating the horsepower required to


transport

the vent stream.

Electricity to Pperate fans and


pumps for operating scrubbers and steam strippers was
calculated

in a similar manner.

When an incinerator is used


to control HAP emissions from bleach vents, auxiliary fuel is
required to sustain combustion.

The auxiliary fuel was


estimated based on the combustion temperature, VOC content of
the stream, and volumetric flow rate. When a steam stripper
is used, auxiliary fuel is.required for the generation of the
steam.

The fuel requirement was estimated based on the steam

requirements.
4-17

Particulate
Matter
HAP

voc

TRS

Sulfur
Dioxide

Y//////1

2.1

28
94

Figure 4-1.

Carbon
Monoxide

Example Mill Air Pollution Impacts

Oxides of
Nitrogen

TABLE 4-8.

Emission
Source Type

P
I
=f

Control OptionC

EXAMPLE MILL ENERGY IMPACTSalb

Electricity
WBtu/Yr)

Auxiliary
fuel
(natural gas)
WBWyr)

Auxiliary
fuel required
for steam
generation
(mBtu/Yr)

Total

Pulping Vent

Collection and
Combustion

3,900

NAd

NA

3,900

Bleaching Vent

Scrubbing

9,500

. NAd

NA

9,500

Incineration and
Scrubbing

9,500

NA

1,060,OOO

Steam Stripping

3,000

Pulping
Wastewater

1,050,000'
NAd

290,000

293,000
6

E
:

Reference 4.
Energy impacts calculated for an example 1,000 ton/day kraft hardwood pulp mill with
batch digestion, rotary vacuum drum washing and a CEHD bleach plant.
Sources being controlled are defined explicitly in Table 4-6.
Additional fuel required from the moisture (above ambient combustion air) in these
vent streams is offset by the fuel value of the vent streams.
NA = Not applicable.

The greatest

impacts are incurred with incineration

and

scrubbing of bleaching vents, representing approximately


1.1 x 1012 Btu/year for the example mill.

The next largest

energy impact results from the generation of steam, used in


steam stripping pulping wastewater streams; however; this fuel
requirement

is less than the fuel requirement for incineration

of bleach plant vent streams.


4.3.3

Water Impacts
The water impacts associated with the control options

discussed

in this section are.being evaluated quantitatively

by EPA's Office of Water as part of the joint rulemaking


effort, however,
discussion

this section presents a qualitative


of the potential water impacts associated with

these control options.


Control of pulping vents through collection and
combustion

in an existing combustion device was determined to

have no impact on water pollution.

Any condensates in the


vent stream collection system can be returned to the weak
black liquor recovery system or to the condensate steam
strippers.

Scrubbing of bleach plant vent streams will

contribute

approximately

1.5 pounds of sodium chloride to the

wastewater

(5 to 40 ppmw).; however, this quantity is-small

compared to baseline total dissolved solids quantities.7


Steam stripping

of pulping wastewater streams will positively

effect the quality of the pulp mill effluent, specifically


methanol

loading reductions.

consequently,
4.3.4

Lower methanol loadings will,

reduce the biological oxygen demand loading.

Other Impacts
Other impacts considered for the control options

discussed

in this section include noise, visual impacts, odor

impacts, solid waste impacts, and irreversible and


irretrievable commitment of resources.
Although some of the
add-on control equipment wili increase the noise level in a
pulp mill, the incremental noise increase will be small
compared to background

levels.

The increased noise levels

4-20

will occur from fans and pumps used to transport the vent
streams and wastewater streams to the'control devices.

No

visual impacts associated with the control options, however, a


positive odor impact will result from the additional reduction
in the malodorous

total reduced sulfur compounds emissions.

No expected secondary solid waste impacts associated with the


control options discussed in this section.
generated

Any waste
from steam strippers or scrubbers should be

manageable

within the existing waste treatment process.

significant
irreversible

increase in incinerator ash is expected.

No

No

or irretrievable commitments of resources

associated with these control options have been identified.

4-21

4.4

REFERENCES

1.

Memorandum from Olsen, T.R., and P.B. Murphy, Radian


Corporation, to Lassiter, P.E., EPA/CPB. Database
development and model approach. January 27, 1992.

2.

Memorandum for Olsen, T.R., Radian Corporationi to Shedd,


S-A., EPA/CPB. Revised Model Process Units for the Pulp
and Paper NESHAP.
September 21, 1993

3.

Memorandum from Olsen, T.R., Radian Corporation,


Shedd, S.A., EPA/CPB. Model Scrubber Removal
Efficiencies.
September 17, 1993.

4.

Memorandum from Bagley, C.J., Radian Corporation,


Shedd; S.A., EPA/CPB. Secondary Impacts.
September 24, 1993.

5.

Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors. Volume I,


Stationary Point and Area Sources. Fourth Edition.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air
Quality Planning and Standards. Research Triangle Park,
NC. Publication No. EPA/AP-42. Section 10.0.
October 1986.

6.

Memorandum from Greene, D.B., Radian Corporation, to


Project File. Fuel Penalty. October 8, 1993.
.

7.

Memorandum from Olsen, T.R., Radian Corporation, to


Shedd, S.A., EPA/CPB. Pulp and Paper NESHAP Selection of
Bleach Plant Scrubber Design and Costs. October 8, 1993.

4-22

to

to

5.0 ESTIMATED CONTROL COSTS


This chapter presents the approach taken to estimate the
cost of controlling hazardous air pollutant (HAP) and volatile
organic compound (VOC) emissions from the pulp industry as
discussed in Chapters 2.0, 3.0, and 4.0. This chapter
discusses

the assumptions used for sizing the control


technologies for each emission point, the method of estimating
costs for control technologies
estimated

(Section 5.1), and the

costs for an example facility

(Section 5.z).

Table 5-l presents a summary of the elements included


(enclosures, combustion devices, scrubbers, and steam
strippers)
points
5.1

in the control cost anaiysis for the emission

identified

in previous chapters.

CONTROL COSTS
This section presents the methodologies

used to determine

the cost of controlling vent and wastewater emission points in


model mills that are used to represent the pulp industry. The
approach used to size and cost the control technologies was
dictated by the EPA OAQPS Control Cost Manual (OCCM). This
manual uses conservative estimates of design parameters where
specific

industry data are not available; thus, resulting cost


estimates can be conservative (high). Consequently,
significant
decisions

changes in costs are not expected, and therefore,

made based on these preliminary analyses are valid.

Sections

5.1.1 and 5.1.2 discuss costs for enclosures and vent


gas conveyance systems. The control technology costs,
including

thermal incineration, scrubbing, and steam


stripping, are discussed in Sections 5.1.3, 5.1.4, and 5.1.5.
In each section, design assumptions, design parameters
affecting costs, as well as estimated costs are presented.

5-l

TABLE 5-l.

ELEMENTS INCLUDED IN CONTROL COST CALCULATIONS


FOR VARIOUS POINTS/DEVICES

Emission point

Enclosure

Ductwork/
conveyance

Combustion
devices"

scrubberb

Steam
stripperC

Puloino vents
Digester relief gas
Digester

blow gases

Knottets

Pulp washers

Deckers/screens

Washer foam tank


Evaporator vent
Weak black liquor storage
tank vent
X

Tower vents

Washer vents

Seal tank vents

Oxygen delignification
tank

blow

Oxygen delignification
washer vent
Bleachinu vents

pulpinq wastewater
I
a
b
:

streams

d
t

X
1

For pulping vents, existing combustion devices were assumed to be applicable; however, stand-alone
incinerators were considered for bleaching vents. The vent gas from the wastewater steam strippers
was assumed to be combusted in an existing combustion device.
Scrubbers were considered for bleach plant vents in two control options: as the primary control
device; and as a secondary control following incineration.
Including collection and transport of wastewater to steam stripper.
The overheads from the steam stripper are conveyed to an existing combustion device.

5.1.1

Enclosure Costs
AS shown in Table 5-1, the emission points that will
enclosures

require

before an end-of-pipe control device can be

used are the pulp washers, the knotters, and the


Enclosing these points reduces the
screens/deckers.
volumetric flow rate typically associated with capture of the
emissions and will increase the overall capture of VOC and
HAP. Factors considered in estimating enclosure costs include
the size of the enclosure, the materials of construction, and
the need for equipment access.
'washer designs,
enclosures

It should be noted that some

such as diffusion washers, do not require

due to their design.

The costs for enclosing the systems

(model washers,

etc.) were developed based on vendor quotes for enclosures


installed on pulp washers.1

The enclosures are assumed to be


a close-fitting panel hood design. Vendor cost quotes were
obtained for enclosures constructed of fiber reinforced
plastic

(FRP) and designed to allow equipment access.

approximate

An

purchased equipment cost of $40,000 was assumed

for each enclosure at a typical (i.e., 1000 ton per day) mill.
Additional

supports are required for the close-fitting

hood when designed

panel

for a rotary vacuum pulp washer to support

the weight of the hood and to provide structural support for


access openings.

A washer line consisting of three rotary


vacuum washer drums was assumed to require three enclosures,
with.two
.

additional

supports at $12,000 per set.1

It was
assumed that screens, knotters, and deckers each exist as
single units, and require a single enclosure.
For mills with
larger capacities,

it was assumed that multiple lines/units


would be used and would require additional enclosures.
Direct and indirect installation costs were assumed to be
50 percent of the purchased equipment costs; therefore, the
total capital

investment was estimated to be 150 percent of

the purchased

equipment cost.

investment

The resulting total Capital


for enclosures in 4th'Quarter 1991 dollars is

approximately

$64,000 for each screen, knotter and decker, and


5-3

The costs were annualized assuming a 10


The
life at 10 percent interest.rate.

$230,000 for washers.


year equipment

resulting total annual costs (TAC) equal $10,400 for each


screen, decker, and knotter and $37,500 for washers.
Ductwork and Convevance Costs

5.1.2

Ductwork

is used for the conveyance of vent streams from

discrete points or from enclosures to the control devices


discussed in Chapter 3.0. It was assumed that the mill would
combine vent streams and send them through a single duct to
the control device; therefore, the ductwork system was sized
'to allow multiple

emission points from a process area (i.e.,

knotter and pulp washers) to be routed together to be conveyed


through a common ductwork system.
Ductwork Desisn Considerations
5.1.2.1

Affectina Cost.

The ductwork system consists of the following equipment:


ductwork and elbows, fan, knock-out drum(s), flame
arrestor(s), rupture discs, supports, and insulation. Table
5-2 presents the assumptions used to calculate ductwork costs
for venting pulping streams to an existing combustion'device.
A minimum duct diameter of 8 inches was chosen to
represent the smallest reasonable duct diameter from low-flow
points.

The main header diameter was based on the cumulative

stream flow rate and an assumed maximum velocity through the


duct (3,000 feet per minute) for combined vent streams.2r3
The duct was assumed to have an overall length of 1,000 feet
from the emission points to the combustion device based on
For the flue gas from
site visits and mill teleconferences.
the combustion

device to the scrubber, the overall duct length

was assumed to be 300 feet, and for bleach plant emission


points to 'a stand-alone scrubber, the overall duct length was
assumed to be 100 feet:

For this preliminary

analysis, it was

assumed that the cost of a large, constant diameter duct would


approximate

actual costs incurred by scaling up duct diameters

with transition

pieces.

A comparison of these assumptions for

a model mill is discussed in a separate memorandum.2

5-4

TABLE 5-2.

DUCTWORK GENERAL DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS FOR


VENTING TO AN EXISTING COMBUSTION DEVICE

Specification

Item

Design and
cost
references

Minimum duct diameter

8 inchesa

Target pressure drop

20 to 40 inches
of water

Maximum duct velocity

3,000 feet per


minute

1,000 feeta

2a

Duct length
Number of elbows per 100 feet
of duct
Fans per duct

2,5
6

Flame arrestor per duct


Knockout

drum per duct

Number of rupture discs per


100 feet of duct
Thickness
a

16 gauge

of steel

Based on site visits to several mills.

5-5

5.1.2.2 Development of Ductwork Capital Costs. Duct and


elbow cost equations were developed for carbon steel and
adjusted to reflect the cost difference of stainless
steel.214 Additional costs were included for the fan,
supports, insulation, knockout drum(s), flame arrestor(s),
rupture discs. 5,6,7,8 For bleaching vents controlled by

and

an incinerator

followed by a scrubber, a quench chamber is


used to cool the stream. The halogenated streams from the
combustion device are conveyed to the quench chamber by
stainless steel ducts. After the incinerator gases are cooled
by the quench chamber, FRP duct is used to convey the gases to
To determine costs, an FRP multiplier is used
the scrubber.
The total capital
in place of the stainless steel multiplier.
investment was estimated as 3.02 times the sum of the
individual purchased equipment costs to account for direct and
indirect installation costs, including retrofit costs.grlo
5.1.2.3

Development of Ductwork Svstem Annual Cost.

Annual costs for the ductwork system include utility and


maintenance costs, as well as annualized capital charges.

It

was assumed that an increase in operating labor due to the


ductwork

is insignificant.

Electricity
electricity

is the only utility cost considered.

requirement

The

for the fan was calculated from the

vent gas flow rate and the estimated pressure drop through the
duct system and- a cost of electricity of $0.04 per kilowatt-hr
($O.O4/kW-hr).ll
Maintenance

material and labor are included under


maintenance costs. Maintenance labor requirements are assumed
to be 0.5 hour of labor per 8-hour shift. Maintenance
material

costs are assumed to be equal to maintenance

labor

costs.12
The annualized capital charges include capital recovery
charges as well as taxes, insurance., administrative,-and
overhead charges.

The capital recovery cost assumes a lo-year

duct life and 10 percent interest rates, and is calculated


using the following equation:
5-6

Capital recovery =Total capital*


investment
cost

Capital recovery (1o years, 1o%)


factor

Taxes, insurance, and administrative costs are assumed to be


4 percent of the total capital investment. Overhead is
conservatively

estimated to be 60 percent of the total labor

and maintenance costs.12


5.1.3 Thermal Incineration System Costs
Thermal incinerator costs were developed using the cost
equations presented
discussed

in Chapter 3.0 of the OCCM.l3

As

in Chapters 3.0 and 4.0 of this document, a thermal

incinerator may be used to control HAP and VOC emissions from


halogenated bleaching vent streams. Thermal incinerators may
also be used to control pulping vent streams if desired;
however, for this analysis it was assumed that pulping vent
streams would be controlled by an existing combustion device.
Costs for a thermal incinerator for an example bleaching
process are given in Section 5.2, and the design consideration
*for halogenated

streams are given below.

5.1.3.1
Affectins

Thermal Incinerator Desian Considerations


Costs. The thermal incinerator system for

halogenated
combustion
ductwork,

streams consists of the following equipment:

chamber, instrumentation, blower, collection fan,


and stack. The OCCM contains further discussion of

incinerator

control system design.13

General thermal

incinerator

design parameters are presented in Table 5-3.


Other key variables that affect 'costs are: vent 'stream flow
rate and type of heat recovery

(capital costs) and vent stream

flow rate, vent stream heat content, and fuel requirements


(annual costs).
The amount of oxygen in the vent stream or bound in the
VOC establishes
In pulp mills

the supplemental combustion air requirement.


(including pulping and bleaching vents), most of

the vent streams are dilute streams and contain an oxygen


percentage

sufficient-to

support combustion.14
5-7

Therefore,

TABLE 5-3.

THERMAL INCINERATOR GENERAL DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS


FOR HALOGENATED VENT STREAMS

Item

Specif ication

Emission control efficiency

98 percent or greater
destruction of VOC

Minimum

incinerator capacitya

500 scfm

Maximum

incinerator capacity

50,000 scfm

Incinerator

temperature

1,100 OC (2,000 OF)

Chamber residence times

1.00 set

Supplemental

Natural gas required to


maintain incinerator
temperature

fuel requirement

Five hundred scfm is the minimum incinerator size used to


determine capital cost.

5-8

for pulp mill vent streams, supplemental combustion air is not


In fact, certain pulping vent gases,
expected to be required.
such as digester relief and blow gases, may have heat contents
greater than approximately 100 Btu/scf due to the presence.of
In such cases, the vent stream may be
turpentine compounds.
(See
used as supplemental fuel in combustion devices.15
Chapter 3.0 for discussions on vent streams and their heat
contents.)
The minimum and maximum incinerator flow rate for this
Flow
cost analysis were 500 and 50,000 scfm, respectively.
rates greater than 50,000 scfm were assumed to be controlled
by multiple incinerators.
Halogenated vent streams were not considered to be
candidates

for heat recovery systems and were costed assuming


zero'percent heat recovery. This design assumption was
imposed because of the potential for corrosion

exchanger and incinerator.


chlorine dioxide,

in the heat

Based on an analysis of chlorine,

extraction, and hypochlorite

bleach plant

stages, vent streams that would likely contain higher


concentrations
stage

of halogens would be from the hypochlorite

(chloroform) and the chlorination stage

the temperature

(chlorine).

If

of the flue gas leaving the heat exchanger

were to drop below the acid dew point temperature for these
In cases such as
vent streams, acid gases would condense.
bleaching vents steams where heat is not recovered, the annual
fuel costs would be higher than for cases where heat recovery
is practiced,

other factors being held constant.

The destruction
temperature,
concentration

of VOC's is a function of incinerator

residence time in the combustion chamber, and


of VOC's in the vent stream.

Since these

parameters

affect capital and annual costs, their values had


Previous EPA studies show that at least
to be established.
98 percent destruction

efficiency can be met in a thermal

incinerator operated at a temperature of 16000F and a


residence time of 0.75 seconds. 16

5-9

Thermal oxidation of

halogenated VOC requires higher temperatures.


Available data
indicate that a temperature of 2,000F and a residence time of
one second are necessary to achieve at least 98 percent VOC
destruction

efficiency for halogenated vent streams.17

Auxiliary

fuel will almost always be'necessary

for start-

up of the unit.

Also, in most cases, additional fuel must be


added to maintain the incinerator temperature.
With the

following assumptions, the amount of auxiliary fuel required


was estimated using the heat and energy balance around the
combustion
l

chamber.18
The reference temperature

is taken as the inlet

temperature of the auxiliary fuel (77OF). _


0

No auxiliary combustion air is required

(i.e., it is

assumed that the oxygen content of the vent stream


is at least 18 percent).
l

Energy losses are assumed to be 10 percent of the


total energy input to the incinerator above ambient
conditions.

At a constant moisture content, the heat capacities


of the bleach plant vent streams entering and
leaving the combustion chamber are approximately the
same regardless of composition of the organics.
This is true for waste streams which are dilute

mixtures of organics in air, the properties of the


streams changing only slightly on combustion.

These assumptions
requirements

and subsequent calculations of the fuel

for a model vent stream are presented

in a

separate document.19
5.1.3.2
costs.

Development of Thermal Incinerator Capital

The cost analysis for-thermal incinerators presented

below follows the methodology outlined in the OCCM.


cost correlations
vendors;

Equipment
are based on data provided by various

each correlation is valid for incinerators

in the 500

to 50,000 scfm range.20


used for determining

Thus, the smallest incinerator size


equipment costs is 500 scfm; for flow

rates greater than 50,000, additional incinerators are costed.


5-10

Equipment costs are given as a fUnCtiOn of total


volumetric

flow through the incinerator and are accurate to

within 30 percent.

For halogenated streams, the equation used


in the costing analysis, after converting to 4th Quarter 1991
dollars, is as follows:21
EC = 10,930 QToTO*~~~~

where:
EC

Equipment costs (4th Quarter 1991


dollars); and

QToT

Total volumetric flow rate through the

incinerator including any additional air


and fuel.
The cost for the conveyance of bleaching process vent streams
to the incinerator

is not included in the incinerator

equipment cost.

The methodology for calculating costs for.the


system for an incinerator is presented in

conveyance

Section 5.1.2.
Installation
purchased

costs are estimated as a percentage of

equipment costs and include auxiliary equipment,

instrumentation,

sales taxes, and freight.

Direct and
indirect installation costs for thermal incinerators have been
incorporated

into the total capital investment.

capital investment
equipment

cost.

5.1.3.3
cost.

The total
is estimated at 1.61 times the purchased

Development of Thermal Incinerator Total Annual

Annual costs for the incinerator system include direct

operating
charges.

and maintenance costs, as well as annualized capital


The bases for determining thermal incinerator annual

costs are presented below.


The utilities

considered in the annual cost estimates

include natural gas (auxiliary fuel) and electricity


(incinerator fan).

The fuel and electricity costs were


assumed to equal $3.48 per A,000 cubic feet of natural gas-and
$O.O4/kW-hr,

respectively.

The procedure for estimating the

5-11

electricity requirement is described in Chapter 3.0 of the


The procedure for estimating the natural gas
OCCM.13
requirement

was presented in Section 5.1.3.1.

. For this cost analysis it was assumed that the


incinerator requires 0.5 hour of operating labor per 8-hour
labor requirements are assumed to be
Supervisory cost
identical to operating labor requirements.

shift.

Maintenance

is estimated to be 15 percent of the operating labor cost.22


Maintenance

material costs are assumed to be equal to

maintenance

labor costs.

The annualized

capital charges include capital recovery

charges as well as taxes, insurance, administrative and


The capital recovery cost was calculated as
overhead charges.
described

in previous sections.

Taxes, insurance, and

administrative

costs were assumed to be 4 percent of the total


Overhead was estimated to be 60 percent
capital investment.
of the total labor and maintenance costs.23
5.1.4

Scrubber Svstem Costs


Scrubber costs were developed for two scenarios.

Scrubber systems were applied as secondary control to remove


acid gases from the incinerator exhaust after combustion of
halogenated
scrubbers).

bleach plant streams (i.e., post-incineration


Scrubbers were also used as a primary control for

bleach plant vent streams, without incineration (i.e., stand(However, based on recent industry
alone scrubbers).
comments,

stand-alone

scrubbers could be acting as emission

Scrubber effluent could also emit


points for methanol.
Design considerations for the two scrubbing
volatile HAP's.)
scenarios described

above are presented in the following two

sections.
5.1.4.1
Affectins

Post-Incineration

Costs.

major equipment:
ductwork,

and fan.

Scrubber Desiqn Considerations

Scrubber systems consist of the following


quench chamber, packed tower, pump,
Post-incineration

scrubber systems are

designed to remove acid gases formed during combustion of


halogenated

organics.

System elements and design assumptions


5-12

specific to this analysis are based on a-waste gas stream


(i.e., incinerator exhaust) with hydrochloric acid (HCl) as
the most prevalent POllUtant.
General scrubber design specifications are presented
in Table 5-4. Column diameter and height are the primary
design parameters that affect the capital cost of the
These design parameters establish the column shell
scrubber.
geometry and the amount of packing required. The design
procedure

assumes no heat effects are associated with the

absorption process and that both the gas and liquid streams
The liquid-to-vapor flow ratio is calculated from
are dilute.
the inlet and outlet gas and liquid stream flow rates and is
assumed to be constant through the scrubber.
The column diameter was estimated based on mass transfer
equations in the literature, 24,25,26,27,28,29,30
using characteristics
liquid

of the model vent stream, the absorption

(caustic solution), the packing material,31

and an
For this

assumed column flooding condition of 60 percent.


analysis, the diameters ranged from 3 to 15 feet, depending on
the flow rate of the model vent streams. A detailed
discussion

of design procedures

is presented in Chapter 9 of

the OCCM.32
The height of the packed column was calculated by
determining

the number of theoretical transfer units required

to obtain the desired removal efficiency and multiplying by


the height of a transfer unit. The number of overall transfer
units was estimated using the equilibrium-operating line
For this
graph, based on inlet and outlet conditions.
analysis, the column height was approximately 30 feet.
Stand-Alone Scrubber Desian Considerations
5.1.4.2
Affectins

Costs.

The stand-alone scrubber system consists of

the same major equipment as the post-incinerator


system.

scrubber

The design assumptions were based on reported

industry chlorine and chlorine dioxide gas scrubbers.33


Information

on one scrubber indicated that 99 percent chlorine

reduction was being achieved using a five percent caustic


5-13

DESIGN PARAMETERS FOR POST INCINERATION


SYSTEM

TABLE 5-4.

Values

Parameters
Waste gas flow rate entering
absorber

400 to 80fiOO0 scfma-

Temperature of waste gas


stream (prior to quench
chamber)

2,000 OFa

Pollutant

HCl

in waste gas

Concentration of the Hcl


entering absorber in waste
gas
HCl removal efficiency
Scrubbing

liquid

Packing type
a

SCRUBBER

100 to '15,000 ppmv

99 percent

(molar basis)

Caustic solution (white


liquor, E-sta e filtrate),
5 gal/1000 ft4
2-inch ceramic saddles or
Raschig rings

The incinerator off-gas passes through a quench chamber


which reduces the waste gas flow rate and temperature prior
to entering the duct to the scrubber.

5-14

solution

(sodium hydroxide).

Most scrubbing solutions were

from existing caustic sources, such as white liquor, E-stage


filtrate, and weak wash, and 'based on available information,
scrubbers using these media can also achieve a 99 percent
reduction

in chlorine.

An existing source of caustic solution

was assumed for this costing analysis.

For the cost-analysis,


the liquid to gas ratio and column height were given based on
analysis of actual scrubber data and the diameter was varied
based on a vent stream flow of 53 lb-mole per hour cubic foot
through the column.
General scrubber design specifications are summarized in

Table 5-5.
stand-alone

The detailed design procedure used' to select the


scrubber variables is described in a separate
Costs were estimated for a scrubber system from

memorandum.1g

cost factors provided in Chapter 9 of the OCCM.34

The

diameter for the scrubber ranged from 4 to 18 feet for systems


scrubbing vent streams from 2,000 to 80,000 scfm.
representative

The

column height was assumed to be 27 feet with

15 feet of packing.19

A liquid to gas (L/G) ratio of

50 gallons per 1,000 ft3 was assumed.19


5.1.4.3
methodology

Development of Scrubber Capital Costs.- The cost


for the scrubber (both post-incineration

and

stand-alone)

follows the procedure outlined in Chapter 9.0 of

the OCCM.34

The main components in scrubber cost are:

packing, and ductwork to the scrubber.

tower,

The following equation

was used in the cost analysis for the tower, after conversion
to 4th Quarter

1991 dollars:
EC = (115,$/ft2) * (S,ft2)

where:
EC
S

=
=

D
HT

=
=

Equipment cost (4th'Qtr 1991 dollars);


Column surface area (ft2), approximated by
n * D (HT + D/2);
Diameter of the tower
(ft); and
Height of the tower (ft).

The cost for the column packing was based on the packing
volume.

The cost for 2-inch ceramic saddles or raschig rings

5-15

DESIGN PARAMETERS FOR STAND-ALONE SCRUBBER SYSTEM

TABLE 5-5.

Values

Parameters
Waste gas flow rate entering
absorber

2,000 to 80,000 scfm

Temperature
stream

140 OF

Pollutants

of waste gas
in waste gas

Cl28

cw2,

HCl, Methanol,

Chloroform
Chlorine removal efficiencya

99 percent

Scrubbing

Caustic solution (white


liquor, E-stage filtrate), 50
gal/l,000 ft3

liquid

(molar basis)

Packing type

2-inch ceramic saddles or


Raschig rings

Packing height

15 feet

Column height

27 feet

Removal efficiencies for other compounds range from 0 to 99


percent and are documented in a separate memorandum.25

5-16

is identical at $20 per cubic foot.34

The methodology

for

calculating

costs for the conveyance system for a scrubber


system is the same as for the conveyance system to a
combustion device presented in Section 5.1.2.
The total capital investment was estimated to be
2.20 times purchased
equipment,

equipment costs and include auxiliary

instrumentation,

5.1.4.3

sales taxes, and freight.34


Development of Scrubber Annual Cost. Annual

costs for the scrubber system include direct operating costs,


such as labor costs, utility costs, maintenance costs,
operating material costs, and wastewater disposal costs and
costs, such as total annualized capital

indirect operating
charges.

The cost for operating materials

include that of the


According to a survey
absorbing liquid used in the scrubber.
by the EPA's Office of Water, many mills in the pulp and paper
industry currently purchase caustic
for other mill purposes.11
from other mill processes

(sodium hydroxide

[NaOH])

In many cases, caustic solutions


(i.e., weak wash from the chemical

recovery

loop) are used in the scrubber by supplementing with


fresh caustic as necessary. The caustic used in the scrubber

may then be used in the bleach plant extraction stage or it


may be disposed

of for a negligible cost with the remainder of

the mill wastewater


emissions. 36t37

that does not require control for air

For this analysis, water and caustic

.costs were assumed to be negligible because the scrubbing


medium was assumed to exist on-site.19
The utility considered in the annual cost estimates is
the cost of electricity.

Electricity cost is dependant on the

energy required
the pressure
electricity

to operate the fan and the pump to overcome


drop in the column. For this analysis, an

cost of $O.O4/kW-hr was used.11

The scrubber system maintenance and operating labor


costs, supervisory costs, capital recovery charges as well as
taxes,

insurance,

administrative and overhead charges were


5-17

calculated as described in Section 5.1.3, with the only


being that a 15 year equipment life was assumed.

exception

5.1.5

Steam Striooins Costs

This section discusses steam stripper design


considerations affecting cost and the general methodology used
to develop capital and annual costs for steam strippers.
The
costing methodology and assumptions documented in this section
are those used in the proposed rulemaking package.
industry has commented on the basis and additional

Though
information

is being developed, the results have not been revised to


reflect any changes at this time. Specific areasfor future
consideration are identified in the text of this section.
A survey was.conducted

by the American Paper

Institute/National

Council of the Paper Industry for Air and

Stream Improvement

(API/NCASI), and of the 140 responses, 31

mills reported the use of strippers to control emissions from


wastewater.

Based on these data, approximately 67 percent of


these mills integrate the steam stripper into the evaporator
set and 33 percent use stand-alone steam strippers.38
Therefore,

the (industry-wide) average costs presented in this

analysis are prorated for these percentages.

.(Industry has
recently commented that the questionnaire was misinterpreted
and that a lower percentage of mills use integrated steam
strippers.)

For facilities that are not planning joint

evaporator

upgrades,

evaporator

system.

it would be less expensive not to


integrate and to retrofit the steam stripper into the

The following discussion presents the


design and cost methodologies for both integrated and standalone steam strippers.
5.1.5.1
cost.

Steam Stripper Desisn Considerations

Affectinq

Factors affecting the costs for steam stripping include

the steam usage

(annual costs), tower height and diameter


(capital and annual costs), and the stripper configuration
(tray vs. packed-bed) (capital and annual costs). The most

sensitive parameter
adjustments

for costing is steam use; therefore, any

to the proportion of mills using integrated versus


5-18

stand-alone

systems would have the most effect on costs for

controlling air emission from wastewater.


The steam stripper
system design basis included a steam-to-feed ratio of 0.18 kg
steam per liter of wastewater

(1.5 lb/gal) which achieves a

90 percent removal efficiency for methanol based on


representative
performance.3g

data of pulp mill steam stripper


The stripper was assumed to be a sieve tray

column with 8 theoretical stripping trays.38


The column diameter and the size of the auxiliary
equipment

are a function of the wastewater feed rate.

column must be wide enough to provide a desired

The
(low) pressure

drop and liquid retention time in the column using


correlations

developed to prevent column flooding.

An integrated system uses steam from the evaporator set


for operation.

Due to the use of steam from the evaporator,

the use of fresh steam for an integrated system is much lower


than that of a stand-alone system.

The steam does lose some


of its heating value due to use in the steam stripper
(approximately
capacity).4O
make-up

6 to 12 percent of typical boiler


Consequently,

it must be supplemented with


steam from remaining boiler supply for use in later

effects.

While it is not expected that an additional boiler


would be required in this case, dedicated use of this steam
cou.ld limit future operational flexibility.
It was assumed that the overhead stream from either
(integrated or stand-alone) system would be ducted to an
existing combustion device and would contribute some heat
value; however, this heat value.will be partially offset by
the increased heat requirement to heat the high moisture
content

in the vent stream.

In practice, a fuel-rich overhead


stream is obtained by including reflux in the stripper design.
Such a design would incur costs for the reflux tank and
associated

condenser, yet produce a recovery credit for using


the overhead gases as fuel.38
The cost algorithm used in evaluating national impacts
accounted

for a recovery credit of $73,400 per year, based on


5-19

the approximated

fuel value of the organics in the overhead

stream; however, that costing approach did not include feed


tank costs or reflux tank and condenser costs for the standalone system, nor did it assume that any equipment other than
the sieve trays and pumps was constructed of stainless steel.
The costs for the cooling load on the reflux condenser were
In practice, the recovery credit is
also not included.
greater than the credit used in the analysis, but the system
capital and annual costs including the items listed above are
The resulting annual costs are within 15 to 20

greater.

percent of those presented in this document.


Development of Steam Stripper Capital Costs.

5.1.5.2

The capital costs for the steam stripper system are based on
the following equipment components:
Reflux tank (for integrated system);41

Steam stripper column (including column shell,


skirts, nozzles, manholes, platforms and ladders,
and stainless steel sieve trays);42,42
l

Flame arrestor;J4

Pumps;45 and

Feed Preheater.46

All costs are for carbon steel construction except for sieve
trays and pumps.
be constructed

It was assumed that these components would

of stainless .steel because they are.subject to

the greatest wear and are exposed to the harshest condition&.


No capital costs for additional boilers or cooling towers were
included.
The total capital investment for a'steam stripper system
is calculated

to be 2.20 times the purchased equipment costs.

The purchased

equipment cost includes costs for the equipment

components,
wastewater

auxiliary piping (additional piping for combining


streams and vent lines), instrumentation,

sales

tax, and freight.


Stainless

steel construction cost factors are included

for comparison

because facilities with corrosive wastewater

streams

(i.e., high pH) will require a steam stripper system


5-20

constructed

of a corrosion-resistant

material.

Equipment

costs for stainless steel were estimated from the carbon steel
costs, using a factor for conversion from carbon steel cost to
304.stainless steel cost. Table 5-6 presents the stainless
__
steel cost factor for each equipment component.
5.1.5.3 Development of Steam Stripper Annual Costs.

The

total annual cost is the total of all costs incurred to


operate the steam stripper system throughout the year. The
annual operating costs comprise direct and indirect charges.
Direct annual costs comprise expenses incurred during normal
operation of the steam stripper process, including utilities,
For this preliminary
labor, and maintenance activities.
analysis,

it was assumed that existing steam capacity and

cooling water would be used.


Electricity

is needed to operate pumps and other


components in the system. The electricity required

electrical

for the pumps is calculated using design flow rates for each
pump and assuming a developed head of approximately

37 meters

(120 ft) of water and a pump efficiency of 64 percent.


this analysis, electricity cost is assumed to be
$O.Ol/kW-hr. l1

For

The steam costs are estimated using the design

steam loading of 0.180 kg of steam per liter (1.50 lb/gal) of


feed., For integrated systems, make-up steam use is

wastewater

approximately

12 percent of the steam use for the stand-alone


For this analysis, the steam cost is assumed to be

system.40
$4.02/Mg.=

The steam stripper operating and maintenance


maintenance

labor costs,

material costs, supervisory labor costs,

administrative

and overhead charges, capital recovery charges,

taxes, and insurance were calculated as described

in

Section 5.1.3, with the only exception being that at 15 year


equipment
5.2

life was assumed.

CONTROL OPTIONS COSTS


Table 5-7 presents a summary of total capital investment

and total annual cost for controlling an example mil-1 using


the control options presented in Chapter 4.0. The example
5-21

TABLE 5-6.

STAINLESS STEEL COST FACTORS

Equipment component

Stainless steel cost


factor

Reference

Steam stripper column shell

1.7

42

Reflux tank

2.4

45

0.8193 + 0.15984 * (In A)


where A is in ft2

46

Feed preheater

5-22

TABLE 5-7.

SUMMARY OF COSTS FOR CONTROL OPTIONS FOR AN EXAMPLE FACILITY

Option

'Jl
I
h)
W

Flow rate
(scfm)

HAP cont.

WI ($)

TAC
(S/yr)

Brownstock washera
Brownstock foam tank
Knottera
Deckers/screensa
Weak black liquor
storage tank

34,900 scfmb

300 ppmv

1,920,000

429,000

Bleach plant washers


Bleach plant towers
Bleach plant seal
tanks

51,400 scfm

150 ppmv

860,000

287,000

Bleach plant washers


Bleach plant towers
Bleach plant seal
'tanks

51,400 scfm

150 ppmv

4,320,OO

3,840,OOO

,Digester blow tank


condensates
Evaporator foul
condensates

1,500
gal/min

1,350
PPmw

3,500,000

1,900,000

Emission points

Combustion of
pulping vents:
capture (enclosures
where necessary)
and conveyance to
an existing
combustion device

Scrubbing of
bleaching vents
(combined vents)

l
l
l
l

l
l

Combustion of
bleaching vents
followed by
scrubbing (combined
vents)

Steam stripping of
pulping wastewater
(combined streams)
followed by
conveyance to an
existing combustion
device

l
l

I
I
Emission points that require enclosures.
it The flow rate for sources requiring enclosures was 29,000 scfm with a concentration of 150
ppmv (after enclosure installation) and for enclosed sources, the flowrate was 5,900 scfm
with a concentration of 1,000 ppmw.

mill is identical to the model chosen for the examples given


in Chapter 4.0 (i.e., pulping capacity 1,000 tons per day,
pulping model Pl and bleaching model Bl, as given in
Appendix C). This model was chosen since it is used most
often in representing mills in the industry. The assumption
was made that this mill has existing baseline controls, as
discussed in the examples in Chapter 4.0. Vents assumed to be
controlled

at baseline include the digester relief vent,


digester blow gas vent, and the evaporator noncondensible gas
vent. The costs to control these vents is not included in the
cost examples to follow.

Industry has commented that the

control of evaporator condensate streams is less than what has


been assumed for this analysis. However, for the purpose of
this analysis,

it was assumed that all pulping wastewaters

generated are steam stripped due to the high concentrations of


methanol present in the model (Pl) condensate streams. This
analysis also assumed that bleach plant wastewaters,

including

scrubber effluent, were not steam stripped.


A detailed breakdown of the costs for the selected
control options

(as in Chapter 4.0) are presented in

Tables 5-8 to 5-12 for the example 1000 ton per day (TPD)
facility.

Brief discussions are given below.

The example costs for controlling pulping vents are based


on ducting the vents to an existing combustion device.

The

costs to convey the vents are based on two procedures.

Points

that.do not require enclosures are combined into a main duct


which is piped to a retrofitted existing combustion device.
The costs for controlling these ventsare

presented

in

Table 5-8. The pulping points that require enclosures


rotary vacuum pulp washer, knotter, and decker/screen)

(i.e.,
are

enclosed and then combined in a second main duct and piped to


the appropriately
controlling

retrofitted control device.

these vents are presented in Table 5-9.

Two potential
Vents

The costs for

(as discussed

scenarios to control bleaching process


in Chapter 4'.0) were selected for examples

5-24

TABLE 5-8. COSTS FOR MODEL MILL PULPING VENTS NOT REQUIRING ENCLOSURES
USING AN EXISTING COMBUSTION DEVICEa

Cost component

Equipment size or cost


factor

Component cost
($1

Total cost
($1

Equipment costs:b
Ductwork

19 in. diameter
1000 ft. length
20 elbows

50,000

Fan

16 in. diameter
17 hp
5,900 scfm

1,000

Knockout drum

2 ft. diameter
5 ft. height
0.25 in. thickness

1,000

Flame arrestor

19 in. diameter

Rupture disc

10 discs

Purchased equipment cost


(PW

Sum of equipment costs

Total capital investment


WI)
Total annual cost

3.02 * PEC

32,000
9,000
93,000
281,000
83,000
I

a Includes brownstock washer foam tank and weak black liquor storage tank with a
flowrate of 5,900 scfm.
b It was assumed that equipment costs are given as purchased equipment costs.

ENCLOSURES (FUGITIVE SOURCES)


TABLE 5-9. COSTS FOR MODEL MILL PULPING VENTS REQUIRING
USING AN EXISTING COMBUSTION DEVICEa

Cost component
Equipment costs:b
Ductwork

Equipment size or cost


factor

Component cost
($1
249,000

44 in. diameter
1000 ft. length
20 elbows

Fan

44 in. diameter
50 hp
29,000 scfm

6,000

Knockout drum

4.0 ft. diameter


12.0 ft. height
0.375 in. thickness

5,000

. Flame arrestor
Rupture disc
Purchased equipment cost
(PW
Total capital investment
WI 1
TCIduct
TCIenclosure
TCI

Total cost
(9

45 in. diameter
10 discs
Sum of equipment costs

3.02 * PEC
5 enclosuresC

111,000
43,000
414,000

1,250,OOO
385,000
1,635,OOO

TCIduct + TCIenclosure

Total annual cost (TAC)


288,000

TACduct
TACenclosure
TAC

58,000
TACduct + TACenclosure

I
346,000

a Includes brownstock washer, knotter, and decker/screen with a flowrate of 29,000


scfm.
b It was assumed that equipment costs are given as purchased equipment costs.
C Total capital investment for the enclosures is based on one washer line with three
washer hoods and supports ($230,000) and two single enclosure for the knotter and
decker/screen ($64,000 each).

TABLE 5-10. COSTS'FOR CONTROL OF MODEL MILL BLEACHING VENT STREAMSa


USING STAND-ALONE SCRUBBER
Equipment size or cost
factor

Cost component

Component cost
($1

Total cost
($1

Equipment costs:
Scrubber column

15 ft. diameter
27 ft. height

Packing

2,649 ft3 volume

Pump

2,570 gpm capacity.


.
51,000 scfm

Fanb

187,000
53,000
9,350
7,600

ul
I
td
4

74,000

Duct (Pipe & Elbows)b


Equipment'cost

(EC)

Purchased equipment cost (PEC)


Total capital investment

Sum of equipment costs

330,000

1.18 * EC

390,000

2.20 * PEC

860,000

(TCI):

TCI

287,000

Total Annual cost (TAC)

a Based on tower, washer,, and seal tank vents from C, D, E, and H stages.
b Detailed equipment size and cost procedures for ductwork are presented in
Table 5-8.

TABLE 5-11.

COSTS FOR CONTROL OF MODEL MILL BLEACHING VENT STREAMS USING AN INCINERATOR
FOLLOWED BY A SCRUBBERa

Cost component

Equipment size or cost


factor

Component cost
($1

Total cost
($1

Equipment costs:b
Incinerator = EC

1 incinerator
51,400 scfm

132,000

1.18 (EC)

156,000

TCIincinerator

1.61 * PEC

250,000

TC1duct to incinerator

1 duct
1000 ft. length
48 in. diameter
20 elbows

2,830,OOO

TCIduct to scrubber

300 ft length
48 in. diameter
6 elbows

595,000

TCIscrubber

15 ft. diameter
27 ft. height

650,000

Purchased equipment cost


(PW
Total capital investment
(TCI):

TCI

TCIincinerator + TCIduct to
incinerator + TC1duct to
&rubber + TC1scrubber

4,320,OOO
I

TABLE 5-11.

COSTS FOR CONTROL OF MODEL MILL BLEACHING VENT STREAMS USING AN INCINERATOR
FOLLOWED BY A SCRUBBER (Concluded)

Cost component

Equipment size or cost

Component cost

Total cost

Total annual costs (TAC)


2,830,OOO

TACincinerator

650,000

TACduct to incinerator
TAcdUCt to scrubber and
scrubberb
TAC

370,000
TACincinerator + TACduct to
incinerator + TACduct to
scrubber and scrubber

3,840,OOO

s:

a Based on tower, washer and seal tank vents from C, D, E, and H stages.
b Detailed equipment size and cost procedures for duct are presented in Table 5-8 and for
scrubber in Table 5-10.

TABLE 5-12.

COST FOR CONTROL OF MODEL MILL PULPING WASTEWATER STREAMS


USING A STEAM STRIPPER

Cost component

Equipment size or cost


factor

Component cost
($1

Total cost
($1

Equipment costs:

ul
I
W
0

Feed preheater

49,000 ft2

680,000

Tray column

11 ft diameter
29 ft height

150,000

Reflux tank (integrated


only)
F&ame arrestor

170 ft3 volume

17,000

Pumps (integrated only)

1 per line
0.16 ft. diameter

113

Feed and bottoms, 10 hp


each
Reflux, 1 hp

100,000

Pumps (nonintegrated
only)
EC (integrated)

Feed and bottoms, 10 hp


each

99,000

Preheater + tray column +


reflux tank + flame
arrestor + 3 pumps

950,000

EC (nonintegrated)

Preheater + tray column +


feed tank + flame arrestor
+ 2 pumps
I

930,000

Purchased equipment costs


(PEC):
PEC (integrated)
PEC (nonintegrated)

1,100,000
Auxiliary
. .pipinga
. .+. sales
tax + instrumentation

1,100,000

TABLE 5-12. COST FOR CONTROL OF MODEL MILL PULPING WASTEWATER STREAMS
USING A STEAM STRIPPER (Concluded)
,

Cost component

Equipment size or cost


factor

Component cost
($1

Total cost
($1

Total capital investment


(TCI):
TCI (integrated)

2.2 * PEC

2,500,OOO

TCI, (nonintegrated)

2.2 * PEC

2,500,OOO

TCI (duct)
TCI

3,200,OOO
3,500,000

O=67(TCIintegrated)b +
0*33(TC1nonintegrated +
TCIduct)

Total annual cost (TAC):


ul
I

W
P

Annual steam cost


,(integrated)

250,000

Annual steam cost


(nonintegrated)

2,900,000

Annual recovery credit

,73,000

TAC (integrated)

780,000
13,400,000
720,000

TAC (nonintegrated)
TAC (duct)
TAC

0067(TACintegrated)~ +
, 0.33(TACn onintegrated +
TACduct)

1,900,000
I

a Auxiliary piping is included here to account for the combination of wastewater streams
and vapor vent lines for wastewater holding tanks.
b Costs are based on weighted ratio of the cost of an integrated steam stripper and a
stand-alone steam stripper (0.67 and 0.33, respectively).

in this cost section.

The first scenario is based on

combining and controlling the vents with a scrubber designed


to remove HCl and chlorine (with some consequential volatile
These costs are presented in Table 5-10. The
HAP removal).
second cost scenario is based on combining and controlling the
vents, first by incineration, then by ducting the incinerator
exhaust to a scrubber.

The costs associated with this

scenario are presented in Table 5-11.


The example costs for wastewater streams are based on
combining

the streams and controlling with a steam stripper,

with the overheads ducted to an existing combustion device.


The cost procedure

is presented in Table 5-12.

The costs are


based on a weighted ratio of the cost of an integrated steam
stripper and a stand-alone steam stripper (0.67 and 0.33,
respectively),
A comparison

presented

as discussed in Section 5.1.5.


of costs for pulp mills of varying sizes is

in Table 5-13.

The mill sizes are small (500 TPD),

medium

(1000 TPD), and large (1500 TPD). The detailed cost


procedures for the medium mill are presented in Tables 5-8
through 5-12.

The same procedures were used to estimate costs

for the small and large mills.

5-32

TABLE 5-13.

COMPARISON OF TOTAL CAPITAL INVESTMENT (TCI) AND TOTAL ANNUAL COST (TAC)
FOR MODEL MILLS WITH VARYING CAPACITIES

Mill Capacity (TPD)


--------____________---------------------------------------^----------------------1500
1000
500
--------______-_____----------------------------------------------------^__________
Option

Emission Point

Combustion of
pulping vents not
requiring enclosures

Combustion of
pulping vent8
requiring enclosures

Scrubbing of .
bleaching ventea

l
l
l

VI
I

W
I*)

Steam stripping of
pulping wastewatet
followed by
conveyance of vent
stream to an
existing combustion

110,000

350,000

$1,600,000

450,000

$2,100,000

290,000

330,000

Sl,lOO,OOO

83,000

210,000

$1,000,000

160,000

58,000

Brownstock washer
Knotter
Deckers/screens

Bleach plant washers


Bleach plant towers
Bleach plant seal tanks

400,000

TCI

TAC

TCI
280,000

170,000

Brownstock foam tank


Weak black liquor
storage tank

Bleach plant washers


Bleach plant towers
0 Bleach plant seal tanks

Combustion of
bleaching vents
followed by
scrubbinga

TAC

TCI

TAC

860,000

410,000

$2,63O,OOO

$2,670,000

$3,800,000

$4,300,000

$7,500,000

$7,OOO,OOO

$1,620,000

$1,900,000

$3,500,000

$2,300,000

S4,600,000

Digester blow tank


condensates
Evaporator foul
condensates

840,000

a The bleaching vent emission points controlled included those points in a CEBD sequence (i.e, 3 points for each stage,
totaling 12 vents).
I
I
I

5.3

REFERENCES

1.

Memorandum from Greene, D.B., Radian Corporation to Pulp


and Paper NESHAP project file. Brownstock Washer
Enclosure Costs. July 21, 1993.

2.

Memorandum from Greene, D.B., Radian Corporation to Pulp


and Paper NESHAP project file. Development of Gas
Transport System Design and Costs. September 27, 1993.

3.

Vatavuk, W.M., Estimating Costs of Air Pollution Control;


1990. p. 74.
Chelsa, MI, Lewis Publishers.

4.

Ref. 3, pp. 77, 78.

5.

Ref. 3, pp. 71-72.

6.

Memorandum from Greene, D.B., Radian Corporation, to Pulp


and Paper project file; Flame Arrestor Costs.
August 2, 1993.

7.

Memorandum from Greene, D.B., Radian Corporation, to Pulp


and Paper project file. Rupture Disc Cost. August 2,
1993.

8.

OAQPS Control Cost Manual. Fourth Edition. U. S.


Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air Quality
Planning and Standards. Research Triangle Park, NC.
January 1990.
Publication No. EPA 450/3-90-006.
PP* 7-38 and 7-39.

9.

Ref. 8, p. 3-52.

16.

Municipal Waste Combustors - Background Information for


Cost Procedures, pp. 3.7-l and
Proposed Standards:
3.7-2.

11.

Fax. Rovansek, W., Radian Corporation - Herndon, VA, to


Watkins, S.L., Radian Corporation - Research Triangle
Park, NC. July 16, 1992. Operating costs from regional
cost letters. pp. 16 through 23.

12.

Ref. 8, pp. 2-26, 2-29, and 3-54.

13.

Ref. 8, Chapter 3.0.

14.

Memorandum from Seaman, J.C., Radian Corporation, to


Project File. Control of Pulping Vent Streams in an
Existing Combustion Device. September 29, 1993.

5-34

15.

Memorandum from Pandullo, R.F., Radian Corporation, to


Barbour, W.J., Radian Corporation, Evans, L., U.S. EPA,
et al. Summary of-April 11 Meeting to Discuss Thermal
Incinerator Cost Issues. April 27, 1990.

16.

Ref. 9, p. 3-8.

17.

Memorandum and attachments from Farmer, J.R.,


u. s. Environmental Protection Agency, Emission Standards
Division, to Ajax, B., et.al., August 22, 1980. Thermal
Incinerators and Flares.

18.

Ref. 8, pp. 3-31 through 3-34.

19.

Memorandum from Olsen, T.R., Radian Corporation, to


Shedd, S.A., EPA/CPB. Pulp and Paper NESHAP'Selection of
Bleach Plant Scrubber Design and Costs. October 8, 1993.

20.

Ref.

21.

Ref. 8, p. 3-47.

22.

Ref. 8, p. 2-25.

23.

Ref. 8, p. 2-29.

24.

Perry's
Perry, R.H., D.W. Green, and J.O. Maloney.
New York,
Sixth
Edition.
Chemical Engineers' Handbook.
1984.
p.
3-78.
McGraw-Hill Book Company.

25.

Ref. 24, p. 3-249.

26.

Ref. 24, PP. 3-75 and 3-76.

27.

Ref. 24, p. 14-16.

28.

Geankopolis, C.J., Transport Process and Unit Operations.


Second Edition, Boston, MA. Allyn and Bacon, Inc. 1983.
p. 798.

29.

Felder, 'R.M., and R.W. Rousseau, Elementary Principles of


Second Edition, New York, NY. John
Chemical Processes.
Wiley & Sons. 1986. pp. 622 through 624.

30.

Ref. 8, p. 9-65.

31.

Industrial Control
Buonicore, A.J., and L. Theodore.
Volume I. Cleveland,
Equipment for Gaseous Pollutants.
OH, CRC Press, Inc., 1975. PP* 74, 105, and 106.

32.

Ref. 8, pp. 9-14 through 9-35.

8,

PP. 3-42 through 3-44.

5-35

33.

Bleach Plant Chlorine and Chlorine Dioxide Emissions and


Their Control. Technical Bulletin No. 616. New York,
National Council for the Paper Association for Air and
Stream Improvement, Inc. September 1991.

34.' Ref. 8, pp. 9-36 through 9-46.


35.

Memorandum from Olsen, T.R., Radian Corporation,


Shedd, S.A., EPA/CPB. Model Scrubber Removal
September 17, 1993.
Efficiencies.

36.

Telecons.
medium.

37.

Telecons.
Brown, H.P., Radian Corporation - Research
Triangle Park, NC, with Rovansek, W., Radian. Corporation
- Herndon, VA. Wastewater Treatment Costs.
January 13, 1993.

38.

Memorandum from Fortier, G.E., Radian Corporation, to


Pulp and Paper NESHAP Project File. Basis for Pulp Mill
Steam Stripper Costing. September 30, 1993.

39.

Memorandum from Fortier, G.E., Radian Corporation, to


Pulp and Paper NESHAP Project File. Design Steam-to-Feed
Ratio of a Steam Stripper in Pulp Mills and Development
of Fraction Removed Values. September 3, 1993.

40.

Burgess, T.L., Chemetics International, Inc. The Basics


of Foul Condensate Stripping. Environmental Issues-1990.
A TAPPI Press Anthology.
pp. 348 through 352.

41.

Damle, A.S., and T.N. Rogers, Research Triangle


Institute.
Air Stripper Design Manual.
Prepared for
U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air
Quality Planning and Standards, Research Triangle Park,
NC. May 1990. pp. 17-18.

42.

Estimation Costs of Distillation and Absorption Towers


via Correlations.
Chem. Eng. Vol. 88, No. 26.
December 28, 1981. pp. 77-82.

43.

Peters, M.S., and K.D. Timmerhaus.


Plant Design and
Economics for Chemical Engineers. Third Edition. New
York, McGraw-Hill Book Company. 1980. pp. 768-773.

44.

Telecon.
Oakes, D.

45.

Estimating Process Equipment Costs. Chem. Eng. Vol. 95.


No. 17. November 21, 1988. pp. 66 through 75.

Brown, H.P., to various mills.

to

Scrubbing

Gitelman, A., Research Triangle Institute, with


Flame Arrestor Costs. September 1986.

5-36

46.

Estimating Costs of Heat Exchangers and Storage Tanks Via


Correlations.
Chemical Engineering Volume 89, No. 2.
January 25, 1982. pp. 125 and 127.

5-37

DATABASE SYSTEM FOR ESTIMATING NATIONAL IMPACTS

6.0

This chapter describes the development and use of a


database

system for estimating the national impacts of


regulatory alternatives on the pulp and paper industry.

The

database

system was designed to provide estimates of national


uncontrolled air emissions, national baseline air emissions,
and national
reductions,

impacts of air control options (HAP emissions


costs, and secondary impacts). In addition, to

allow joint evaluation of the overall impact of air control


options and water effluent guideline control options, the
database

system generates summary tables of impacts using the

calculated

air control impacts and water control impacts that

were provided by the EPA Office of Water.


Figure 6-l presents a flow diagram of the process for
estimating national impacts. The remainder of this chapter
the data inputs, the steps for calculating air
emissions, air emission reductions, control costs, electricity

discusses

and fuel use, and the generation of summary output tables for
these joint air and water control impacts.
'6.1

DATA INPUTS
As described in previous chapters, extensive data

gathering

efforts and review were conducted to characterize

the pulp and paper industry with regard to processes and their
emissions
basis.

and current levels of control on a

A database containinginformation

mill-specific

(e.g., capacity,

wood type) on each pulping and bleaching line for all mills
considered

for regulation by the EPA was developed to estimate

national

impacts of control options.lr2,3

database

contains confidential

therefore,

(This mill-specific

business information and is,

not publicly available.)

6-l

Data Gathering & Review


(Processes, Emissions, & Controls)
I
+

Model Pulping 4%Bleaching


Process Units
ModalPrrass

,
I

Pul & Paper


Mil PDatabase
(Mill Specific)

Emission
Factors

I
I
Industry
Characterization
(Model Mills)

1
Calculate Uncontrolled
Air Emissions

t
Assi n
BasePne
Controls

c
I
Ca~~l~i~~rr

1
Identify
Air Control
Options

L-

a
-

Water b
Control
options

m
Water b
Control
Impacts

Involvesreassignmentof model
processunits if water control .
optionsrequireprocess
modification

t
Emissions & Control Impacts

b Providedby EPA Office of Water


Environmental
Air
Figure 6-1.

National Impacts Estimation


6-2

costs

Water
Process

Ii
3
3

Because emissions data were not available

for each mill

included in the pulp and paper mill database, a model process


unit approach was taken to estimate national emissions.
Chapter 4.0 summarizes the 30 model pulping and bleaching
process units that were developed to represent the industry.
These models included, for each emission point, a design
capacity-weighted

emission factor.

(Appendix C lists all the

pulping and bleaching model process units used in the database


system, with the emission point-specific emission factors and
When these model process
vent or stream characteristics.)
units are merged with the pulp and paper mill database, an
industry characterization

database is produced

(made up of

model mills) with sufficient information to allow calculation


of uncontrolled air emissions. Although this model
characterization

is not an exact representation of each mill


in the industry, it is a reasonable characterization for

purposes of assessing the relative impacts of alternative


control options on the industry as a whole.
As described
characterized
levels.

in Chapter 2.0, the industry was also

with regard to baseline air emission control

Information was gathered through questionnaires

review of existing regulations to allow a determination


which emission points are currently controlled

and a
of

for each mill

in the database.
As described

in Chapters 3.0, 4.0, and 5.0, the data-

gathering efforts also identified applicable control- options


for the emission points identified. For each control option,
procedures were developed to estimate the cost and
environmental

impacts associated with the application of that


This input
control to a specific emission point in a mill.
control file was used in calculating the national

impacts for

specified air control options.


6.2 CALCULATION OF NATIONAL EMISSIONS AND CONTROL IMPACTS
Baseline
uncontrolled

air emissions were calculated from the


air emissions (i.e., model process unit emission

factors multiplied

by mill-specific
6-3

line capacities)

by

appropriate control efficiencies to the control

assigning

devices that were assumed to be present at each facility.


uncontrolled

The

and baseline emissions, calculated by emission

point, were then summed for each process line and mill.
National emissions were estimated by summing emissions from
all individual mills.
National air control impacts (emissions, emissions
reductions,

and costs) were calculated for each mill based on

a range of air control options.


procedures

The assumptions and


for the impacts are given in Chapter 4.0

(Environmental

Impacts) and Chapter 5.0 (Costs).

Taking into

account the baseline level of control assumed 'to be present at


each facility,- c.ontrolled emissions were calculated

for each

control option by emission point and were summed for each


line, for each mill, and for all mills combined.

Because the
add-on controls may be applied to multiple emission points
within a mill, control costs were not calculated by emission
point; but instead were calculated by line or by mill.
is, depending

That

on the capacity of the applicable control

device, multiple
device together

streams were assumed to be routed to the


(e.g., via a common header).

Note that because some of the EPA Office of Water control


options include process modifications that change the model
process unit assigned to a mill, model process units were
reassigned to the specific mills. After this reassignment
process,

impacts of air control options are then estimated,

accounting
6.3

for the process modifications.

GENERATION

OF SUMMARY OUTPUT FILES

As shown in Figure 6-1, the database system generates


output tables summarizing emissions, emissions reductions,
control costs, and electricity and fuel use. The output files
for the proposal are in Reference.4.
These summary tables
also include the water control impacts provided by the EPA
Office of Water as an input to the database.
tables include pollutant-specific
reductions

These output
air emissions and emissions

for baseline and for each control option, as well


6-4

as total capital and'annual costs and secondary envi_ronmental


impacts.

6-5

6.4

References

1.

Responses to the 1990 U.S. EPA National Census of Pulp,


Paper, and Paperboard Manufacturing Facilities Section
308 Questionnaire and Supplements (Confidential Business
1992.
Information).

2.

1991 Lockwood-Post's Directory of the Pulp, Paper, and


San Francisco, Miller Freeman
Allied Trades.
1990. p. 9.
Publications.

3.

Responses to Industry Survey discussed in the following


letter: J.E. Pinkerton, National Council of the Paper
Industry for Air and Stream Improvement, Incorporated
(NCASI), to J. Telander, EPA: 15B, and P. Lassiter, EPA:
CPB. February 11, 1992. (Responses were claimed
confidential business information).

4.

Memorandum from Olsen, T.R., and C. Reed, Radian


Corporation, to Shedd, S.A., EPA/CPB. Revised Integrated
June 9, 1993.
Database Outputs.

6-6

APPENDIX A
FIELD TEST DATA

APPENDIX A
FIELD TEST DATA
A.1

INTRODUCTION
The EPA conducted a field test program to gather air

emissions

and liquid sample data by which to characterize


emission sources within the pulp and paper industry. The purpose
of the program was to obtain data that could be used as a basis
for a national emission standard and as a basis for developing
air pollution

emission factors.

Specific objectives of the

testing program related to the national emission standard include


characterizing

emissions and emission sources within the pulp and

paper industry and evaluating the effectiveness of various


controls under consideration

by EPA for MACT.

Testing was

.conducted at a total of five facilities including four kraft and


one sulphite mill.

One of the four kraft facilities also had a

neutral sulfite semi-chemical

process which was sampled.

at each facility consisted of two parts:

Testing

(1) air emission

sampling of process vents on pulping and bleaching units, and (2)


sampling of liquid process fluids which consist of weak black
. liquor, condensates,

and wastewater.

This appendix contains a summary of the results obtained


from the field sampling program.

Brief summaries of each field

test and the results obtained are presented in the following


sections.

Additional

results are available

details regarding field test procedures and


from individual test reports for each test

site.
The information

reported in this appendix are'taken directly

from the field test reports and are in units of lb/hr for gaseous
measurements

and C(g/mL for liquid measurements.

the measured

values to units associated with production rate is

discussed
A.2

Conversion of

in Appendix B.

TEST DATA
A.2.1

because

Site 1.

Site 1 was selected for field testing

it is considered to be representative
A-l

of the kraft pulp

and

paper

industry and because several technologies that are

potentially

MACT for the process are in use at the facility.


Site 1 is an integrated bleach kraft pulp mill. The mill

produces kraft pulp from both hardwood and softwood chips. The
pulp is used to produce uncoated, white free-sheet paper for copy
machines, manuals, brochures, printing, business forms, and
The mill also produces bleached pine and hardwood
envelopes.
market pulp, approximately 20 percent of which is in the form of
baled pulp. An overview of the processes at the site are
presented

in Figure A-l.

Sampling points from Site 1 are located in the.pulping,


chemical recovery, and bleaching process areas of the mill.
Site 1 pulps both pine (50 percent) and hardwood

(50 percent).

Figures A-2 and A-3 present the hardwood and softwood pulping
processes.

Hardwood chips are cooked in one of two batch

digester pulping lines and the pine chips are cooked in one
continuous

digester.

The hardwood pulping process consists of two batch digester


lines and two brownstock washer lines which combine to one
screening and oxygen delignification
batch digester
parallel.'

Each

line (see Figure A-2).

line contains six batch digesters operated in

The digesters empty to one of two blow tanks, one for


The gases and steam are collected in a

each digestion

line.

direct-contact

accumulator and the pulp enters the washing line.

The steam and condensible gases are condensed in the directcontact accumulator

The noncondensib>e

the accumulator.
accumulator

with a portion of the cooled condensate

from

gases (NCG) from the

are vented to the NCG control system and are combined

with evaporator

condensates from chemical recovery and steam

stripped.
After the blow tanks, hardwood pulp flows to a knotter which
removes undigested

wood chips and returns them to the digesters.

The hardwood pulp is then separated from the spent cooking


chemicals,

or black liquor, in a countercurrent,

brownstock

washing system.

3-stage

Each stage consists of one vacuum


A-2

r-l

WOOd
Prepuation

soRwoo

HUdWOOd

HUdwOOd

Wood
Prrpudlon

Wood
Prepumtlon

b
& i

8%

Oigoston

Oigosmm

& $zZ*~
I .I
t2iX
vfzr

pup

. ug!!z
/tA
-we
t
szl t ~cbrnlcd*
w- we. --A Liquor
it%

,+,

,+

w
9..
Figurr

A-l.

General

qgy
0
Q

.-.
Process

A-3

Diagram

for-Site

Nrr(

____________-__-------------------------,
I
I
I
&

10
5
%l

I
I

I
I

a
2
J$i

y
I

t,
I
1

:
.
.

I
s
5 0
*:.......-...,
i
I...
ii
...
:-o
4.
.
$ *..:a*-taf
I
3
_f
P
Ic
3
;g
21
4
d
1
2+
I
7 ner

.m8
n!

1
a

,
11
t
t
I
@
...m z
; !I

II-*oil

c;

A-4

4
k

Itc

4 1. L8
!I-,e,
11
i B4
4
%%

I4
42
cn
u10
:
%
k
z
-4
2
2
80

..

A
it
%
-4
a

5:
2%
hf
vJ

I
.

i aa
:a
:a i

CO,....

8%
iv

;g
05

\
1

51
f
.
.................

I2
%

41

l
4
-

El4

I I I'
4 1,
I I
I I.

-_------

-----m-m
I IL---------
I I I
III
9
iii
; I I
I I I
III

i1111-

I
.---'

Ll
I

I
I
I
I
I

4
z/---13

.:
4 <I

m
d

I
I
I
I
I

I
I

A-S

s
8
1
I

The pulp from the two hardwood lines is then


drum washer.
The combined pulp enters two parallel, primary
combined.
screens, to remove oversized particles such as uncooked chips,
and then enters the decker for thickening prior to oxygen
In oxygen delignification, the pulp is treated
delignification.
with oxygen in an alkaline solution under pressure to remove
additional lignin. The contents of the oxygen delignification
tower are released to a lower pressure blow tank. The pulp is
and-stored before being sent to the bleach

washed, pressed,
plants.

The weak black liquor is recovered from the first stage

washers and stored.


The pine chips are digested in a Kamyr, continuous pulping
process (see Figure A-3). The continuous digester is a twovessel system in which pine chips are continuously fed into the
first vessel with white liquor. The digestion process continues
as the pulp flows from the first vessel to the second.

The pulp

and the liquor mixture flow from the second vessel to a two stage
diffusion washer.

Pine pulp flows upward through the washer

tower countercurrent

to down-flowing wash water recycled from the

decker in a l-stage diffusion washer.


removed by extraction
digester

The weak black liquor is

screens in the washer and used in the

for washing and cooling.

After exiting the washer, the

pulp enters a storage tank.prior to flowing through a screening


system to remove oversized particles such as undigested chips,
then a decker, to thicken and wash the pulp.

The pulp slurry

then enters an oxygen delignification tower for removal of


additional

lignin.

The chemical recovery process for Site 1 is presented in


Figure A-4.

The weak black liquor from the first stage in the

hardwood brownstock
washer are collected
process.

washer lines and the softwood pulp diffusion


to recover the cooking chemicals in this

Combined weak black liquors enter a storage tank, where

soap is skimmed

from the surface and sent to tall oil recovery.

The weak black liquor is concentrated in two parallel multiple


effect evaporators.

Soap is also extracted midway through the


A-6

VtilO

EtmctmWkRW

VtilO

__ _. _. . . - . . . . . . . . - - .

...&-,
- ....
l-l
....... ......................

WbI

*&-&).I...m
.I :
:: *
L
2:
cm- .- :: :
(
:: :

sz

. ........)

rlsi

8rlppdload-

....................................

:-

............
.............

. .

-:

:
:

i
i

;
!

:
:

.
:
.
.
.
:
:
.
:
I
:
:
:
.
:
:
:

4.
. ..__._____._..........

Figure A-4.

Chemical Recovery at Site 1

.'.

t.2miMwl~Dlr

________..._._._.

Sllumr

The concentrated liquor is then combined and


evaporators.
combusted in two parallel recovery furnaces.. The OffgaSeS from
the evaporators
(ESP).

are vented to an electrostatic precipitator

The smelt, which contains sodium carbonate

(Na2C03) and

sodium sulfide (NaZS), from the combustion of the black liquor in


the furnaces is mixed with water in the dissolving tank to form
green liquor. The green liquor is mixed with calcium oxide (CaO)
to form calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)z) in the slaker. This mixture
flows to the causticizer to form white liquor (NaOH and Na3S).
The white liquor is stored for reuse in the digestion process.
The CaC03, called lime mud, is first washed in the mud washer,
then combusted

in the lime kiln to recover CaO, which is reused

in the causticizing
The evaporator

process.
system condensates form two streams, one with

a lower volume and high concentration of volatiles and a second


with a high volume and lower concentration of volatiles. The high
volume stream is recycled in the mill for various uses and the
low volume stream is combined with the accumulator condensates
from hardwood pulping and turpentine underflow from softwood
pulping to be steam stripped.

The stripper is charged with waste

steam from the Kamyr digesters.

The liquid stream exiting the


steam stripper is used as wash water for the second washer of the
oxygen delignification
condensed.

section.

The exiting vapor stream is

The noncondensible gases are sent to the lime kiln

and the condensate,

consisting of primarily methanol and water,

is sent to a rectifier.
The vapor exiting the rectifier consists primarily of
methanol and is routed to the lime kiln.

The water stream is


combined with the evaporator condensates and accumulator

condensates

that enter the first steam stripper.

Oxygen delignified pulp is bleached in one of two 3-stage


bleach lines.
Site 1 has one bleach line dedicated to hardwood,
pulp and one line dedicated to softwood pulp.

The bleaching

lines are similar and presented in Figure A-5.

The 3-stage
(C/D) 'stage,an

sequence consists

of chlorine/chlorine

A-8

dioxide

0
sLI cc=
33
..1
0
a+
a% 4>7
z
5
%
;;4..
i&T
33

33

:
:

*
.

i
I

LYJ ....

4
,.___......._.._.
................ p-.0
B
i : #,
s..............!I.
h
d
0

I
:
I
I
I
.

i
,
I

i
.
I
:

-_----e-----------

,d
I
8
I

,I.

A-9

extraction with oxygen (Eo) stage, and a chlorine dioxide (D)


There are two differences between the two lines. The
stage.
first difference is the bleaching capacity. The hardwood line
has a 600 ton per day capacity and the pine has an 800 ton per
The second difference is the chlorine dioxide
day capacity.
rate. The chlorine dioxide substitution rate, as
active chlorine, for the pine pulp line is 50 percent and is
15 percent for the hardwood pulp line. After treatment in each
substitution

bleaching tower, the pulp is washed prior to entering the next


The wash water from the D-stage is recycled in the C/D
stage.
Filtrate from the C/D and Eo-stages
stage and Eo stage washers.
The
is sewered in the acid and caustic sewer, respectively.
bleached pulp isthen

stored in towers prior to use' in paper

production.
The objectives
characterize

of the test program at this facility were to

kraft hardwood digested pulp, kraft softwood

digested pulp and weak black liquor, kraft softwood oxygen


delignificaiton, kraft wastewater from both the pulping and
bleaching areas of the mill, kraft softwood bleaching with 50
percent

chlorine dioxide substitution, and kraft hardwood

bleaching

with 15 percent chlorine dioxide substitution.

Other

.objectives were to quantify air emissions of total VOC and


several specific compounds of concern from process vents.
Air emission tests were conducted at two locations in the
hardwood

bleach p,lant and three locations in the softwood pulp


mills and bleach plant. These are listed in Table A-l along with
the identifiers

for each sampling location.

.Several test methods

were used to measure emissions of the various constituents of


concern.

Table A-2 presents average emission rates for each

constituent

of concern as measured at each of the five

measurement

locations.

methods

All measurement points and measurement

are identified in the table..

Process

liquid sampling was conducted in 6 different areas

of the facility.

Table A-3 identifies these areas and the points

at which samples were taken in each area.


A-10

The identifier for

Table A-l.

Gas Sampling Locations at Site 1

Location

Identifier

..

Hardwood Plant
Vent into hardwood bleach plant scrubber
Hardwood D stage vent/wash and tower seal tank

HVl
HVlA

softwood Plant
0, delignification blow tank ven-t
Vent into bleach plant scrubber
Combined vent from EOwasher/filtrate

tank

SVl
sv4
sv5

Table A-2. Measured Vent Emission Rates


(lb/W

at

Site

Measurement Points
COMPOUND

SVl

sv2

sv4

0.0784

0.0124

HVl

HVlA

NA

NA

Acetone*

0.0554

Acetoneb

0.0912

0.00904

0.01004

NA

NA

Acrolein

NA

4. 01E-4C

0.000441d

NA

NA

NA

NA

MeK

MeKb

0.000567

0.00296

0.00289

0.0160

6.29e-4'

1.82e-4'1

NA

NA

NA

0.795

0.0435

NA

NA

2.16

0.0747

0.0260

NA

NA

HCLf

NA

0.0288

NA

NA

NA

Ch'
a-pineneg

N'A

0.212

NA

NA

NA

0.116h

2.17e-6'

NA

NA

NA

B-pinene'

0.0617h

7.15e-5'

NA

NA

NA

or.600

0.476

0.377

Chloroformb
Methanolb

THCj

4.320

0.863

D
- Obtained using EPA Method 0011.
b 2 Obtained using NCASI Methanol method.
. c - Value below detection limit of method.
d
- Estimated value below calibration limit.
c - Value. below quantitation limit.
f
- Obtained using EPA Method 26A.
I - Obtained using EPA Method 0010.
II- Estimated value above quantitation limit.
i
- Estimated value below quantitation limit.
j - Obtained using EPA Method 25A.
NA - Not applicable
.

A-12

TABLE A-3.

Liquid Stream Sampling Locations at Site 1


Identifier

Location
0

Softwood Bleach Plant


- Pulp into Cd tower
- Pulp out of Cd tower
- Pulp out of Eo tower
- Pulp out of D tower
- Pulp out of D washer
- Wastewater from bleach plant scrubber
- Softwood acid sewer
- Softwood caustic sewer

SP5
SP6
SP7
SP8
SP9
WW6A&B
WW7
WW8

Softwood 0, Delignification System


- Influent to delignification tower
- Pulp out of 0, delignification blow,tank

SP3
SP4

Hardwood Bleach Plant


- Pulp out of Cd tower
- Pulp out of Eo tower washer

HP2
HP3

Softwood Diffusion Washer and Weak Black Liquor


- Pulp into diffusion washer
- Weak black liquor

SPl
SP2

Hardwood Vacuum Drum Washer


- - Pulp into brownstock washer
NCG System/Digester Condensates
- Hardwood accumulator condensates
- Combined evaporator (foul).condensates
- Turpentine decanter underflow
- Turpentine storage underflow/
NCG system condensates

A-13

HP1

WWl
WW2
WW3
WW4

each sampling point is also given.


Liquid
process samples were analyzed using high performance
liquid chromatography/gas chromatography (HPLC/GC) to quantify
Some of the samples were also
pulping and bleaching compounds.
analyzed using proposed Method 25D and proposed Method 305.
Table A-4 presents the average concentration of selected
compounds identified in the process stream samples. Additional
details of the field sampling results can be found in the full
test reports.'v2
A.2.2
products,
boxes.

Site 2.

Site 2 produces more than 2500 tons of paper

including creped paper, grocery bags, and corrugated

Both kraft and neutral sulfite semi-chemical

pulping are practiced

at this facility.

(NSSC)

Approximately

2153 tons

per day of kraft pulp is produced exclusively from softwood and


approximately
exclusively
container

144 tons per day of NSSC pulp is produced

(OCC) plant produces pulp from bales of OCC purchased

from other sources.


presented

In addition, an old corrugated

from hardwood.

An overview of the processes at the site are

in Figure A-6.

Sampling points from Site 2 are located in the pulping and


bleaching process areas of the mill.

Figures A-7 and A-8 present

process flow diagrams of wood preparation and pulping for the


kraft and NSSC 'processes, respectively.

In the kraft process

(Figure A-7), screened chips and white liquor are added to 21


batch digesters and 2 Kamyr digesters, one of which operates with
a modified continuous

cook.

sent to five blow tanks.

The pulp from the batch digesters is

Undersized chips and sawdust are cooked

with white liquor in three continuous sawdust digesters and


transferred

to a common blow tank.

The pulp from all six blow

tanks is sent to brownstock washing, while the pulp in the Kamyr


digesters is washed within the Kamyr vessel and then sent to a
diffusion washer.
In-the NSSC digestion process

(Figure A-8), chips, sawdust

and pink liquor are cooked in two continuous digesters.

A-14

Pulp

TaMa M.

Muund

Conetitumt 8Zxwmntaclonm
.t 5ltmt (ug/nU

Measurement Points
M8hyl*elfi lmmm (a)
*kemd Cl

cubondl~
(*)
(0)

Chlommdum

bw5
0.145

sP3
0.745

SP4
5.03

HP2
0.W

HP3
0.155

HP1

15.24

0.542

4.41

0.410

0.127

O.po

0.252

ox)31

0.017

0.13

0.00s

O.OP

0.410

0.213-

0.103

0.30

0.105

5B.4
0.011

22.0
0.042

<15x)
0.045

35.3
0.033

257
0.014

175.2

t.001

0.002

0.075

0.023

0.02
0.04

eo.02
0.13

X0.03

<0.02

0.57

<0.02

<0.02

eo.02

0.55

<on4

CO.03

0.77

0.14

0.05

075

455

535

0.05

2.712

010

4M

501

435

a5

30.1

0.52

0.53

10.2

w
(4)

~~
w
Dbhbmmc.mnlmb

tn

(0

2.4-DMbrophmd
0
r-kuloxy-l-~-t--w

tirrr*
0
4.5-okhbtcr~moykY&

sowam

t.1

1.W

44.2

4.45

3,247

5,374

.63,tt5

3,530

22

23a

2.73

4.3

12.5

104

aso

0.01
0.152
0.544

13.1

33.3

37.a

15

13.4

67.6

53.8

115

50.5

1340

31.1

0.5

120

310
155
37.3
203

m
(0)

58.3

13.2

4.15
30

3s

<0.02

0.57

0.04

0.043

13.087

t.433

12.4

*Tm
M
AmmdcLumm

0.4
0.072
0.332

(0

Dlmho~

2.40

(fj

Phhbhh

(0

TtWddum

*hod
T.h*llanm

15.2

1.40

0.151

12.5

Dlmmhy(dlmulnIb (a)
w

VAV4I

275

0.6

-*lo
EbnxobDddm

*pl--

ww3

7.m

10.4

~-0
2.4.CTfkhbqh.d

w--

574

I~oa

NW-2

3.97

13s

(a)

D~bf-bphm
5llowrw (a)

Nltl&

345

o.tu

wt

0.52

chbd&

filcyl=#
m
HD*uundcDdd

54.5

5Pt

0.038

437

4.01

bb

Tdurw
W
l.l.l-Trkh)ocatitta

Dlmhyi

ww7
0.023

24.3

(a)

(a)

hw-

wwa
0.300

275

(0)

bdalm-

5Po
0.37

SP2

0.305

SP5
0.410

co.02

(e)

chb4Tb-m (c)
Chbdder (d)

2.euumm

sn

o.cu3

u**y*rw-

n+hucu

203

SP5
0.407

53.0

Acmldn (*)

chbmbfm

sP5

0.722
3.57
2.05

o.to4

(I)

DlmhyttiMldo
Total VO -vMal

1.75

0
@pm) Q)

l-obhlmdudnQ~ootl.
b.
Cbmlmd
u&g
NtXSWe5mnol.
txakhbmbmJmMty(mchlblm.
c-CbhllmdudngM
dObmld
udng
MMmd
25A.
l.camlndumhgM5rNqDlmlpm
I - obulnd UJng MS270 lmlpr
g - Cbrnlrld Udng Mdhod 260.

lS=

570

to4

MO

eutral
LmW

Sulftte

occ PIent

CxcBa
woodhpwoIion
1
occpl
F3
I &A
2carnuas

u
. .g
w
t
2w
0
z
w

ToGnnlQaed
L(dirrmprobdlar
h-

*
I
ToaMtidm

1
I
I
I
I
I

ok

II

'-

5f 13
I

I?r

i
I

I
*-----------------

I
I
I

c--

Y--

Cd

.I

il

... .
. ..
. ...
.
.. :.
. ..._.....
.... ..... .
.. ... ... ..
..... ..
. .... .
. .. .

..w

%
8 10
mI
%.I1
I
I
I

I
I
1

i
I
I
I
I

I
Ii
II

r!

--

>
-1
I

Dilrwdcmdc
)
ToN3KhSmBu

=2
0

L
ii&

I
t

a
---I,

Figure A&8.

Neutral Sulfite Semi-chemical Pulping at Site 2

from the digesters

is transferred to a common blow tank and then

sent to the screw presses for washing.


The washing systems for both the kraft batch and continuous
pulp are shown in Figure A-9.

In the batch process, pulp from

the blow tanks is washed in 4-stage countercurrent


washing system.

brownstock

In the continuous process, pulp from the Kamyr

digesters

is washed

in a 2-stage diffusion washer, screened, and

thickened

in a decker.

The NSSC washing process is presented in Figure A-10, where


screw presses are used to wash the NSSC pulp.
then transferred

The NSSC pulp is


to primary refining, high-density storage,

secondary refining,

low density storage, and finally to

corrugated medium production..


In chemical recovery system at Site 2, weak black liquor
from brownstock washing and the Kamyr digesters

is combined with

spent pink liquor from the NSSC screw presses, and sent to an
evaporation

system to thicken the liquor.

After evaporation, a
portion of the black liquor is oxidized and then burned in the
recovery furnaces.

The remaining black liquor is sent to a


concentrator and then burned in the recovery furnaces.
Smelt
from the recovery furnaces flows into a dissolving tank where

.filtrate from lime recovery dissolves the smelt to form green


liquor, and the dregs

(impurities) are removed in a clarifier.

The clarified green liquor is mixed with lime in a slaker.

The
slurry formed in the slaker is agitated in a causticizing tank to'
form white liquor and lime mud.

White liquor is removed from the


lime mud and is recycled for use in the kraft'digesters.
The
lime mud is calcined in the lime kiln to make lime which is used

in the slakers.
Condensible

gases from the evaporators, digesters, and blow

tank vents are steam stripped and sewered, recycled to brownstock


washing or sent to lime recovery.

The overheads from the steam


stripper are vented to the turpentine'recovery system.

Turpentine

is decanted

and the remaining

from the turpentine recovery condensibles

liquid is routed back to the steam stripper.


A-19

f3twmsiocrcw~(No.7w~~l

4
1;

loi--;

nd

'I.
.

fjJpy=w

:
,~""""""'

i.

i
u

1.
:

I
1

I
I

/
,

//

wuh welm tran sl8am sqpw

EvrFmrplor-.
115RwxmyFe-*
a 110du

oiI
t
I

:
I-0

ti

I
I

- I
I
I
I
I

-1

:
I
I

-l-e

Ez-

&

f-f%-

&

1
I -0

tl
usEN

-v--e_

w*

-s--e-

*e..
t_

To

Figure A-9.

Kraft Pulp Washing at Site 2

.. L

7
=I
..-in

Fi*re

A-10.

AL
~gppggjy~
=z
L
Y
II
t.
I4
I1qlr

Neutral Sulfite' Semi-chenkal

Washing at Site 2

-TZy$y
RakKhon
-

-.
AJP

Noncondensible
evaporators,

gases from turpentine recovery and the

digesters,

and blow tanks are sent to the NCG

collection system.
The bleaching sequence at Site 2 is CEHD (chlorination with
approximately

5 to 40 percent chlorine dioxide substitution,

extraction, calcium hypochlorite, and chlorine dioxide).


Figure A-11 presents the flow through one of two similar bleach
plants at Site 2.

Fresh water is used as wash water for all of

the bleaching washers.

The chlorine tower and washer, the

chlorine dioxide tower and washer and the foam tower are vented
to a caustic scrubber.
hypochlorite

The filtrates from the extraction and

washers are routed to the alkaline sewer.

The

chlorine and chlorine dioxide washer filtrates are routed to the


acid sewer.
Objectives

of the' field tests at site 2 were to characterize

the compounds present

in kraft weak black liquor, kraft digester

and blow tank offgas condensates, acid sewer, caustic sewer, and
bleach plant scrubber effluent.
characterization

Objectives also included

of compounds present in and quantification

of

air emissions

from kraft bleaching with low chlorine dioxide

substitution,

comparison of normal digestion to extended cook

digestion., and characterization


digestion.
collected

of neutral sulfite semi-chemical

Both process liquid and air emission samples were


and analyzed as a part of the program at site 2.

Air emission tests were conducted at 4 locations at this


site: the E washer vent, the H tower vent, the H washer hood, and
the bleach plant scrubber inlet.

These sampling locations are

listed in Table A-5 along with the identifier for each location.
A summary of the average vent emissions of identified
constituents is given in Table A-6.
Process stream samples were collected at a number of
.'locations throughout

the plant.

Table A-7 lists the locations


and shows the identifier used for each location. Sample analyses
consisted of a whole waste analysis using HPLC, GC/FID, and

GC/ECD.

The relative

em.ission potential was measured using EPA


A-22

!1

I- 1s

-0 2f I
-------------

1,
!I
II E

:- _,i_&--:---I

B
51

----~

--.-----o

I
I
I
I
I
I

I
0

I,i
B

i
w--------o--o-I
I

UJ
J

I
I

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

s\

I
-I

t-s

g&-T.

*--0-0

:!
I

p----------------k-

I
I
I
I

-----------I
s

(*

2
2:

fy.2

!I
e-

I
I
I

I
I
I
I
t
I
i
P
I

I'

A-23

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

I
I

Table A-5.

Gas Sampling Locations at Site 2


Identifier

Location

v2
V3
v4
v5

E washer vent
H tower vent
H washer hood
Bleach plant scrubber inlet'
l

Refer to Figure A-11 for details of the processes vented into


this scrubber.

A-24

Table A-6.

Summary

of

I
I

Average
(lb/W

v2
0.001
0.
0.000
-0
0.010
-0
-0
0.171
.0.012
0.001
0.007
0.083
0.000
-0
0.011
0.004
0.
-0
-0.
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.001
0.000
0.002
0.063

Constituent
Acetaldehyde'
Acetone'
Acetoneb
Acrolein'
ChlorineC
Chlorined
Chlorine Dioxided
Chloroformd
Chloroformb
Formaldehyde'
Hydrogen Chloride'
Methanol*
Methyl Ethyl Ketone' .
Methyl Ethyl Ketoneb
Methylene Chlorided
Methylene Chlorideb
Propionaldehyde'
Benzeneb
Carbon Tetrachlorideb
l,l-Dichloroethaneb
Chloromethaneb
Tolueneb.
Bromodichloromethanee
a-Pineneb
p-Cymeneb
a-Pinene'
Total Hydrocarbons
8

Vent Emissions at

A-25

Measurement Points
v5
v3
v4
I
I
I
0.002
0.002
NA
0.001 0.005
NA
NA
0.016
NA
0.002
0.045
NA
0.044
53.121
NA
0.071
5.187
NA
0.011
1.305
NA
0.301
2.863
NA
NA
0.059
NA
0.001
0.013
NA
0.011
1.131
NA
0.622
2.042
NA
0.002
0.030
NA
NA
0.000
NA
0.012
0.126
NA
NA
0.011
NA
0.000
0.014
NA
NA
0.001
NA
NA
0.003
NA
NA
0.001
NA
NA
0.010
NA
NA
0.001
NA
NA
0.007
NA
NA
0.001
NA
NA
0.001
NA
NA
0.000
NA
0.121
0.872
0.974

- Obtained using Method 0011.


.
- Obtained using Volatile Organic Sampling Train.
c - Obtained using Method 26A.
d
- Obtained using
NCASI.
c - Obtained using 8240 analyses.
f
- Obtained using Semivolatile Organic Sampling Train.
-- Not analyzed
NA - Not applicable
b

Site

Table A-7.

Liquid Process Stream Sampling Locations at Site 2


Identifier

Location
Weak black liquor from Kamyr digester
Pulp out of Kamyr digester
Pulp out of Kmyr digester - extended cook
Pulp into brownstock washer No. 7
Weak black liquor from brownstock washer N
Soft pulp into C C D washer
*
Pulp into C & D washer
Pulp into E washer
Pulp into H washer
Pulp out of D washer
Pulp into screw press
Spent liquor from screen press
Bleach plant scrubber wastewater
Digester & blow tank off gas condensates
C stage filtrate

A-26

Pl
P2a
P2b
P3
P4
P5
P6
P7
P8
P9
PlO
Pll
WWl
WW4
Ww5

Method 25D. Samples from some of the measurement points were


also analyzed for volatile organic compounds in accordance with
in Method 8240 and for semivolatile organic compounds
in accordance with procedures in Method 8270. Table A-8 presents
the results.of the whole waste analysis and for the volatile and
semivolatile organic compound analyses. Additional details of

procedures

the field test program at site 2 are available from the


individual test reports for the site.3Y4
Site 3 is a fully integrated kraft pulp and

Site 3.

A.2.3

Feedstock consists mainly of softwood chips.


up to 10 percent hardwood is used. The facility

paper mill.
Occasionally

produces 250 tons per day of bleached and semi-bleached kraft


market pulp and 1000 tons per day of kraft unbleached
bleached linerboard,
papers.

and

grocery bags, and saturated and converting

An overview of the processes at the site are presented

in Figure A-12.
Sampling points from Site 3 are located in the pulping,
chemical recovery,

and bleaching process areas of the mill.

Figure A-13 presents the process flow diagram for wood


preparation

and digestion.

Softwood chips are fed into the

digesters along with white liquor.


six batch digesters

Site 3 cooks their chips in

and two Kamyr continuous digesters.

One blow

tank serves all'six batch digesters, while each Kamyr discharges


to a-separate

tank.

All the digesters vent to the turpentine


The

recovery system, while the blow tanks vent to condensers.


condensates

are sewered and the noncondensibles

vapor sphere.

The vapor sphere serves as a collection unit for

the noncondensible
variations

are routed to a

gas system and is expandable to handle

in gaseous flow.

Pulp and liquor separated from

digester gases in the blow tanks *are then sent to the brownstock
washers.
Figure A-14 presents the brownstock washing configuration
Site 3'. Pulping

liquor .from the batch digesters

three 'stage countercurrent

vacuum washer

A-27

is washed in a

(Washer No. 2).

Fresh

at

Table Ad. hmmd

(a)

Ac.Wdah&

(.,

PI

Pa

3.2
1.1

P2b

P3

P4

P5

Pa

P7

P8

PO

PI0

PI1

0.03

27

3.4

4.7

0.043

0.352

0.557

0.732

0.87

0.27

<o.oos

4.5

0.032

0.11

0.018

0.032

0.015

kabm

C)

29

17

43

30

43

0.212

OR40

o.!a7

h.uddn

(4

co.01

co.01

CO.20

<O.Ol

<O.Ol

0.010

<O.Ol

co.01

P-h+

(d

krnpl dlfl

lwDM

(a)

ti4

0.063

1.3

<O.Ol

so.01

0.07

0.13

0.03

0.1

0.076

OR3

<O.Ol

0.00

0.08

7.3

0.05

0.05

2.5

ND

ND

ND

(a)
(a)
515

75.5

340

273

2.150

2.5

2.4

2.0

<O.OS

0.54

<OR4

<OR0

wmo.

72.153

13.750

ND

O.W!l

0.002

0.W

ND

ND

O.Wl

0.0035

0.012

No

0.313

ND
0.000

ND

ND

ND

ND

O.Wl

ND

ND

0.011

0.002

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

O.WSS

O.OCW

Ee-omnmdum

@I

ND

0.003

ND

0.003

ND

ND

(b)

ND

ND

0.15

ND

ND

O.WO

0.33

0.338

ND

0.010

0.008

ND

ND

ND

0.M

ND

ND

ND

0.204S

0.037

ND

0.003

0.002

0.002

R-1

SW--

b)

O.OW

ND

0.033

ND

ND

ND

Td-

0.13cs

0.025

ND

0.001

0.003

0.008

ND

ND

Mnjichlwlde
m-w*

(b)
(b)

@)

kamfb, @)
tkomodkhlcmmmdun.
1.3-Dkhkmbmzmm
olln+l

d2da

ND

ND

0.001

ND

ND
o.ons

ND

ND

ND

0.000

ND

ND

0.46

ND

ND

ND

OR35

0.521

ND

0.m

0.036

o.ow

(b)

(I.)

ND

ND

ND

0.001

ND

0.010

0.01m

ND

0.13

ND

ND

ND

18

0.w

0.W

ND

ND

ND

0.024

ND

ND

ND
0.000

eb)

Dlmlry( dlwblda 2b)

1.s

@)

4.6

2.1s

O.COS

ND

0.000

b-Phm

04

1.4

0.00

0.002

ND

ND

ND

0.24

O.OWS

0.11

ND

ND

ND

ORWS

ND

No

ND

ND

2.45

s.s

ND

2.m

ND

ND

ND

0.004

ND

3.1

0.041

ND

ND

0.W

ND

em-

@)

3+Meaqphmd

(cl

P--h-W-d
Ph.nd

(cl

C)

2.1

l-Pln.n.
6)
Wlmm (c)

0.515

ND

*TN-d t-3

1.w

ND

l -amlnd

Udng whk

w.mn andp. (wLC/Gc)

b - Cbtnlnal uJnp Memod 5240


5~ob~n.d

udng Mbaod m270

- Not uulpd
ND-No(&*s(d

ND

2.430

0.06

(?a)

<I

ND

0.620

ND

(b)

ND

ND

ND

(b)

ND

Chkmrmdun.

Trlchkmatmm

so.01

0.507

Cmbm dlmublde (b)

0.04

<O.Ol

O.W3

ND

0.18

<O.Ol

O.OW

ND

~%l--~~

94

co.01

o.oso

ND

2-Eu~norw (MEK) (b)

0.28

1.0

0.34

1.4

lodorm-

Q.27

1.5

14

x0.01

ND

(b)

0.26

<O.aO

0.M

IO

n+hurn

0.01

so.01

61

l.l-Dkhkm.durm

-.
0.44

0.01

I.5

<I

Ch@)
DlbmmmnUum

<O.W4

ww6

Gil
--

0.1

2.2

Cattarnchkeide

0.01

wws

0.14

(a)

(a)

<o.oM

2.5

0.33

(a)

Mdlmd

<o.ow

w4

0.49

b-Plnm
M.dl*chw

~0.1s

WI

0.34

a-Plwm

Chkmkrm

.t sh. 2 (q/ml)

Measurement Points

(compond
Fmldahvdm

Condbnn~ -(ntlons

ND

134

13S

14

1.5w

57

1.5
4

Wood Preparation

r
2 Kamyr Digesters

6 Batch Digesters

c
I
f

9
3 Stage Vacuum
Pulp Washing

No. 4

3 Stage Vacuum

Washer

Pdp Washing

w
J

f+JlP

stotaga

1
b
Bleaching
.

/ Papmakfng
1:
Figure

I--

Unbleached
Papc#makfng

MarketPulp

A-12. General ,ProceseDiagram for Site 3.

A-29
-

0
8
psc
ii
Sri,3
.

-El+- f

A
&

. - _. . _. - . - . -

:-..A

:e...-
_,.I

a- *.

....<
__c
F

*
;. . .. .. .. . .
--c
4
,4--

*.
....<
;*...F
;
__c
I
;._...... .. .._..... .. ... . .. . ..a....
:
I
i
:
:
:
.* -.
....,
*...l
:
:

i ... .... .. .. .. ... .. .... ... . ... ..--c


.....
:

;
:
:
:
.- -.
.....
:
+-.:
;
I
.I
.... . .(. ... ... . . .. .. .c..

:
:

Ii.....&-)q

4fi
2 a

iii l

,-if
0

t-7
2
.c(
VI
e,
a
:
3
:
E
&
42
tl
%
V-4
P
za
0
44J
z
%
z
PC
B
P
c;
Pl
k
E
g
4kl

A-30

s +t
II*
a; 3
F d%

Ei
az
b 5
p

0
5
@$f

LL

:
1 i -: :1
;

r.*#
gBQ
b
b
s
z

fb

.: 8
l

51

sl

\
-..*

0
z *-we

b
dx+ d

*--

I! .:y>. I:>
g

*
. ..-

,....p
. . .. .. .. . .. .....i
..

<

c-

:
:

l
.<

iI:
,.._....
..:Pq .... .. . ... ... .. ..
....

..-a
.
r

:
3,
Ic:.
%
31
v:
.

I
b

I$

.m
1

cf

x
:
:

-I

e0
$ ..
& .....
.._,,,.%
._
e
W
._
Ii
...J,

c-

3
-jjj

V,

c-

%
2

i....i

A-31

*
I

-1 B

*pn@
..

water is introduced at.the third stage. The filtrate tanks are


equipped
with a foam tank to decrease the amount of foam in the
washer system. Weak black liquor from stage one is sent to weak
black liquor storage for later chemical recovery. Washed pulp is
thickened in a double decker before being sent to the-high
density storage area.

Pulp and liquor from Kamyr No. 2 is sent

through a washing system identical to the pulp from the batch


digesters

(Washer No. 3).

water, evaporator

However, instead of applying fresh

condensate is used as wash water for Stage 3.

Washed pulp is then thickened in a decker,and stored.

The
brownstock pulp is then used to make unbleached products.
Pulp and liquor from the batch digesters and Kamyr No. 1 is

washed in the No. 4 washer.

As shown'in Figure A-15, the No. 4


washer is a seven stage counter current flow system, with fresh
water being applied at stage seven.
a chemiwasher.

This washer system is called

Weak black liquor from the first stage filtrate

tank is sent to weak black liquor storage.


chemiwasher

Pulp from the


is sent to storage where it may be sold as unbleached

market pulp or sent to the bleach plant.


Figure A-16 presents a flow diagram of chemical recovery
Site 3.

at

Weak black liquor from all wash stages is filtered,

stored, and sent through weak black liquor oxidation where some
sodium sulfide
(Na2S203)

(Na2S) may be converted to sodium thiosulfate

From the oxidation system, the black liquor is sent

to the evaporators

for removal of water.

In the newer part of

the plant, strong black liquor from the No. 1 and No. 2
evaporators

(55 percent solids) is stored and then sent through

another oxidation

system.

From black liquor oxidation, the


strong black liquor is sent to the No. 3 direct contact

evaporator (DCE) furnace to convert the sulfur compounds to


sulfide and to drive off the remaining water. Strong black
liquor form the No. 4 evaporator set (50 percent solids) is
concentrated

to 63 percent solids, stored, and sent to the No. 4

indirect contact recovery furnaces.

A-32

Fresh
WdW

.:

Figure

A-15.

No. 4 Washer

at Site

Market Pulp
UnbleachedStock.
and/of Blench Ptant

c-7
J
.-I
v1
u
a

e
,B
fz
rag
Sd
6
4
B
8v

c
z

9
K8

wg9
p$J

s
4
z
6

(Y

F,

.
2
Jc

518

fa
e -3
8

s
2
4

e
a
a!

4. .. .
.I.

%
y -;I
---. iI.3s

a
3
z&
B
v. .,\

%
3,
g3jra! jj

ii
b
4
-4

Of
at-

A-34

Smelt produced

from combustion in the recovery furnaces is

sent through dissolving tanks where water is added to dissolve


the sodium salts. This solution, called green liquor, is the
treated with calcium hydroxide
(NaOH).

(Ca(OH)z) to form sodium hydroxide

The Ca(OH)Z is derived from combustion of the calcium

carbonate

(CaC03) precipitated from the causticizer in a lime


kiln to form lime (CaO), followed by the addition of water.
In addition to the recovery of cooking chemicals, the
facility recovers turpentine from the digester vent gases. The
turpentine recovery

system is presented in Figure A-17.


The
The digester vent gases are routed to a condenser.
noncondensibles

along with overhead from the vapor sphere and the


evaporators are routed to the lime kilns. Sulfamic turpentine is
The remaining condensates are
decanted from the condensates.
sewered.
Figure A-18 presents a diagram of the bleaching process at
Site 3.

Brownstock

pulp stored after being washed from Washer

No. 4 is pumped to the bleach plant where it is bleached in the


following sequence:
l

Chlorine (C12) with approximately 85 percent chlorine


dioxide (C103) substitution;

Extraction

Chlorine dioxide.

with oxygen and peroxide; and

Before the C13/C103 tower, a small amount of Cl03 is mixed


with brownstock

pulp followed by further mixing with Cl3, and

more Cl03 yielding

From the

75 to 100 percent Cl02 substitution.

C12/C102 tower, the pulp is washed.and sent to the extraction


tower where oxygen and peroxide are added to dissolve the
residual lignin.

The pulp is then washed and sent to the ClO,

tower for additional

bleaching.

After a final wash stage, the

bleached pulp is stored until needed for papermaking.

The

C12/C102 tower, all filtrate tanks, and all bleach wash stages
are vented to a caustic scrubber.
vented to the atmosphere.
.
A-35

The extraction stage tower is

chwhead from
vwsphere
uldEvqxmtor8

.
i
:
:. .
;
:

3&i

ler....m.*--.
jy]

~.~..-.~I~.~--.-.~.
rpgijq

-..b--------:
---ToUmKilns

VW
:
:

-..

m-

f3ec8te.r

Sullamic
Tuqentina to Slorcrge

.w

Lisuld
.

-----

vrpor

B.

Figure A-17.

Turpentine Recovery at Site 3

,rJt
41ii i:;
[3

ir
hb,..0

,\.--l -81

I
I
I
3
,
,
7
.

cr)
$
-4
ro

.
,...

0
c
g
*
E
0
b a

\ 5
----1
1;

-.

i
.U
.

,
.
.

.
. .*

gr
Q IA-..
i ! ---

-j

;
t
i

1.m

i
+

I
:....._.,......................

a $I
!P
B.

i
,i

.. . .._.................

*....

1
3c

,.._ +

._.........

..............._. ... . .......*

.c 0
gL

I
.

E
,C
a

i#
....I
&C ...
a
i
....._.....
*--c3
d
j
.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ._......_.___._
t
. . . ..

?.
.

..

A-37

. . . . . . . . . . . . ...!

2
:
8.
E
PI
4z
3
t
04
PI
L
4
A
z
g
4h

The objectives of the Site 3 sampling program was to


characterize the compounds present in kraft softwood digested
pulp, weak black liquor, batch and continuous blow tank
condensates, turpentine underflow, evaporator condensates, acid
sewer, caustic sewer, and bleach plant scrubber effluent. Other
objectives included characterizing the compounds present in and
quantification

of air emissions from kraft softwood bleaching

with 85 to 95 percent chlorine dioxide substitution, comparison


of chemi-washing
quantification
tank.

with conventional rotary vacuum washing and

of air emissions from a brownstock washer foam

To achieve the objectives of the program, sampling points

at Site 3 were selected at locations in the pulping, chemical


recovery, and bleaching process areas of the mill.

Gas samples
were collected at two locations, the vent from washer no. 2 foam
tank and the vent into the bleach plant scrubber.
locations and associated

Gas sampling
identifiers are shown in Table A-9. The

results of the sampling at these locations is given in Table


A-10.
Process liquid samples were taken at 18 locations in the
plant.

These are also shown in Table A-9 along with the

identifier for each sampling location.

Results from the analyses


of the process stream samples are summarized in Table A-11.
Additional

details of the testing at site 3 are available from

the detailed test reports for the site.5*6


A.2.4
mill.

Site 4.

Site 4 is a bleached kraft

and

paper

The mill pulps and bleaches hardwood and softwood

separately to produce a total of approximately


(TPD).

pulp

1850 tons per day

A pulp machine that runs either 100% hardwood or 100%

softwood, produces approximately


Administration

300 TPD of Food and Drug

(FDA)-approved market pulp.

Two paper machines,


using varying blends of hardwood and softwood, produce
approximately

1550 TPD of paper.

paper, photocopy

Products include envelope


paper, computer bond paper, and offset paper for

A-38

Table A-9.

Gas and Liquid Sampling Locations for Site 3


Identifier

Location
Gas sampling

locations

Washer no. 2 foam tank vent


Vent into bleach plant scrubber*

Vl
v2

Liquid process stream sampling locations


Pulp out of blow tank no. 1
Pulp out of blow tank no. 3
Weak black liquor form washer no. 2
Pulp into chemiwasher no. 4
Weak black liquor from chemiwasher no. 4
Pulp into ClJCIO, tower
Pulp out of C&/CI02 tower
Pulp out of extraction tower
Pulp out of CIOz tower
Pulp out of D washer
Bleach plant scrubber effluent
Blow tank condensates from batch digesters
Blow tank condensates from kamyr digester
Turpentine underflow
No. 1 and 2 evaporator condensates
Caustic sewer
Acid sewer
No. 4 evaporator/concentrator condensates

SPl
SP2
SP3
SP9
SPlO
SP5
SP6
SP7
SP8
SPll
WWl
WW2A
WWZB
WW3
WW4
WW5
WW6
WW7

Refer to Figure A-18 for details on the processes vented into


the scrubber.
l

A-39

Table A-10.

Measured Vent Emission Rates at Site 3


(lb/W
I

Constituent
Acetaldehyde'
Acetone'
Acetoneb
Acrolein'
ChlorineC
Chlorined
Chlorine dioxided
Chloroformd
Chloroformb
Formaldehyde'
Hydrogen chloride'
Methanol'
Methyl ethyl ketone'
Methyl ethyl ketoneb
Methylene chlorided
Methylene chlorideb
Propionaldehyde'
Carbon tetrachlorideb
n-Hexaneb
Chloromethaneb
2-Butanoneb
Tolueneb
Bromodichloromethane'
Dibromochloromethanef
Dimethyl sulfide
Dimethyl disulfide
a-Pinene
b-Pinene
p-Cymene
p-Cymene
a-Pinene
b-Pinene
a-Terpinol
Total Hydrocarbons'

Measurement Points
v2
Vl
I
0.098
0.001
0.316
0.001
0.043
0.004
0.
0.005
NA
0.041
NA
1.112
6.648
NA
NA
0.235
0.
0.045
0.003
0.002
NA
'0.011
4.839
2.265
0.194
0.009
0.019
0.000
-0
0.042
-0
0.001
0.012
0.001
0.
0.002
-0
0.001
-0
0.049
0.019
0.000
-0
0.001
-0
0.004
0.
0.001
0.920
-0.249
0.
1.376
0.396
0.508
O.f35
0.058
0.009
0.256
0.001
6.471
0.000
0.970
0.000
0.110
-0
27.306
1.437

- Obtained using Method 0011.


- Obtained using Volatile Organic Sampling Train.
c - Obtained using Method 26A.
d
- Obtained using NCASI.
c - Obtained using 8240 analyses.
f
- Obtained using Semivolatile Organic Sampling Train.
-- Not analyzed
NA - Not applicable
b

A-40

Tabk A-l 1. M.mwed Cawlllwnl ConantaUon~ aI SIW 3 (Up/ml)

MeasurementPoints

1-d
F-W*

(4

A--*
(4
Acaom 8
Acmhbl (4
plopkru@.h* b)

SPI
2s

SPZ
6.1

SP3
2.813

BP6
23.aS7

BP6
15.227

SP7
1.023

spa
0.111

SP6
5.1

SPlO
6.6

SPll
a,

wwl
0.64

ww24
0.37

ww2b
0.02

ww3
0.87

ww4
0.66

wws
0.64

1.1

1.4

0.26

0.47

0.25

0.197

0.077

0.047

0.15

0.06

0.2

0.6

0.02

16

31

0.61

0.4

0.1

2.3

0
<0.03

26

P.7S7

2.033

0.66

0.39

26

1.6

1.2

<0.03

=ZO.O3

<0.03

co.03

!u
<0.03

2.2

<0.03

26
SO.03

0.02

<0.03

31
<ox)3

2.2

<0.01

0.05

0.04

SO.03

<o.a

1.6

SO.43

0.077
0.287

1.647
1.467

9.66
0.807

0.127

0.07

0.67

0.44

1.4

<0.03

0.24

3.5

2.2

0.21

0.1

0.12

0.n

0.10

0.06

<o&3

<0.03

1.6

0.01

23

7.6

1.11

0.1

0.14

1.133

ND

ND

1.2

1.S
ND

116

2.1

ND

1.04

ND

1.4

1.6

ND

?D

ND

ND

Mayi
lhyl
kdom
(a
1.4
ND
a-PhbJ
ND
b-Phm4
(4
Me6lylamchbdda
(a)
chat bJ
60
Mdund
b)
0.001
Blwvwhm
@J
Cubondlul~
@)
0.044
0.001
~loml @J
ND
cumn Cl
EM=--

(b)

Dlbmmmeum

0
@)

l.l.l-Tllchhmhun
2--

lw

~~

@)

lw

4-M.w-+pnMonm-

@)
0

SW=@)
1.1.2.~T.mdlkm9

huu

@I

Qlum
@I
1.1.a1lkhlaa(huw

b
P

@)

7.zu

<0.60

7.133
<o.m

6.6
<o.w

w4

177

63

ND

ND

ND

0.014

O.W6

0.021

ND

0.157

366

392

10

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

0.001

ND
0.008

ND

ND

0.001

ND

ND

0.011

ND

0.017
0.061

ND
0.S

ND
0.0-M

0.047

0.002

YD

ND

ND

0.006
0.024

ND
0.044

ND
0.007

ND
0.01

0.001

ND
ND
0.046

0
ND

ND

O.W3
0.010
0.001

ND

ND

ND

ND

O.cQl
ND

lmmwm 6b)
Vlnyi#Un
@)

0.001

ND
ND

rnlPXb+-

0.001

ND

ND

0.34
ND

0.064

@)

O.lP

AcdmN tw
BmmodkMocwn1.34khkrokn2m
l.PDkhbmb.nx~n
l.+Dkhloro2-buWm

3.11

EWmM@)
2-t+m0
nkhlomn -6lu.b.
1.2.~nkhbmpmpuN
Dlrnhyl ulfb
@J
oknhyi

dINma

ND
0.a

0.002

ND
ND

0.001
ND
ND

ND
ND
ND

@)

O.W3

ND

ND

ND

0.002
0.003

ND
ND

ND
ND

ND
ND

o.m2

ND

ND

ND

0.003

ND
1.6

ND
ND

ND

24

ND

ND

1.0
0.22

ND
ND

ND
ND

@J

0.011

a-Plnn

(b)

b-P!Mm

0.017

@J

Phmol 0
b-f+fWm. 0
a-1.Qld
(c)

-oWlkwdu~~*rr~m(HRC/OC)
b-ObWudn#mti6240
c - cmdmd

ND
0.001

ND
0.001

0.4
0.137

PCP-

ND

ND

0
6s)
tb)

iv
@)

udng 6270

ND

0.043

ND

ND

2.663
ND

3.36

ND

ND

0.06

ND

ND

0.857

2.06

ND

ND

O.Wl

SO.03

0.121
0

0.001

n-N.@J
Chbmw*un

0.15
<l.O

1.64

7.7
as2

aa

CO.60
pz

3.6
C0.W

<on3

<o.w
ND
66

63

3.731

2,442

211

WM

WwrI

3.4

1.6
ND
ND

<o.w

ao.60

<O.SO

co.60
a3

165

An overview of processes at Site 4 are

printing and writing.


presented

in Figure A-19.
Sampling
points for Site 4 are located in the pulping,

chemical recovery, and bleaching process areas of the mill.


Site 4 processes hardwood and softwood chips in two separate, but
similar, lines. Figure A-20 presents the wood preparation
pulping processes

at the mill.

Logs are debarked and chipped and

stored in chip piles.


continuous
(NCG)

The chips are cooked with white liquor in


Kamyr digesters to form pulp. Noncondensible gases

and pulp/liquor

from the digesters are separated in a blow

tank and the pulp is screened to remove undigested fiber.

Black
liquor is washed from the pulp in brownstock washers and sent to

chemical recovery where it is converted back to white liquor for


reuse in cooking.
The digester and blow tank off-gases are collected and sent
to a condenser.

The NCG's from the condenser are incinerated and.


the condensates are steam stripped.
In the softwood line,
turpentine is recovered as a fraction from the condenser
receiving

NCG from the digester, chip bin, and blow tank:

Figures A-21 and A-22 present flow diagrams of hardwood and


softwood brownstock washing and oxygen delignification processes.
Hardwood pulp from screening enters a two stage countercurrent
brownstock

washing system and then is routed to the oxygen

delignification

tower.

Oxidized white liquor or caustic is added


to the discharge of the second stage washer. A large portion of
the weak black liquor from brownstock washing is used as wash
water in the sections of diffusion washing in the Kamyr digester
and the remaining weak black liquor is sent directly to chemical
recovery.
At the oxygen delignification tower more lignin is removed
from the pulp. Pulp from-the oxygen tower is washed in a twostage countercurrent

rotary vacuum washer system.

Evaporator
condensates from chemical recovery are used as wash water for the
second stage. A fraction of the filtrate from the first stage

A-42

I
I
I
I

I
I
I

woakw
-w-w----

5
m

WrHp

c)wrJerl

-G

E
l
vaw
t,

-.

Figure

A-19.

~General

Prtkeqw Diagram

A-43

for

Site

NCGS
10
lrlcinefal~

&

&

s
:
i
I
I

i.. ,.

HU
w&
,*- Toczhulk
. ._- :$
II
iziklI
,
I

I
codrho I
I
CMhloll -1
W&U-q

sctoatu

- -to
Wbll
SlwnsllfQpI
( Hnfw WOA-I LZde )
Pulp IO

Wuhino

7,
12%ZOd
-of

A-20.

fgg

Figure

TLIIpUM-

Wood Preparation ahd Pulping at Site 4

.
.
.:..v?JIt0
\1

* ,----; B 4_........
Y

--,-M--4

----

171

-w-w--

4....
.
.
.

c+

8*.....t*
I1 CI

l
aH
g
8

*...-

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

I
I

I
I

I
I
I

C
fh
i?
OZ
z;f
m
$i
-4

Ceudkor
oxkRzMlwhRruqllol
I

To Dikle
NC-Y-n

To

I
I

:1 ti
?z
5
I

1 sfia
weekm
-- usuwb
d*

To

I-

To hoi
., ._,...._,.,e

l---\

I
I
I
:
!
I
;

z--pi I

I
I
I
I

j pt-

i
I

lEaka

-y-A

I
I

I
I

;-?

I
I

I
I
b

-A0
-es--

I
. . . . . . ... .. . . .. . ..

vq@g

I3

.Figure A-22.

I
I

Softwood Washing and Oxygen Delignification


at Site 4

oxygen washer and filtrate from the presses are used as wash
water on the brownstock washer.
The softwood line is similar to the hardwood line.
differences

The only

are that the hardwood line contains two stages of

brownstock

washing while the softwood line uses one stage and a


In addition, pressate from the oxygen washers -is recycled

press.
as wash water on the second stage washer in the hardwood

line,

while it is routed to the twin roll pressate tank on the softwood


line.
Weak black liquor from diffusion washing and brownstock
Figure A-23 presents the
washing is sent to chemical recovery.
chemical recovery process at Site 4.

The weak black liquor

enters a multi-effect evaporator where the weak black liquor is


The hardwood line has a B-effect evaporator, while
concentrated.
the softwood line has a S-effect evaporator. NCG's from the
evaporators

are sent to a condenser.

NCGs from the condenser

are normally burned in an incinerator.

Clean evaporator

condensates

Foul condensates are

are used for pulp washing.

steam stripped and the stripper effluent is then used for pulp
Other pulp mill foul condensates are also stripped in

washing.

this steam stripper.


Strong black liquor from the evaporator is burned in a
recovery

furnace.

Smelt form the.recovery furnace is dissolved

in water to form green liquor and the dregs (impurities) are


The clarified green liquor is mixed with
.removed by a clarifier.
The slurry formed in the slaker is agitated in
tank to form lime mud. White liquor is removed

lime in a slaker.
a causticizing

from the lime mud in a pressure filter and is reused in the


digester.

The lime mud is washed and burned in the lime kiln.

Quick lime produced


process.
controlled

in the lime kiln is reused in the slaker

Gases from the lime kiln are scrubbed


with an electrostatic precipitator

The.bleaching

(No. 1 line) or

(No. 2 line).

sequence for the softwood line is C/D-Eo-D

(chlorine/chlorine

dioxide, caustic extraction with oxygen and

chlorine dioxide).

Figure A-24 presents the flow through the


A-47

T?

-0

t
_-e-e
I
I

ESP
U

:
I
t
I
I
3;
;fpp

:
8
-s-c

.
*

Nc(3trlo

-----cm

Figure A-23.

Chemical Recovery at Site 4

4
c

A
;.
---s----

----~--------------~-~

?I
8
tgj
Hi
I I I

I
I
I
I

I
I
I
I

I I
I I
I I
I I

41

8 wo

-1

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

.........~~~---.-~-~~~~~~

~a

I
I

,;F.
.................

1.

ma--

I.

-------------4

c-I----

;
UJ

II. t
:,-....T 2
3
; f7

4 --------------~----------~--

we---

A-49

I ;.
II I ;

IL-,,,,,,,,

4.
I :

.ii

0I-0

a
e.Ba
5
8

i
i

softwood bleach plant.

Pulp from the second oxygen

delignification washer first enters the C/D tower and is followed.


The washed pulp and some oxygen enters a caustic
by a washer.
extraction tower followed by a washer and then enters a chlorine
dioxide tower, followed by a washer. Pulp from the D washer is
The chlorine dioxide
sent to a pulp machine or papermaking.
tower vents to a scrubber using water as the scrubbing medium'.
Fresh water is used on the D washer. Filtrate from this
washer is used as wash water for both the caustic washer and the
Filtrate from the caustic washer is sewered and used
C/D washer.
Filtrate from the C/D washer
as wash water for the C/D washer.
is sewered.
The bleaching process for the hardwood line is similar to
that for the softwood line and is presented in Figure A-25. The
bleaching

sequence is identical except that the caustic

extraction

stage for the hardwood line does not use oxygen, the

hardwood D-stage washer sometimes uses pulp machine white water


as wash water, and the hardwood line bleach plant scrubber treats
the vent streams from all three sets of washers and seal tanks
and the chlorine dioxide tower. White liquor is used as the
scrubbing medium.
This test site was selected because it was considered to be
representative

of the kraft pulp and paper industry and because

the mill uses technologies that might represent MACT for the
industry.

Specific objectives of the test program at this site

were to characterize

kraft hardwood and softwood digested pulp

and weak black liquor, kraft hardwood and softwood bleaching with
chlorine dioxide substitution, screens/deknotters,

and kraft

hardwood digester off-gas condensates, evaporator condensates,


acid sewer, caustic sewer, and bleach plant scrubber effluent.
Other objectives

included quantification

of air emissions from

kraft hardwood and softwood brownstock washers, and kraft


hardwood

and softwood bleaching with chlorine dioxide

substitution.

Both process liquid and gaseous samples were taken

in the pulping and bleaching areas.


A-50

Ejf
1&i
e

!
I ,%1

a6ta
g va3
,Qe
f

i\\
&k
cl

i
I
b--

$2

e-e-

----

-,

,__,,(,,__.__.._._.

. . .._..............

..\

33I-

..

A.

83
f3
:

a..m

a
. . .._....._.._...._....

I;

II
;;--

......-

----w-e-,
I
I

I
I
I

T
7
s
..........

I
I

B
Q

9 n L---- 4 asl4i-h
:&.....-.........I -- -

..i

.A
cn
c,
4
VI
VI
?i
0
k

Gas samples were taken at 6 locations in the plant. These


locations and their identifiers are listed in Table A-12.
Results of the gas sampling are summarized in Table A-13.
Liquid process stream samples were collected at 8 locations
in the Hardwood processing area, at 6 locations in the softwood
processing area, and at 6 locations in the wastewatercollection
and treatment area. Liquid sampling locations are summarized
below in Table A-14. A summary of the results of the liquid
process stream sampling is given in Table A-15. Additional
details of the field test program at this site can be found in
the detailed test reports for the site.'**
Site 5 is an integrated bleached, magnesiumbased sulfite mill. The mill produces bleached market dissolving
sulfite grade pulp and papergrade sulfite pulp. Both pulp grades
are made from 100 percent hardwood and/or softwood chips.
Dissolving sulfite pulp comprises 88 percent of the mill
production with papergrade sulfite puip making up the remaining
12 percent. Pulps produced in the mill are used in photographic
paper, plastic molding compounds, diapers, and plastic laminates.
Average pulp production is approximately 410 metric tons per day,
or 145,000 metric tons per year. An overview of the process at
Site 5 is presented in Figure A-26.
Sampling points for Site 5 are located in the pulping,
chemical recovery, and bleaching process areas of the mill.
Figure A-27 presents a process flow diagram for wood preparation
and digestion operations at Site 5. Nine batch digesters are
operated in parallel and empty to one of four dump tanks. The
off-gases from the dump tanks are routed to a water scrubber,
called the nuisance scrubber, where sulfur dioxide (SO2) released
from the dump tank off-gas is scrubbed.
Following the dump tanks, the cooked pulp enters a washing
system.
A flow diagram of the five stage washing process was
claimed by the mill to be confidential business information.'
The pulp is washed in a three stage countercurrent washer and
A.2.5

Site

5.

A-52

Table A-12.

Gas Sampling Locations at Site 4


Identifier

Location
Hardwood Plant
Brownstock washer vent
Vent into bleach plant scrubber*

HVl
Hv4

Softwood Plant
SVl
sv4
sv5
SV8

Brownstock washer vent


C/D washer vent
E washer vent
E seal tank vent
l

Refer to Figure A-25 for details on the processes vented into


the scrubber.

A-53

Table A-13.. Gas Sampling Results at Site 4


(lb/W
Measurement Points
I
Compound
1 HVl 1 HV4 1 SVl 1 SV4 1 SV5 1 SV8
Acetaldehyde'
0.038 0.108 0.060 0.001 0.005
NA
Acetone'
0.172 0.475 0.258 0.004 0.045
NA
Acetaneb
0.052 0.155 0.026
NA
na
NA
Acrolein'
0.001 0.489 0.001 0.001 0.015
NA
Chlorinec
NA
18.89
NA
0.019 0.003
NA
Chlorined
NA
59.24
NA
0.035 0.032
NA
Chlorine dioxided
NA
31.44
NA
0.044 0.235
NA
Chloroformd
NA
2.238
NA
0.748 0.306
NA
BDL,
NA
NA
BDL
0.868
Chloroformb
NA
Formaldehyde'
0.001 0.046 0.005 0.005 0.003
NA
Hydrogen chloride'
NA
0.536
NA
0.009 0.002
NA
Methanol'
6.234 2.746 3.823 0.922 1.359
NA
Methyl ethyl
0.039 0.234 0.102 0.003 0.014
NA
ketone'
0.094
0.008
NA
NA
BDL
Methyl ethyl
NA
ketoneb
Methylene chlorided
NA
0.110
NA
0.008 0.006
NA
BDL
NA
NA
Methylene chlorideb 0.004
BDL
NA
Propionaldehyde'
0.005 0.031 0.001 0.000 0.000
NA
Benzeneb
0.004
Chloromethaneb
1.729
2-Butanoneb
0.094
0.008
Styreneb
0.005
Tolueneb
0.007
Dimethyl sulfideb
0.561
0.219
Dimethyl disulfideb 0.214
0.028
a-Pineneb
0.038
.0259
b-Pineneb
0.013
0.156
p-cymeneb
0.004
Acetophenonef
0.002
Hexachlorocyclo
0.002
-pentadiene'
Hexachloroethane'
0.001
a-Pinene'
0.011
1.122
b-Pinene'
0.005
0.385
a-Terpineol'
0.012
0.169
Total hydrocarbons" 7.136 2.379 11.96 0.654 0.817 2.389
- Obtained using Method 0011
- Obtained using VOST
C
- Obtained using Method 26A
- Obtained using NCASI
c - Obtained using Method 25A
- Obtained using SHMIVOST
NA - Not applicable
BDL - Below detection limit
a
b

A-54

Table A-14.
-

Liquid Sampling Locations at Site 4


Identifier

Location

Hardwood Processing Area


Pulp out of the blow tank
Weak black liquor from Kamyr digester
Pulp into 1st stage brownstock washer
Weak black liquor from 1st stage brownstock washer
Pressate from 2nd stage brownstock washer
Pulp out of 1st stage brownstock washer
Pulp into C/D washer
Pulp into E washer

HP1
HP2
HP3
HP4
HP5
HP6
HP8
HP9

Wastewater Processes
Blow tank condensate
Evaporator condensates to steam stripper
Evaporator condensates to 0, delignification washer
Acid sewer
Caustic sewer
Scrubber effluent

WWl
WW2
WW3
WW4
WW5
WW7

softwood Processing Area


Pulp into 1st stage brownstock washer
Weak black liquor from 1st stage brownstock washer
Pressate from press
Pulp out of 1st stage brownstock washer
Pulp into C/D washer
Pulp into E washer

A-55

SPl
SP2
SP3
SP4
SP5
SP6

T.M. A-IS. M,.a,md

Condluent C-ancmb~liOn. ll 6h 4 h$fd

Measurement
1-d

(a,

Fwldah+

hbtiva C)
hc.lcm
(4
Acmhln
w
-W*
b)
M.ul*
dlyl
kabn(a)
llm

(e)

b-Phm w
ti*ykmfhchl#oloml
(a)
Mdwml
-

(a)

HP1

HP2

HP3

3.300

3.033

2.337

0.~

O.&SO

tips

HPa
45.111

Points

npa

HPa

1.284,

1.500

ww2

ww3

w4

ww8

ww7

0.7a7

I.533

1.W?

0.~

2.133

2.067

0.~

0.01

l.OOU

7.433

0.~

0.143

O.aW

0.~

0.311

0.170

0.256

2700

0.710

l.aw

9.417

4.327

4.732

3.156

0.057

0.037

0.003

0.010

1.464

l.ad

0.W

0.043

0.010

0.~

0.017

0.183

0.273

0.130

0.211

ad42

0.270

0.27a

ll.Mo

4.143

0.387

4.042

1.403

24aa

10.222

1.362

1.~

12.037

0.157

l.eca

ND

0.011

0.~

0.403

0.101

ND

0.117

ND

ND

No

ND

O.CQP

NO

0.280

0.180

0.02a

0.870

0.557

0.023

l.loQ

1.213

8.503

0.771

4ad37

l.z3a

2350

18.233

3.700

ND

No

No

ND

ND

ND

<I.0

4.733

1.I#)

ND

0.333

No

0.111

ND

ND

<I.0

1.767

ct.0

ct.0

qt.0

et.0

1.333

<I.0

w
MO

Nolmp*d
udng wllok uwlB adymmqiPLc/cic)

l.M4

738

818

aa

224

Ma

101

SPl

WI

0.130

No-Nc.ldebcbd
. - cbulmu

HP4

ia.

17.333

ND

6.110

a.%

24.900

3.m

8Ps
2.311

0471

0.m

0.278

0.738

0.702

0.042
iads

ND

ND

0.043

No

ND

ND

O.#o

0.021

0.001

1411

zwo

0.434

0.351

35.444

zw2z?

1.022

1.433

12.333

ll.ooo

0.77s

om7
-

at.0

la3

s1.0

<I.0
07

0.333

703

sm.1

SP4
34da7

3l.Mo

<I.0
a8

SP3

ia.a73

et.0
277

SP2

703

w4

et.0

ct.0

1.872

Cl.0

215

Ma

176

o
0)

f------s-

A-57

LEGEND

ProcesslPu!pFlow
.-* .

b%m

----

I
1

,6

mua

8omNood~&chipe

EiEr

Megnewm-0ased
suaaecooking
bquof to olgaeiwr

stoun
I

--

5
9

Red
tlqua
Idi3
4 Accumuletolsyatuna
(?-@~4--@

WdU

-*

.*A

I+

-.

. .

..a

8wh

cl
1

t
i

Figure

A-27.

Wood

Preparation

and

Pulping

Process

at Site 5

temporarily stored in a soak tank for volume control to the


knotters system. spent cooking liquor (or weak red liquor) from
the first stage filtrate tank is sent to the evaporators. The
pulp then passes to a knotter followed by a fourth washing stage.
The pulp passes through another screening system before being
thickened in the decker. The washed pulp is sent to low density
storage prior to bleaching.
The weak red liquor from washing is stored and sent to
chemical recovery. Figure A-28 presents a flow diagram of the
chemical recovery process. The spent liquor is concentrated in
the evaporator system. Vapors expelled from the evaporator
system.pass through a condenser system. Noncondensible gases are
sent to the acid plant, while evaporator condensates are sewered.
The concentrated red liquor is combusted in a recovery furnace
where sulfur dioxide gas (SO2) is routed to the acid plant. The
ash is slaked to recover the magnesium oxide, which is sent to
the acid plant. The cooking liquor is produced in the acid
plants for use in digestion.
The figure of the bleaching process used at Site 5 was
claimed as confidential and can be found in the CBI file (Refer
to Reference 9). Brownstock pulp from low density storage is
usually bleached in a four stage bleaching sequence: oxygen (0)I
extraction (E), 'either peroxide (P) or hypochlorite (H), and
chlorine dioxide (D). The peroxide/hypochlorite staqe is
actually a series of 12 batch cells which can be run
independently as needed. Pulp from the bleach plant is sent to
papermaking.
Objectives of the field test at Site 5 were to characterize
the compounds present in sulfite digested pulp and weak black
liquor, sulfite bleaching, and in-sulfite evaporator condensates,
bleach plant wastewater, and the paper machine white water.
Other objectives were to quantify air emissions from sulfite blow
gases and sulfite bleaching. Both process liquid and air
emission samples were collected in the pulping and bleaching

A-59

:i .j-Liiii-j

..* ToAddPld

1 l-~~tia~to~,tim

AciiPblm

=!P. .. .

Aah

=-

El-

Fzkz

Z&isxJT&r~

J=sz
b SYlr
I

-we-.... ..... h w

Figure

4-28.

Chemical

Recovery

at Site

areas of the plant while processing hoth paper grade and


dissolving grade pulp.
Air emissions
were sampled at 7 locations within the plant.
These are identified in Table A-16. The results of the air
emission testing are summarized in Table A-17 for the samples
collected while processing dissolving grade pulp and in Table A18 for the samples collected while processing paper grade pulp.
Liquid process stream samples were collected at 16 locations
while processing both types of pulp. Sampling locations are
identified in Table A-19. The results of the analyses of these
samples are summarized in Table A-2.0for both paper.grade and
dissolving grade pulp. Additional details of the field tests at
site 5 are available in the detailed test reports for the
site.10~11

A-61

Table A-16.

Gas Sampling Locations at Site 5


Identifier

Location
Green stack'
Roof vent2
No. 2 (E stage) combined seal tank vent
No. 2A (E stage) combined seal tank vent
No. 3 seal tank vent
Oxygen stage blow tank vent
Nuisance scrubber inlet

Vl
v2

v3
V3A
v4
v7
V8

' This vent includes the C-stage tower, washer, and seal tank (no
chlorine was added at the stage during the test), El-stage
washer, P/H-stage tower and washer, and D-stage tower.
* This vent includes the E2-stage washer and the D-stage washer.

A-62

Table A-17.

Gas Sampling Results at Site.5 - Dissolving Grade


Pulp (lb/hr)

I
compound
Acetaldehyde'
Acetone'
Acetoneb
Acrolein'
ChlorineC
Chlorined
Chlorine dioxided
Chloroformd
Chloroformb
Pormaldehyde'
Hydrogen chloride'
Methanol'
Methyl ethyl ketone'
Methyl ethyl ketoneb
Methylene chlorided
Methylene chlorideb
Propionaldehyde'
Chloroformb
Chloromethaneb
2-Butanoneb
Methylene chlorideb
Acetoneb
a-Pineneb
p-Cymeneb
Hexac,hlorocyclopentadiene'
p-Cymene'
a-Pinene'
Total hydrocarbons

Sampling Locations
v2
Vl
I v7
I v4
I
0.004
0.009
NA
NA
0.585
0.240
NA
NA.
0.143
NA
NA
NA
0.057
0.002
NA
NA
22.25
-NA
NA
9.096
-NA
NA
1.887
-NA
NA
0.362
0.103
NA
NA
0.095
NA
NA
NA
0.006
0.002
-NA
NA
0.216
0.009
NA
NA
0.200
0.144
NA
NA
0.168
0.043
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
0.085
-0.016
NA
NA
0.001
NA
NA
NA
0.005
0.003
NA
NA
0.082
0.048
0.074
0.001
0.124
-0.042
0.001
0.028
-0.911

0.438

- Obtained using Method 0011


- Obtained using VOST
c - Obtained using Method 26A
d
- Obtained using NCASI
c - Obtained using Method 25A
- Obtained using SHMIVOST
-- Not analyzed
NA - Not applicable
1

A-63

0.072

3.389

V8
0.051
0.027
0.000
0.000
NA
NA
NA
NA
-0.000
NA
3.607
0.002
-NA
0.001
0.003
0.027
0.007
0.002
0.258
0.343
0.001
2.708

Table A-18.

Gas Sampling results at Site 5 - Paper Grade Pulp


(lb/W

compound
mdehyde'
Acetone'
Acetoneb
Acrolein'
Chlorine'
Chlorined
Chlorine dioxided
Chloroformd
Chloroformb
Formaldehyde8
Hydrogen chloride'
Methanol*
Methy:Lethyl ketone'
Methy:Lethyl ketoneb
Methy:Lenechlorided
Methylene chlorideb
Propionaldehydeb
Bromomethaneb
Chloromethaneb
Methy:Lenechlorideb
Acetoneb
1,2,3Trichloropropaneb
a-Pineneb
b-Pineneb
p-Cymeneb
Hydroquinone'
p-Cymenef
a-Pinene'
b-Pinene'
Total hydrocarbons"

Vl I v2
0.015
NA
0.039
NA
NA
0.001
0.176
NA
4.363
NA
3.867
NA
NA
0.396
0.030
NA
-NA
0.003
NA
NA
0.389
0.117
NA
0.031
NA
NA
-NA
-0.033
NA
0.003
NA

Measurement LOCatiOnS
1 v3 1 V3A 1 v4 1 v7
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

0.030
0.001

0.006
0.003

0.069
0.001
0.445

V8
0.018
0.014
0.001
0.000
NA
NA
NA
NA
-0.000
NA
2.175
0.001
0.000
NA
-0.001
0.006
0.046

0.250

1 - Obtained using Method 0011


b - Obtained using VOST
c - Obtained using Method 26A
d
- Obtained using NCASI
c - Obtained using Method 25A
- Obtained using SEMIVOST
-- Not analyzed
NA - Not applicable
f

A-64

0.007

0.160

0.005

1.309

0.031
0.014
0.132
0.003
0.531
0.037
0.001
3.298

TABLE

B-a.

EMISSION

CObfRXJNDs

compound

Names

301
l.o97,a2

Acetone
Methanol
____

---_-

_----

ethyl ketone
Hydrogen Sulfide

Dimethyl

disulfide

I0.24236
1
0
1.54827
0
0

0
0
0.065
0.01344
0
1
G
-a..
4

11.79168

_--13 .a".""
I
n
ii
0
O
I

henol
GZn
SL:

nkl nrrnr+lnr

a~;77~

ic;

. es

1
I

FACTORS

FOR

(g/Mg pulp)

302
1.09782
I 0.24236
I
0
I
11.54827
!
0
0

0
0
0.065
0.01344
0

INDIVIDUAL SOURCES
(CONTINUED)

303

EP Codes
304

15

15

3.5
0
15
0
0
0
0
0.065
0.2
0

1
*.4 F

1 .i
-.-

11.79168
-_. ---I ".-rv-w
c, 77finF1
I
n
ii
0
0

I 2.5
17.96728
-.--.I
n

0
0
0.15
0

0.15
A
v
I

n
"
n

B-65

306
10.77623

8.15671
0
u

0
lJ
0.065
0.2
0

0
u
0.00343
0.15355
0

1.5
v-v

2.6251
0

0.03803

0.22788
0.25477

;
0
0.15
0

305
10.77623

3.5
0
15
0
u

1
I 2.5
IS.27608
I

AND

n
"
n

2.6251
0
8.15671
0
0

"
n

0.00343
0.15355
0
0.03803
0.22788
0.33882

0
0
*
0.00209
0
n

II

0
1

'

II

;
0
-0.00209
0
I

"

II

TABLE

B-8.

EMISSION
COMPoumS

FACTORS FOR INDIVIDUAL


SOURCES
('3/W pulp) (CONTINUED)

AND

A.3

REZEREXCES

1.

Entropy Environmentalists, Inc. Testing of Non-Combustion


Processes in a Pulp and Paper Facility Site 1. Data Summary
Prepared for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
Report.
Research Triangle Park, NC. November 1992.

2.

Entropy Environmentalists, Inc. Testing of Non-Combustion


Processes in a Pulp and Paper Facility Site 1. Draft.
Prepared for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research
Triangle Park, NC. August 1992.

3.

Roy F. Weston, Inc. Field Test Data Summary for Site 2.


Prepared for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research
Triangle Park, NC. December 1992.

4.

Roy F. Weston, Inc. Hazardous Air Pollutant Emission and


Prepared for
Process Report Volumes I - IV Site 2. Draft.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
park, NC. October 1992.

5.

Roy F. Weston, Inc'. Field Test Data Summary for Site 3.


Prepared for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research
Triangle Park, NC. December 1992.

6.

Roy F. Weston, Inc. Hazardous Air Pollutant Emission and


Prepared for
Process Report Volumes I - IV Site 3. Draft.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. October 1992.

7.

Field Test Data Summary for Site 4.


Roy F. Weston.
Prepared for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research
Triangle Park, NC. December 1992.

8.

Hazardous Air Pollutant Emission and Process


Roy F. Weston.
Report Volumes I - IV Site 4. Draft. Prepared for U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC.
September 1992.

9.

Trip Repogt.
20, 1991.

10.

Roy F. Weston.
Field Test Data Summary for Site 5.
Prepared for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research
Triangle Park, NC. December 1992.

Visits to Site 5 on May 15, 1991 and August

A-67

11.

Roy F. Weston, Inc. Hazardous Air Pollutant Emission and


Process report Volumes I - IV Site 5. Draft. Prepared for
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle
Park, NC. October 1992.'
This information is located in the confidential files of the
Director, Emission Standards Division, Office of Air Quality
Planning and Standards, U.S. Environmental Protection
W=ncy , Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711. This
information is confidential pending final review by the
company and is not available for public inspection.

A-68

APPENDIX
AIR

EMISSION

ESTIMATES

AND EMISSION

FACTORS

APPENDIX
AIR

EMISSION

ESTIMATES

AND EMISSION

FACTORS

INTRODUCTION

B.1

This
factors

appendix

from

estimated

presents

pulp

the methods

and paper

and presents

the resulting

of tables.

The developed

either

the

from

pulp

results

and paper
sampling

Appendix
B.2

mills

and

were based

program

on

at five
Data'from.

values.

at five mills

in a

are presented

in

DISCUSSION
emission

factors

emission

sources

results

of a test

involving

both

materials.

in the pulp

emission

factors

per

the

megagram

different

factors

Air

emission

industry

and liquid
were

for the

based

pulp

calculated
pulp

were

on the type

number

mills

of process

in units

of grams

produced

(g/Mg

used
These

of

to calculate

of emission

source.

of

on the

and paper

measurements

of air dried

factor

calculations

measurements

at a tested

Air

factor

emission

source

and the

procedures

Air

with

emissions

treatment
collection
Air

emission

tanks
tank

estimation

using

the direct

based

of the

on the direct
liquid

stream

the vent.

estimation

based

from

vent.

of the composition

associated

for a large

following:

measurement
*

and paper

procedures

depending

available

developed

at five different

Emission

of data

included

program

sampling

Several

were

vent

air emissions

types

factors

factors

literature

were

A.

Air

pulp)

air emission

and analysis

or on existing
program

air emission

processes

emission

a sampling

analysis

by which

manufacturing

series

the

from wastewater

on theoretical

and treatment
factor

losses

emissiofi equations.

from

and

model

systems.

estimates.for

a modification

collection

black

liquor

of the conventional

storage
storage

8.3

EMISSION
When

the vent

a specific
estimated
per

rate

emission

flow

therefore

per

grams

of emissions

factor

pulp

(grams

(megagrms

of the emission

per metric

can be

of the vent

rate

for

was measured

emission

of air dried

The units

day).

an

emission

rate

MEASUREMENTS

composition

or vent,

the mass

by the mass

tons

FROM VENT

and chemical

source

by dividing

day)

metric

FACTORS. ESTIMATED

factor

or

are

ton of air dried

pulp

(g/Mg pulp) .
The

flow

rates

of pulp

used

factors

are based

on reported

typical

operating

conditions.

B-.4

EMISSION
When

FACTORS

direct

measurements

vent

to theoretically

units.

These

estimate

Since

depends

on temperature,
the

effect

rates

or on

MEASUREMENT

being

liquid
processed

the air emission


are based

equilibrium

a theoretical

of temperature

rate

can

from

the

on equilibrium

between

components

the

of emission

are,unavailable,

estimates

of the volatile

gas phase.

LIQUID

of the material

theoretical

and the

production
'.

FROM

measurements

be used

estimate

plant

ESTIMATED

representative

partitioning

in the calculations

the

liquid

partitioning

phase

factor

was developed

method

to

on the equilibrium

partitioning.
V'alues of the
property
partition
25 OC.
adjusted

data

base

Henry's
were

coefficient
This

value

used

in the process

for each

other

from

as an estimate
stream

of the partitioning

to represent

Coefficients

law constants

temperatures

compound.

B-2

EPA's

of.the

compound
value

of the

at a temperature

coefficient
using

may be

the Antoines

of

where,
%
T

Vapor

pressure

Temperature

A,BtC

Antoines

p25

Vapor

estimate

how

the

shows. the

Coefficients.
at 25 OC.

correlation

the Antoine's

vapor

equation

pressure

ratio

temperature

T to the vapor
This

of 25 OC.

The value
then

25

adjusted

is illustrated
of the Henry's

by the

of the Henry's

pressure

law

vapor

constant

pressure

at the

Law constant

from

ratio

the

to obtain

at the new temperature

PT

equation

at

reference
(3).

=Hzs

(2)

(3)

+ 25

HT.( p 1

(1)

to

Dividing

in Equation

pressure

for

and Equation

of 25 OC.

of vapor

+C

Equation

can be used

at any temperature

the

coefficients

temperature..

coefficients

pr = EXp- B
C+T

with

for a temperature

2, yields

1 by equation

@Wig).

of A, B, and C are the Antoine's

pressure

illustrates

(OC).

pressure

The values
the vapor

at temperature

temperature

data

base

is

an estimate
as follows:

(4)

25

where,
HT

Henry's

law constant

at temperature

H25

Henry's

law constant

at 25 OC.

B.5

METHOD

OF ESTIMATING

When gas and liquid


volatile
the

material

other

'is achieved

phase.
in the

in each

THE PARTITION
are mixed

FRACTION

in a tank,

of the tw'o.phases

If chemical
mixture

T.

equi&ibkium

leaving

B-3

IN MIXED'TANES
some

can partition

between

the tank,

of the
into

the two phases

the partitioning

of

the volatile
partition

components

be used

plant/brownstock

as an example

chloroform

is emitted
that

for both

the process

for the

entering

spray.

the

washer

from

same

from

at the

concentration

pulp

or at the

can be estimated

phase

mol
mol

f=

from the
liquid

recycle

leaving
stream

that.the
inside

the washer

leaving

using

vapor

is

the washer,

the

ratio of the
to the component

phase

in conjunction

is illustrated

and

the

of the

liquid

in the exiting

liquid

This

in the

is

the washer

discharged

liquid

plant

of chloroform

that

By assuming

in.the

bleach

entering

assumed

stream

pulp.

vent

of the

and analysis

concentration

component

exiting

constant.

exiting

the

liquid

in the pulp

sampling

of chloroform

from

volatilized

pulp

It is also

the'washed

as the

emissions

in the

by

in Figure B-l can


In this example
partitioning.

the concentration

of chloroform

is known

produced

the

can be described

shown

from the vent

unknown

concentrations

washer

of two-phase

It is assumed

washer.

washer

the two phases

coefficients.

The bleach

case,

into

with

the

Henry's

law

below:
vapor
liquid

(5)

d,

= H, 2

LP

where,
'f

The
the

HT

Henry's

Gas

Liquid

Atmospheric

Gas

The

overall

liquid

that

ratio of the exiting component


in the
component
in the exiting liquid.
law constant

flow

rate,

fraction

T, atm-m3/mol.

m3/s.

pressure

density,

to

m3/s.

flow. rate,

exits

at temperature

gas phase

(assumed

to be one

atmosphere).

moles/m3.

of volatile

with

the

material

in the

gas is .estimated

B-4

entering

as follows:

process

!a1 n vent
QC ie

spray in
SP3

SP4,

SPl 0

vent
,n

recycle
SP24

Figure

B-l.

I
drain

Illustration
of Air Emissions
Plant/Brownstock
Washer.

B-5

from

a Bleach

F=f

(6)

l+f

where,
F

The fraction
reactor that
a numerical

AS

of chloroform
is vented
,

with

the

from

in the
f

emission

characteristics
using.the

per

vapor

factor

following

fraction

per

chloroform

of the

second

exits

in the vapor

entering

chloroform

by

(l+O.l)

orF=l/ll

can be estimated

and the

the

of chloroform

The fraction

is given

F =. O.l/

grams

second

remaining

The fraction

or

entering

eleven
per

second).

phase

/ (l+f)

that

one gram

and the

washer,

or f = 0.1.

F=

An air

the

assume

a washer,

(10 grams

water

exits

example,

enters

is f = l/10,
that

of total volatile material


exits in the gas phase.

based

of volatiles

(7)

on the unit
lost

from

the unit

equation:

E=

CL F L

(8)

where,
E

Air

CL

Concentration

Fraction.of
the
that is emitted

Liquid

The

emission

flow

following

.calculating

an air

factor

(g/Mg pulp).

of the component

emission

stream

bleach

plant/brownstock

(g/m3).

liquid

phase

(m3/Mg pulp).

example

process

liquid

component
in the entering
as air emissions.

rate

liquid

in the

illustrates
rate.

samples
washer

were

the procedure

In the EPA
taken

identified

B-6

field

at the

for
test

entrance

in Table

A-15

program,

of a
as

Sampling
these

Point

SPl

samples

was

concentration
pulp/g
this

4.l

determined

of pulp

the

example,

in the stream
vent

concentration

to be the

same

of acetone

The concentration

to be '4.327 mg/L

The measured

slurry.

estimated

at Site

was

and the

determined

rate was

to be

90.5 m3/Mg

of acetone

in

pulp.

in the washer

as the concentration

in the

0.0163

In

is

inlet

pulp

slurry.,
The molar

volume
the

of the gas exiting

calculated

from

ideal

liquid

per

Mg of dry pulp

Pulp*
in the

Using

gas

law:

from

0.02887

is calculated

the washer

m3/mol.

is

The volume

as l/.0163,

of

or 61 m3/Mg

this

information,

the partition

fraction

may

be estimated

from Equation

(5) above

washer

vent

of acetone
as

follows:
f

= H, z

dG = 0.000169

1
0.02887

$$

= 0.0086,

(9)

where,
f

in the
Ratio of the exiting component
component
in the exiting liquid.

HT

Henry's

G/L

Ratio of gas flow rate to the


90.5/61.4
h3 gas/m3 liquid.

43

Gas

The
the

gas

Law

constant,

density,

overall

l/O.02887

fraction

is estimated

using

from

air

the

unit

using

emission

Equation
E=C,FL

factor

characteristics

atm-m3/mol.
liquid

entering

Equation

l+f

to the

flow

rate,

acetone

that

moles/m3.

of the

F=.f=

The

0.000169

gas phase

exits

with

(6) as follows:

0.0086
1'+ 0*0086

for acetone
and the

(10)

= 0.00857

can now be estimated

fraction

lost

from

the unit

(8):
= 4.327 x0.00857

where,
B-7

x61.3

= 2.27 g/Mgpulp

(11)

Air

emission

factor,

2.27

CL

Concentration

=
.

The fraction of the component


in the entering
liquid
phase that is emitted as air emissions,
0.00857.

liquid

B.6

COMPARISON

g/Mg

pulp.

of the component

flow

rate,

61.3 m3/Mg

OF ESTIMATED

in the

liquid,

4.327

g/m3.

pulp.

FROM LIQUID

AIR EMISSIONS

CONCENTRATIONS
Emission
samples

are generally

emission
data

estimates

which

B-l,

information
The table
samples
vent

from

streams

the

contains
test

in the bleach

SP3,
liquid

if accurate

where

data

are

liquid

and gas'flow

rates,

liquid

temperature,

and

Henry's

gases

law constants.

from

and

a material

liquid

balance

might

(Test Points

of the

SPl,

estimated

consistent

in the

FROM

and analysis

process

washer

with

sampling

valid

from

the
points.

emission

liQuid,

EMISSIONS

sampling

program.

obtained for:

AIR

on

of the process

air emissions

to produce

concentrations

OF

in

based on both gas

washer

for most

constituent

ESTIMATION

field.test

samples

are relatively

expected

based

plant/brownstock

and liquid

If data
vent

a bleach

sampling

information

estimates

plant/brownstock

would-be

no gas sampling

on measured

by the

of emissions

SVI,

on vent

sampling

where

4 of the EPA

As can be seen,

SP4).

based

estimates

B.7

Site

concentrations

estimates
Liquid

and

gas

liquid

air emission

plant,

vent

process streams from


emission
can produce reasonable

estimates
point

of

of calculating

based

is illustrated

from

softwood

means

estimates
in the

contains

obtained

in the

SP2,

This

measurement

in situations

gases.evaporate

estimates.

Table

accurate

concentraitons

the vent

factor

the most

emission

a.re available,

which

on direct

However,

factors.

constituent

based

streams,
be used

B-8

MATERIAL

BALANCES

are unavailable
there

are

to estimate

some

for both
situations

emission

Examples

rates.
would

include

TABLE

B-l.

where

this

situations
SAMPLES

approach

where

might

a large

yield

fraction

COLLECTED AT A BLEACH
WASHER1
Air

emission

factors

valid

results

of the volatile
PLANT/BROWNSTOCK

(g/Mg pulp)

compou.b~~

svla

8plb

8p2b

8p3b

8p4b,=

Acetone

3.04

2.27

2.51

1.67

7.82

1.22

1.46

1.178

93

146

147

125

34

PULP

WATER

WATER

PULP

IN

OUT

Methyl

ethyl

ketone
Methanol

45

IN

OUT

a The values of the air emission


factors for the vent are
obtained
from the reported emission rate (lb/hr, Table A-13)
divided by the pulp rate (0.0849 million lb air dried pulp/hr).
b These values were
reported
in. Table
preceding
text.

estimated
from process
A-15, using procedures

liquid measurements
described
in the

c The results from.this


sample point are inconsistent
other sample points presented
in this table.

B-9
I

with

the

components
the

fraction

below

the

balance
B.8

of volatiles

detection

approach

MODEL

would

and treatment
an example

model

described
stream

the model

flow

collection

B.9

presented

OF AIR

TREATMENT
Emission

at pulp

Table

and Table

B-3

together

with

fraction

of volatiles

using

data.

revising

will

collection

described

for the

lists

the

above

and
The

system.

estimates

B-2 presents

and treatment

system

are

the

assumed

elements

within

system.

the model

wastewater

and anticipates

the emission

change.

EMISSIONS

and paper

concentrations

element

used

FROM

for wastewater

measured

the

valid

WASTEWATER

COLLECTION

AiJD

SYSTEMS
factors

summing

system

collection

here

at Or

a material

and treatment

and B-3.

and treatment

methods,

wastewater

the procedures

collection

is currently

ESTIMATION

systems

rates

wastewater

The Agency

factors

EPA used

B-2

is low or iS

to generate
for

factors

of the model

in Tables

where

PARAMETERS

wastewater

characteristics

air

test

not be expected

emissions

units,

to'the

of available

WASTEWATER'PLANT

In cases

to the air.

released

limits

In developing

waste

is released

of a stream

the

mass

estimated
the

plants

collection

were

of pollutants
flow

rate

emitted

following
F,

calculated

based

from

system
each

was

on

in the wastewater

of the streams.

from

emisqions

and treatment

streams

The total
estimated

collection

by

system

equation.
= c:

: ;

fq

t-1

fo,.,

where,
Ft

Total fraction of a constituent


emitted to the
from the collection
and/or treatment
system.

f ei

Fraction
unit i.

f,(H)

Fraction
of the initial constituent
that remains in the waste entering

of a constituent

B-10
,

emitted

to the

ai,r

air in

concentration
unit i.

TABLE
Waste
acid

wastewater

condensates
condensates

blow

blow tank
condensates
black

scrubber

FLOW

RATES

OF WASTE

STREAMS'
m3/Mg

bleach

plant

C or CD washer

bleach

plant

E washer

liquor

effluent

1
I
I

pulp

15
13
1.2

pulping

evaporator

evaporator

pulping

continuous
condensates

other

wastewater

turpentine
underflow

weak

PLANT

location

wastewater

digester

foul

MODEL

stream

caustic

clean

B-2.

gas condensates

0.16

pulping

pulping

storage
recycle
bleach

tank for treatment,


to pulping
plant

scrubber

bypass clarifier,
sent
directlv to aeration basin

11
0.06
.12

B-11
.

TABLE

MODEL PLANT SEQUENCE OF COLLECTION


SYSTEM
ELEMENTS
AND TREATMENT
SYSTEM ELEMENTS.a'3

B-4.

Name

Model

of unit

for calculations

Trench

trench

Drains

equilibrium
collection

Junction

box

Collection
Junction

main
box

Collection

main

Aerated
Non

aerated

impoundment,

manhole

cover

aerated
I
1 manhole

cover

impoundment

aerated

impoundment

aerated

Chemdat7

venting

Water7

impoundment,

non aerated
Chemdat7

Chemdat7

venting

impoundment,

clarifier,

Clarifier

headspace,
system models

Chemdat'l

impoundment,

This table presents


the basis for the estimation.of
the
emission
factors from wastewater
collection
and treatment.

B-12

Total number of units in the wastewater


and/or treatment
system.

air emissions

If

constituent

from

a waste

remain

in the waste

of the

fraction

unit

and

are the

stream

the

leaving

of loss

fraction

a unit

emitted

of a

of volatiles

is equal

in the waste

fraction

fq

source

the

stream,

of volatiles

one minus

only

collection

stream

that

to-the

product

entering

the

in the unit.

(13)

= f,l _ 1( 1 - fe,)

where,
the fraction of volatiles
in the waste
stream
wastewater
collection
or treatment
unit.

f oi

When
other

volatiles

than

the

air

adsorption,

these

calculation

of the

leaving

unit.

the

Once

the

wastewater
emission

are lost

from.a
such

emissions,
other

mechanisms

fraction

total

fraction

collection

and/or

must

for in the

treatment

be accountep
in the waste

emitted

system

In3
( MS PUlP

stream

from

Emission

The

(14)

Concentration

Ft

the

total

Several
wastewater
Reference

factor.

wastewater

flow

rate.

of volatiles.

fraction

emitted.

exampl'e calculations
collection

and treatment

4.

B-13

of emission
units

an

as follows:

where,
Ef

is calculated,

can be estimated

Jf9 PUJP 1

by mechanisms
and

of constituent

=Q

stream

as biodegradation

of volatiles

factor for the system

Ef

waste

leaving

factors

can.be

found

for
in

B.10

ESTIMATION

OF AIR

EMISSIONS

Weak

liquor

is generated

black

an estimated

normalILy collected
can

due to changes

large
this

approach

working

rate

there

to the

effect

stack

would

tend

from

working

between

the

tank,

storage

a further

all

.vapors would

.Table

B-4

containing.black
primarily

be vent

these

suggest,

thus,
emitted

of liquid

air

and gas phase

in the

larger

selection

'factors,
at a rate

equal

than

it is not
from the

effects

and due
which

contribution
whether

will
vent

be achieved
rates,

of the vent

to half

the

exchange.

the

it was assumed

for

During

in the tank,

than

a theoretical

constant

greater

for the

available

is more

moist

with

roof with

sources.

flow due to wind

rate

liquid

especially

of these

were

It is also uncertain

alone.
the

a conical

of gas

at
is

and to-atmospheric

to develop

from

rate

by warm

the vent

be emitted

of liquid

the quantity

created

consideration

Considering

would

to the working

losses

e.quilibrium

in the tank

operations
wastewater

of air emissions

measurements

rates

exchange

will

to make

unit has

TANKS

are equipped

in the tank

necessary

emission

that

which

quantities

level

became

level

be equal

tanks

in the model

of liquid

Furthermore,

rate

liquid

it thus

to assume

would

storage

No emission

wastewater

realistic
vent

tank

vent.6
and

STORAGE

during

substantial

to estimating

the

use,

in the

central
source

in large

release

The

conditions.

LIQUOR

pulping
This
of 11 m3 per Mg dry p~lp.~

rate

vetits which

FROM BLACK

that

which

in
is

rate.
saturated

of the working

exchange.
lists

a set df emission

liquor.

determined

The emission

by the.volatility

compound.

B-14

factors
factor

of each

for storage
values

are

individual

tanks

Table

AIR

B-4.

EMISSION

FACTORS

FOR BLACK

Compound

LIQUOR

Fraction

emitted
emissions

acetone

0.001

2-butanone(MEK)

0.003

methanol

0.000

acrolein

0.002

acetaldehyde

0.002

alpha

0.055

beta

pinene
pinene

0.039

a-terpineol

0.010

chloroform

0.065

.methylene

chloride

0.061

formaldehyde

0.001

dimethyl

sulfide

0.100

dimethyl

disulfide

0.041

dichlorothiophene

0.017

dichloroacetonitrile

0.007

toluene

0.120

chloromethane

0.143

p cymene

0.254

proprionaldehyde

0.001

111 trichloroethane

0.261

B-15

STORAGE

TANKS

as air

B.ll

SELECTION

OF EMISSION

Emission
sources

factors

in the pulp

sotirces, emission
resulting

were

developed

and paper

factors

in multiple

for some

factors
by others

literature

sources.

Under

Agency

to select

the emission

represents

actual

protocol

was

emission

factor

established
value

protocol

takes

the

methods

test

test

consistency
used

of test

beach

can be used

factor

example,

acetone

at site

sample

4.

at site
factor

B-6.

factor

consistent
test
the

pulp

Because
value

was

the

vent

samples,

was

to retain

the

from

test

Site

almost

of the
and

available

with

results

from

results

an order

concluded

existing

tests

the

considerations

available

made

compared

B-l
an

For this
for two

and 1 vent
with

the

shown
that

in

the emission

is reasonably

Site

for Site

B-16

in Figure

samples

indicate

agreement

literature

data.

for selecting

were

3 but

concentration

that

adequacy

are available.

literature

the

performed,

taken,

literatureas

from

goal,

multiple

procedure

of magnitude

good

obtained

it was
the

in the

4 where

relatively
results

from the

data

this

and the

lists

were

the

of these

Examination

estimate

B-6

3 and for 4 liquid

available

with

estimates

estimates

of the

The established

estimates

factor

These

best

measures

of a typical

emission

that

washer illustrated

multiple

lic$uid samples

Table

Table

been.

appropriate

of source

an emission,factor

when

goal

documentation,

plant/brownstock

emission

emission

source

have

the

in achieving

control

results.

as an example

value

available.

and test

one way

in existing

the most

for the

used,.quality

in selecting
The

factor

into -account the type

than

sources

circumstances,

to determine

factors

procedures

of the

To assist

to use

of emission

estimates

of the

emissions.

of these

in more

and are available

these

of

constituents.

for some

estimated

number

For many

calculated

previously

was

for a large

industry.

were

values

emission

Additionally,

FACTORS

lower
between

not with

of acetone
than
the

3 for both

the most
value

the

at site

3.

literature

liquid

appropriate
without

in

and
action

change.

TABLE

B-5.

CONSIDERATIONS
IN SELECTING-EMISSION
(LISTED IN ORDER OF' IMPORTANCE)

Quality of documentation
for on-site
sampling.

and quality

Vent
Type of test reported.
are preferred
to estimations
liquid measurements.
Source

characterization

Representativeness

Number

6
7

control

FACTORS.

procedures

measurements
of emissions
of vent emissions
from

and documentation.

of the source.

of compound.analyses

included

in the

field

test'.

1 Consistency' with other measurements


and related sources
1 (Is the data point an outlier?).
I
Conflicts
between two different test methods of
reported
measurements
for.the same compound
are
resolved by selecting the higher measurement
if there
is reason to believe that there is incomplete
compound
recovery
for the lower measurement.

B-17

TABLE

B-6.

EMISSION
FACTOR SELECTION
FOR ACETONE EMISSION
A SOFTWOOD BLEACH PLANT/BROWNSTOCK
WASHER.

Sample
Identification

Test

Sample
Twe

Site

Calculated
Emission
Factor
(g/M9 dry pulp)

SP3

Liquid

SVl

Vent

3.04

SPl

Liquid

2.27

SP2

Liquid

2.51

SP3

Liquid

1.67

SP4

Liquid

SPl

Emission

factor

Selected

emission

from

Liquid

literature

27

7.82
38
33
33

factor

B-18

FROM

Procedures
the

similar

emission
Table

factors
B-7

contains

model

typical

and paper

some

subset

The table

of pulp

each

the

source

estimating

the

emission

factor

estimated

Sources
factors

literature
sources,

which

estimate

emission

source

two

sources

was

with

were

emission

factorvalues

ratio

set

data

was

rate

the type

test

were

not

and data

found

for these

for

emission

measurements.

as a basis

data

also

as the basis

how the

of source

utilized

the-table

served

or describes

for emission
from

existing

for all of the emission


approaches

to

Several

sources.

were

such

sequentially

handle

from

data

factor

to relate
sources

a product

stream.

factors

for

B-19
I

to
sources

in series

and
That

sources

when

Another

of wood.

These

the

ratio.

a set of factors *to show


units

of the.

both'softwood

a hardwood/softwood

individual

for

Another

same.

for emission

processing

for one category

to establish

the

of factors

emission

for a

factor

characteristics

nearly

while

to estimate

available

of emissions

emission

as the emission

For example,

to establish

used

the

one set of emission

available

used

then

was

are

same

a series

from

of sources.

data

that

to be very

to establish

were only

approach

listed,

if the emissions

judged

was

hardwood

an

(e.g., pulping,

that

absence

the

data

approach

for which

involved
source

was to assume

no data

source

another

factor

led to the use of alternative-

approach

with

another

source,

were developed.

alternatives
One

process

field

factors

B-7.

(i.e., hardwood

factor

Data

A
contain

in Table

individual

to

for an emission

in the

sources.

industry.

described

of information

both

used

source,

of information

indluded

sources

be expected.to

of each

individual

identifies

was

sources

of

discussion.

and paper

would

of each

an "EP Code'*, for each

and the mill


For

bleaching).

i.e.,

as the basis

or softwood),

unit

process

a description

number,

selection

following

for the pulp

individual

contains

used

in the

the

a list of 237 individual

plants

of the

identifying
.

presented

characterize
pulp

were used.in

to this

the

relative

that

factors

were

used

to

TABLE

B-7.

EMISSION

SOURCES

Mili
Process

AND

DATA

SOURCES
Basis
Emission

Emission Point
Description

for
Factor

EP
Code

wood
WFJe

Bleaching

chlorine dioxide
generation

Not

used in Model
Plants

Bleaching

chlorine dioxide
generation

Not

used in Model.
Plants

Bleaching

C-stage

tower

vent

Extrapolateda
from
EP Code 71

Bleaching

C-stage

tower

vent

Extrapolated
from
EP Code 72

7'

Bleaching

C-stage

acid

sewer

'Ratioedb from EP
Code 8'

Bleaching

C-stage

acid

sewer

Assumed same as
EP Code 40

Bleaching

bleaching

effluent

Not used in Model


Plants

10

Bleaching

bleaching

effluent

Not

13

Bleaching

bleach

plant

vents

Not used in Model


Plants

14

Bleaching

bleach

plant

vents

Not

15

Bleaching

fugitives

from ClQ use

Not used in Model


Plants

16

Bleaching

fugitives

from Cl2 use

Not used in Model


Plants

17

Bleaching

H-stage

(0.1~<0.5%)

vent

Assumed same as
EP Code 19

18

Bleaching

H-stage

(0.1~<0.5%)

vent'

Assumed same as
EP Code 20

19

Bleaching

H-stage
vent

(0.5-2%)

tower

Extrapolated
from
EP Code 151

20

Bleaching

H-stage
vent

(0.5-2%)

tower

Extrapolated
from
y Code 152

21

Bleaching

H-stage

(~0.5%)

B-20
,

vent

Not

used in Model
Plants

used in Model
Plants

used in Model
Plants

TABLE

B-7.

EMISSIONS

SOURCES

Mill
Process

AND

DATA

FACTORS

(CONTINUED)
Basis
Emission

Emission Point
Description

for
Factor

EP
Code

Wood
Type

22

Bleaching

H-stage

(~0.5%)

23

Bleaching

H-stage

(>2%) vent

Not used in Model


Plants

24

Bleaching

H-stage

(>2%) vent

Not used in Model


Plants

25

Bleaching

no H-stage

use,

vent

Not used in Model


Plants

26

Bleaching

no H-stage

use,

vent

Not used in 'Model


Plants

Bleaching

Not used in Model


Plants

vent

H-stage
(O.l-<0.5%)
wastewater

Not used in Model


Plants

H-stage

(0.1-X0.5%)

Not

used in Model
Plants

H-stage
effluent

(0.5-2%)

Not

used in Model
Plants

wastewater

30
31

Bleaching

H-stage
effluent

(0.5-2%)

Not used in Model


Plants

Bleaching

H-stage
wastewater

(<O .5%)

Not

Bleaching

H-stage

(<O.5%)

Not used in Model


Plants
Not used in Model
Plants

I
32

wastewater

Ik
33

Bleaching

H-stage

(>2%)

wastewater

(>2%) wastewater

used in Model
Plants

I
Not used in Model
Plants

34

S'

Bleaching

H-stage

35

Bleaching

no H-stage
wastewater

use1

Not used in.Model


Plants

Bleaching

no H-stage
.wastewater

use,

Not

used in Model
Plants

38

'Bleaching

bleaching
effluent
w/slimacide

Not

used in Model
Plants

Bleaching

bleaching
effluent
w/slimacide

Not

used in Model
Plants
-

B-21

TABLE

B-7.

EMISSIONS

SOURCES

Mill
Process

AND DATA

FACTORS

Basis
Emission

Emission Point
Description

for

EP
Code

wood
Type

39

Bleaching

ClO, subst.
sewer

(0%) acid

Ratioed from EP
Code 40

40

Bleaching

ClO, subst.
sewer

(0%) acid

Site 5 (P3 DG, P4


DGd, NW3 DG)

41

Bleaching

ClO, subst.
sewer

(0%) caustic

Ratioed from EP
Code 42

42

Bleaching

ClO,

(0%) caustic

site 5 (PS DG,


WW4 DG)

subst.

sewer

Factor

43

Bleaching

ClO, subst.
effluent

(0%)

Not used in Model


Plants

44

Bleaching

ClO, subst.
effluent

('0%)

Not used in Model


Plants

45

Bleaching

ClO,
vent

subst.

(0%) tower

Extrapolated
from
EP Code 75

46

Bleaching

ClO,
vent

subst.

(0%) tower

Extrapolated
from
EP Code 76

47

Bleaching

ClO, subst.
sewer

(100%) acid

Assumed the same


as EP Code 55

48

Bleaching

ClO, subst.
sewer

(100%) acid

Assumed the same


as EP Code 56

49

Bleaching

ClO, subst. (100%)


caustic sewer

Assumed the same


as EP Code 57

50

Bleaching

ClO, subat. (100%).


caustic sewer

Assumed the same


as EP Code 58

Bleaching

ClO, subst.
effluent

Not used in Model


Plants

51

(CONTINUED)

'H

(100%)

52

Bleaching

ClO, subst.. 3100%)


effluent

53

.H

Bleaching

ClO,
vent

54

55

'Not used in Model


Plants

subst.
.

(100%) tower

Extrapolated
from
EP Code 79

Bleaching

'ClO, subst.
vent

(100%) tower

Extrapolated
from
EP Code a0

Bleaching

ClO, subst.
sewer

'

B-22

(high)
.

acid

Ratioed from
Code 56

EP

TABLE

B-7.

EMISSIONS

SOURCES

AND

DATA

FACTORS

Emission Point
Description

Mill
Process

(CONTINUED)

Basis
Emission

for

EP
Code

Wo'od
Type

56

Bleaching

ClO, subst.
sewer

57

Bleaching

ClO, subst.
(high)
caustic sewer

58

Bleaching

ClO, subst.
(high)
caustic, sewer

Site

'59

Bleaching

ClO, subst.
effluent

(high)

Not

used in Model
Plants

60

Bleaching

ClO, subst.
effluent

(high)

Not

used in Model
Plants

61

Bleaching

ClO, subst.
vent

(high) tdwer'

Extrapolated
from
EP Code a3

62

Bleaching

ClO, subst.
vent

(high) tower

Extrapolated
from
EP Code a4

63

,Bleaching

ClO, subst.
sewer

(low) acid

Site 1 (HP2),
Site 4 (WW4)

64

Bleaching

ClO, subst.
sewer

(low) acid

Site 2 (WW5, P6),


Site 4 (SPS),
Site 1 (SP61,
W7)

65'

Bleaching

ClO, subst.
(low)
caustic sewer

Site 4 (WWS),
Site 1 (HP3)

66

Bleaching

ClO, subst.
(low)
caustic sewer

Site 2 (WW6, P7),


Site 4 (SP6),
Site 1 (SP71,
ma)

67

Bleaching

ClO, subst.
effluent

(low)

Not

used in Model
Plants

68

Bleaching

ClO, subst.
effluent

(low)

Not

used in Model
Plants

69

Bleaching

ClO, s&t.
vent

(low) tower

Extrapolated. from
EP Code a7

70

Bleaching

.(low) tower

Extrapolated
from
EP- Code 88

71

Bleaching.

'Clo, subst:
vent
C-qtage

(high)

washer

B-23

acid

vent

Site

Factor

3 (SP6, WW6)

Ratioed from EP
Code 58
3 (SP7, WS)

Assumed the same


as EP Code 87

TABLE

B-7.

EMISSIONS

SOURCES

Mill
Process

AND

DATA

FACTORS

(CONTINUED)
Basis
Emission

Emission Point
Description

for
Factor

EP
Code

Wood
VP=

72

Bleaching

C-stage

washer

73

Bleaching

C-stage

seal

tank

vent

Extrapolated
from
EP Code 71

74

Bleaching

C-stage

seal

tank

vent

Extrapolated
from
EP Code 72

'75

Bleaching

ClO, subst.
vent

(0%) washer

Assumed the same


as EP Code 87

76

Bleaching

ClO, subst.
vent

(0%) washer

Assumed the same


as EP Code 88

77

Bleaching

ClO, subst.
tank vent

(0%) seal

Extrapolated
EPCode76

78

Bleaching

ClO, subst.
tank vent

(0%) seal

Extrapolated
from
EP Code -75

79

Bleaching

ClO, subst.
washer vent

(100%)

Assumed the same


as EP Code a3

80

Bleaching

Cl02 subst.
washer vent

(100%)

Assumed the same


as EP Code 84

81

Bleaching

C102 subst.
tank vent

(100%)

seal

Extrapolated
from
EP Code 79

82.

Bleaching

ClO, subst.
tank vent

(100%)

seal

Extrapolated
from
EP Code a0

a3

Bleaching

ClO, subst.
washer vent

(high)

Site

84

Bleaching

ClO, subst.
washer vent

(high)

Site 4 (SV4),
Site 1 (SPS,
SP6)

as

Bleaching

ClO, subst.
tank vent

(high)

seal

Extrapolated
EPCode83

86

Bleaching

ClO, sub&.
tank vent

(highj

seal

Extrapolated
from
EP Code a4

a7

Bleaching

ClO, subst.
vent

(low) washer

88

Bleaching

Cl02 sub&..

(low) washer

vent

B-24

Assumed the same


as EP Code 88

vent

Site

(ma,

from

WW4)

from

1 (Hp2)

Site 1 (SP6),
Site 2 (P6),
Site 4 (SPS)

TABLE

B-7.

EMISSIONS
Mill
Process

SOURCES

AND

DATA

FACTORS

(CONTINUED)
Basis for
E'mission Factor

Emission Point
Description

EP
Code

Wood
Type

a9

Bleaching

ClO, subst.
tank vent

(low) seal

Extrapolated
from
EP Code 87

90

Bleaching

ClO, subst.
tank vent

(low) seal

Extrapolated
from
EP Code 88

91

Bleaching

El-stage

(0%) tower

vent

Extrapolated
from
EP Code 93

92

Bleaching

El-stage

(0%) tower

vent

Extrapolated
from
EP Code 94

93

Bleaching

El-stage
vent

(0%) washer

Ratioed from EP
Code 94

94

Bleaching

El-stage
vent

(0%) washer

Site 5 (P5 DG),


Site 2 (P7)

.
9s

Bleaching

El-stage
vent

(0%) seal tank

Extrapolated. from
EP Code 93

96

Bleaching

El-stage
vent

(0%) seal

Extrapolated
from
EP Code 94

Bleaching

El-stage
vent

(100%) tower

Extrapolated
from
EP Code 99

98

Bleaching

El-stage
vent

(100%) tower

Extrapolated
from
EP Code 100

99

Bleaching

El-stage
vent

(100%) washer

100

Bleaching

El-stage
vent

(100%) washer

101

Bleaching

El-stage
(100%) seal
tank vent.

Extrapolated
from
EP Code 99

102

Bleaching

El-stage
(100%) seal
tank vent

Extrapolated
froin
EP Code 100

103

Bleaching

El-stage
vent

(high) tower

Extrapolated
from
EP Code 105

104

Bleaching

El-stage
vent

(high) tower

Extrapolated.from
EP Code 106

10s

Bleaching

El-stage
vent

(high) washer

Site

97

B-25

tank

Ratioed from EP
Code 100
Site

5 (SPS)

4 (HP9, WWS)

TABLE

B-7.

EMISSIONS

SOURCES

AND DATA

FACTORS

(CONTINUED)
1

EP
Code

wood
Type

106

Mill
Process
Bleaching

Basis
Emission

Emission Point
Description
El-stage
vent

Site

(high) washer

for
Factor

4 (SVS,
-61,

-Site 1 (SP7)
Bleaching

El-stage
(high)
tank vent

seal

Extrapolated
from
EP Code 105

Bleaching

El-stage
(high)
tank vent

seal

Extrapolated
from
EP Code 106

Bleaching

El-stage
vent

(low) tower

Extrapolated
from
EP Code 111

Bleaching

El-stage
vent.

(low) tower

Extrapolated
from
EP Code 112

111

Bleaching

El-stage
vent

(low) washer

Site

1 (HP3)

112

Bleaching

El-stage
vent

(low) washer

Site

1 (SP7)

113

Bleaching

El-stage
vent

(low) seal tank

Extrapolated
from
EP Code 111

El-stage
vent

(low) seal

tank

Extrapolated
from
EP Code 112

Dl-stage

(0%) tower

vent

Extrapolated
from
EP Code 117

(0%) tower

vent

1 Bleaching

1 Dl-stage

Bleaching

(0%) washer

-G-p-

Dl-stage
vent

Ratioed from EP
Code ii8

Bleaching

Dl-stage
vent

(0%) washer

Extrapolated
from
EP Code 116

m/

Bleaching

Dl-stage
vent

'(03) seal tank

'Extrapolated
from
EP Code 117

116

117

Site

(P6 DG)

120
,

Bleaching

Dl-stage
vent

(0%) seal tank

Extrapolated
frdm
EP Code iis'

121

Bleaching

Dl-stage
vent

(100%) tower

Extrapolated
from
EP Code 123

122

Bleaching

Dl-stage
vent

(100%) tower

Extrapolated
from
EP Code 124

B-26

TABLE

B-7.

EMISSIONS

SOURCES

Mill
Process

AND

DATA

FACTORS

(CONTINUED)
Basis for
Emission,Factor

Emission Point
Description

EP
Code

Wood
TYPO

123

Bleaching

Dl-stage
vent

(100%) washer

Assumed the same


ds EP Code 129

124

Bleaching

Dl-stage
vent

(100%) washer

Assumed the same


as EP Code 130

125

Bleaching

Dl-stage
(100%)
tank vent

seal

Extrapolated
from
EP Code 123

126

Bleaching

Dl-stage
(100%)
tank vent

seal

Extrapolated
from
EP Code 124

127

:K

Bleaching

Dl-stage
vent

(high) tower

Extrapolated
'from
EP Code 129

128

Bleaching

Dl-stage
vent

(high) tower

Extrapolated
from
EP Code 130

129

Bleaching

Dl-stage
vent

(high) washer

130

Bleaching

Dl-stage
vent

(high) washer

131

Bleaching

Dl-stage
(high)
tank vent

seal

Extrapolated
from
EP Code 129

132

Bleaching

Dl-stage
(high)
tank vent

seal

Extrapolated
from
EP Code 130

133

Bleaching

Dllstage

(low) tower

Extrapolated
from
EP Code 135

(low) tower

Extrapolated
from
EP Code' 136

vent
134

Bleaching

Dl-stage

vent

Ratioed from EP
Code 130
.
Site

Site

3 (SP8,
SPll)

1 (HVIA)

13s

Bleaching

Dl-stage
vent

(low) washer

136

Bleaching

Dl-stage.

(low) washer

Site 1 (spa, SP9)


Site 2 (P9)

(low) seal

Extrapolated
from
EP Code 135

vent
137

Bleaching

Dl-stage
vent

138

Bleaching

Dl-stage (low) seal tank

Bleaching

Assumed the same


+s EP Code

vent
139

tank

E2-stage

tower

vent

Extrapolated from
EP Code

B-27

137
141

TABLE

B-7.

EMISSIONS

SOURCES

Mill
Process

AND DATA

FACTORS

(CONTINUED)
Basis
Emission

for
Factor

EP
Code

Wood
Type

140

Bleaching

EZ-stage

tower

141

Bleaching

E2-stage

washer

vent

Ratioed from EP
Code 111

142

Bleaching

EZ-stage

washer

vent

Ratioed from EP
Code 112

143

Bleaching

E2-stage

seal

tank

vent

Extrapolated
from
EP Code 141

144

Bleaching

EZ-stage

seal

tank

vent

Extrapolated
from
EP Code 142

145

Bleaching

DZ-stage

tower

vent

Extrapolated
from
EP Code 147

146

Bleaching

DZ-stage

tower

vent

Extrapolated. from
EP Code 148

147

Bleaching

D2-stage

washer

vent

Assumed the same


as EP Code 135

148

Bleaching

D2-stage

washer

vent

Assumed the same


as EP Code 136

149

Bleaching

DZ-stage

seal tank

vent

Extrapolated
from
EP Code 147

150

Bleaching

DZ-stage

seal tank

vent

Extrapolated
from
EP Code 148

151

Bleaching

H-stage
. vent

(O.S-2%)

washer

Ratioed from EP
Code 152

ISi

Bleaching

H-stage
vent

(0.5-2%)

washer

Site 5 (P7.DG),
Site .2 (Pa)

153

Bleaching

H-stage
(0.502%)
tank vent.

seal

Extrapolated
from
EP Code
151

154

Bleaching

H-stage

seal

Extrapolated
from
EP. Code 152

Emission Point
Description

tank

(0.

Extrapolated
from
EP Code 142

vent

S-2%)

vent

155

Digesters

batch

156

Digesters

continuous

relief

B-28

gases

relief

Assumed the same


as EP.Code 156
gases

Site

4 (WWl)

TABLE
EP
Code

'Wood
W?e

EMISSIONS

B-7.

SOURCES

Mill
Process

AND'DATA

FACTORS

(CONTINUED)
Basis
Emission

Emission Point
Description

for
Factor

Aqsumed the same


as EP Code 158

157

NCG

System

batch turpentine
condenser

158

s;

NCG

System

cont. turpentine
condenser

Site

159
,

Tall Oil
Recovery

batch

Reference

160

Tall Oil
Recovery

continuous

vent

Reference

161

NCG

System

turpentine

condensates

162

NCG

System

turpentine
(IMP)

condensates

Assumed the
as EP Code

163

Digesters

batch

blow

condensates

Site

164

Digesters

batch

blow

condensates

1.65

Digesters

batch

blow

gases

166

Digesters

batch

blow

gases

167

Digesters

continuous

blow

gases

168

Digesters

continuous

blow

gases .I

169,

Digesters

continuous

blow'gases

ND

170

Digesters

continuous

b,low gases

ND

vent

3 (ww3)

Site 3 (WW3)',
Site 1 (WW3)
same
161

1 (WWl, Wl)

Site

2 (WW4,
SP1) ,
Site 3 (WW2A)
Extrapolated
from
EP Code 177
Site
I

site

3 (WW24,
SPl)
4 (HPl)

Ratioed from EP
Code 167
Ratioed from EP
Code 170
Site

1 (SP2,
SPl),
Site 3 (WW2B)

171

Digesters

continuous
condensates

blow
I

Assumed the
as EP Code

same
173

172

Digesters

continuous
blow
condensates
I

Assumed the
as.EP Code

same
174

173

Digesters

continuous
blow
condensates
ND

B-29

Site

4 (WWl)

TABLE

B-7.

EMISSIONS

SOVRCES

Mill
Process

AND DATA

FACTORS

Emission Point
Description

(CONTINUED)
Basis
Emission

for

EP
Code

Wood
WPe

174

Digesters

continuous
blow
condensates
ND

175

Knotters

hood

vent

Extrapolated
from
EP Code 177

176

Knotters

hood

vent

Extrapolated
from
EP Code 178

177

Washers

hood.vent

Site

178

Washers

hood

vent

Site 4 (SVl; 'SPl,


SP2, SP3, SP4)

iai

Washers

deckers/screens

Extrapolated
'from
EP Code 177

182

Washers

deckers/screens

Extrapolated
from
EP Code 178

183

Washers

foam

tank
tank

Site

Factor

3 (WW2b)

4 (HVl, HP3,
HP6, HP4),
Site 1 (HPl)

Site

Site

(P4)',
(SP2)

Extrapolated
from.
EP Code 178

184

Washers

foam

185

Evaporators

vent

186

Evaporators

vent

la7

Evaporators

condensates

Site 1 (WW2),
Site 4 (WW2)

188

Evaporators

condensates

Site 3 (WW4,
WW7)r
Site 5 (WW2, DG)

189

.K

Evaporators

surface cond.
condensates

190

Evaporators

surface cond.
condensates

191

Oxygen
Delig.

192

Oxygen
Delig.

Site
Site

.blow tank
blow

tank

B-30

Site

4 (WWZ)
(WWZ, DG)

4 (WW3)

Ratioed from EP
Code la9
Extrapolated
from
BP. Code 193
Site

1 (SVl, SP4)

TABLE

B-7.

EMISSIONS

SOURCES

Mill
Process

AND DATA

FACTORS

(CONTINUED)
Basis
Emission

Emission Point
Description

for
Factor

EP
Code

Wood
Type

193

Oxygen
Delig.

washer

tank

vent

194

Oxygen
Delig.

washer

tank

vent

197

weak black liquor


storage tank

Site 4 (HP2,
HP4),
Site 1 (HPl)

198

weak black liquor


storage tank

Site

Ratioed from EP
Code 194
Site

Site

1 (SP4, SP5)

3 (SP3,

SPlO),.
1 (SP2),

Site

4 (SP6)

199

Sulfite
Digesters

batch

relief

gases

Extrapolated
from
EP Code 206

200

Sulfite
Digesters

batch

relief

gases

Extrapolated
from
EP Code 207

201

Sulfite
Digesters

batch

blow

gases

Extrapolated
from
EP. Code 206

202

Sulfite
Digesters

batch

blow

gases

Extrapolated
from
EP Code 207

203

Sulfite
Evaporators

multi

effect

evap.

vent

Assumed the same


as EP Code.185

204

Sulfite
Evaporators

multi

effect

evap.

vent

Assumed the same


as EP Code 186

20s

S-

Sulfite
System

turpentine

NCG

condenser

Assumed the same


as EP Code 158
Ratioed from EP
Code 207

206

.H

Sulfite
Washer'

hood

vent

207

Sulfite
Washer

hood

vent

210

Sulfite
Washer

decker

vent

Extrapolated
from
EP Code 206

211

Sulfite
Washer

decker

vent

Extrapolated
from
EP Code 207

212

Sulfite
Digesters

blow

condensates'

B-31

Site

(PI DG)

Ratioed from EP
Code 213

TABLE

B-7.

EMISSIONS

SOURCES

Mill
Process

AND DATA

FACTORS

(CONTINUED)

Emission Point
Description

Basis
Emission

condensates

Site

for
Factor

EP
Code

Wood
'W-P

213

Sulfite.
Digesters

blow

214

Sulfite
Washer

waste

liquor

Not used in Model


Plants

215

Sulfite
Washer

waste

liquor

Not used in Model


Plants

216

Sulfite

weak black liquor


storage tank

217

Sulfite

weak

218

Sulfite
Oxygen
Delig.

blow

tank

219

Sulfite
Oxygen
Delig.

blow

tank

220

Sulfite
Oxygen
Delig.

washer

tank

vent

221

Sulfite
Oxygen
Delig.

washer

tank

vent

228

Sulfite
Washer

foam

tank

vent

Extrapolated
from
EP Code 220

229

Sulfite
Washer

foam tank

vent

Extrapolated
from
EP Code 221

230

Sulfiti3
Washer

improved

Sulfite

improved

washer

vent

231

(Pl DG)

Ratioed from EP
Code 217
Site

black liquor
storage tank

5 (P2 DG)

Extrapolated
from
EP Code 220
Assumed the
as EP Code

washer

same
192

Ratioed from EP.


Code 221
Site

vent

5 (P4 DG)

Ratioed-

Code
Site

from
231

EP

3 (SP2)

Washer
232

Washers

improved

washer

vent

233

Washers

improved

washer

vent

234

S'

Bleaching

scrubber

effluent

B-32

Ratioed from EP
Code 233
Site

1 (SPl, SP3)

Site 3 (wWl)t
Site 1 (WW6)

TABLE

B-7.

EMISSIONS

SOURCES

Mill
Process

AND DATA

FACTORS

Emission Point
Description

(CONTINUED)
Basis
Emission

for

EP
Code

wood
WPe

235

Kraft

covered weak
liquor tank

black

Site 1 (SP2),
Site 4 (SP2),
Site 3 (SP3,
SPlO)

236

Kraft

covered weak
liquor tank

black

Site 1 (HPl),
Site 4 (HP2)

,237

Sulfite

covered weak
liquor tank

black

Site

301

Bleaching

EZ-stage
vent

(low) tower

Reference

302

Bleaching.

E2-stage
vent

(low) tower

Reference

303

Bleaching

E2-stage
vent

(low) washer

Reference

304

Bleaching

EZ-stage
vent

(low) washer

Reference

30s.

'H

Bleaching

E2-stage
vent

(low) seal tank

Reference

306

Bleaching

E2-stage
vent

(low) seal tank

Reference

307

Bleaching

EZ-stage
vent

(high) tower

Reference

308

Bleaching

EZ-stage
vent

(high) tower

Reference

309

Bleaching

EZ-stage
vent

(high) washer

Reference

310

Bleaching

EZlstage

(high) washer

Reference

311

'Bleaching

E2-stage
(high) seal
tank
vent

Reference

312

Bleaching

EZ-stage
(high)
tank vent,

Reference'

jl3

Bleaching

E2-stage
vent

Reference

Factor

(P2 DG)

vent

B-33

seal

(100%) tower

TABLE B-7.

EMISSIONS SOURCES AND DATA FACTORS (CONTINUED)


.

Basis for
Emission Factor

EP
Code

wood
Type

Mill
Process

314

:3

Bleaching

EZ-stage
vent

(100%) tower

315

:K

Bleaching

E2-stage
vent

(100%) washer

316

Bleaching

E2-stage
vent

(100%) washer

'317

Bleaching

E2-stage (100%) seal


tank vent

Reference 8

318

Bleaching

EZ-stage (100%) seal,


tank vent

Reference ti

401

oxygen
Delig.

blow tank

Reference 9

402

Oxygen
Delig.

blow tank

Reference 9

403

Oxygen
Delig.

washer tank vent

Reference 9

404

Oxygen
Delig.

washer tank vent

Reference 9

405

Bleaching

EOP-stage
vent

(100%) tower

Reference 9

406

Bleaching

EOP-stage
vent

(100%) tower

Reference 9

407

,H

Bleaching

EOP-stage
tank vent

(100%) seal

Reference 9

408

Bleaching

EOP-stage
vent

(100%) washer

Reference 9

409

Bleaching

EOP-stage
vent

(100%) washer

Reference 9

410

Bleaching

EOP-stcge
tank vent

(100%) .seal

Reference 9

DG = Disolving grade;

Emission Point
Description

Reference 8
'Reference

Reference 8

H = Hardwood;.S = Softwood

a Emission factors were extrapolated based on es&mated relative emissions


from
each unit in a series of processing units.
b Emission factor were estimated based on the hardwood/softwood ratio.
B-34

estimate
units

for other

emissions

in the

developed

using

pr0grams.l'
factors

series

but

complete

can be found

determinations

those

factor

for that

estimated

points

other

data

vent
were

emission
based

point.

presented

here

will.be

set

of these

some

factors

Of

under,other

associated

direct
data

heavily
When

vent

were

was

EPA
ratios

and

emission

identified

for an emission

no vent measurement
described
being

factor

measurements.

of an emission

data

above

were

collected

were
used

found,
instead.

for emission
The list

manufacturing.

updated

with

in the determination

and paper

pulp

factors

than

are currently

with

for

available

latter

developed

shortcomings

data

associated

were

d0cument.l'

on the procedures

measurement

This

units.

measurement
weighted

data

of the development

separate

by methods

values

Additional

discussion

in

where

emission'models

the

when

point,

for'all

recognizes

The Agency

Consequently,

not

analytical

situations

in the futurewhen

of emission

warranted

by new

data.
B.12

EMISSI6N
This

group

FACTORS

section

presents

of individual

described
summary
for each

constituents

previously
document.12
emission

in this
Separate

source

of emission

a listing

ati pulp

document,
emission

listed

factors

and paper

mills

and as detailed
factors

in Table

B-35

B-7.

developed
using

for a

procedures

in a separate

are presented

in Table

B-8

TABLE B-8.

Compound

EMISSION

FACTORS FOR INDIVIDUAL

AND

COMPOUNDS

(g/Mg Pulp)

EP Codes

19

0.14272

0.03659

70

70

0.01317

Names

Acetone

SOURCES

20
1

6.30142

Methyl

ethyl

0.24772

ketone

I
SC hrr

mrrl ii
dr
e-*&d--

0
n

v. *a&b
n
Aa
I

n
"

I
I

I
I

I
I

7G
-4

n
"

I
I
I
I

I
I

25
-n

_0258
-.----

1.4

I
I

I
I

0
0

I o.loda
.-- -in

2,4,6-Trichlor--'---'
Chlorophenol
Bet; "1---IlAcrolein
IIAcetaldehvde

'
I

IO.6
I

n
u
n

I
I
I

"
n

0.02385
0

0.49

n n-73,

B-36

n3n77

0.02

II

TABLE

rnmantirld Names

B-8.

EMISSION FACTORS FOR INDIVIDUAL


SOURCES
COMPOUNDS
(g/Mg pulp) (CONTINUED)

40

B-37

41

EP Codes
I

A2

AND

45

4Q

TABLE

EMISSION FACTORS FOR nlDIVIDUi4L SOURCES

B-8.

(g/Mg

COMPOUNDS

II

IIcOF-,,hA
LLL~V.."..
..-.
--Names

a+ h"O

EP

47

2.7

500

. .
._I,,~~~(..,:rr+?.aPnlorlaC

:nercaptan
-..----J:L
sulfide
methy. disulfidt
ainene

...,ric Acid

-__ini dioxide
-----,'I chloride
f-h

AQ
TV

xi

AQ

Codes

7~7
-.

7.9--

3.5

500
_ _

300

300

-~

1
,

I
I
,

017

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
6

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3.3

0.07

0.24077

0.36852.

0
0
0
6

Al,..- --DC ____.--------~


.nni
nna

--

1 drhvrlr

PL wr-w.-------x -DpPWVnW-PP
LbY*".* YL

Total
Total
TRS

I
I 0.0022

I
i

1 7.6171

n ?I3
sLJ
0.72253

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
3.3

0.2
0.7
I .l.l
I

I
I
I

--n

0.2
n-7
-_.
1.1

0.16
3
016
0

0
nnnn7
l n.;-

, n1. l-lonnk5
o---

1
I 0.16
3
0.6
0

0
0
0
0
I
0
0.01344
50
105
0.50167
0.05725

HAP
UOC

A 7flfJflI
51,.,-*a, e-m.----

519.7209
0

CI

r;3Ql

I11

B-38

, O-00006
- -,-~- _ _ ,

__..~
s-e.---~~ -m.-c_520.2709
520.1791~314.0008~
-.-.-_ _- -___--1314.1286

- -----

54

I
I 0.07319

10.623-2-2

nt
U.-l

11
II

0.00103

0
0
0
0
0
0.02015
50
125
0.14333
1.93089

I
, O.OQ003
- _ -~---

z
Ip;,-.

53

0.89839

Acro1ei.n
Acr+aldchvde

50

'-------------ketone
I------~U~~~rnnrnbthyl
Sulfide

nha

I
I

AND

(CONTINUED)

.*bw.--.----

pulp)

714.3286

0.04416
0.11249
0
0.07436
0.06
o

62.91806
20.2505

0.00128
0
0.00002
0

0.06
;;

,,

53.87992
3.71864

TABLE

B-8.

EMISSION FACTORS FOR TNDIVIDUAL


SOURCES
COMPOUNDS
(g/Mg pulp) (CONTINUED)

-*3imethvl----- sulfide
L-- ~~ _I
Dimcthvl
disulfide
Rlpha pinene
d
L Hvdro Chloric
Acid
_

__.._

_-.-L

--

0
0
0
0

I
I

imz-- -

Chlorine
rChlori-a
,A.- riinvidc
w-v----chloride
Methyl
___---~~
Chloroform

0
n

-I

1
I
'.
I

I
l

----

=----.-

EP codes
I
ca

0
0
0

0
0
0

0
.n

0
0

I
I

3.3

0
0
0
0
0

I
I

3.3

0.59376
0

0.09609

-. .

1.1

Chlorc
Rrta
k

V. I
1.1

f-

o.n;;oos I
10.00003

L-3

I
I

PCP-EF
2,4,6-Trichloro~henol

I.96125
0

____,,

c-

2.2&4

1 Rrnz

-,

me

AND

0.6

10.00006
I

B-39

0.6.

I
10.00006

I
I

0
l-l

0
n

0.01344

0.02015

50
10s
---

lo.50167
1 1.16436

L
I
I

50
125

II

II

1I 0.14333

11

1 I.93089

!I

TABLE

Compound

B-8.

EMISSION FACTORS FOR INDIVIDUAL


SOURCES
COMPOUNDS
(g/Mg pulp) .(CONTINUED)

Names

t.rmtmno

I-

athnn

tettachlotide

-W.-J- ._---~~-

im-+hvl sulfide
7. disulfide
II; ;--- --*
.pha
pinene
II

A.,

ll,;;;-i~;;loric Acid
dioxide

EP Codes

63

64

2.2
460

I
1

1
200

AND

65
I

2
100
0

66
I

69

1 0.14272

30

28.73723

70
IO.03659
2.07739

0.3

-0

0
0

0
0

0
0
0

0
0
0

0
0
0

0
0
0

210
0

210
0

105

.o

B-40

TABLE

B-8.

EMIS'SION FACTORS FOR INDIVIDUAL


SOURCES
COMPOUNDS
(g/Mg pulp) (CONTINUED)

B-41

AND

B-8.

TABLE

EMISSION

COMPOUNDS

FACTORS FOR INDIVIDUAL


SOURCES
(g/Mg pulp) (CONTINUED)

EP

n~~nd Name3
Camp,--.- -.Acetone
Methanol

tetrachloride
ethvl--x- .
ketone
,- - ---Sulfide
'IHydrogen -___~~
mrrrant
an
.
..--w-c ----

77

78

I
0.35921 (1.40091
311.2622122.50088
0

Carbon

~Methvl

0.54378
I--- -

0
0

I
I
I
I

l------l
10.00266
I
11.30507
I- ~~~

I
I
I
1

0
0

II

II

F$nene

:o C%oric

Codes
ai

79

80

1
110

0.03

0.71842

82
IO.02155

~~~
0.29

I
I
1

82.5 0323

6.75026

0.3

0.00257

0.00266

I
I

I
I

0 .Ol

3.80647

0.00544

0
0

I
I

0
0.2

!thvl sulfide
J -. ___ ---- --

AND

0
0

0
n

0
n

0.3

0.15355

0.23033

5.324
n

5.32471
2.66236

50
105

50
125

1.268
2.66236

1.26779

0.04133
0.39861

0.04558
, ~.~
l&37(369
-.---__

0.7

0.2

I 0.06381
1 0.05505
I
n

1 0.01823
1
0.124
I
I
0

Acid

SM..-

I
IO.85725
--_-I
n

I
11.93089
~.~~
~~.
I
n

Dioxin
Furan

0
n

0
0

0
0

0
0

>etant

0.00139

oI3

Dphenol

0
0
0.00417
0

9
0
0
0

II;;.

;T,;

II Chlc--k-fil
-, -, -

r&y**SAAL

c-hlntnnhrnnl

-^-.,..----r..-.--

IIBet:i Pinene
Ta Terpinol

0
0

II

n
0
0

0
0
0

4.82303

Acetaldehyde
Propionaldehyde

13:7A I
-.-SW.

1.3
---

0.06616

n
". n6;r;ir;
"""-1
IO.01923

0.4
-_

0.06

DACETON-EF
Toluene

Htxane
Chloroxnethane
p-Cymene

n
0.02273

p-Dichlorobenztne
Formaldehyde

0.5

1 n-non7
-.---0
0.06

1.8

0:s

a
.0.3

0
0.3

7767ei

3.9

B-42

0
0
0.30917

0.00128

IIAcet A-b.-r-1

II

0
0

Acre-3lmin
-_-..

0.01237

0
0

I
1

I 0.81734
i

0.1303

I
tl

3.16947

Phenol

l,l,l-Trichlorc
2,4,5-Trichlorc
E-DC-D,PP

11

0
0
I

11

11

II

0
0
0.00128
0
I
I 0.0002
_...~

ll

0.001.92 0.00192
0
0
I
I
I o-08181
- ,--- --

lo.02273

11

I
I 0.06678
~~
1 O-01223

0
I
I
10.01223

II
It

2.69

TABLE

III--Comoound
-

B-8.

Names

EMISSION FACTORS FOR INDIVIDUAL


SOURCES
COMPOVNDS
tg/Mg pulp) (CONTINUED)

1
83

Hydrogen
Mat h.rl

0.71842
--qg

0.03
a4
9

0.02155

0.3

0.01
_ ._-

3.80647

1:s

0.5

0.08181

0.02273

0.5

a.
n.7
-.s

.o
l-l.3
v-v

0.06678

0
0.01223
---~---

0
0

0
n

3.9

2.69835

0
n

0
n

0
n

0
0

6.75026
0.00266

0.00544

2 .4

Sulfide

1
Chloromcthane
p-Cymene
n-n i ph 1 nrnhrnvmnr

82.50323
0.00257

110
0.29
km+ nnr

AND

f-l

B-43

a.01223
-_-----

8
I

1
*
I

0
n

--II

TABLE

B-8.

EMISSION FACTORS FOR INDIVIDUAL SOURCES


COMPOUNDS
(g/Mg pulp) (CONTINUED)

2.66236

.0.04193

0.04558

3.58

0.34738

0.27736

7.93

B-44

AND

TABLE B-8.

EMISSION FACTORS FOR INDIVIDUAL SOURCES


COMPOUNDS
(g/Mg pulp)
(CONTINUED)

IICInmanrlnd Names

95

96

97

EP c;oaes
98

99

6.22096
IEl

15.25021
--.---_- 15.25021
--.---_- 15.40121
-.-----

AND

5.40121
0

85

78

78
n

l-t
w

6.50274

63

0
I
3671 14.5867'

100

85.

67

~~~x14,:

I ;;,&

piGI.L&...

In
5095~ ID.67763
-.--e--.-- -- 13.95654 12.89633 13.95654 12.89633

A.

c;~Lh.~.l.VS

FF--

PeIIL

Phenol
Dioxin

Furan
l,l,l-Trichloroctant
2,4,5-Ttichlorophtnol
PCP-EF
Chlorophenol

k$%aldehyde
DACETON-EF

.Idd#

I,

I ,&;A

i A 58

.XII

.---.-

-----IA

'

= A
-4..

V.7

;
0
0
0.00417
0
0

0
0
0
0.00417
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0.0014
0
1.23667
0
I
0.66156
0
0.16025
0
0

0
0
0.0014
0
1.23667
0
0.66156
0
0.16025
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0.18548

0.18548

2.1

0.18171
0.09747
0
6
0
0

0.18171
0.09747
0
6
0
0

2.1
1.2
0
6
0
0

B-45

II

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2.1
2.1
1.2
0
6
0
0

II

TABLE

Compound

Carbon

B-8.

EMISSION FACTORS FOR INDIVIDUAL


SOURCES AND
COMPOUNDS
(g/Mg pulp) (CONTINUED)

Names

tetr

achloride

Chlorine
d&ox~a
Methyl chloride
Chloroform

IIAcrolein
1

101

104

61.06531 6.22096
6.22096
58.50229 5.40121
5.40121
0
0
0
-. _____,_ ____ A c Ch97,
134.25819134.2581916.~u~/4
IW-JVLI~
I
n
I

I A
c.-.-,e.~
u.Joaar

-A,...-

U.3UJJl

0.25408

(1.29851
-

103

61.06531
58.50229
0

032

It

--

102

I A
CnCl,
--d,*

I A
4nfi7*
r.-rvv.l

85
78
0
-63
,.

3.95654
n

2.89633

11.29851

lo.18548

Io.iassa

I.

Ifi

,A

.a.-.

a5

0.18599
n

-a..-*

106

78
0
-63

r
(
I

105

I
I

2.1

2.1
II

Propionaldehyde

-TV-_

II

2.89633

,b,f-

II

c
A
.-a

3.x54

II

..--

Other
Total .SiAP
,,5~~a ,~~
I

100.8699 ioo.aola 27.31876 26.25855


100.8699 100.8018 27.31876 26.25855
I. r. -r,.-. . .?- n-n, I .>U Yb..#..* I- .
IDL.~GVL iGi.-LSCi Z;.S;;CLi2CeC328

B-46

168~0565
168.0565
247.6565

166.9963
166.9963
246.5963

TABLE

rr
Compound

E-8.

EMISSION FACTORS FOR INDIVIDUAL


SOURCES
COMPOUNDS
(g/Mg pulp) (CONTINUED)

I
Names

lAcctone1
------..~.

rethvl

ketone

mareant an
. ..-..
W-r
---!thvl sulfide

Hydro

C.hlotic Acid

108

109

58.50229
61.06531

58.50229
61.06531

2.19563
0.48472

in

40777

" .-I
n

Chlorophc---Bets Pinrne

.o

In

0
4R-477

- _----n

3
3

17.58

111

lli

2.19563
0.48472
0

30.
7
0

30
7
n

(3.09655
0

30
n

30
l-l

i34.25819~34.25819~3.09655
0
0
I
0
I
0
I
0
0
I
I
!
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.13
0
0
0.02687
I

aL.7e-f -Ia

11

EP Codes
110

107

AND

0
0

0
0
e
.q
.,.J

I
1
I

0.4
7

n17
v-a.4

'
1

0
0
.n
U.A.1

10.02687
I
3
I
I

I
I
I

0.4
3
4

II-

TABLE

B-8.

EMISSION

COMPOUNDS

FACTORS FOR INDIVIDUAL


(g/Mg pulp)

B-48

(CONTINUED)

SOURCES

AND

TABLE

B-8.

EMISSION FACTORS FOR INDIVIDUAL


SOURCES
COMPOUNDS
(g/Mg pulp) (CONTINUED)

I
Compou&
-_& ^_^

Names

119
n

71Rd7

In

71r

B-49

121

EP Codes
I 122

AND

123

124

II
II

TABLE

B-8.

EMISSION FACTORS FOR INDIVIDUAL


SOURCES
COMPOUNDS
(g/Mg pulp) -(CONTINUED)

AND

EP Codes

129
.004

B-50

130
I
1.0.004

TABLE

B-8.

EMISSION FACTORS FOR INDIVIDUAL


SOURCES
COMPOUNDS' (g/Mg pulp) (CONTINUED)

EP Codes
134

131

132

133

0.00287
0.0075

0.00287
0.0075

0.07319
0.20774

B-51

0.07319
0.20774

AND

135
1
3-

136
1
3

TABLE

B-8.

EMISSION FACTORS FOR INDIVIDUAL


SOURCES
COMPOUNDS
(g/Mg pulp) (CONTINUED)

AND

EP Codes
Compound

137

i38

139

140

0.71842

0.71842

1.09782

1.09782

2.25009

0.24236

0.24236

15.27608

Name's

12.25009

--_------

btafonn

iii447
I

IO.91528
I

13.96728

I
I
I

0
0

I
I

0
0

I
,
I

0
-

IIiP,,,an

II-l.l.l-Trichloroetane
---.IIF
2.4.5-TtichlaraDhcno1
--

I
I

I
I

I
I
I

0
0

3.

0
0

13.96728
aI
I

I
I

I
I

0.15
0
0

0.15
0
0
0
0

0
0

0.00942

0.15
0
0
I
I
0
0
0.00942

1 0.01

IS.27608
n
I
0

B-52

10.34388(11.65268
10.83584112.14464

II

II

0.15

0
0
0
0.01

Alph
Acro

15.88277115.78358
15.80072~15.70153

11
II

Chlorophenol
Pinene

0
0

ropntnor

Beta

I
1

142

29.34228)30.65108
44.06728145.37608

II

TABLE

B-8.

EMISSION FACTORS FOR INDIVIDuAt


SOURCES
COMPOUNDS
(g/Mg pulp) (CONTINUED)

AND

EP Codes

10

10
10
40
40
1.07501~
1.5
0.03379 IO.04616

40
1.07501
0.04616

Furan
l,l,l-Trichloroetane
2,4,5-Trichlotophenol
PCP-EE
2,4,6-.Trichlorophenol
Chlorophenol
Beta Pinene
Alpha Terpinol
Acrolein
Acetaldehyde
Bfnaldehyde
DACETON-EF
Tolueae

0
0.00209
0
0
0
0
0.0007
0
0.61834
0
0.33078
0
0.08012

Hexane
Chloromethane

(TRS

0
0.00209
0
0
0
0
0.0007
0
0.61834
0
0.33078
0
0:08012

.o

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
I

11

II

0
0.00417
0
. 0.0173
0
0

10
40
1.5
0.03379

0
0.00417
0
0.0173
0
0

0.00461
0
0
0
0
1.12778
11.12778
.0.05306

0.00461 1 0.06
0
I
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1.11541
1.63116
11.11541 11.63116
O-04069
0.13516

0
.

B-53

0.06
0
0
0
0
1.61879
11.61879
0.12279

TABLE

B-0.

EMISSION FACTORS FOR INDIVIDUAL


SOURCES
COMPOUNDS
(g/Mg pulp) (CONTINUED)

B-54

AND

TABLE

B-8.

I---

EMISSION
COMFO~S

FOR

(g/Mg

pulp)

I~.IVIDUAL SOURCES
(CONTINUED)

Compound

Carbon
IF
--~~~~-tetrachloride
Methvl ethvl ketone
Hydrogen
Sulfide

Acid

0.064
3.2

0.064
7 7

0.12
7 7

0.12
3.2

0
0.8
27

Y1

0
0.8
69

0
0.2
69

I
I
(
1

0
0.2
69I
245
823
3
CA?
AJ9L

0
i-l'

0
0

160
0
n

95.7

0
95.7

245
823
1542

245
823
1542

1
w.16

1.16

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

1
I

0
I

icetophenol
1imethvltrisulfide
Carbon disulfide
Total HC
Other
Total HAP
Total VOC
TRS

I
I

159

I 3.3
I
2.2
I ^^_
--I I,.34
-

.--

I
I
I
I

3.3
7~7
-.--"(4

.--

II
II
II

----c-------

-.*I

158

0
0

C-v-i-klaraahenal

I*.-*

157

y*br**r

Hvdro Chloric
arine

156

225
823
1542

a 1rrkm rr;nanr

11

155

I
1
I

Methyl mercaptan
Dimethyl
sulfide
Dimethyl
disulfide
cu.p.A.a

AND

FT
-- Codes
-----

Names

Acetone

I-

FACTORS

0.03
0.03
0.0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4.2
4.2
4.2
4'.2
2594.264 2614.264
2617
1 2679

B-55

I
I

I
I

II

'0.

II

0.008
.o
0
0
1490
4.0395
4 io395
4105.32
2679

.0.008

0
0
0
1490
4.0395
4.0395
4105.32
2679

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
5.83
101.53

0
0
0
0
0
.
0
0
5.83
101.53

TABLE

B-8.

EMISSION FACTORS FOR INDIVIDUAL SOURCES


CObfPOWDS
(g/Mg pulp) (CONTINUED)

AND

TABLE

B-8.

EMISSION FACTORS FOR INDIVIDUAL SOURCES


COMPOU?JDS (g/Mg pulp) (CONTINUED)

B-57

AND

TABLE

B-0.

EMISsIoN FACTORS FOR INDIVIDUAL


SOURCES
Cof@oUNDs
(g/Mg pulp) (CONTINUED)

B-58

AND

.
TABLE

B-8.

EMISSION FACTORS FOR INDIVIDUAL


SOURCES
COMPOUNDS
(q/Mq pulp) (CONTINUED)

B-59

AND

TABLE

B-0.

EMISSION FACTORS FOR INDIVIDUAL SOURCES


COf@OuNDS
(q/Mq pulp) (CONTINUED)

AND

TABLE

B-8.

EMIk3ION FACTORS
COMPOUNDS

FOR INDIVIDUAL
SOURCES
(q/Mq pulp) (CONTINUED)

.04

oric Acid
I
I

rll--.w:
".-.I

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

I
(
I

,
I

0.85

550
0
8.5
0
0
0
0

0
0.006

I
I

550
0
3.9
0
0
0
0

i
II

-_-.---- ---_---- I
n
I
n
I
11.78799

1rl-b...Ar

0
0
0
0

0.007
0.008
98
1
0
0
I
0
0

AND

In

11.78799

Il.78799

nai1i7

nna7

I
I

0.3

nfJlA

".\
I

0
22.4803
22.4803
5372.93
252.246

0
22.4803
22.4803
5377.684
257

B-61

0
22.4803
22.4803
5222.691
128.007

87
71.114
71.114
248.659
128.015

2640
20.987
20.987
3223.387
550

348
1.75
1.75
906.457
550

II

TABLE

B-8.

EMIssIoN FACTORS FOR INDIVIDUAL


SOURCES
COMPOUNDS
(q/Mq pulp) (CONTINUED)

AND

TABLE

B-8.

EMISSION FACTORS FOR INDIVIDUAL


SOURCES
COMPOUNDS
(q/Mq pulp) (CONTINUED)

AND

EP Code3
Compound
Acetone
Methanol
rather!
Hvdraaen

tetrachloride

216
2
300
0

Sulfide

0.4
0

Names

I
I

ph

1 hroftane

rmhenol
I

Ifi-Trichlorophenol
G,phenol
Zinene
E
Terpinol

I
I

218
4.81615
4.72202
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
4
0
1

Y
0

0
0
0
0

n
i
0
0
0
^ --ma.

~U.l3wJ4

)1.02599

B-63

219
1
50
0

0.2
0

7.90645
0

0
4
0
4
4
0

217
2
300
0
0.4
0

I
Aceta.Ldehvde

0
0
0
0
0

I
I

"
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0.7
0
A

220

221

73
76
0

73
76
0

82

82

I
I

I
0

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
I

.
e
L.D

0
0
0
0
I

,
c
A.P

II

II

TABLE

B-8.

EMISSION
CO~OUNDS

FACTORS
(g/Mg

FOR INDIVIDUAL
SOURCES
pulp) (CONTINUED)

EP codes
Compound

Names

B-64

AND

TABLE

B-8.

EMISSION

COMPOUNDS

FACTORS FOR INDIVIDUAL SOURCES


(g/Mg pulp)
(CONTINUED)

AND

EP Codes
Compocnd

Names

Acetone
Mat hanol

__--_~~

It?%%-tetrachloride

Methyl. ethvl
Hydrocc
Methyl. me

ketone

301

302

303

304

1.09782
0.24236

1.09782

15
3.5

15
3.5

0~

I11.54827
0

0.24236
i

omm

il.54827

15

15

305
306
10.77623 10.77623
2.6251
I 2.6251

,i 0
18.15t

_-__
0
II

I=-

Formaldehvde
Acetcphenol
D~ethyltri~mlfidm

E"otal

Carbon
G.

disulfide
HC

0.00192
I
0

0.00192
I
0

( '0.025 I 0.025
0.0173
0.0173
0
I
0
0
0
0
.I
0
0
0
n
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.77484
0.77484
2
2
0.32951
0.32951
10.33044
11.63924
29.14228 30.45108
12.31309 12.39714
--_---_--_----dlr;kfi;all:,
Te;flC;Q
29.34228130.6~~
*e.x"""x
w-.-v--10.34388 11.65268 L-------,----~-WV,
.--- --_--.-_ ------~~ II
10.83584 12.14464 44.06728145.37~~~~2~-1~7~~~2~-28121
I
n
n
0
0
0
0

B-65

11

TABLE

E-8.

EMISSION FACTORS FOR INDIVIDUAL


SOURCES
COMPOUNDS
(g/Mg pulp) (CONTINUED)

AND

EP Codes
Compound

Names

Acetone
Methanol

307

308

309

310

3.11048

3.11048

42.5

42.5

2.70061

2.70061

79

39

311

312

0
0

0
0

1.97827
IFChloroform
1 Benz

Phenol
Dioxin
Furan
l,l,l-Trichloroetane
2,4,5-Trichlorophenol

Beta
II

1.97827
0
0
0
0
0
0

1.44816
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0

0
0

P.Lnene
;

11.44816
0
0

0
0
-0

.o
0
0

0
0

0
0
0

0
0
0

0
0
0

0
0.64925

B-66

0
0

0
0

0
0.64925

0.66016

0.66016

0.39694

-0-39694

TABLE

B-8.

EMISSION FACTORS FOR INDIVIDUAL


SOURCES
COMPOUNDS
(g/Mg pulp) (CONTINUED)

EP

B-67

Codes

AND

TABLE

B-8.

EMISSION FACTORS

FOR INDIVIDUAL
SOURCES
(g/Mg pulp) (CONTINUED)

COMPOUNDS

Methyl
Chloroform
1 Benz

I
1

.Dhrnnl
..w..w-

___-------.~

Dioxin

Furan
l-l-l-Trichloroetane
2,4,5-Trichlorophenol
PCP-EF
2,4,6-Trichlorophenol
Chlorophenol
Beta Pinene

.O

I
I

0
0

0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.16254

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.7
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2

B-68

.I

1.
I

AND

.I

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.18548

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.18548

II
II

TABLE

B-8.

II

compound

EMISSION FACTORS FOR I:


NDIVIDUAL
SOURCES
COMPOUNDS
(g/Mg pulp) (CONTINUED)

AND

Names

Acetone
Methanol
Carbon tetrachloride

59.21163 85.87418 86.7722


0

Methyl ethyl ketone


Hydrogen
SulfidC

34.38898
0

64.4519
0

1 Benz.
Phenol
Dioxin
Furan
l,l,l-Trichloroetane
2,4,5-Trichlorophenol

0
0
0
0
0
0
0

U
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

1.29851
1.32032
0.79388

2.1
2.1
1.2

0
0
2.1

0
0.1923
n
0'

UPV-F.r
a
-- me
3 A
1111

C-v~ri
rhl
v L**u..*C

nt-nnhenol

Ch]----r------nrnahrnnl
Bet:a Pinene
3ha Terainal
Al&---=----Acrolein

Acetaldchvdc
--------a
--nionaldehyde
Prc,
DACETON-EF
Toluene

"ava,nr
I

Total HAP
Total VOC

0
64.61748
0

59.15395
0
34.37835,
0

0
.o
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

2.1
1.2

i-29851
1.32032
0.79388

n
0

0
0
1

0.1923
I

0
0

10.00835

100.8726 167.0261 168.0897~100.8O-43


100.881 253.0261 254.0897~16~.878 I

B-69

B-12

REFERENCES

1.

Roy F. Weston, Inc. Field Test Data Summary for Site 4.


Prepared for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
Research Triangle Park, NC. December 1992.

2.

Radian Corporation.
Calculation Sheet, Job No. 239-026-60,
Model Wastewater Flow Rates, Pulp and Paper NESHAP.
Prepared for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
Research Triangle Park, NC, December 29, 1992.

3.

Radian COrpOratiOn.
Calculation Sheet, Job No. 239-026-60,
Model Wastewater Collection and Treatment Plant for the Pulp
Prepared for the
and Paper Industry, Pulp and Paper NESHAP.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Research Triangle
Park, NC. December 28, 1992.

4.

Memorandum from Allen, C. Research Triangle Insitute, to


Manning, E., EPA. Emission factors from wastewater
collection and treatment system at pulp and paper mills.
April 15, 1993.

5.

Ref. 2.

6.

Telecon. Conference call, Radian Corporation with U.S.


Environmental Protection Agency. December 1992.
Description of weak black liquor storage tanks .at pulp and
paper facilities.

7.

U.S. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency).


Environmental
Pollution Control, Pulp and Paper Industry, Part I, Air.
Publication No. EPA-625/7-76-001.
Research Triangle Park,
NC. 1976.

8.

Memorandum from Gideon, L., and Olsen, T., Radian


Corporation, to Lassiter, P., EPA/CPB. February 5, 1993.
Emission factor and model process unit revisions for the
pulp and paper NESHAP.

9.

Memorandum from Olsen, T., Radian Corporation, to Lassiter,


P
EPA/CPB. April 5, 1993. Totally chlorine free model
process unit for the pulp and paper NESHAP.

10.

Research Triangle Institute. Hazardous Waste Treatment,


Storage, and Disposal Facilities: Air Emission Models.
Draft Report.
Prepared for U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.
Research Triangle Park, NC. April 5, 1987.

B-70

11.

Research Triangle Institute. Emission Factor Development


for the Pulp and Paper NESHAP. Contract No. 68-~10118.
Prepared for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Research
Triangle Park, NC. October, 1993.

12.

Ref. 11.

B-71

APPENDIX C
MODEL PROCESS UNITS
c.1
C.2
C.3

Pulping Model Process Units


Bleaching Model Process Units
Definition of Term and References

APPENDIX C.l
PULPING MODEL PROCESS UNITS
This appendix presents emission points, emission factors,
and vent and wastewater stream characteristics for each of the
18 pulping model process units (MPU's) presented in
Chapter 4.0. The model process units are defined based on
.pulp type, wood type, digester type, washer type, and whether
oxygen delignification is used (see following summary table).
The following figures (Pl-P18) represent the emission points
associated with each model process. Tables following each
figure identify the emission points within the model and the
associated emission factors and process vent and wastewater
stream characteristics of each emission point in the model
process unit. These characteristics include:
l
Flow rate factor; and
l
Hazardous air pollutant concentration.
The assumptions and derivation of the emission factors
are presented in Appendix B.
The following example presents how a model process unit
would be assigned (or lqmapped")to a pulp mill. Assuming a
Kraft pulping mill with a batch line pulping hardwood
(1,000 tons per day) and a continuous line pulping softwood
(1,000 tons per day), two pulping model process units would be
assigned to represent the two pulping lines. The batch,
hardwood line utilizes a rotary vacuum drum brownstock washer
and no oxygen delignification. Using the summary table as a
guide, the batch process would be assigned model process
unit P-l. The continuous line utilizes a diffusion washer and

C-l

oxygen delignification. Using the summary table as a guide,


this process would be assigned model process unit P-12.
Definition of terms and references are presented in
Appendix C.3.
The emissions from either process may then be estimated
using the appropriate figures and tables. For example, the
methanol emissions from the Kraft batch process (Model P-l)
rotary vacuum drum washer would be estimated using the
following steps:
Identify emission point code (EP-CODE): for
1.
Model P-l, the code for the washer is 177;
Identify the associated emission point emission
2.
factor (Wornpound@@-EF): for methanol (MEOH-EP), the
factor is 0.1 kg/Mg pulp;
3.
Multiply factor by process line capacity:
O.lKg MeOH x 1000 Ton Pulp x
1 Mg = 90.9 KgMeOH
Mg Pulp
l.lTon
Day
Day
4.

Convert to annual emissions, assuming mill operates


350 days per ye&:
90.9 Kg MeOH x 350 Day = 31,800 Kg MeOH
Day

1 Year

c-2

Year

SUMMARY

TABLE

OF PULPING

MODEL

PROCESS

UNITS

Wood
typa

Chemical

Pulping type

Digestion
type

recovery

Washer type

Oxygen
delignification
(Yee or No)

P-l

Kraft

Batch

Hard

Kraft

Rotary drum

No

P-2

Kraft

Batch

Soft

Kraft

Rotary drum

No

P-3

Kraft

Continuous

Hard

Kraft

Improved washing

No

P-4

Kraft

Continuoue

Hard

Kraft

Rotary drum

No

P-5

Kraft

Continuous

Soft

Kraft

Improved washing

No

P-6

Kraft

Continuous

Soft

Kraft

Rotary drum

No

P-7

Sulfite

NAa

Soft

Sulfite

Rotary drum

No

P-8

Sulfite

NA

Hard

Sulfite

Rotary drum

No

P-9

Semichem/kraft

NA

Soft

Kraft

Rotary drum

No

P-10

Semichem/kraft

NA

Soft

Sulfite

Rotary drum

No

P-11

Kraft

Continuous

Hard

Kraft

Improved washing

Ye8

P-12

Kraft

Continuoue

Soft

Kraft

Improved washing

Yee

P-13

Kraft

Batch

Hard

Kraft

Improved washing

Ye8

P-14

Kraft

Batch

Soft

Kraft

Improved washing

Ye8

P-15

Sulfite

Batch

Hard

Sulfite

Rotary drum

Ye8

P-16

Sulfite

Batch

Soft

Sulfite

Rotary drum

Ye8

P-17

Kraft

Batch

Hard

Kraft

Improved washing

No

P-18

Kraft

Batch

Soft

Kraft

Improved washing

No

'Model
proceer3
unit

WA = Not applicable.

jlh.lO8c
c-tbl
C-16-93

WOOD
CHIPS

BATCH
DIGESTER

BLOW
TANK

:
I
I
I

I
1
-----

COOKJNG
LKNOR

\I

163

KNOTTEA

WASHERS

,I
J

;
I
I
I

,O

A
; 184

I
I

t
I

WEAK BLACK

Figure Pl. Pulping Identification - tbaft, HWD, Batch


.

McdelPl
I

1 IW-CODE

1 EP-CODE

SCURCE

Lf
I
I
!
LI

1 PaOC,lrPe
WLP

I
1
I
1

PULP

KRAfl

WlP

KilAfl

PULP

KRAfT

____---

Dipmsters.

relief 9mrcs

DiResters,

blow cadensmtms

DiResterr,

blw

Knotters,

9ascs

hod

vent

Umrhcrm,

hood vent

WSHERS,

DECKERS/SCREEYS

urnshers, for

tmnk

Evmpormtors,

vent

Evapwmtors,

conrknsmtes

Evmfxwmtors,

surfmce cd.

VLAK @LACK LIDl#X SIORACE

PULP

KRAfl

Pulp

KRAfT

PULP

KRAfT

PULP

KRAfT

PULP

KRAfl

PULP

KRAf 1

PULP

I
1

KltAfl

wdel

i MPU~CODE

i EP-CODE

- Edssim

frtor

1 5.9OE-1

J l.ZDE-3

Dlgestwm,
blw
Knotters, hood vent

1 l.IZE-3
1 5.D6f-3

1 b.ZlE-3
1 Z.D7E-2

1
1

Yashcrs, hoad rmt

1 2.3OE-2

1 l.DOE-1

YASHERS. DECKERSISCREEYS

I 5.12E-4

1 Z.ZJE-3

taM

J 3.84E-2

J l&E-l

vent

I Z.DDE-4

1 Z.DLX-2

1 l.DDE-2

1 3.ooE+o

relief Rascs

DIgesters,

bla

for

cordensmtcs

gmses

candensmtcs
IANK

T
Dl9atrrs.
Dlguters,

relief Rmses
blow cmdmsmtes

DlRmstcrr,

blw

Knotters,

l&SllERS,

Umshmrs,

hoed

I Z.IOE-3

1 &15E-1

1 s.DOE-4

1 l.DoE-l

1 PCP-Ef
1
I

I ACROlElYEf
1
I

,
I

I
I

J s.soE-4

YUCE-IIP

1
I
I
/
I
1I

Z.LIE-4

1 SfLO-fAC
I
,
I

J 1.4cwo

1 1.3Mto

1.42E-3

T
f
I
I

SWP~CDN

VMP~cm
8.&x*2

VEYl

J l.aoE-1

VEIN

J z.m-3

SlREAJt

J 4.9DE+o

SlREAM

I 4.2W*O

I 2.74E-3
I

1
1

VENT

T
I
II
I

----r-l
9.96E+2

C.laol
1.03E*z
2.03E*o

I
-I.

2.99E+C

l.DDE-3

Ii
Y

II

I
I

1.46E*3

II

S.SSE+Z

I
1

1
1I WL-Ef

I l.llE-4

J 3.26E-3

1i MCL-Ef

iI CLZ-Ef
I

i
1 CHCL5-Ef
I

1I LJEYZJf

I1 PMYLJf
I

I1
I

fU.NCL=f

1 1-24sRf.
1
I

I
I

I PROPAL-Ef
1
I

1 TOLUEWE+f
I
I

1 QIElHAMEf
I
f

4.24E-3

1 ICDOJf
I
I

5.5%.4

2:3lE-3

1 lCDf_Ef
1
I

1 A~ElOPWff
1
I

1 CARloIS-Ef
I
1

1 WxrJK-Ef
1
I

1 Wtmf
4

I toI~f
I

I t@S-gf

i L.ZDE-3.

i Z.SpE+D

i 2.62WO

-I
1

1 5.9lE-1

1 8.5%.1

l-ODE-5

1 LW-l

LSDE-2

J 1.01-l

I 4.37Eto

I 4.02E*o

5.loL-2

I 9.6OE-2

1 &lU-l

'1 l.W+O

1.24E-5

1.7OE-2

1 1.74E-1

5.431-6

1 J&L-3

1 9.06E-3

3.24E-5

I 2.02E-l

1 S.IlL-1

1 Z.zQE-1

I Z.lOE-2

1 5.39EM

1 3.%E*O

J fAE*O

J J.z2E*o~

1 5.2%-1

1 6.29E-1

1 7.N.1

1 2&E-1

I l.SCE-1

1 I.%-I

ccdensmtes
TANK

I
1

I
1 HAL~SIAIUS

5.9&*2
4.13E+3

I
I

SKIRADE

1 VflD-fAC
I
I
1 2.57E-3

!i.uE*l

J 2.Dw3

J 6.oaE:S

Ymshmrs, for tmnk


Evmprmtorr,
vent

UEAK 8LACK LlDUM

vmt

condensates
surface cd.

VEYI

1
1I fcu_Ef

Rmscs

VEYI
STREAM

SwrV

hood rat
DECKERS/SCREEYS

Evqaormtorr.
Evmpermtorm,

PI

J l.ZOE-3

Diprsterm,

fQyCE

1
I

I
1 PCOR-Ef

I Evmprmtors, condensmtes
I Evmpormtors. surfmce cod.
I YEAK ILACK LIINKU 'SWRACE

HARD

,
1I IyKJf

Evmporatorm.

1
I

I
I1 WET-Ef

T
/;
II
I
II

1 EPJC@E

I ENCLOSURE
1
I

I
11 ItEOtl~Ef

umsherr.

I WU~CtllE

1 WDD-1VP
1

1
11 ACEIJf

SOJRCE

W/12/93

Chmrmctcrirticm

KRAfl

cwwknsmtea
IANK

PULP-fvP

. strm~

,I

1 I.4600

!;O157

aws

II
c

BATCH
DIGESTER

I
I

SLtm
TANK

I
I

I
I
---c

I
I

I
4

w-

0159

.C
TALL OIL
EOILER

I
i

190

Figure P2. Pulping Identificatioti - Kraft, SWD, Batch

-.
;
E
i
-.
i
i
-.
=I
i
!

_------_____-___

%1
: :I I
3

::
$?
::

_____

------

8,:7
4 CI
3
5 jd

__----------a

__----e-B-___

II
z
r
4
z
z
:

_--Be

P7PTY
&YWY
5zoz 34
8
;c;n;n;v;c; 0

__-__--------

$8
ti
Y

i-T-------------

w---w-__-----

i
;

g
s;

g;
,I

z
2
-------------

=
4
Y
t

-mr

I iri-----

________

f ; ;, j rzzii;iii;igig

3
H
k
z
,:
s
;
.,
s

L--------------j

E c-cmc--Lc---11am11=111011
2 ~zz~~:zi2r~z~~
YIllYYIYIIYYY
2

z
Y
r!
=t
f
ki
=I
3

___---.------e-m-

=,
H
z
iL

E
-1

z
L
i

i
0

____-----mm-----

91
--&---.--e---e---

ff;igivgi&i;

d ; 4 d r: d ri r; v; r; 4
d
__----_---se

________

-----

;fH;3Yg6;;H

n;

N&r&;N<~c;

------_------

---__-___----

------------4

~Dyv~yvry.YNan-Y*

K
HPH~4M~ii
; , ; r;
,
_---------e-e

r;

A 0: c

----____-----

---

ti
8
2
I,
3

--&--,-------A--

::
3

;gl;%~~ma$~a;~gg
; P
VI1
r-t--.------

_-w---------e

>~~312~~Z88~8
C-L
CZCCCCCLCC

-----___----ruNNNNNNNNN--lm
. . . . . 0&000~...
---------

---_

c-7

ftodelP2

1 NW-CQ)C

1 EP-CODE
I
I
157

1 samct
I
I
1 YCG syrta,

I
I

p2
p2

PZ

I:

::

p2

II

p2
p2

7 -.
--.
--1-------1 PCP-Ef
turpmtin

162 I YCG System,


I

turpentine

.I-

comknscr

tmtch rent

;I-I .

conbnsatcs

164 I Dinritcrr,

blw

cmdensAtcs

166 I Digestcrr,

blw

gases

I
1
::

I
1

z!.ooE-6

J.U.5

l.ooE-6

4.3x-4
l.W-3

3.54t-5

I
DECKERWSCREEYS

IM

for

1 MNhers.

tank

106 I Evaporators,

vent

100 I L*poraws,

cmdmyt~s

Iv0 1 EvApor~torr,

surface cud

1W

1 YEAK BLACK Lloxl


1

Slo1AGf

7.OOE-5

3.Om-4

Z.OOE-3

1
--1

z.OOE-5

feccor fiery

I IWLTNE-Ef
1
I

UYItIAYEEf

1 ICOO-Ef

1 ICOf-Ef

--I:--

1 ACEW'HNEf

1 CARIDlE-El

z.zOE-4

Z.OOE-4

I
I

I
L

l.xlE(IE-41

Z.LY-1

s.bw-4

8.1oE-2

l.Z4E-5

I.OZE-3

4.0&-4

4.OOE-4

I
z.ooE-31
&cNlE-4
1
4.Olx-4

1
L

I
I
I
I
I

M/12/93

TI

1-.- -r-HEXWEJ Ef 1 IOlllAJ'Ef1 IOIVOCEf


_-.-

--t:

---+-T-+--+--.-

cmdmr*tcs
IAY

Emission

I
]

178
176 1 KnottArs.
Moshws.
hood
hood vent
vent
102 1 NASHEIS,

.--

PRceAl~Ef

1 ACfiOLCIYEf

-.--$--

159 I Iall Oil n~over7,

.r

i
I
I
I

I
I

k.04E.3

t-1 (.llE*O

IRS-Ef
2.**0

1 3.83EL3

l.OZE-I

I 5.05.E.I ! 9.74E-1

7.11E-2

I 1.04E-I
I 3.93E-4
5.79E.l
3.OOE- I
I 1.00E- 1 I 3.47E.l
3.2OE- 5
I 4.751-3
1.09E.l
I
I l.M-3
1.71E-1
.I
I 3.91E-2
I r.zlf-2
I
..--.I-A--

1 3.42E-1

Z.VE-I

1 3.97E+0

4.02L*o

.I 2.6lE+0
1 3.42E*O

Z.llE+b

1 Z.UE-2
1 l&E*0

z.w-1

I 3.07E*O

3.54E*O

1 S.CZE-1

5.2SE-1

I l.I(Y-1

2.6(E-I

1 &WE-Z

i
:
I
I
1
I
I

I
I

:O

A
; 169

RECOVERY

:
I

? 232
:

I
:
I

:.

_ _ _ _ _ _ _.

_ _

WOOD CHIPS

I
I
I
I
I

COOKING
LlQlJOR

_--

j71

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

f
19
;o
----I
I

WEAKBUCK

Figure P3. Pulping Identification - Kraft, HWD, Colitinuous, Improved Washing

-----------

i
i:
!

f
I igi
Nri ri
&
:
.- ----------i
: ypy~y~p--o
1 y#$$~~@a$J
. . . . . .yq
..-E NN-ODHHr.?hc&
I
!

:
1
:
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---w-e-----_

i
;

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;

-----------:
j;
i

---------__

9
:
sI
3
P
9
:;
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3
A
n;
------m---m

72
5:
, I.4

o=
-oNLI
23
iajg
de-i
v;n;u;-i
----e-m--_-

Y
YI
i?
YI

gg
4;

sI
0
s
f
-1I
Y
1

1
:
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::
..
Ii

ti
,i
i!

ii
ti
z

i
i!
;,

cc

----B---w-__

E1

,i
B
:
:
s
f
$

ii0

------em---

t
-1
2
z
t

e
m

I
i

------------

mm
* *

!
!

Et 2
Pi;

m-m.----------,
1

F-m.

-----w-w---

II---

I
-em.
I
I

Bi

?Hi)

#jk

zI

--we

----------a

8.--,

--------a--

i
--w. ----------_

::I

----------e

;
!

kit
:

---.-e-D--__

i
ty
:
ij
.-:
i
B
Y
k
i
k
!I ----------0
3
s ---------_
::
1
,d
::
s
b
z
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k
hT
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a---a----_-

il
/

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:7
:
iI

-----------

:
L:I
i!
:t

5
d

------------

------a----_

:t:
gt
r;u

i
e

.1
---.

2;I
2I
:1
a1

-----mm----

2I
;
5

a
z
d
:

:,I
i

-----------LPoIPooPooP
4dddd424ddd
dc!ai?z!azazaaa

:t
;
:

----------_

----__

.-a-

.-------v--w

-----

**Nl
. .
?a5
d 4

.
;

en?
ClirP
, ,

---------a_

:I
e

.---

----

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:
z
E
i

t
if
;p& i

r
!
-.
i
i!
4
Phi
:
h

7?7;#%a*
G&G;

&
; 8
Ou
rOsgs

i::ggi;;;q
m-; a- ---bbk::=
:k&z,;;:;;;e
---UrgLg:

:
z
if
d
+gi!-pi,
:
I

s
3
3k
c- a.
-----------

ilay

!ZZB&~f~Zj
; ; ; .e-bgoLgY
6Gt:m-;z;;;z;
: I..
0b:o ;J]fjjg
z ZZY
z

5
i

-----------

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%
G

GfSJj~jjJj

--a--

L
r

-----------

nnnnnnnnnnn
OO.P......I

I
s

;n9 %~bcS~O~%6X
CCCCCCCrN

-r-

-------v-m-

?
c
e1:

lnnnnnnnnmn

c .O.L.OOLL..
m--N_------

0: t
154

,-I

I
L

I
.

1
I
I

TO
STORAGE
KNOlTER

OR
BLEACHING

;--

COOKING
WI

ma

&

--i------1---i

mmc..------

1
I

164

*
.
;

t,

____ i+#&

0: i
197

i
I
I

165
,O
A

{~~~~~_--1
I

16s

Figure P4. Pulping Identification - Kraft, HWD, Continuous

ltukl PL
,
I
1 IIPU~CLXIE 1 EP-CCOE

I
;

II

PC
P4

I
1

Pb
PC

WLP~TVP

156 I Di9crters.

relief Rases

PULP

1'

KRAFI

169 I Dl9cstcrs.
171 1 Di9cstcrr,

blow 9.scr
blon cmdmsatcr

PULP
PULP

I
1

KRAfI
KRAfT

II

HARD
IlARD
luRD
BOARD
HARD

MANI

PC

FE:::

KRAF 1

MD

MadeI P4

R.r.s

i 6.4~~5
1 l.wR-3

I P.lOE-2

Digerters,

blow cmdcrualcs

Urnshers, hood vat

I :*z:
1 2:3DE:2

I 2.07EE-2
1 l.ooE-1

UASIIERS, DECKERWSCREEYE

1 y;

1 2.23E-3
l.mE-1

ClEf-Ef

- Edsrlm

STREAM

SREM

1 :*ro
'

1 2.74E-3

#MI

"
If

I 3.53E+2

1 2.99E*L

I
1 I.4603

*
l

Y
/

factor Emry

1 ItEK-Ef
I

1 PCBB-Ef
1

1 fORM:Ef
,

i 6.ODE-4

i ~-DDE-S

NClJf

1 5.ODE-4

1 CL2-Ef
1

1 MCL-Ef
1
I

1 CltCL3-Ef 1 L-BENZ-ET
1
I

1 PHEYL-Ef
1
I

1 ttCYCL3Ef 1 lCP245Ef
I
1
I
I

5.9DE-1

hood vent

umhors,

Evafmatorr,

vent

1 2:DW4

1 z.DOE-2

Evaporators,

condensates

1 l.OOE-2

I 3.Otx*o

Evaporetors,

lrfmx

1 2.X&-3

1 6.lSE-1

1 s.My-4
I

1 l.LlDE-1
1

I
1 PCP-Ef

I
I ACROlElNEf

I
I PROALJf

1
I
I IOltSttE-Ef I CMEWAUEEf

I
1 ICDDJf

I
1 ICDf-Ef

1
1 ACElOPWEf

I
1 CAMDlSJf

I
1 HEWE-Ef

1 IOIwEf

I TfJl=f

I TRRLf

1
I

I
1

I1

I
1

,
i 4.2OE-3

i 2.61E*O

i 2.6fW

5.43E-6

1 3.44E-3

1 9.0&-3

3.24E-5

I 2.02E-1

1 5.81E-1

1 2.2oE-1

1 Z.lQ-2

I 5.3swo

I 3.5400

1 3.04E*O

I 3.22EeO

I 5.25E-1

I UEAK
J-

,WU-mE

I
1 EP-WDE

I
1 tQyCE

for

1
I

I
189
197

91~s

Knottws,

::

did

II

) :*E+i +

blw

KRAfl
KRAFI
KRAf 1

Dl9crtcrs,

1 2.7OE-3

I
I
I

I Digesters.

1 5.67ml

VEYl

PULP

!-

PULP
PULP

I
Y

II

II
"

1 2.03E*O

vent

1 NAL-SfAluS

1 l.O3E*2

ccdmsatrs
surfack coni. cardms~t~s

1 WOHJf
I
I
1 3.2OE.3

I
1

115 I Evaporators,

1 ACEI-EF
t

1 9.ooE-1

I
) 2.12E+3

117 1 Evapw.tors,
169 1 Evqoratorm,

SlRJRCE

I:-=:
I .

1 9.OOE-1

1 6.9OE-1

11 9.OW-1
l.llm-1

PL

WI1

KRAfl
KRAFl

1 2.606-2

VEllr
VEYI

(
1

PULP

VW1
STREUI

I1

PULP

TANK

I
1

ETDRACE

DECKERS/SCREEYS
for tank

i z.bx-3

1
I

I-I IUD

164
161 1 Nasherr.
WSYERS.

197 1 UEAK RLACK LICMR

VEYI

II

VENT

'

I
1
1 VHAf'~CON 1 SUP-COY

KRAFi
KRAFT

P4.

I
1 SfLO-fAC

1
3

PC

I
1 VfLO-fAC

!
I
1

WiP

P4

I
1 SWRCEJYP

I PlJLPI

I-I itfU~coDE I EP-CODE

0:
I
P
h)

1
1 EYCLORURE

II

06112/93

- Stream Charbctcriotics

I
1 KXXb-TIP

P4
PL

I
1

I
1

hd
vent
hood vent

I
) PRDC-IVPE

173 i Kmtters.
177 1 Umhtrr,

1
1 SaJRCC

tmll

RLACK LIOUI

cod.
SIDRACE

cmdms~t~s
IWK

1 c.OOE-5
1 3.ODE-2

1 5.001E-3
1 5.2DE-3
1 Z.DDE-3
I

156 1 Di9~rters.

relief 9.s.s

169 I Digesters,

blw

171 1 Dl9wtcrs,

blar cmdmsatcs

1
I

i
1

Rare

175 1 Kmtters,
177 1 Uashws,
181 1 UASHERE,

hood rent
hod vent
DECKERSISCREEYS

lB4

1 Yashw~,

far

165

1 Ewpmtors.

vent

167

1 Evefmratorr,

cordmmtc~

la9

1 Ev~rators,

surface cord. cmdmatcs

197

1 UEAK BLACK LIWDR

tmR

NOlACE

I
1WK

l.loL-4

1.5DE-4

l&DE-3

l.DOR-5

1 6.29E-1

1 l.lOE-1

1 2.64E-1

i 1.54E-1

I 1.55E-1

I.

TURPENTINEFIECOVERY

- - -*

Iel
0

!@

IeAT -----*
f4EuMRv
ic--,I
;

I
I

E.zzji~&+$+i

I
I

;@

I
I
.

1$1J~~
I
I

---

(L!+:

to.

---,

ri~g,e@*

:a

Figure P5. Pulping Identification-, Kraft, SWD,


Continuous, Improved Washing

-----e-----_-

p
2

c ----e-e--____

3
P

--------_____

t,
ij
-------N-_-e-

t
I
I+

Y
-1
9
a
Y
-1
3
%
?
-1
E
E
%
;
-

E
t
5
i5
0
E!
L

=:,
1
I
4
z
I*
i
=I
E
--v-w--------

::
2

igf

---B-m-------

=I
d
L
t
I
H
b
E
.-s
.-::
J

i
if
z
t
-1
c i -8
i

=:trLC

-------------

=:I
!I
::
8
L
z
i

x1 =I
E
;
i

-L--C-LLC-C
~l;z:::~i:zz~::t
4!~zz~zanaazzca
; 2 i

=I
f
z
L
9

---------a---

------------5

gHf;;?ggg64
&cc#GnirddLc;ei

----------_-n

mNNN

------------_
4
;

Hi&ii$g$$p&
; ,: ; h: ; L Ii c; & , ;

E
SI
g
u,
a
------e----w_

i
I srs&?rrrrsrrrr
G
----a-_------

c-14

lkxklP5
I-I WI-CODE
t--;

-__

EP-CaOE

___----

----TV-

SUHCE

1 PEP-Ef

151

YCt syrta.

160

IaIl 011 Recovery,

cmt.

161

tit system,

turpmtin

twpmairw

1 ACMllEIYEf
i

cmdmscr

cartinuws

vmt

cadmratcs

i
I
I

- Emission
I

1 PIOPAL-Ef

1 IOlLYYE~Ef

1 OYIWEf

1 ICDO-Ef

1 ICOf-Ef

1 ACEIOPWEf

5.w.7

2.W.6

6.W-7

1.3x-5

Z.ZOE-4

Pi

170

Oi&iatcrr,

PI

172

Di@wters,

P5

I76
1U

Kmtters,
WSYEIS,

DECKEKWSCKEEYS

4.l3E-4
3.54E-5

l.ZlE-5

l.OZE-J

I
1

::

185

muhcrs,

for

3.mE-4
7.oLy-5

4.OOE-4

4.0s.4

P5

166

Evqmrators,

"MI

106

Evafbxators,

cWatcs
surface card. c-tcr

blar gases
blat cmdmsarcs
hod

::

WI

Crmpor~tors.

p5

1W

YAK

I
I

233

Muhwr,

vmt
tank

BLACK LIMI

SlDAAGf

l.ooE-7
I

2.2OE.3

1.3&c-4

I
1

2.OOE.5

IWK

hood rmt
A

1
1

4.Ow-8
z.o(y-5

06/12/93

factor Suury

z.OOE-3

6.oM.4

4.aOE-4

1
I

5.CmE-7

------I
l#EXM~Ef

CAiIlfDIS~Ef

I
I

--TIOlVQEf
-;--4.llE*O

I
1 5.05E.l

1 3.5of-1
1 3.72E.l

I
I

__--.
I IOlKAPEf

----i-

I
2.43.f.1

__---

3.ooE-1

I 5.7%.1

1.2OE-5

1 4.75E-5
1 1.69E.l

i 9.74E-1
4.9lE*O
I 6.78E-1
2.61EeO
I Z.YE-2
1.62EtO

I
I--

1.021-1
I.llE-2
z.wE*o
IAX-1

z.zoE-1
).54E+O
I.ZIC-1

1 3.911.2

/ 5.42E.1
I l.WJE-1

1 4.27E.2

6.WE-2

I l.Tlf-1

2.6KE*o

1.07E*o

I l.RE-3

I
I

I IAlE-

MS-Ef

1 2.A2E~2

.-,.-

z.w*o

Z&E-l
Z.llE+O

,O156

I
I
. . . . ..v.......w..m-

?
176
:o

SCREENS
OR
DECKER

I
I
I

A
i

We

160

WEAKBlAcK

----STORWE
.Et

I
I
I

,O

.+&&k&,

/Irrr:::I

;
;0

196

Figure P6. Pulping Identification - K&t, SWD, Continuous

s
P
B
a
E
-------me----

=,
i
=,
rr
a
E
2
-s
=,
d
-Y
E
2

_____-_-_--e---m
Is,
:z.
; ; ,:131=1*1=11111
j 2
!
I__-_=

--

i;i
j $I
I
i

2
.-

i
4
9
x
2
4
:
Y
2
a
t
t
-1
El

I
7

-------

ig
L ,
---.---------f
d

77272
z,3*
-so0 35
r.in;n;v;.;

f
L

,
:
_-____-------

Ef
dn;

i
G
z
e
-1

F
z
d
5
t
;

f
d

ijp

ig

-7~7~~

l-ii

n;

$
0: ,

---------e-e-

r;

&

~~~rfl~~rn~

~~~~y!a~iil

*--8*m*NmnHti4

-_-----------

5
.-2
d

~cccc-cccccIL
*LIIY.LLLLILL
3888858838888

I c---c-c--v--1 lz~~~::TK~z4t~:
~,PIII~IIIIaK~tlrI
YIYIYLYIYLYYY
z
i

--i-

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-i
E
2 1
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b
i is
-L

iI
-

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-------------

;
B

---a-----___-

-------------

ic3,--,-s2
zsw,,,,,;-,,;
rs:r;rrr>,,,>

%
-

,---

--------_____

--.--

-------_

zi
Y
-Y
=I
E
-;
=I
s

ygi?;6;;H

ri;;~;~~d~2:
-------------

-------------

----------se-

g :
L2OQPOOOOOOL.a
-1
g,$~;~~iii~~t~ PLOe i
e-I---.----------

=a
t
-Y

e
!
A
3
I
%
8
i

**mmN.sNa?yN

mjm$!!$4

L
w-e----------

------_-----94***Q4*9****
OO...O..O...I
B---------e--

c-17

mddP6
I

r----

j ftfW_C00E i El-CODE
I
I

iP6

P6

::
P6

P6

P6

Pb

id

1 .P6

.__

. YCt System. cant.


156 I

I
I

~.~

-.

.--

.~

. -

r-------
1 PEP-Ef
.I-...--

I------~

i.,,I,-

--

1 ACRMElYEf

- Eaissim

PAOPAL-Ef
--

tWUEME_Ef

cmtmuous

vent

blou twscr

172 I Digertrrr.

blow cmdmsatcs

1.34.5

Z.ZOE-3

4.33EE-4

l.W-4

2.43E.l

l.Mlt-3

5.6oE-4

a.1OE.2

3.54E-5

1.24E-5

l.OI-3

1.3
182 1 MASIIERS.
Uuhers,
OECKEKS/SCREEYS
tom tank.

7.04-5

4.w-4

c.w-4

186 1 Er8fxwators.

vent

3.ooE-4

1M

I Lrpor4tors.

cc8rdmral~r

1
1

1W

I Evepwntorr,

surfuc

1W

1 MEAK BLACK Llollol SIOIAGE

176 1 Uarhcrs.

UlNAMEEf
1 ICOO-Ef
-.
-+-+yiFi---.

1 ICOf-EfJ

r----1-m
I 1OIWWEf
I 1OlVWEf
1 IKS-Ef
-_
---I ----i----+

1 4.O4f.3

1 4.llEtO

1 2.6&*0

I 5.63EI3

1 1.02E.l

1 I.OIE-1

) 9.74E-1

1 7.11E.Z

3.50E-3

i 4.9lE+O

i 2.37E*O

I 3.72t-1
5.IPE-1

I6.7U.l

1 3.uIc.l

1 2.6lE*O

I 3.b7E-1
I L.RE-3

1 3.42E'O

I 2.11E'O

1 2.34E.2

I l.O9pL-1
I 1.75E-3

1 1.62E.O

1 2.2lx~l

I 3.07E*o

i 3.54E+O

l.llE-1

1 5.42E-1

1 5.25E.l

3.91t-2

I l.lOE~l

1 2.64t-1

4.27E-2

1 6.67t.2
L----

T---------

ACEI0PWYCf

1 CAIWIS-Ef

WXANE-Ef
----.,

turpentine condenser

170 I Oitf&rs.

161 1 NC6 syrta,

OOl12lV3

factor Sumaty

I .
] z.DM-6
1 6.OOf-7

176 1 Inotters.

-..

i WCE

160 I Iall Oil Itcorrry,


I

_ ___

---

turpntlnr

condensates

hood vent
hood vcnf

cd.

z.ooE-3

I
l.Ore.7

Z.ooL-5

3.OOE-1

I
I

3.2M-5

/
I
I

1.OOE.l

I
I
I

caxknsAtcs
IAYK

I
I
I
1

A----.

I
I

__.-

__ I.

-1

?63

r-t
HEAT

RECOVERY,

1
I

;O

-1
I

BATCH
DIGESTER

COOKING
LIQUOR

I
I
I

?@

_ _ _. _ _. . . -:- - - - - - - - -,

WOOD
CHIPS

178

207

I
1

TO
STORAGE
OR

-;1
I
I
I
I

BLEACHING
WASHERS ;

r---

I
: -----I,---,
I
1 a.

.
*.

.O

I229

4
I
:

213

Le.-.

WEAK SLACK
LKxJoR
STORAGE
TANK

fin

0
IM

I
I------)

MULTI-EFFECT
I

EVAPORATOR

Figure PT. Pulping identification- Sblfite, $WD

--t

-+

-----------

:I
1
-

5
5
:
5
-

ii
i
------a---_

:,
:

___----_--3
t
7
i

____

8
7
B

---

7
:
#
4

____

7;

:k!

dn;

0:

f
I
4
E

=I
5
Y

-----e----m

Y
&I
s
I

1
I
a
s
i
t
-1
s
t
-1
5
z

----------_

----------_

B
;
i

-----A-----

$1
!

???T-

?;

?
!
:
I
i

:
i

swiir

23

n;.zniio:

4.:

___--------

----------l nnnannnrnn

=,

__----------

__--------ccc-ccccccc
YYYCLYLYLLL
8PPP8488888

------------

t
J
I)

:I
9
-

*nn-anen~**n
2
I

?
;
zi

YYYWWWWYWWW
CCC&-CCCCCCC
i
zzz~z;,z~zz
~~~~~~zi~~~i

~j)k&~&&&&~~

6
::

;;cni;<iiij;
m-m--------

:I
:
4
:
;E
b
Q

----------;spg~~*&&~
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199

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206

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Figure P8. Pulping identification - Sulfite, HWD

OR
DECKER

l-

TO
STORAGE
OR
BLEACHING

:O

!I 228

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---

TURPENRNE RECOVERY

162

b
: 176
BATCH
DIGESTER

__c

BLOW
TANK?
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4
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FEFINER

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ls8

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Pl-BtHm
-_.......--.
d------ u@detun
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--

i?I

190

Figure P9. Pulping Identification - Semi-chemical (Kraft Process), SWD

-__
WU~CODE

i EP-CODE
I

151 1 YCG SYSlElt. 1UAPEYTIYE


159 1 IALL OIL RECWERV,

w
W

162 1 NCC SVSIEW, 1UAPENllNE

CONDENSER

PULP

SEMI-CHEMICAL

1 Urm~lVP
I
,
Sofl
1

VENT

PULP

SEMI -CHEMICAL

SOf 1

PULP

SEMI-CHEWICAL

SOfl

P!!?P

SEH!-CitEMlCAL 1

SOFT

PULP

SEMI-CHEMICAL

Sofl

MICH

164 ! DIGESTERS,

BLW

166

DLON GASES

1 DICESIERS.

176 1 KNOllERS,
1

PULP-IVP

CONDENSAIES

mn,
TOM

CONOENSAIES

VENl
IANK VENl

WLP

SEMI-CWEFIICAL 1

Sofl

WLP

SEW-CIIEIICAL

Sofl

1 WU-CaDE
I

SEMI -CHEMICAL

1
1

164 1 NCG
162
DICESIERS,
SISlEll,ILW
llBPENlINE
CWDENSAIES
CPIDENSAlES

ii

176 1 DICESlEAS,
166
KWllERS,
Iym
ILCU VEYl
CASES

186
183 1 WASHERS,
EVAPORAIORS.
fDIll YTNl
IANK VENl

i 3.2OE-3

/ ;.z::

I s.OoE-1
1 2.4OE-4

W
:

186 1 EVAPOfIAfQS,
I

tow!

1 EVAfOAAltXS, SWfACE

190

1 UAK
I

P
i fW_CODE
rI
I

w.
z
W

1
I
j
1

P9
ii
;

I
I
I
I
I
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EP$-OE

BLACK LIOUI

COW.

SIORAGE

CWDENSATES
TANK VENl

157

NCC SVSlEM,

lS9

IALL OIL RECOVERY,

162

HCG SVSlEfl, IUPENllNE

164

DICESlEAS,

KLW

CMLNSA1ES

166

DICESlEAS,

llW

USES

176

KMOllEKS.

II3

UASNERS,

186

EVAPORAIWIS,

VEYl

IM

EVAPORAlORS,

CBNOENSAlES

190

EVAIOIIAIORS, SURfACE

19N

Y(AK BLACK LIWJR

lURPENlINE

WI0

VENl

fCW4lANK

TANK VENl

N
N
N

1
1

8
N

&21E*l
2.vml

II

8.26E+3

Suvry
I

1 CLZJf
I
1

1 *CL-If
1
I

1 CllCl3-Ef
1
I

I L-REYZJf
I
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1 PNENLJf
I
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1 IKNCLSEf
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1 lV24SEf
1
I

i 2.w-4

i WOE-6

1 2.0&-3

1 2.21-3

1
1
1
1
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l.vDE-3

1 l.SoE-1

1 7.7oE-3

1 P.ZSE-4

1 l.OBE-2

1 1.77E-3

1 S.2OE-3

1 l.OoE-2
1

1 4.ooE-2
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1 l.OoE-4

I 2.OOE-3

!.76W2

1 lbCl+f
I

1 6.0&-6

N
N

1 7.m-3

VENl

l.OEiE*L

1 fORfi-Ef
I

1 1.4oE-3

N
;
1

1 l.?6E-1

SIORACE

3.45E*2

1
1

1 PCDRJf
1

1 7&E-6
l.lOE-2

CORD. CWENSAIES

5.6OE*2

1 HAL-SlATUS
I

1 WKJf
I

COWENSAlES

VENl

futor

1 l.Olx-4
1 I.ZlE-3

COYDENSER

@LIEN

3.42E*2

SHIP-CON

I 3.11E-2

,
1 PEP-ET
I
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samx

1 l.MbE-1

1 :ccE:s
7.26E-3

-ENSAlES

190

1 P.OOE-1

VEYl
VEIlI
I

- Emission

1 l.oOE-1

1.6lE-1

1
1

SEMI-CHEWCAL

PULP

1 1.2oE-4

1 4.2I*O

PULP

ii

i
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1 2.74E-3
I

SURFACE

1 UEAK RiACK LIQLKX SIRRACE


1

I !.CcoC

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1 EVAPtXAlOIS,

196

ClEl-Ef

I 1.14-l

VENl

190

i, MEOU-Ef i

STREAN

SOfl

1 ACEI-Ef
I

1.36E+2

Sofl

Sofl

1 EP-CODE 1 SLNJACE
1
1
I
137
159 1 NCG
1ALL SVSlEit,
OIL RECOVERI.
1UIPENIINE
BAlCti
CCJWENSE~~
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I

I l.lOE-1

1 7.&E-3

Sofl

SEHI-CHEMICAL

I 2.57E-3

VENl

1 4.vmo

SEMI-CHEWCAL

VENl

WlP
PULP

IkXklW
I

VHAP-CON

1 2.7oE-3

VENl
COWENSAIES

I
1 SfLO-fAC
1

SIREAN

I
1 VfLO-fAC
1

1 EVAPtXAlOIS,
1 EVAPtXAlOIS,

1ANK VENl

ENCLOSURE

r
1 SOURCE-lVP
I

SIREM

lb6
1M

COND. CONDENSAIES

Wl2/93

- Stream Characteristics

---I

PROC-IVPE

nodeI P9

..__ --

-__

183 1 YASNERS,
I

~-

i SCURCE
1

-.--

r
I
I
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f
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ACROLElNCf
s.ooE-7

1 PROPAL-Ef
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1 1OLUEYE+f
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1 CMltlAMEEf
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1 TCDO-Ef
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1 lCDf_Ef
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1 ACElOPWEF
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1 CARlOlSJF
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1 NEKAMEJF
I
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1
1

2.2oE-4

J.ooE-5

2.OOE-4

l.LlW-6

4.33E-4
7.OoE-5

1
1
1

Z.OOE-3

2.ooE-5

1 lRS_EF
I
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1 2.6&O

1 s.aE-3

1 l.M-1

S.OSE-1

I 9.74E-1

1 7.llE-2

l.O(E-1

1 3.41-l

1 2.32E-1

3.914

1 3.9mo

1 4.02EtO

S.79E-1

I 2.61EtO

l.mE-1

1 l&E*0

I2.2oE-1

1.7SE-3

1 S.O7E+O

1 L%E*O

1.7lE-1

1 5.42E-1

1 S.ZSE-1

3.VlE-2

1 1.14-l

I 2&E-1

4.2?E-2

1 6AR-2

4.04E-3

Z.WE-6

I.OOE-4

1 1OlWlCEF
t
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1 4.llE+O

101HAPEf

l.W-4
4.oOE-4

1
1

f.OO$;

c:ooE-4

2.4R-1
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1
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262
;o

;0

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I
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6
1.
1

HEAT
RECOVERY

1
I

;O

I
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WOOD
CHIPS

BATCH
DIGESTEF

BLOW
TANK
I

176

.
c KNOlTER

t
1

I
,---------------

COOKING
LIQUOR

10

REFINER

.~-

_.

213

L-- j+,

gj

; -emme.,

WEAK BLACK
LlQUOR
STORAGE
TANK

Figure PlO. Pulping identification - Semi-chemical (Sulfite Process), SWD

TO
STOFWGE

OW2/93

Model PlO - Stream Charuterirticr


I
1 EP-CaDE

~lw~cDDE
PlO
PlO

PlO

i
I
I

I
1 PROC-IIPE

1
I

I
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I
1 SamE

176 1 UASHiRS,

z
PI0

KWllER

VENI

I
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200

1 DICESlEllS, RELIEF GASES

202

1 DICES~EIIS, ILQI CASES

213

! DICESIERS.ILlW

CONDENSAIES

217

1 t&AK BLACK LlMl

SIORACE

229

1 VASHERS,
I

I
1

FOAM IWK

TANK VE,

VENI

4
I

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1 WOD~lYP

PULP~IVP

I
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I
1 ENCLOSURE

I
PI0
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1
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1 SCNME

SOFT

EYI

1 9.~.1

1 3.42E*2

1 SEMI-CHEMICAL

SOFF

VENl

1 2.57E-3

1 4.6SWS

PULP

1 SEMI-CNEMICAL

SOFT

VENT

1 1.3rwo

1 Z.PlL*l

STUEM

I
(

PULP

/ SCM:-CWEIICAL

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PULP

1 SEMI-CHEMICAL

SOFI

1
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PULP

( SEMI-CHEIWAL
1

1
1

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1
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1
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1 WI-EF

I
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1
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176 1 IdASHERS, KNOIIER VENI

1 7.26E-3

200

1 DICESIERS,

RELIEF GASES

1 l.PaE-E-L I l.lllEE-2 I

PlO

202

1 DISESIERS.

lLOU CASES

1 IADE-4

1 I.OOE-2

1 4:Ow5

llW

213

1 DIGESIEIS.

217

1 NAK

PlD

229

CWDENSAlES

BLACK LIOUX

1 VASMERS,

SIXACE

TANK vEnl

FM44 IANK VENI

1 3.11E.Z

1 ;.;g::

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i i.COEiO

i P.XE*i

1 ;.y
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1 ;.;fi
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+
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1 6.91E-5

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1 Z.ooE-4

1 Lax-4

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1 2:0&3

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1 LAZE-3

I C.TZE-3

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1 7.91E-3

1 L.lSE-3

1 WU-COOE

1 EP-COOE

1 WICE

1 PCP-EF

1 ACROLEINEF

1 PROPAL-EF

1 IOLLWX-EF

1 WWANEEF

1 WNIJF

1 TtDF-EF

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176 1 UASNERS,

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200

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I
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217

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VENI

FW

CDNDENSATES

BLACK LIWDII

229 1 MASUERS,

KNOWER

S~OIACE

TANK VENT

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1
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1
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1
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1

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1 MCHCLYF

1 lCP245EF

1
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1 CAMDIS-EF

I NEKANE-EF

1 IOWAPET

1 IOIWCEF

1 IRS-Ef

1
I

4.33~~4

1.36~~4

2.41-l

1.79E-3

1.41E-5

0.4OE-3

5,DOE-6

6.DOE-5

5.DOE-6

3.WE-3

5.DOE-5

4.OOE-6

4.o(y-3

J.DDE-4

1.34-4

7.4w-4

i CNCLlJF

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1 3.OOE-4

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1
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1
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1 2.ODE-3

1
1 WAL~STAIUS

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1 SEMI-CHENICAL

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PULP

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Itodd PlO - Emissim


I
1
1 I(PU-CQ)L 1 EP-CoDE

I
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I
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1 2.25E-2

1 5.3WO

1 2.57f-1

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I 2.49E-1

I l.uE-1

1 5.3&E-2

I 3.5&T-1

1 3.3W-l

1 3.07E-1

1 9.55E-1

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169

:
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CnlPs

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171 3

II

TO BTORAGE
OR BLEACHING

i
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g-1 ---____-jGI

1M

t:O
I .'

197

TO CHEMICAL RECOVERY

i
;

199

Figure Pl 1. Pulping Identification - Kraft, HWD, Continuous,


Improved Washing, Oxygen Delignification

n&l
--.--1
EP-CCDE 1 SOURCE
--.-.+.-.--.

INU-CQ)E
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Pll

___

._
CASES

) PRLI_lIPE

.-._

1.

PULP-lIP

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YMO-IVP

., _. .

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1 VFLO-fAC

1 SFLO-fAC

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VENI

156 1 DIGESIERS,

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Pll

169 1 DIPSICRS,

RlW

CASES

PULP

KRAf I

HARD

Pll

171 1 D!CESlERS.

RLW

CWDENSAlES

P+-.p
PULP

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KRAI I

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KRAE I

WRD

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f
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KRAF I

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1 2.7(Y-3

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175 1 KNOIIERS.

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111 1 UASRERS.

SCREENS 011 DECKER

Pll

184 1 UASHERS,

FDAH IANK

Pll

165 1 EVAFORAIOIS, VENI

Pll

167 1 EVAPORAICUIS. CONDtNSAIES

PI1

169 1 EVAPWAIDRS.

NDID WE1
VENI

VENI

SURFACE CDUD.

CONDENSAIES

VENI
VEWI

1 I.aDE-1

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1 2.74E-2

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1 IdASUERS, noa, VENI

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197 1 UEAK SLACK LIOUOI) SlURAGE

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232

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156 1 DICESIEIS,

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IbV 1 DICESIERS,

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175 1 KNOllERS,

CASES

BLDU CWDENSAIES
HtXO VENI

i6((E-I

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1 9:wE.z

1 2.9DE-3

1 5.9OE-1

1 5.06E.3

I 2.07E.2

1 5.12E.4

1 2.23E.3

1 J.&x-2

1 l.bAE.1

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161 1 IdASHERS. SCREENS OR DECKER

164 1 UASRERS,

I
1

Pll

185 1 EVAFtMAlLUlS, VENI

1 2.DOE.C

1 2.ODE.2

Pll

167 1 EVAPDRAIUS,

1 l.DDE.2

1 3.DDE*D

Pl

16V 1 EVAPOttAlDRS, SlSfACE

1 2.5OE.J

1 6.15E.l

1 4.72E-3

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VEYl

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CDND. CONDEYSAIES

01

Pll

I
I

1 I
WI

p11
PI1

IV7 1 MEAK ILACK LItlUDR SlOIACE

001

Pll

232

191 1 ONVCEN DELlCRlflCAllDY

RlW

193 1 DXtCEN

MASHER

DELIGNIfICAlIO(

1 UASNERS,
,

IANK
VENI

IANK VLNl

NOUJ VtNl
_.--

I ClEl-EF

---yzz
I

1 2.2DE.2

1 i.m-3

1 8.04E.3

1 l.lSE-3

1 5.5DE.4

1 l.llE.4

1 7.27E-3

1 3.26E-3

1 &IDE-4

1 4.DDE-5

1 3.ODE-2

1 5.ODE-3

1 b.poL-3

1 I.ZDE-3

1 7.VlE-3

1 4.13E-3

I 7.3DE-2

1 7.61X-2

1 &2DE-2

1 s.DOE-4

1 l.DOE.l

1 l.DDE.3

1 2.aDE-2
1 1.5DE.3
1.--I--

1 Z.DOE-4

I
N

I
!

N
N

I
f

3.53Et2

3.82E+2

N
I
N
I
.L - --.I

2.99EtC

L
I
I
I

1 CL2-ET

1 HECL-Ef

1 I.V7E-2

I
I

I PHENL_Lf

1 MCRCL3Ef

1 tCP245Ef

I
I
I -----L-IL

----I

---r--T-7

.I
I

I
I

Z.o(y.3

I l.ODR-5
I

I
-lp--T----lv
1 CWCLJ-Ef I L~BEN2~Ef

---I---:

-7-Y

1 5:OOe4

I
i

2.!Etl

I S.LTE*Z I
-L -.-.I __-..

1.46E*J

7.17E+2

HAL_SlAIUS

I
t

1 4.2DE*O

SHIP-CON

S.%E*Z
4.1X*3

-A.--..

NCL-EF

1 7LME-3

2.06E*3

I
I
I
I
I

Factor Swry

1 )(LK-Ef

1 l&E-3

C1l

#Lu

VEYl

T------1 ACEI-Ef

/.
I c.wE+o

SIREAM

HARD
NARD

ND,, IANK
UASHER

I
I
i 6.9OE.! I

SIREAH

HARD

191 1 OXltZN DELIWl~lCAIItU


193 1 OXlCEN DELlGNlflCAIlDY

VENI

I.2.6DE.2

YEN1
SiREAN

I
1 2&E-2

Pll
Pll

KRAf 1

Pll

L-I

. : ..--_

1 ENCLOSlHlE ) SCURCE-IIP

Itodd Pll - Emission

1
1

oh/ 12193

Strcsl, Chersctcrtctics
.

I
I
L 1-L--.1

I
I
I

I
I

---I-

--

lk&l

Pll

Eaissim

MI lZr(93

factor Suury

Z.loc-2

[
I
I
II

I 3.D4E*O
I 6.2%-1

I
I

mm?I1

156 i DICESILIS.

RELlEf SUES

PI1

169 1 DIcEsILaS.

uw

CASES

Pll

171 1 DICESIERS.

Pll

175 1 WIlEIS,

PI1

lb1 1 UWERS,

Pll

104 1 UASIIEIS, F4MlANK

?I1

lb5 1 EVAFtUAIDRS,

VEYI

?ll

117 1 EVARlRA101S,

CQlOtYSAlES

Pll

109 1 EVAPORAICNS,

SUMACE

?ll

191 1 DWGEN

?I1

191 I DKIGEW kllcVlrrullDll

PI1

197 1 YAK

Pll

a2

UDM
IWO

CDWEKSAIES
VENI

SClEElS 01 DECKER
VENI

SLACK LlQn
Koa

VEMI

8.13E-4

6.44E-5

l.CZE-3

l&E-4

I
;

5.59E-4

i
1

6.ooE-3

2.55E-5

2.111-5

DEllCNlFltill~M

1 YLSYIS.

VEYI

I
I

CM.CaOEYUIES
SLCU IANK
YLSll

SIDSACE

I
I

I
1

5.Ow-4

l.lllE-4

1.5(w-4

z.DDE-3
1.63E-4

7.4oL.4

l.Dw-2

VEUI

IAUK VEYI

4.olK-0
l.DOE-3

l.Olx-5

I.OOE-7

I
I
I
LI

i
I

i
I1
I I.oa-3

1.24E-5

IOIWAPE~
---

1 9.t.M.2

5.45E-tl

1 5.44E-5

5.24E.5

1 2.021.1

l.rn-2

2.43E-1

Z.WE-2

2.6lE*O
2.42E.O

1 2.37EtO

l.ZOE*D

I LW-1

8.14E.l

9.0&-5

5.6lE-1

1 2.W.1

5.39E+O

1 3.54ErD

3.22EtO

I 5.25E-1

7.14.1

I Z&E-l

1.42E-1

I. 4.x&-1

l.SlE-1

/
I

b.ZlE-1

5.1lN.2

l.OlE-l

4.2OE-3

I
1 IaS-Ef
1
1
1 Z.ME*O

IOlWCEf

j
I
I
I

i
I
I
I

l.IIE-1

2.3dE~+D

I Z.llE+O
1

I
I
J

?
:o458
1 TuRPENT~N:REC~VERYJ------

@J

I
I

176

WOOD
CHIPS

-&-

&

COOKING
LlQuoR

:
w

192

n
IMFWDVED

\
I

1
,

233

,O

182

OXWEN

,-A$

DImQNlFlcAm

WASlWl

BLOW
TAM

TO STORAGE
OR BLEACHING

172

I
I
I

w-e-

LEOENO
Pr-OhmI
-__-----__-

vmm-

------

-*m

I
J

190

Figure P12. Pulping Identification - Kraft, SWD, Continuous,


Improved Washing, Oxygen Delignification

,--;
:

WU-CcKtE
--.-.,.

) Et'-CCDE
_

Pl2

156

Pl2

160

YIL

161

Pl2

170

Pl2

1
I

172

P12

176

Pl2

162

P12

163

PI2

166

PI2

166

Pl2

190

Pl2
Pl2

I PI2
I Pl2
L.--

IV2

I
1

194

198

233

i
Pl2
I

Cl2
PI2

1
1
CII

I
w
P

PI2
Pl2

SCUACE
A-.__~.-.

'

YCG SVSIEM, CONI. IUFlPEYlIHf COHDEYSLR

PULP

KItA1I

IALL 011 ttECOVER1, CLWllYUWS

PULP

KRAFI

PULP

KttAfl

DItXSlEflS. BLCU WStS

WLP

KltAfl

DItXSlERS.

PULP

KftAFI

PULP

YCG SVSISR.

KNOIIEPS,

IUAPEYIIYE
CWDEYSAIfS

ItOtTJVtltl

166
166

PI2

190

PI2

192

PI2

194

I
I

Pl2

196

Cl2

233

SOfl

Mfl

KltAfl
KItAil

VEYl

6.9OE-5

VEYI

VEYI

P.ooE-1

VENl

l.ME~l

2.7OE*3

KltAFl

2:

VEYI

KAAF 1

SOFl

SlREUl

PULP

KAAFI

SOfl

SIREAM

PULP

KRAFI

SOFI

YEN1

PULP

KRAfl

PULP

KttAfl

ii::

WlP

KAAfl

sofl

I(ooD VEYl
--

Todd
1 ACEI-Ef
-___

-- ----

I
I
I
I
I
LI

fwtor

DICESlEW.
KYOIIERS.

WSttEKS.

CCMtllNUOUS VEYl
CONDEYSAIES

1 4.ooc3

SLOU CASES

1 1.6o.E.4

CMEYSAIES

I 4.JM-3

MLbXt VENI

EVAPDAAIOIS,

1 7.35E-4

IAYK VEYI

1 l.loE-2

YEN1

1 ?.ooE-6

EVAf'WlAIWtS. COIBDENSAIES

EVIpoIAloIS.'WfAcE

1 3.9oE-3

$lW.

CONDEYSAIES

l.fJDE.1

7.17E12

2.74E-3

6.26X*3

VEYI

2.74E-2
--

I
1.0604 j
I

l.Z7E*3

N
II

It.ZlE*l

2.19E*l

Y
y
Y

I
I
I
I

VEYI

I FOftIt~Ef1 NCL-Ef
1
1

3.2OE-3

I1

I.OOE-1

1Z.OOE-4 1
I z.OOE-3 I

16.ooC-5 1

J.OM-3
3.46E.l

I
I

1 l.DDE-4
1 1.4OE-2

1 1.7oE-7
1 4.4DE-4

1
1

1 6.9lE-4

i I.OM-6 i

I
I

/
1

I
I
I

_---

--I-11
1-----y.---1 tttCL_Ef I CttCl3-Ef 1 L-UYZ-Ef
1 PttEYl-Ef 1 NWCL3Ef
.----_
-:---.---t--..-.
-y---y

I
I

I 5.47Er2
A.
A-

----t---

I CLZJF
I
I

16.67E-5 1

1.76E6L-1 I

1 7.DDE-3

I 2.DDE*3

1.4OE.3
1.5oE-1

1 6.DOE.6
I
7.7DEm3

1 3.m-5
I.o(y-3

1 1.77E-3

1 I.ZOE-3

I
/

1 Z.DDE-4

1 6.2oE-2

5.97E-2

4.ODE.Z

1 l.DOE.4

1 z.oDE-3

Z.&x-2

1 Z.OOE-4

I'

1 l.OoE-5

Vtttl

) 7.3OE.2

IAYK VEYl

1 l.ODE-2
1 l.SDE-3

--------A

1 2.206-4

7.6OE-2

1 l.00E.3

UASWER

VENl

1 3.21E-3

5.OOE.2

BLOU IANK

DIIlWlfICAlIQ1

SIOAASE

3.34E-3

J.llE.2

DELIWIfICAlIoY

naD

l.OJE*3

VEYI

3.0&-2

OKVGEY

UASWERS.

f
I

1 9.75E-4

OKVCEY

"EAK SLACK LlWO"

3.45E+2

SrurV

1 PCOO-EF
1
I

1
I

I
I
I
I

1 lCP245Ef
j ---1

I
I

1 7.26E-3

DECKERS/SCltEEYS

UASttERS, FOW

1 4.2OEeO

1 ttEK_Ef
1

SVSIElt. CONI. lllAPEY1INE CONDENSER ;

5.6OEe2

2.6OfT.2

1 ClEI-EF

ItEON-Ef
-+-

2.6lEtO

f.42E+Z

1 KAL_SIAIUS
I

1 4.9OE*o

P12 . Emifcim

SDWCE

1 6.90E-'l
I

SHAP.COV

I
I

7.lt.E*1

9.oDE-1

PULP

/I WSYERS,
L

2.6oE-2

VEYI

WIP

I 11.26Et2

I-

j i.ice-I

SlItCAM

VEYI

IAYK YEN1

I l.lOE-1

COWEYSAIES

SIORAGE

----

VFLO-FAC 1 SFLO-FAC I VHAP-CON


. ...-- -+ _
.- ..I..

SIltEAJt

-.

2.6OE-3

EVAPIXAILWS.

UEAK SLACK LIPUY

VEYI

EVAPOAAIUtS,

DICESIEKS.

Cl2

KttAfI

170

Pl2

j
1

YCG SVSIElt. IWPEYIIYE

162

PULP

161

183

sofl

i MFI i

PULP

IALL 011 RECDVERV.

P12

FOAM IAYK VEYI

WC

PI2

SOFI

SOFI

DECKEIWSCRttNS

160

176

Stream Cheroctertrtics
..._7 .. .._...._
-T- -----1 uxx)_lVP I ENCLOSURE ) SOURCE-IIP
-_-_-+.- _+-.
---I

SOFI

UASWERS,

06112193

PlZ
, . .

I
1

NASWERS,

150

172

VtYl

CCUDEM~AIES

I EVA~ORAIOAS, ~u~~A~E.~oND. CONOEYSAIES


I 1DKVCfY DELIGYlflCAllCU BLW IAYK
I DKVGEY DELlGYlflCAlltM UASltEttVfltl

i
+- it
I I

I
1 IWLJ-CQ)EEP-CODE

w&l

I
1
I
1
I
1
I

I
I

I-

I
I

--r---r------T
I
I
i
I
I
I
I
1
I
/
1

)lodel P12 - fmissim

WV-caa

1 tqccor

I
1 SOICE
/

,,,

---.-

1%

net SISlfl, Call. 1UIPfYflYf

PlZ

140

IALl OIL KECovfKv,

PI2

161

NCG sISIflf, IuKPEYIIKf

112

170

DltESIEAS,

BLW

PI2

172

PIGfslEnS,

clmfYSAlfs

P12

176

Kno11f10,

P12

182

UASlbfKS. DECKERL/SCIEfYS

P12

103

WMRS,

Pl2

186

EVAPLWAIOIS,

VfYl

P12

1M

EVUQAIOIS,

CCWEYSAIES

112

190

fVWOMlCM,

SINfACt CpO.

P12

192

WWifti ~f~~w(iflCA~lo*

KLW
WSKfR

KOB
FOM

callIwalS

CoKoE*SfR
VEYI

CoKOfYSAlES

GASES

194

wwifu

1W

YAK

Pl2

I
1

233

YISNERS. YQlp VEYI

DELlWlflCAllOl
OLACK LlaJm

SloKAcf

CaOEYSAlES
l&K
VfYl

1AnK #II

PIOPAL -E f

lCUJfNf_ff

$.wf-7

1 CMUdfff
I

1 ItDO-ff
1
I

1 ICDf-Ef
1

1 ACEIC4WYEf

1 CAAWIS-Ef

1 MKAYE~Ef
-----+----

1 IOIKAPEF

101wJcEf

1 b.O(f-3

4.11t*o

I
+---T--i

I
I

z.zof-4

z.mlf-6

tk.oot r

l.Mc.5

Z.ZOf-3

l.olx-7

4.33f-4

1.3&E-4

2.43f-1

3.SbE-5

1.24E-5

l.OZE-3

I
1

7.oof-5

b.Wf-4

4.olx-4

3.ou

Z.OOf-3

I
1

2.002-3

l.o(y-2

z.KJf-5

b.OOf~b

4.oof-fJ

s.oof-7

I
I

I
1

1 3.721.-l
3.2of-5
3.o(y-1

1 L.?5f-3
5.7%.1

1 1.7sE.3
I 1.71E.1

1 S.OZE-2

I
I

1 3.9lE-2

1 z.azc-2
Z.LY-1
1 4.27f-2

1
1

Ml

/
I
I
I
I
I

h.Iaf-1

12/93

I xj
I
I
I

4.91ElO

z.ML*o

l.O2f-1

I.llf-2

2.37f*O

Imf-1

z.zaf-1

I
1

3.ut*a

5.2Sf-1

Z&E-1

2.61f*o
Z.Yf-2

1 l.mf-1

I
/

G.&f-!

1 3.5of-3

6.oof-4

s.mf-3

I
I

I
2.W.3

,iI
I S.OSf.! /

1ANK VEYI

ll2

VfYl

Cl2

I PEP-ff
1 ACmxEIYf
+~-.-.--~----

factor SuirV

1.62t*o

3.07f+o

5.42E.l
l.lof-1

1.41-l

(.I&-1

6.87f-2
2.3&*0

I
II z.llf*O

I
4

Cl

ES0
rg
sag

-+@-I+

z,3=

----i

4
J

0
193

I
I
I
I

?
W
w

WEAK

I
I

0
197

I---

BLACK

UQUOR

r-l

STORAGE
TANK
I
I
..
I

;O
185

Figure P13. Pulping Identification - Kraft, HWD, Batch,


Improved Washing, Oxygen Delignification

TO CHEMICAL RECOVERY

bdel

1
1

__-.,--_
Pl3
PI3

+
1

- _...

+ ____.

._

-.

163
155 1 OlCfSIEllS.
DlCfSlERS, RLW
RELIEFCWDENSAIES
GASES

P13

165 1 DICfSIERS.

P13

175 1 KYOIIERS,

PlJ

181 1 U4SWEllS, DfCKfRS/SCREENS

P13

P13

P13

I
I
I
I

PI3
I

I
I
I

184 1 UASYERS,

CASES

foI)( IANK VENI


VENI

107 1 EVAPORAIOIS.

CONDENSAIES

119 1 EVAPORAIORS.

SURfACE

P13

191

1 OXltfl

DELlGNlflCAllW

RLW

P13

I
I

193

1 OKWfY

DfLIGYIfICAIIW

UASIIER VENI

I
1

232

PI3
PI3

197 1 *AK

I fP~coDf

PI3

I
I
I

155

P13

163

P13

175
165

Pl3
P13
PI3

1
I

184
161
165

P13

lB7

PI3

169

P13

191

P13

193

Pl3

I97

Pl3

RLACK LIWOR

1 MASHERS,
1

232

i
t
I
I
1
t
I
LI

I
f

COND. CWDENSAIES

SIORAGE

IANK

IANK VEYl

WOOD VENI

----.

RlW

HOC0 VEYI

165 1 EVAPORAIOIS,

I----j *RI-ClDE

I
I
I

I
I PR"C-I'IPE ;
I
I PULP I

I
.L

-__

-____

~--

---_--

08112191

HARD

VEYI
SIREW

KRAFI

HARD

PULP

11111

HARD

PULP

KRAFI

IlARD

VENI

i 9.oof.l

PULP

KRAFI

HARD

VEYI

1 o.oof-1

PULP

KRAFI

IiARD

VENI

1 1.8of-1

PULP

KRAFI

HARD

VENI

1 2.7OE.3

PULP

KRAfl

HARO

SIREAN

PULP

KRAfl

HARD

SlREAm

PULP

KRAFI

HARD

PULP

KRAfl

IlARD

PULP

KRAFI

IlARD

PULP

KRAfl

IlARD

1
1

L
)l&l P13
__-

- Emission
I mfr-if
1

I ACEI-if

I mfon-if

I clfi-if

1 6.40E.S

1 J.ZOE-3

I
I

futor
I
I Cum-if
I
I

N
"

Sury
I
I foam-if
I
I
1 3.09E.5

I
I ncL_if
1

1 5.06E-3

1 2.07E-2

I l.lSE-3

I
I

UISNfRS.

DfCKfRS/SCREENS

1 5.12E.b

1 2.23E.3

1 s.soE-4

I l.llE-4

UASNERS,

FMJt IAYK VEYI

1 3.8OE-2

1 l.Mt-1

1 I.Zk-3

3.26E.3

WSIIER

WSNfRS.

MC0

YEN1

VENI

IAIIK VEHI

1 2.OOE.b

c.ooE-5

I 3.wf+o

1 3.OOE-2

S.olkz-3

I 2.5Of-3

I 6.15E-1

1 6.9(y-3

5.2=-3

1 7.91f-3

1 4-m-3

1 5.OQ.b

1 l.oof-1

1 l.oof-3

I Z.Kof~Z

1 2.003-4

1 l.Sof-3

:::::

B.Zof-2

5.97E-2

1 Z.ooE-3

1 l.clw-5

I
I cLZ_ff
I

I
I mfcL_ff
t-t

I
I wtcL3Ef

1
I cnm/I_,rwl_tr

PIIEYL~EF

I
I lCP245ff

I
I

'1

1 l.Oaf-2

1 7.3OE-2

1
1

SI(YAGf

I
)

2.99E*4
1 S.b7i+2
4

3.466-b

DEklGUlflCAIIOY

Y
N

1 2.74E-2
1

DKWfK

t
1

VEYl

UfAK BLACK LlQll

1 1.46Et3
1 3.53it2

1 2:41i-3

CCWEYSAlEE

1
I

RLCU IANK

1 2.74f-3

I b.ZlE-3

SIMFACE CCW.

5.96Et2
1 4.1x*3

VENI

1 l.IZf-3

DfLlClllflCAllW

.LtN GASES

EVAPOlAlaS.

2.03i*o

OICfSlfRS,

OKWfY

5.67f*l

I.SU-4

f
1

1 7.17E+2

1 y.2::

Z.OOE-2

1 3.IIzi+z

VfYI

1 2.606-z

I S.poC-1

EVAJWRAIOIS,

1 9.96E*2

1 l.aof-1

1 1.2Of.3

fVAPORAla(lS. CONOENSAIES

4.9oEto
4.2oi*o

VENI

RLOU CQOENSAIES

B.obE-3

1 SHAP_CO)( / HAL-SIAIIIS 1
I)

VEYI

DICfSlfRS.

VEYI

VHAP-C&
..-.
6.69~+2
4.18E+l

VENI

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Figure P14. Pulping Identification,- Kraft, SWD, Batch,


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1:5.42E.l
I 3.97Eeo
I 2.61E*O

5.93E-4

1;1.79E.l

3.91E-2

5.02E-2

I
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Figure PI5 Pulping Identification- Sulfite, HWD,


Improved Washing, Oxygen Delignification

TO CHEMd

RECOVERY

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212
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Figure P16. Pulping Identification - Sulfite, SWD,


Improved Washing, Oxygen Delignification

I
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MC&I
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200
202
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.__t-

SOMCE

176

-,.-

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.---w

.-.

PULP-IIP

flakI P16
I
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Stream Characteristics

-._

SIGRAGE

IAYK VEYI
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VERl

WDOD VEtfl
..__...
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1 7.3OE-2

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1M
190
200
202

?lb

204

PI6

211

Plb

213

c:

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163

217
;

219

?lb

221

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231

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____...~.
tKcD #YI
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WI1
CWDLYSAICS

EVAPluAlCaS,

SInfACE CM.

1 DlcESltR,

I
I
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CowEYSAlES

RELIEf GASES

DICCSIEIS,

EVAPOKAIOIS.

EVAWIAIOIS.

ElfEEl EVAP. VEYI

MASlIER, DECKER VEIlI

DIcESlERS,

DLL-U CMEYSAltS

LEAK DLACK

Lloull SIORACE

IWK

VEIN

OKVCEN DELICNlflCAfIO*

DLCU IAIM

OKIGEN DELIUIfICAIIW

~SNER

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t:O
165

IMPROVED

BATCH
DIGESTER

;BLow
TANK

I,
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WASHER

SCREENS
M

OR
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1

103

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Figure P17. Pulping Identification - Kraft, HWD, Batch, Improved Washing

TO
STORAGE
OR
BLEACHING

;
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c-46

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4

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180

Figure P18. Pulping Identification - Kraft, SWD, Batch, Irnproied Washing

; WI-Cf8lE

i tP_UUE

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---.-.---_

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Pl1

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turp"tln

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i ~PROC~1IPE

condenser

t
1

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vent

PULP

bath

turpentine

--_

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condensates

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blow cmdmrAtcr

PULP

166 I DiRRrtRrr.

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PULP

176

182 1 UUNERS,

DECKERSISCREENS

113 1 UArhwA.

for

:::

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"em

PULP

1M

comknsetcs

PULP

surface cad.

PULP

I pm I
1 ::: I
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PI8

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1 Knottws.

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233

PULP

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condmrarrs

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PM

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lll

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1 ENCLOSURE

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2&E-2

1 2.3MYd
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1 Z.b4E-1

I
1
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1 Z.llE+O
1

APPENDIX C.2
BLEACHING MODEL PROCESS UNITS
This appendix presents emission points, emission factors,
and vent and wastewater stream characteristics for each of the
.
12 bleaching model process units (MPU's) presented in
Chapter 4.0. The MPUIs are defined based on wood.type,
bleaching sequence, and percent chlorine dioxide substitution
level (see following summary table). The following figures
(Bl-B12) represent the emission points associated with each model process. Tables following each figure identify the
emission points within the model and the associated emission
factors and process vent and wastewater stream characteristics
of each emission point in the MPU. These characteristics
include:
l
Flow rate factor; and
a
Hazardous air pollutant concentration.
The assumptions and derivation of the emission factors
are presented in Appendix B.
The following example presents how a model process unit
would be assigned (or "mapped@@)to the bleaching process at a
pulp mill. Assume the same mill in Appendix C.l has two
bleaching lines, one dedicated to bleaching hardwood
(1000 tons per day), the other bleaching softwood (1000 tons
per day). The hardwood line uses a CdEHD process with 30%
chlorine-dioxide substitution. Because hypochlorite use has
been determined to result in increased chloroform generation,
the existence of a hypochlorite stage was designated a higher
criterion in model assignment than chlorine dioxide

c-50

substitution. Therefore, using the bleaching model summary


table as a guide, the Bl model process unit representing
hardwood pulp and hypochlorite use is assigned.
The second bleaching line utilizes a OCdEDDED with 60%
chlorine dioxide substitution. First, since the oxygen
delignification stage was assigned as part of the Kraft
softwood continuous model (P12) in Appendix C.l, the 0 stage
is not a factor in the model assignment. Second, the modei
process units represent the emissions from a process line, so
inexact matches are possible; however, the models incorporate
the'elements that most significantly influence emissions.
Therefore, using the summary table as a guide, this sequence
would be assigned the softwod CdEDED (High) model (B8).
Definition of terms and references are presented in
Appendix C.3.
The emissions from either process may then be estimated .
using the appropriate figures and tables. For example, the
chloroform emissions from the hardwood hypochlorite washer
would be estimated using the following steps:
1.
Identify emission point code (EP-CODE): for model
Bl, the hypochlorite stage washer is 151;
2.
Identify the associated emission point emission
factor (VompoundW-EF): for chloroform (CHCL3_EP),
the factor is 0.04 kg/Mg pulp;
3.
Multiply factor by process line capacity:
0.04 kg chloroform x 1000 Ton pulp x
1 Mg = 36.4 kg chloroform
Mg Pulp
l.lTon
Day
Day
4.

Convert to annual emissions, assuming mill operates


350 days per year:

36.4 kg chloroform x 350


Day

Day

Year

c-51

= 12,700 kg chloroform
Year

SUMMARY TABLE OF BLEACHING MODEL PROCESS UNITS


Model process
unit

Bleaching sequence
(% Cl02 substitution)a

Wood type

B-l
B-2
B-3
B-4
B-5
B-6
B-7
B-8
B-9
B-10
B-11
B-12

CEHD (0%)
CEHD (0%)
CEDED (0%)
CEDED (0%)
CdEDED (10w)~
CdEDED (10~)~
CdEDED (high)c
CdEDED (high)c
CdEDED (100%)
CdEDED (100%)
O-Ed
O-Ed

Hard
Soft
Hard
Soft
Hard
Soft
Hard
Soft
Hard
Soft
Hard
Soft

Key :

Cd

= Chlorine

.= Chlorine dioxide substituted for chlorine

D
= Chlorine dioxide
E
= Extraction
0
= Oxygen/Ozone
A low substitution range is 10 to 50 percent substitution.
Less than 10 percent is considered to have the same
emissions as 0 percent substitution.
A high substitution range is 50 to 90 percent substitution.
Greater than 90 percent is considered to have the same
emissions as 100 percent substitution.
An oxygen delignification precedes this sequence and is part
of the associated pulping model for the process.

c-52

I
$Ja
In*~~~~~~-~~
---------OaP
0
I
big.
'II Q

c:
.-0

02

I
I
I
4------*----I

3
.c
E

00G
5
8 ,--I
---.
I/
/
b
0 I/
g /I
a /I

ii!
.-z
r
8
32
m
.
-

in

@..------------.
@ ,---: jq
fll
@!j
Irr
y :I
:: II
:I
L
:
I

C-53

I
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, __--1 IW~COOE

.,.-- --1 LP-CODE

b----l----l "
I
1

I1
91
It!

7
!9
Cl

1
II ml
I

I
1

I
I

I1

I
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::
::

1
1
@1

,
1 WU-CCDE

I
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ll
81

B
1
t:

"pi

:;
1

t:

/
1

m'
81
Bl

91

95
93
117
11s

151
153

1
1 EP-CODE

1
I
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1
I
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SOMCE

---

-------

3
1

::
71
73
91

PROC-IVPL
.- --__._

_.-_._

glcxhmg,

Cl02 sUbst. (0%) twe

Blcgching,

C-stage

wld

vcnl

Seder

B!etcki!39. !I-sttgc K!.5-2L)

tltler be??

I BIgAching.
I Blmching.
I BIgAching.

Cl02 s&t.

glcwhing.

El-stage

Blegching.

El-stage

1lggFhinp.

El-skggc

(OX1 reel tmk

Blerching.

Dl~stbge

(OX1 tower vent

llmchmg.

Dl~sCb9e'tOXl

glcuhing,

Dl~stgg*

Ilmching.

Y-stage tO.S-2X1

ugshcr

Y-stegg (0.5-2X1

rogl tmk

73

71

119

I
I

r!II

..

I BIgAching,
L

(0%) cAusttc

9LEACll

IlARD

gLEACH

l4ARD

BLEAC)!

WAR0

BLEACII

IIAPD

masher vent

glEACll

IlARD

sc~l tank vent

glEACH

IlARD

(OX) tower vent

IJLEACII

MAR0

IOX1 wgshcr

gLfACY

HARD

IILEACY

HAAD

llEACY

Ml0

gLfACY

IlARD

rwher

Vent

vent

(Of1 seal tbnh vent


vent
vent

SCUbCE
Bleaching.

Cl02 tit.

Ilmching.

c-stage actd *cur

(OX1 tcww

glggching,

Y-stew

Blgwhing.

Cl02 s-t.

glgwhing.

C-stage usher

glgxhing,

C-sfgge

gleuhing.

El-stage

(0.5-211

rent

towr

vent

(OX1 cwstIc

swcr

vent

sggl tn(: vent


(OX1 t-r

vent

93

gleuhing.

El-stew

tOI1 wshgr

glguhing,

El-stage

(OX) seaI tmk

vmt
vmt

115

Ileeching.

Dl-stage

(OX) t-r

117

Blmching,

Dl-stwe

(OX1 wsher

Blwching,

Dl.ruge

(0%) seaI tmk

glggching,

tl-stage IO.S-2X1

mmshcr

glwching,

Y-stggg

le1

(0.5.2X1

vmt
vent
wnf
rant

tank vent

@lEACW
BLEACII
ILEACY

i ACEI-Ef

i IYOU-Ef

-.

---7..------I

1 MO~IVP
I EYCLOSlJRE 1 SMKCE~IIP
1 _.__
._ 1 -.--.-.+-.--

C-stqe

vent

Stream Characteristics
Hodel 81
,.
_.__
--r---.-

C.stwc

9s

153
151
119

ECYC~

1.

VEYI

i VflO-fAC 1 SfLO-fAC
--+-.--+--2.4OE-2

SIREAH
1

VEY?

>.boE~Z

SIREAN

I
I
I

1 VHAP-COY

t-

1 l.wE*l

1 '.04E*l

1 3.b7E+2

1 9.obEto

3.62E-1

1 Z.SSE*Z

VEYI

1.4oE-2

1 3.29E+3

VEYl

z.ux-2

1 l.blE+Z

VEYI

3.&x-1

1 Z.C3E+l

VEYI

l.baE-2

I Z.ICE*Z

VEYI

ZAOE-2

1 l.Kw2

VEYI

3.bZE-1

1 2.07E+1

VEYI

l.CoE-2

I l.blE*Z

VEYI

J&E-l

1 b.OOE+l

VEYI

'.4OE-2

I
I

1 7.646+2
1 .

Itode Ill

- Emission

i CIEI-Ef

i MEK-Ef

i PCDI-Ef

ftNH~Ef

1 CLZ-Ef

1 MCL-Ef
t
I
I 3.3(Y-4

i 3.OOE-4

i 2.4IIE-4 1

1 2.51-2

i
l.ZQ-2

1 2.5bE-5

I.bbE-5

1 l.OIE-b

9.m.3

1 6.79E-2

l.ooE-1

1 z.o(y-2

1 '.95E-3

4.15E-1

1 3.OW.4

1 Z.bOE-3

1 l.LOE-5

3.llE-1

1 2.666-b

b.35E-b

I '.3lE-3

1 Z.ZPr-3

1 I.loE-3

1 3.OOE-2

r.OoE-3

1 2.1bE.2

S.ZSE-3

1 7.32E-5

z.obE-b

1 l.ooE-3

3.ooE-3

I 3.ooE-3

Z.Zlt-3

I l.b3EE-3 1

9.lM.Z

1 2.503-b

1 '.3bE-b
1

I
I

b.II-2

i Z.WE-2

1 7.1&T-4

1 I.OOE-2
6.34.3

I
1
v
I
v
I
1
I
I
-L----.----A

1 HCL-Ef

i 1.0E.l

I
I
I
1
I
LI

3&E-6

Z.loL-1

I
I Z.b9E-5

I
1 l.WE.2

M/12/93

---- 1
WAL~SIAIUS 1
--. .-

-I
I

factor S-ry

1 7.OM-2
1 '.32E-5

5llAP~coN
-_--

1.52Etl

VENI

1
-1.

I 1(
I I
I II

1 3.oaE-3
1 S.OZE-5
I J.OoE-3

Z.loE-1

1 b.ba-1

! 5.32E-3
1 3.ooE-3

1 L.lR-5
1 3.sbE-3

s.ou-s

1 4.oOE-b

1 3.ooE-3

1 I.oaE-3

3.4bE-5

1 3.07E-4

1 7.blE-5

1 4.5bE-b

9.2lE-4

l.olK-2

I b.3m.3

l.ZoE-2

l.OOE-2

1 b.QoE-3

8.3OE-3
l.mx-3

1
1 I.%-3

/ Z.SbE-4
1 l,oOE-2

1 5.UE-4

b.PZE-b

I '.2OE-3
1

1 Z.%E-4
I

1 6.31.4
I

I 7.ooE-3

-_
T
:
I
I
I
I

CNCL3-El
--

I
I

L-ILYZ-ff
-.

1 PHEYL-Ef

1 WlICLlff

1 ICPZb5Ef

1-+---t-----l

1.13t~2

5.29E.3

I 3.mlE-4

I
I

c.Ooe2
l.LZE.3
l.lY-2

r.zbE-1

; :-z:::

1 C:lzE-b

7.93E-3
7.93E-3

I
I
I
.L

5.11-4
1.58E-2

P.wE-4

1.5&-2

b.ooE-2

Z.WE-3
-.

1 wl-cac

1 EC-KQE
I
I

I
1 SOURCE
1
I

7
3

1 Dluchiw,
Iluchill#,

19

mi

ii

91

1 Il~whin#.

El-stm

(OX) t-r

93

1 Ilmchiw.

El-tw

(OX) wshw

95

1 Blmchlno,

El-t@p

(OX) real tu*

t
I

I
i

t:

Bl

I
1 PCP-Ef
I

I
1 ACROLEIYEF
I
1

C-atCl02 &I. acid (OX)


s-r lorcl vent

1 1.751-3

t:z::

1.&-Z

1 BIuchln&

Y-rta@e

2.39E-5

a.nE-5

Z.IOE-4

41

1 Ilwchln&

Cl02 Unt.

I
I

l.otx-3

l.Zlx-3

2.04.6

71

1 ~l*achlll&

C-sKage

uahw

1 Ilrchl~,

C-at-

real tank wnt

(0.5-2X) toyr

vent

(OX) cutic

sewer

vent

t:

115 I Ilnchllla,

ol-lta#a

ml)

tsar

vat

117 1 DImchIn&

Dl-ta#a

(of' wehw

-t

::

110 I Wachlna,

Dl-aca@

(OX, momI tnlr vmt

151 I Blaachin#,

II-ta@a (0.5-2x, u*r

I
I

153

1 Ilmchllu,
1

Y-ata@.

?.aoE(y-3
4mE2E-3

1 l.nE-c

S.lZE-5

5.OOE-3

z.ow-3

l.OOE-3

ImE-

l.Z4E-3

6.626-b

IAOE-4

4.42E-5

l&E-4

5.oQE-4

z.OoE-3

I
I

3.09E-4

1.32E-3

z.rQE-4

l.wc-3

z.IoE-4

1
1

1
1

1.m-A

6.62E-b

&OlC-6

rht

1
"UN

(0.5-2x) real tmh

wnt

1OUlEttf~Ef

vmt
vent

PROPAL-Ef

CMEIYANEEF

1 KC+-Ef

:COf-EF

1 ACEIOPWEF

1 CMODI\

i
I
I
I
I
I
I

:f 1 YEXAUE~Ef

1 lOlW'E~

IOWOCEf

i ISS-Ef

/
I
I
I
I
I

1 1.2oE-1

1:9aE-1

1 &WE-Z

5.55E-2

I. l.llE-1

Z.OlE-1

I b.UE-1

4.39E-1

1 3.23E-1

3.2oc-1

1 2.37E-2

2.176-z

1 &17E-2

I.IlE-2

1 2.506-Z

4&E-2

1 3.11-z

l.?&-2

1 5.m-2

3.77E.2

1 1.59E-2

l.uc-2

1 1.53E-1

1.542-l

1 r.rn-2

7.5X-2

I
I

/
1

I
I

0
116

162

116

A
t'
t
I

,
1
I
,-----4-q--

-dI

E
STAGE
rOWEi

C
STAGE
OWER

I
I

0
I !
i

Q6

I
I

--.\AClD
.
-.

al0

-00

06

L
1

I
I
I
I
I

i
;

I
1

:
I

0
164

t
)

I
I
I

I CAUSTIC 42
I
I

n- 0

WASTEWATER
COLLECTION
& TREATMENT

Figure B2. Bleaching Identificatibn - CEHD SWD

D
STAGE
I-OWER

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

I
I
I
I

I
I
i

I
I

0
120

SEAL
1 TANK

n&l

-r---

I--

; WU~CODE
+------j

I
I
!

a2
82

i EP-COOE
_.~ __

4
8 t

B2

20

::

::

tf

96
Qb

82

116

::

120
111

I
I

152

SOHICE
___-.-._

154

-_
C-stage

tower "cm
acid sc~cr

Ileaching,

C.stagc

Bleachiw.

If-stage 10.5-2X)

nlcuhinp,

Cl02 r&sr.

Bleaching,

C-slap9 masher

touer "cm

(0%) caustic

SCYW

"cm

EP$XIE

l2

20

I2

42
72

::

14

2
2
u

92
94

12

116
'lb

w
12

I
I

@2
u

,I

I
I
fil
1
($I

Vb

120
152

154

BLEACtl

SOFI

ILEACH

SO11

ULEACH

So11

9lEACH

SOfl

BLEACH

Sofl

se&I tank "em

SIrcam Chwacrrrisrics

-T--._.SLUKE~IVP
..I-.
--

I
i

VEYl
SIREM
VEYl
SIREN

Ilcuhin9,

C-rte9c

9LEACfl

Sofl

VEYl

El-stage

(0%) tower vent

OLEACII

Snfl

VEYl

Bleaching,

El-slap"

(0%) rasher

OLEACH

SOfl

VEYl

Ileeching.

El-rtqpc

(OX) seaI tank vent

9LEACll

Sofl

VEYl

BLEACII

Soil

VElfl

9LEACll

Sofl

VEYl

9LEACfl

Sofl

WY1

OLEACY

Sofl

VEYl

ILEACH
L/

Sofl

I
1

vent

Ilrnch:ng,

Dl-stage

(OX) tower vent

Ileaching.

Ol~sla9c

(OX) uashcr

Bleaching.

Dl-sta9c

Blewhing,

Y-stA9e

Ileachinp,

ll~stmgc (0.5-2X)

"NM

tbXf real tank "em


(0.5-2x)

wrhrr

"WM.

seal tmk

"mt

WINCE
Cleachina,

I Ilmching.
Blwching,
I Blmching,
Bleaching.
I Blwching.
#lmchirq.
I Umching,
8leachln&
I Blaaching,
Ilwching,
I Ilmchin#.
Blwchiw.

filmchino,
LI

i
I
I
I
I
I

ACEl_Ef

C-s19tw

touw

C-star

lid

n-e-

(0.5.2X)

Cl02 m&t.

sewer

r.wIE-2

t-r

"mt

(OX) cvrtic

C-stage usher
C-stage

l.bAE.5

vent

sewer

"mt

seaI tub

b.?OE-2
5.0&-L

"mt

3.59E-4

El-a*

(OX) towc

El-sage

(OX) washer

El-stm9a

(OX) aeel tank vent

"mt

Z.ZQ-3

"mt

Dl-ste99

(OX) t-r

Dl-sla9e

(OX) uasher "MI

Dl-sta9e

l.oOE-3

l.OOE-2

"mt

(OX) sea1 KU*

Z.lbE-2
I.lZE-5
l.ooE.3

"mt

W-9~99

(0.5-2X)

wsfw

Y-9taw

(0.5-2X)

seal tenk "mt

7.I8E.b
l.W-4

"cat

I
L

1.2x-4

-1---TVflO-fAC
___
2.4rJE-2
Z.COE-2

VElfl

1 VlUP~COfl
.____
_
t
1 '.33E*l

1 l.O4E*l

1
! 5.19E+2
1

1 9.97Lll

'.4OE-2

1 l.OlE+Z

z.cOE-2

1 1.5&Z

3.62E-1

1 2.53E+l

l.COE-2

1 Z.ibE+Z

2.4OE-2

I 2.1bE+2

l.bZE-1

1 2.2bEtl

1.4oE-2

1 1.65E+2

l&E*1

1 b.ou*1

'.4oE-2

I
i

1 7.bOE*Z
1

. Emissld\
I

WOU-EF

1 ClEl-Ef
1

2.OffE.3

1 ftEK_EF
1
I
1 1:03E-4

1 PKII-ET
4
I
1

I.OOE-2

1 Z.IOE-2

4.voE-4

1 l.loc-3

SWAP-CON

Mi12/93
1~.---~ --.( HAL-SlAlUS

i
v-

-----!-l.lbE+l

I
I

'.53E+l

!
I

"
I

v
r
v
I

v
v

/
I
I
I
I

I
I
I
/
I
A

factor Suwry

l.OOE-1

1 z.aoE-2

l.OOE-2

1 l.ooE-3

2.25E.Z

1 5.4LE-4

4.eE-4

1 l.loE-3

7.OOE-3

1 l.OOE.2

5.25E-3

z.OaE-4

I l.lOE-4

l.onE-3

1 l.oLx-3

2.25E-3

1 l.b3E-3

9.1OE~Z

I 2.5oE-4

t..8#-2

1
1

1 1.3bE-4
I

1
I

l.bY-2

1 SfLO-fAC
..---t
1
!

IiI
i
I
I
I
I
LI

----__

1 9.obE+o

lto&l 02

i
I
I
I
/
I
I
I
L

T:f
i
I
I
I
I
LI

l.bZE-1

VW

Ileaching.

---__
/

UWD~lVP
.-.

1 PfWJC~lVPE
_ , -_.. _..--,

DIeaching,

I
I
1
I
I

ri
92

i
I

42
72

I&?

I--_ ---
) EYCLOSURE
.I.---_._.

1
I
I
I
I
I
I
LI

fLMft-Ef 1 ACL-Ef

,on-r
1:zoE.2

3.om-3

9.oix-3

4.ooE-4

2.77E-4

3.&E-6

1 2.696-5

5.ol&-5

1 I.ofx-4

3.a.5

1 3.07E-4

P.ZlE-4

l.ZoE-2

&3oE-3

l.wE-3

1 '.5bE-3

6.92E-4

1 l.ZOE-3
I

I
I

-7
CLZ-If
Z.lOE-1

1 IYCL-If
,
1
I l.IllE-4
1 3.CmE.l

l.OoE-2

Z.lOE-1

1 2.OOE.2
1 l.OOE-3
I I.oOE-4

5.32EE-3 1 4.5bE-5

I
I
I
I

l.ooE-3

1 3.58E-3

l.oaE-3

1 I.oM-3

7.blE-5

1 4.5bE-4

l.oOE-2

I 4.3OE-3

l.OOE-2

I b.olx-3

2.54E-4

I I.LTE-4

l.o(w-2

I 7.OoE-3

I 2.54E-4
-I.

I 6.38E.C
1

l
I
I
I
I
I
I
LI

CflCLl~EF
-l.OOE-2

5.OP-3
I.OOE-2

Z.lOE-3
l.o(y-2

6.42E-4

l.obE-2
l&E-2

b.mE-4

Z.OSE-2
2.05E-2
l.lZE-3

b.OOE-2
2.57E.l

I
I
I
t
I
/
II

L-BENZ-Ef

1
I PYEYL-Ef

I
I
1 ftCHCL3Ef 1 lCP245Ef

I
1

---+----i---

I I.

I l.ooE-4

I
1 l.OoE-4

I
I

1 l.lpc-6

1 l.wE-4

1 4.
'*E:::

I
I
I

I
I
I
; l.oOE-4
I

/
I

mdela2
-

-I-

iwu_coPc
I
-:
1 f
I
! :2
I ::
j !
B
I ::
I w
I :
!
I

i
I

PCP-EF
4

Blmching,

c-stage

t-r

vent

Blmching,

C-St-

acid suuc

20

Slmdbing.

I-stop

#0.5-2X!

42

Blmchin&

cl02 l6mt.

Ilushiqt,

c-t*

w&w

l.ToF-3
toner vent

(OX) caustic

74

Bl*achllt@. C-etIl*rhln&

94

llawhlnq.

El-tmw

(0%) umh*r

96

Blwhlrp,

El-*ta~

.(0X) *ml

II6

alwc.hin#,

D1-8tbge

(OX) t-r

119

9lmchln#,

Dl-etaga

WXl,wsh~r

129

Blowhl~,

ml-ate

CbX, soal tnL

sd

I
1 IOl~UE-EF
1
I
I 6.ooE-4

! 2.m.5

1
j

1.6&-2
'I.aoE-4

1
!

2.102-3

l.ZoE-3

z.ooE-6

2.wE-3

l.ow-3

06112193

Factor kvry

I
I PROWL-Ef
1
I
1 I.l2E*6

8
1 CMFIWIEEF
1
1

SAOE-4

1
1 ICW~EF
I
I
I

I
1 ICBF-EF
1
8
I

6CEltWiYEF

CASWIS~EF

tnd

vent

FOX) toWr

l.UE-S

6&E-S

1.92E-S

vwlt

1.77E-4

&WE-s

s.o(y-3

vmt

2.oof-3

l.ooE-3.

s.w-3

tnlr mt

1.24E-3

6&E-4

1.6oc-4

vult

4.42E-S

1.62E~C

wnt

s.ooc-4

rent

3.ovE-4

:-2::

152

2.7OE-4

l:tJOE*3

Z.Mc-4

Is4

1.67E-4

1
1

6.629-4

1
1

&OlE-6

I WIUE-EF
I
I

1 101ltAPEF 1 IOIUYEF
I
1
I
I
1 2.24E-1
1 1.34E-2

I
I

i
2.27E-S

vent

92

El-rta#e

sewer

_ Emisaim

I
1 ACIOLEIYEF
1
I
1 1.77E-6

INS-EF

I
1

____(.

I l.lR-1

I l.W.1

! 8.7SE-2

! l.WE-1

1 1.3&E-1

1 2.02E-1

1 2.53~.1

I 4.3SE-2

1 2.96E-2

1 2&E-2

I
i
I

1 2.63E-2
6.436-2

1 2.41-2
9.09E-2

I
I

1 2.521-2
3.6SE-2

1 4.66E-2
2.21-2

I.

1 5.74E-2

1 4.24E-2

I l&E-2

I 1.6lE-2

1 l.S3E-1

I l.uc-1

1 7.47E-2
1

1 I.SIE-2
I

,--a
40
t

--

---w--

@-----i/

yc
0

I-

--------

f
1,

------A---*-

&$I

i
I
+---

52
2Oy
fr
c1

0
w

~--------L.-.

q--a-

-------I

3
4
u,s

(0

I
I
I

----

------------

1,2P6Ec
i
0: ,I.
g /// %~a
5 ,I /

I
WEi

In
*

~-~~~~-~~

:.A

___-__
ocq

=
0
I

/
//

I
I

.O

I
I
I

F
E
8
2

I
I

~-----.-

0
L;
8
;E=
.E
iii

E
II
f
d
t1
s
u
:
:
:
:
:
:

I
I
I
I
I
I

1 gj /
0s*----.r---,.-.-..,.
c-59

ltcdcl 03
r ---I WU-CODE
t

E3

E3

::

@I

E3

I
I
I
I
I

E3

---

-.-_-.

EP-CODE

SOLMCE
-._---__-Bleuhing,

C-stage

Bleaching,

Cl02 s&t.

j B!crcblc$), C.stsse

t"wr

NLEACI!

vent

BLEACN

BLEACH

I Blcachirq,

C-stage

real tank vent

91

93

Ileaching,

El-stapc

(0%) tower vent

Bleaching.

El-stage

(OX) ubshcr

El.stmgc

LOX) rcml rank vent

01.stwc

(OX) tam
(0%) usher

Ol-stage

I
I
I
1
I
I
I

E3

119

Dl~rtaBc~tOX)

I39

Bleaching,

EJ

BleachimX,

EZ-rt*Br

I43
145
149

rent
vent

seal tu*

I
f

usher

EZ-stage

EC~I tank rent

vent

02.staBc

t-c

DZ-stwe

washer

Ileachlng,

02.staw

seal tmk

HARD

I
i

6lEACW

IIARO

Stream Characteristics

1 --- -. ---.
1 EYClOSUBE ; StXKtCE-ItP
., ------+.--.--

I
I

SIREM

OlfACll
BLEACH
OLEACY

I
I
.L

UIACII

vent

3.62E-1

WAIID

VEYI

l.LOE-2

MAit

vflll

Z.LOE-2

VEYI

3.62E-1

VENI

l.LM-2

VENI

2.4OE-2

VENI

3.62E-I

VENI

l.4Iy-2

VENI

Z.LOE-2

I
nAn0

I
1_
ttodelB3

1 WU~UIDE

I EP-CODE

I XWACE

1 ACEI-EF

1 MON-EF

---t---d-

1
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
i
-L

CIEI-EF

VENI

3.62~~1

vEwi

1.4oE-2

VENI

2.4OE-2

VENI

3.62f-i

VENI

1.4OE-2

1
1

_ Emission
I

1 ttEKJF

--j-AZ

t:

41
39

1 Blmchlng,
lleachlnp.

Cl02 u&t.
C-stage
KMI (OX)
S-C cwstic

63

45

1 8lmchlrq.

C-stm9c

'3
::

7S

I Bleachinn,

fi;

91
77

I Ileaching.
6lmching.

II

E3

93

1 II.achin&

El-rtwe

tOI) wsher

gl

lJ

9S

1 Xlmchirq.

El-stage

(0x1 seal tuS

115 I BlomchimX,

Dl.@taBe

(OX) t-r

117 I Ilmchin&

Ol-stage

(OX) wshcr

II9 I Blwchinp.

Dl-stapr

139 I Xlwchirq.

E2-stmw

I
I

.I

I
I
I

a3
63

'3

u
83

I
I

::

I
I

scycr

I6.7OE-2
1
I.OOE-2

1 I.o(y-2
l.o(y-1

tower "ent

1 l.43E-4

1 Z.WE-2

C-staw

wshw

1 I.OSE-3

1 4.!5E-I

El-staw
C-sta@e

seal
(OX) tank
tawr vent
vent

1 3.S9E-4
2.2OE-3

1 4.BSE-4
3.llE-1

1 3.OOE-2

1 7.OOE-3

1 2.16E-2

I 5.25E-3

1 7.32E,5

I 2.ME.4

1 t.ooE-3

1 3.ow-3

(OX) seal tank wnt

1 I.lBE-4

I 2.25E-3

t-r

1 l.lOE-3

I 2.42E-4

1 l.IOE.2

I 3.SOE.3

1 l.O&-2

I 2.6x-3
16.9OE-7

vmt

"mt
vent

rmt
vent

vmt

141 I @leaching,

tZ.stm~a

rashm

143

EZ-rtapc

seal

14s I Bleaching,

DZ-stage

tower vent

1 2.9OE-7

D2-stag0

rasher

1 4.OOE-6

1 l.ooE-5

02.staw

seal tank vent

1 2.67E-6
I

I 7.11-6
1

I Llmchinp,

03

147

'3

I49 1 nlmchin&
I

1 Elmchins,

rmt
tank vent
vent

1 9&o

VEYI

IlARD

I.

-y-i-G!

OttAd

1 SFLO-FAC

Z.COE-2

BLEACH

vmt

VFLO-FAC

VCNI

N&m

llEACY

vmt

-----

SlKEAlt

I
I

BLEACW

8lEACY

EZ.stagc

WCO-IIP

-I

BLEACN

Ilmchinp,
Bleaching.

BLEACN

vent

tcucr vmt

Ilcachin&

1 Xlcuhwq.

147

vent

Bleaching,
Bleaching,

141

sewr

Xl.achmt+,

I?

II7

yefit

masher

::

63
X3

BLEACH

C-stage

'3

BLEACN

Bleaching.

95

sewer
(OX) caust!c

7s

I15

::

.._..~ .~,

lad

39
41
4s

1
1 PRUC~IIPE
I.--.--

1 2:oaE.z

3.ooE-4

1 Z.CEiE-4

3.1%.4

1 2.4I-3
1 5.44E-4
1 3.loE-3
1 3.OM.2
1 1.63E-2
1 l.loE-4
1 3.oM-3
1 1.63E~-3
1 1.55E-3
1 l.SoE-2
1 &ME-3
1 Z.loE-7
1 Z.OOE-6
1 l.WE-6
I

Tutor

OBJl2193

71
I
/

YWAP-COY

-I-___... .- r

SNAP-COY 1 HAL-SIAIUS )
----..-I..-. ..{

2.52E+2

Y
v

v
v
v
v

---I

Z.%f+Z
l.Mw2

2.07Ell
1.6lEr2

b.l4E*l
l.lSE*l
1.27E+2

6.6Wtl
4.s7E+o
4.%x*0

1 3&E-6

2.69E-5

1 5.ooE-s

4.wE-4

1 3.46E-s

3.07E-4

1 9.2lE-4
1 l.2oE-2
1 8.3oE.3
1 1.92E-6

l.UE-S

1 2.soE-s

Z.oaL-4

1 l.TIE-5

l.S4E-4

"

l.ClE+Z

1 2.77E-4

1 i.lSE-S

2.4301

1 6.O&-1

I
I
I
I
I
LI

1 P.wL-3

1 4.61E-6

1.52Etl

l.C6E+3

/
I

Sury

rII-yGz
II
II
I
i
L

1.16E*1

3.2llE+S

KCL-EF

i
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I/

CL2-EF

2.w-1
2.li*-I
s.k-3
3.oaE-3
J.ooE-3
7.6lE-5
l.ooE-2
l.ooE.2

t
I
!
I
I
I

2.54E-4

I
I
l.ooE-2
l.ooE-2
Z.S4E-4

/
L

1 L~DENZ~EF

1 PYNL-EF

1 ttCYCl3EF 1 ICP245EF

ItECL-EF

CnCl3-EF

3.ooE.3

EiTy-

3.oof-3

l.LZE-3

3.3oE-4

5.27E-3

4&x-4

5.27E-3

4.l#-s

3.99E-4

3.saE-3

7.93E-3

s.ooE-3

7.93E-3

4.56E-4

l.loE-4

4.3I.3

l.SI.2

6.OOE.3

l.SBE-2

s.i?E-4

9.wE.4

t.mE-3

3.97E-3

2.5W.3

3.97E-3

2.2M.4

2.55E.4

l.OBE-3

4.62E.l

l.SoE-3

C&?E-S

l.37E-4

2.96E-6
I-

--+q-Gq
I

I
I

I
1
I
I

I
1 l.JE.6

1 3.ooE.c

1 3.ooE.4

1 L.l7E-6

1.

I
I

I
t
I

!
1

1 1.5oE-4

1 l.5lx.4

1 2.09E.6

I
/

ttakl 63
,

1 EP-UXtE

1 XOJRCE
I1

INPUJWE

I
I:
;

::

II

::

I 93
I 81
I

I @I
I

39

'3

I :.

I 9iawhinl).

1 PCP-EF

Cost-

I
1

41

I Blmchi~.

Cl02 Wt.

45

1 Biaachlrl,

C-rte

7S

i iieacbi~,'c-stw

I
I
I
I

I
1

7-7 1 Iimchin#,

C-sta.0

91
93

1 9iowhlt16,
Ble.chiw,
1

El-rtw
El-Wa6m

9S

I 9ltachiq.

El.ataw

acid m-r

1 l.RE-3

(OX) caustic smr


tamer vent
bmahor vent
sod

tad

(OX) washer
t-c
vmt
(OX)
rent
(OX) seal tmk

117 1 DImchin&

Ol.stw
01.sty

(OX) wshw

Dl-rta#a

(OX) real cm&

139 1 9lmchlw.

EZ-ata9a

t&r

I41 1 U.achl~,

f2-rtw

maher

143 1 9idlrl,

EZ-ata9a

maI

02-tw

t-r

147 I Il+chin#,

02-te

wrhw

149 I Bi..chin#). D2-rta.e

rd

vmt

1
I

wnt

I19 1 Ilmrhlw,

14s I Blmchlm.

1
2.OOE-3

I
I

vent

(OX) towr

115 1 Blmchlqj.

ACALNEIYEF

mt
wa,t
tat& mt
vent

mt
trill mt

I
I

l.fJoE-3
6.X%*4
r.aaE-3
4.62EzL-3
l.TIE-4
2.ooC-3
1.24E-3
4.42E.5

vant
vent

I
I

I
I

I
I
I
I

I
I

s.OOE-4
3.m-4
I.NE-5
l.oQ-3
6.11-4
1.14.7
2.OOE~6
l-W-6

- Emissim

PAWAL-EF

J
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

IAOE-2
1.2%-3

6.621-S
8.12E-S
l.ooc-3
6.62E-4
IME-4
2.OOE-3
1.32E-3
4.06E-1
s.O9E-4
3.3lE-4

4.99E-7

6.04-6

3.9zE-4

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
Ii

OWl2193

Factor Swry

1OlUEME~EF

CttElWtEEF

s.o(y-3

S.WE-3

1 FCDPJF
1
I

1 ~~F~EF~~CE~OPHN~F
I
1
1

I CM6OlS~EF
1

I HEXAbE~EF
1

10lHAPEF
l.ZoE-I

2.OOE-6

l.PzE-5

2.27E-s

1.64-4

i
I

i
I

l.37E-1
Z.LAE-I
6.4lE-1

3.23E.l

6.17E-2

l.laE-2

2.3v-2

IOlWCEF

1
.
,,,
I 2.01E.l
! 3-W-2
4.33E-I
I 3-w-1

I 2.17E-2

2.S&-2

!
1
1
I
I

I 4&E-2

I 3.77E-2

l.wE-2

1
1

z.soE-3

l.OY-2

I.%-3

2.93E.2

4.4lf-2

&DIE-S

1.25E-2

I 2.32f.2

S.3lE-S

l.llE.2
l.lY-2
4.m-4

I l.ISE-4
I 6.43E-s

I
I

1.Sa.z

I l.oy-2

I
1

IAlE-

l.nE-2

s.zn.2

1
1 FXS-EF

1
1
1
I

I
I
I

I
i

*m-.-m

I
: -a-be.--.-.1
1

I
I

1
1

I
I

WE
us

g
L

.LJ

CD
Z
0
4-w-e

I !

e-w-

-----m-----

m
.-__
1
=
0 *---------/-j:
I

I
.

GE1 t /

f- I
II 1
*-a-..-.-.8
-0
d
I

-iI 0
I
I

@- ~~.~~~-.~~~~
/.
-___
{ Gg[

ewe

-0

I
I

I/
I

I
I

0s

I
I

+ j $:

I
I
*---E
0
Y1
*-r-------E
mm--0
$2
0
-0v)+
i
I

E8k
/I,@&
sabE
/ISOa
1
I
I i/
/ I!
/

I I

--

E
4
81f1

s
C-62

:I
:

I
*

I
I

Ncdcl 84
, --.---

Straa
,..---

( WXO_IIP
, __

( ENCLOSURE
, -.-- .

1 SOWEE-IVP

.
____.__

r--T----I fNlf_CWE 1 LP-CODE

. . ..~.

WCE
-

?8

giwchmg.

C-stag*

glcuhing.

Cl02 w&at.

u&d

SCYIC

Jlewhing.

C-stage

giigching.

C.stage wshcr

9irachuvg.

C.stage

(OX) caubt!c

t-c

WYCC

I
.. -1 PROC-IIPE
, ._
BLEACW

Sofl

SIREAN

BLEACH

sofl

SlREAM

VEN!

B?EACbl

vent

ULEACH

vmt

BLEACfl

seaI tank vent

92

gicachlng,

El.stagc

(UX) twtr

94

Dicuhing.

El-stage

(OX) usher

96

Bimching,

El-siege

(OX) rcai tank wnc

OLEACti

::

Ileaching,

DI-ruagc

(OX) t-r

OLEACII

116

'4

118

glcuhing.

Dl-stage

(OX) cushcr vent

glEACll

120

Bleaching.

Dl-slage

!OX) seai tmk

BLEACH

140

gicuhing,

EZ-slage

towr

142

Iimching.

EZ~rlggc

wshcr

144

glruhmg.

EZ.stagc

scml tank vent

BLEACY

146

gigaching.

02.rragc

tww

BLEACY

146

Wemching,

DZ-stage

wshw

110

Ilwching.

DZ.@tagc

sd

tt

I
I

DIEACII

vent

fItEACH

vent
vent
vent

OLEACII

vent

BLEACY

rmt
vent
vent

MEACY

tank rmr
-..

ILEACN
._A

i
f
I
f

I
I

L/

SW1
SOfl
SOf1
SOFI
SOf1
Sofl
SO11

SOf1

._ _..-.-

1 W-CWE

1 EC-CODE

1
1

I ii

1
f
;
I
I

J
II
wl
I
j

tt
u
u
t:
;

I :
I :
IU

40
42
46

I
I

Iimching,

I glmching,
Ilmching,

I Ileaching,
7a gioaching.
92
I gimching.
94 Bimching,
96 I Bimching,
116
Oimchlng,
118 I gieuhing,
76

120
140
142

I
I

SWRCE

344
146
146
,150

dIgaching,

I Binaching,
gimching.
I gigaching.
llgaching.
I DImchin&
I
L

giggchiw.

C.slage

acid s-r

Cl02 rtic.
C-stage

(OX) curstic

tam

C-sfgge masher
C-stage

s-r

vent
vent

seaI tank vent

El-stwe

(OX) tower vent

El-vcage

(OX) mashor rmt

El-staw

(OX1 #maI sank rmt

Ol-tqw

(OX) 1-r

Vmt

Dl-stage

(OX) rusher

Ol*slage

(OX) swi

EZ.ntagm

fowc

EZ-stage

wshw

EZ-slagc

seai lti

DZ-acage

t-r

PZ-ataw

usher

o2-gtm

wal

vent

tank Vent

vmt
Vent
rmt

vent
rent
tank vml

L
I
I
I
I
I
I
t
I,
I
L

06112193

--

_. _--.-_.-1 SflO-fAC

-.-

1.16Ee1
I

!.3!E*3

VEYI

I --.~7.4oF.2
a
1 3.62E-1

P.IZE*l

VEYf

1 1.4OE2

s.ooE+z

VEYI

1 2.4OE.2

l.%E*Z

VEYI

1 3.62E-1

Z.S)E*l

VEYl

1 l.LOE-2

2.5&*2

WY1

1 Z.LOE-2

2.16E*z
2.26Et1

VENl

1 3.62E-1

YEN1

1 l.COE-2

1.65142

sofl

I
I
I

VENI

1 2.4oiE-2

6.91E+l

VENI

1 3.62E-1

l.ZlE+l

I
I

VENI

1 1.4OE-2

1.2602

YEN1

1 2.4oE.2

t+.WE+1

IN1

1 3.62E.l

4.57Et0

VENI

1 1.4OE-2

4.59E*o
--

SOfl
SOfl
sofl
swl

I4

ACEI-Ef

flEON~Ef

I CIEI-EF

I.OOE-2

------t--1
s.ooE-2

6.7OE-2

l.ooE-1

3&E-5

Z.WE-3

5.occ-4

3.OOE-2

l.COE-3

Z.ZSE-2

1 Z.&E-6

Z.ZOE-3

4.ISE-4

3.002-Z

7.ooE-3

2.16E.2

5.2SE.3

7.32E-5

2.06E-4

l.oOE-3

3.ooE-3

I.laEL-4

Z.ZSE-3

l.loE-3

2.42E-4

l.wE-2

3.%x-3

l.ME-2

2.63~.3

Z.p(Y-7

6.9OE-7

4.91X-6

l.o(y-5

z.a7E-6

7.%-6

1
I

. Emission

-I

1
I
I
t
I
I
I
I
Li

l@K-Ef

HAL~SIAIUS

I.

1.53E+l

!
/

I
1.

I
v
I
1
1

I
v
I

factor Smcy
1 PCDI-Ef

FORN-EF

-1-

-1 NCLJf

CLZ-Ef

1 NECL-Ef
--L

1.zQ-2

1
l.O3E-4 1
l.OoE-3 1

9.09E-3

3.07E-5

Z.loE-1

c.wE-4

2.1OE.l

z:oOE-2

1 3.OaE~3

1.31E-3

1
I

3.64f-6

2.69E-5

3.oM:l

1
1.63E-2 1
3.loE-4 1
3.0&-3
1

5.099-l

4.wE*4

I.ow*I

3.46E-I

3.07E-4

7.61E-I

P.ZlE-4

1.29E-2

l.OOE-2

1.63E-3

I.3&-3

2.5U-4

l.SSE-3

1.92E-6

I 1.34~.5

1.5&-2

Z.SlK-5

Z.ooE-4

&ME-3

1.73E-5

1.54E-4

2.lOE-7

4.61E-6

l.ooE-2

2&X-6

1
1
I

6.&N-5

l.ow-2

4.15E-5

2.54E-4

3.91X-2

5.32t.3

l.ow-2

-.- __
CllCL3-EF
--S.OY.3

l.loE-3

II
I
I
I

I
1

1 I
j I
.------L- .-I _.--.I!
I

i
I

l.ooE-6

-- __._

SYAP-CON
1.. . .._.

sot1

-r-

vHAP-cON
--_--

Sofl

N&i

r-

1 VflO-fAC

Charactcrlscics
--T----

I :

,._

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

3.56E.4
5.wE.4
4.%E-5
3.56E.3
s.lw-3
4.%-4
4.3of-3

I Z.ME-3
b.ZlE-3
I b.ZlE-3
3.39E-4
I l.ME-2
1.06E.2
I 6.7EE.4
2.05E.2

5.47E-4

I Z.OSE-2
1.32E-3

1.79E-3

S.ZBE-3

6.OOE-3

z.s(Y-3
2.26E-4
l.O8E-3
l.SllE-3
1.37E-4

I
I
I
I

S.ZM-3
3.3%.4
3.36E-5
3.3&-5
2.96E-6

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--

1 PIIENL-EF 1 NCflCL3EF 1 ICP24SEf

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63

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WASTEWATER

COLLECTION

&

TREATMENT

Figure B5. Bleaching Identification - CdEDED (LOW) HWD

0
149

Ott/l2193

ltodelR5

,--

._ .r .._.. -_
63

I
'---t----R5
1
ill

65

7
t
I

SCURCE
--._.-.

1 ItPU-CaJE 1 EP-COOL

C.rtage

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Rlwching,

C.stapc

l5

'5

::

::

113

us
1

135

145I Rbchiq,

69
87

i Rlwching.
Weaching.

;:
111

::

I fis
I

IS

133

I 85. 1
I

::

137

i PRUC-IIPE i UOU).IIP
; ',;;cw -.,....HARD

Rlcachtng,

acad )c"cr

C-stage washer
C-stage

vent

real tank vent

El-stage

(IOU) towr

8leuhing.

El-stage

tlou) uachcr

f Bleaching.

El.stagc

(1~)

Weaching,

Dl.stagc

(low) touw

1Bleaching.

Dl-stag*

(IOU) wshw

vent
vent

seal tmk.vcnt
vmt
vent

HARD

RlEACW

HARD

RlEACtt

ItAft

RLEACW

ItAR

PLEACII

klAftD

RLEACW

HARD

RLEACH

ttAf!D

OLEACH

HARD

RLEACH

YARD

tlou) seaI tank vent

BLEACH

HAtto

RLEACII

HARD

ILEACY

tlAR0

RLEACY

HARD

RLEACY

HARD

BLEACH

WAR0

1 RLEACH
-I-

IIARO

Y-t

Ileaching,

02.stage

wrhcr

02.stage

seal tara vent

llraching,

EZ-stage

t-r

Ilenchinp,

EZ-stag8

washer

/;Ileaching.
L

t-r

I Bleaching.

305

IlLEACH

Ol.rtr~

149
301

02.wgc

147

303

WYCT

touer vent

I Bleaching.

Bleaching,

- Strer Charrctcristics
-..-...--._.
-I------~-~ENCLOSURE
SOLIRCE~IIP 1 VflO-fAC
._
._ ----.+--.
_--

vmt
vent
vent

EZ-stbgc seal tank vent


__-.- ..-

I. _.--_. I,I
II
I
i
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I
I
1
f
I
I
I
II
IL.
L

ltodel OS
r
I
1 ItPU~CdOE 1 EP-CQ)E

BS
B5

I
(
c)I
1

::

63

I
I

BI

I
1

69
a7
69

IS
1

65

1w

'5

113

::

135

15

145

:'5

85

I
I

t:

:I

111

85

13s
85
1

137
147
149

301

I
1

105

303

StXMCE

T
II

1 ACEl-Ef
.--+----t--

Rleuhing,

C-stage

Rl8whing,

Cl02 s&t.

8leachiw.

C-stage

Rlcwhing.
Bleuhtng.
Ileaching,

El-stage

(IOU) t-r

I Rl~aching.

wbd

s-r

1 WOH-Ef

I Z.ZOE-3

I 4.6OE-1

I Z.OOf-3

I l;o(w-1

tower vent

I 1.43Ec-4

I Z.ITE-2

C-rtqe

ushw

1 1.95E.J

1 4.1SE-1

C-stage

seal tank rmt

1 1.4OE-3

I I.llE-1

I 2.2oE.3

I 4.65E-4

(IOU) caustic

scwr

vmt
wnt

El.rtaga

(IOU) usher

I J.OM-2

I 7.WE.3

Ol*achlng.

Rl.stw

(lwl

real tank rent

1 2.1Y.2

I 5.2x-3

Dl'rtega

tlw)

tower vent

1 7.32E-5

I Z.OOE-4

Rleuhing,

Dl-stage

(IOU) uashcr

I Ileuhing,

1 l.oOE-3

I 3.ooE-3

Dl-stage

(IOU) rcbl tank vent

1 7.1&E-4

I Z.ZSE-3

Bleaching,

02.stage

tower vat

1 2.9OE-7

1 6.9OE-7

Rlruhing,

DZ-stag*

washer vmt

1 4.ooE-6

1 l.OOE-5

Rl8uhing.

02.stage

seal tank vent

I 2.87E-6

1 7.54-6

#leaching,

EZ-staga

t-r

I l.lOE-3

I 2.42E-4

EZ-stmge

wshcr

EZ-Rtaw

real tank vent

I Bleaching,

I Rlcwhing,
.IBleaching.
L

vmt

vent

vent
vent

1 1.50E.2

I 3.5OE-3

1 1.00~~2
1

1 2.63~~3
t

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9.06E*o

l.LSE*l

1.46E+3

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1 3.62E-1

2.52E+2

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1 1.4OE-2

3.2903

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l.ClE+Z

VEYf

1 3.62E-1

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1 l.LOE-2

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VEYI

1 Z.COE-2

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VEYI

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1.62E+2

VEYI

1 Z.LOE-2

6.6M+l

VEYI

1 3.61-l

4.57Eto

VEYI

1 1.4Q-2

4.59E+o

VEYl

1 2.406-Z

6.14E~+l

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1 3.621-l

1.15Ell

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1 1.4OE-2
I

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3.OOE-4

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1 ftf'U_CODE 1 EP-CODE 1 SUAtCE
,----f-----t---64 1 Olcaching,
1
i

66

I
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70 ! glcaching;

ii
I

1
I

08

1 glcaching,

C-stage ugsher wnt

90

1 Bleaching.

C'stagc

seat lurk vent

112 I Olerching.

El-stage

(Lou) uasher

I Ileaching.

El.stagc

tlw)

134 I Bleaching,

Ol.stmpc

(IOU) t-r

136 1 glrhchtng,

Dl-stage

(Lou) wshcr

136 I Ileaching.

Dl

146 I glcwhing.

DZ stage towr

148

I gleachiw,

DZ-stage

mshcr

150

I glewhing,

DZ-stapc

sggl la&

302

I Bleaching.

EZ-stage

truer vent

3D4

I Bleaching.

EZ-stgw

wshcr

306

I DIgaching,
1

El-stage

seaI tank vmt


---

114

/
1

sc~cr

tower vent

I 06

(IOU) csusttc

(IOU) tower vent

Cl02 stbst.
C-stegc

LtLEACW

acid scwcr

El-stage

t6"
:

C-stage

110 I Ilcaching,

ii

1 glcgching,

i PROC-IIPE
I

rag= tlM0

vent

seal tank vtnt


vent
vent

seal tank vent


vent

I
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vent

; EYCLOSUAE
SCURCE~IVP
1
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SOf1

SOfl
SOTI

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1
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I
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s

II

I
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ml

66

WI

86
I

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66

I Weaching,

Cl02 IL&I.

70

1 glmching.

C-stage

tmm

I Blemching,

C-stag*

wshcr

90

I glmwhing,

C-stage

seal tank vmt

110 I glmching,

06

I ,=
1
it

I glmching.

I
/

actd sewer
(1080 cwst~c

saw

VEYI

3.62E-1

VEYl

1.4oZ-2

SOfl

VEYI

2.4Of-2

SOfl

VEYI

3.62E-1

SOfl

VEYI

1.4OE-2

SOf1

VEttl

Z.COE-2

OLfACtl

SOTI

VEYI

3.62E-1

gLEACY

SOfl

VEYI

1.4DE-2

ILEACW

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2.4OE.2

sof I
SOFI1

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I.LOE-2

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Z.LOE-2

SOFl

VEYl

3.621-l

SoF'

I
L

VEYI

1.41X-2
----.-

ILEACII

OlEACtl

ILEACH

ILEACV

BLEACN

ILEACY

I
L

BLEACN

WEACY

I
1 ACEl-Ef

I
1 )(EOU-Cf

ClEl-EF

1 l.DDE-3

I z.DDE-1

. Emirsim
1 Ml-El

I l.DDE-3

I l.tME-2

1 Z:OOE-3

1 3.66E-5

1 2.w-3

1 l.OY.4

rmt

1 s.DoE.4

1 3.ME-2

1 l.OoE-3

1 3.59E.4

1 2.25E-2

1 5.44E-4

1 2.2U.3

1 C.bSE-4

1 3.lcs-3

El-stage

(I&)

t-r

112 I glaching.

El-staw

(la)

uashcr vent

1 3.WE-2

1 I.OOE-3

1 3.OOE-2

114 1 glcmching.

El-stage

(low) real tank vent

1 Z.lbEc-2

I 5.2SE-3

1 1.63E.2

134

I glguhing.

Dl-stag*

(IOU) tower vent

1 7.32E.5

I Z.DCtE-4

1 3.11-C

136

I DIgaching,

01.stage

(Iwl

1 l.o(y-3

I 3.wE-3

1 3.ooE~3

146
138

I Ileaching.
Ilwching,

DZ-gtagc
Dl-rtrgg

(low1
loycr rwl
vent tank vent

1 2.9OE-7
7.1&E-4

1 6.9oE-7
Z.TSE-3

1 1.63E-3

wgshw

vent

1 Z.lOE-7
I

141

I Ileaching,

DZ-rtagg

wrhrr

150

1 Bleaching,

02.&Cage

seal twk

302

I Dlewhiw.

EZ-gcgge

tow

vent
vmt

vmt

304

1 gIgaching,

EZ-rtage

w&w

306

1 Blguhing.
1

E2-gtw

ggrl tad

vent

vent

Factor

1 4.ooE-6

1 l.OOE-5

1 z.o(y-6

1 2.87E-6

I 7.5OE-6

1 l.D9E-6

1 l.lDE-3

I 2.42E.4

1 l.SSE-3

1 1.5oE.z

I 3.%x-3

1 l.SoE-2

1 l.tME-2
I

I 2&E-3
1

1 1.w.3
I

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1 L.3OE-3
1 4.61E-6
1 6.OOE.5
1 4.1SE-5
1 1.92E-6
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1.73E-3

4.&x+0

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1.56E+2
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2.56E+2
1.7902
Z.OlE*l
1.61E+2
6.%X*1
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4.59E*o
6.91E+l
l.ZlE+l
1.2&?+2

E
I
/
I
I
I
I
I
I
L

1 CLZ-EF

-j-T-

1 3.07E-5

2.05Erl

9.74Etl

IICL-Ef

1 3:4OE.3

- .-r-~---.SllAb-CON 1 WAL~SIAIUS ;
-.I..-.
- ._._ 1

1.29Et3

I-ry

vent

rent

1 9.06E~O

glEACW

l+p----Y------e~
64

I l.OSE*l

SIREAH

mddn
--

r .--.-VflO-fAC 1 SflO-fAC
-----.t---..--

2.4OE-2

llEACW

vent

. Stream ChAractaristics
__._ -__ ~.

. _r---.._ --

VEYI

ILIACI
OLEACW

vent

I WOD-IVP
t- _ . .
I SOfl

ILEACW

I
I

IUzl-Ef
3.o(y-3
3.ooc-3

; Z.loE-1
1 Z.loE-1
1 5.32E-3

2.61-S

I3.oot-3

4.9OE-4

1 3.9oE-3

3.07Ef-4 1 7.61E-5

l.UE-5

-__
-IL
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I!

1 l.OoE-2
1 l.ooE-2
1 ZSCE-4
1 l.OOE-2
1 l.wE-2
1 2.54E-4
1

2.OOE.4

1.54E.4

1
I

3.mE;4

s.OOE-4
4.56x-5
I.SQ-3

s.wE-3
4.56E-4
4.3oL-3
6.W.3
5.47E-4
l.olx-3
l.SoE-3
1.37E-4
1.79E-3

2.SOE-3
2.28E-4

.-CtlCL3-E f
--

1
3.6OE-3
I 1.74E-3
4.32E.3
I 4.32E-3
2.77E-4
I l.O6E-2
l.O6E-2

6.76E.4

/ 1.43E.2
1.43E-2
I P.lSE-4

1-

L~~EYZ~EF
-:

1 PblEYlJf

1 MCMCl3fF

1 ICP245Ef

1
1

I
1
;

I
1
1 Z.OW-7
2.01X-6

1
1 3.7&-4

t
1

1 l.ooE-4
l.Oaf~4

; ;--:

1 3:Olw.4
4.17E-6

I
I
I

*I
I
I

I
/

I l.SW-4

3.3&t-s

I 3.38E-5
2.966-6

I 5.2&f-3
5.28~.3

3.39E-4
I I --

I
/

1 1.54E-4

1 px-6
1

1
1

itcdel96

jrm_caol

64

1
I SaJaCE
I
I
I Bleaching,

C-ota9a acid lCYT

CP-CrnE

1 l.RE-3

66

I Ilechlq.

CIOZ s&w.

70

I Blwchin9,

C-ltw

tour

80

1 Bl*wkin9,

C-it*

u*l*r

1 Bl*6cLin&

C-Ha@@

roeI tank Yell1

::

tlor) curtic
vent

!lO 1 Uwshiq,

El-Ar~9e

tlou) raw

112 I @louhi-,

El-At-

tlor) rusher

vent

114 I Bl.wbIn&

Ll*ata#e

(IOU) amal tmh

Dl.nty

tlar) tower vent

136 1 Ilawblw,

Ol-statp

(IOU) umber

Ol-rtaw

tlou) Cal

I ii

146 1 6lawhlw.

02-stw

t&w

1U

02.rtw

wabrr

I :

lS0 I nlwchiIl@,

oZ-~ta#e

real t&l

302 1 Il.acbln&

LZ-atarp

ttmw

304 1 Il*uhtn&

cz-ata@e

lwbw

SW

r2-tr

rul

I ii
i

vent

134 1 Ilewhin9,
I Blerhin9,
1 Il.achirq,

1 ll~acLIn#,
1

1Y

s-r

vent

I y

_3-

:
06

1 PCP-Ef

I
I
I

----I

vent

vent
tr*

v-t

I
I
I
I

MI
"ant
"all

mt

MC
Kmb

vent

-1
ACROLEIYEF

5
I
I
I
1
I
I
I
L/

- Ekssion

1 PROPAL-Ef
I

I.DoE-5

3.ol&-4

l.otx-4

a.oOE-4

1.77E-6

&.lZL-6

z.ooE-5

1.005-L

1.24E-5

6.62E-5

1.77E-4

1.12E-5

Z.o(y-3

l.OOE-3

l.Z4E-3

6.62X-4

4.4X.5

l&E-I

S.ooC-4

Z.OOE-3

3.09E-4

1.32E-3

l.ux-7

4.9OE-7

Z.lNX-6

6.ooC-6

l.ME-6

3.97E-6

LME~5

4&E-5

l.ooE-3

I.mf-4

6.lI-4

1
1

3.3lC-4

furor

IOLUEltE~EF

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

I
L

3.ooC-6
l.OOC-6
6.OW-4
6.WE-4
1.92E-5
s.ollE-3
5.005-J
l.MK-4

I
/
I
I
I

Z.I(I-3

i.ooE-5

%.ooE-4
5.uy-4
2.27E-5

LOW-5

L
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
i
L

CIICIIIANEEI

2.5OE.3

06112/93

Suury

I
i
L

ICC@-ET

1 IClIf-EF 1 ACE1OPNilEf 1 CAIltIOlS~Ef 1 IEYANE-Ef


1
,+.---+..I
I
1

1 IOIYAPE~

I
I
i
I
I
I

4.0&-2

7.7x-3

,.,

1 4.2M-2

I 3.7&~-2

1 2.92E-2

2.4Y.2

1 2.63E-2

2.43E-2

1 6.4X-2

9.0&-2

1 2.52E-2

4.U.2

1 3.02E-2

l.W-2

1 5.12E-2

3.62E.2

I
I

1 1.5Y-2

l.Slt-2

1 l.llE-2

4.07E-5

1 l.l6E-2

1.23Es4

1 L.IZE-4

6.4X-5

1 l.l7E-2

l.ZlE-2

4.54E-2

1 3.07E-2
1.26E-2
1

2.33E-2

1
1

I
I
I
I
I

1
1

IOtWCEF

-6
1 Z.lZE-1

I
1 IRS-Ef

7-

I
I

1 2.16E.l
1 2.4M-1

I
I
I
I
I
I
1

t------#---1 l---'--r-------"-n
n

:
1
1
1
I
:
,
1
a
I

TOWER

c/D
STAGE

w-

(-)-I

--'

,n

0
65

TANK
w
yz

-\-\
Nz

ACID
-.
-\

55

.
\

57

cAusTlc

.
\

-_

\
-z

\
-x

.
\

-.

--.

-.
-.

\
-_

\
-.

.a

.
WASTEWATER

COLLECTION

(L

TREATMENT

Figure 87. Bleaching Identification - CdEDED (HIGH) HWD

wodci 81

-T

II 'W-CODE

SOMCE

1 W-CODE
J

t------t-

Oicaching,
I Iicaching,
glcwhing.

C-stage acid SCYW


Cl02 s&t.

thigh) cw.stIc

twrr

i Blc~hing,
Bleaching.

C-staw

masher

I Bigaching.
gigAching.

El-stage

(high)

El-stage

(high) rA+hcr

vent

vent
t-r

Dl.stagc

thigh)

I Bigrching.

Ol-stage

thigh) washer

glcuhing,
/ Iied~inp,
L

t-r

DZ-stage

toycr vent

02.stage

wshcr

DZ-stage

scai

EZ-stag8

tower vent

OLEACII

I
I

BLEAClt

vent
vent

~LEACW

BLEACil

BLEACii

UEACII

tank wnt

~LEACli

ILEACY

vmt

sea' tmk

ElLEACil

vent

vent

EZ-gtagr uashcr

glEACW
BLEACH

Dl~sragc~ (high) seal tar* vent

EZ-stwc

vent

thigh) seal tmk

t gi*achwq.
glcuhing,

BLEACH

BLEACH
vent

El-stage

i Ileaching,
gicuhln&

vent

I Ileaching.
gIgAching.
Iieuhmg,

s~uer

i PROC-IvPE
t ILEACH I
91 EACH

C-stage

C-stage sea' ta&

vent
-

BLEACN

I ILEACil I
L -I

llAilD
'IA90
YAim

"AAD
IiAflO
HAAD
ilARD
WARD
HARD
'IA110
YARD
ilARD
tiAil0
IlAID
"MO
'IAlD
YAW

I SCUCE
1

-----1

c-y---+

55

1 BigachIng,

C-stage acid s-r

57

I IleAching.

Cl02 stit.

I
":I

Nl

1 EP-CODE
1

::

'I
I7

I
I
I
I

f
1

(htgh) CNSIIC

61

I giewhing,

C-staw

I3

1 Ilkhing,

C-stmge uerher

15

1 Biguhlns.

C-stew

103 1 Ileaching,

El-at+

t--1 Z.IOE-3

t-r

SCWT

vmt

1 3.%-l

YON-Ef
I

5.OOE-1
I

1 7.32E.S

vent

1 l.OoE-3

sea' tank vmt


(high) tower vent

g7

101 I li*aching,

El-alaw

thigh) wshor

107 I Wguhing,

El-*rage

thigh) semi curt v-t

v-t

I 6.llE-2
1 2.9OE-7

vmt
vmt

3.m-1
7&E-3

l.lOE-1
ii.25E-2

1 7.1&L-4
1 L.ZZE-3

g7

5.4OE-3

SJSE-2

1 1.58x.2

7.8N-2

87
97

127
I gigaching,
glgwhing,
129 I

01.rtw
Ol-stw

t-r
(high) wshar

g7

131 I Ilgachtng.

bl-*tog*

(high) seai tank vent

1 2.ii7E.6

7.54-6

145 1 Iicwhlng,

02.stage

tauw

vent

1 2.9OE.7

6.9OE-7

147 1 Bleaching.

DZ-ltr

w8h.r

vmt

1 4.iNX.6

307
309

1 4.0&?-A
I7
I7

!'

::

g7

1 ACEI-Ef

m7

149 1 Blgwhing.

311

glcwhing.
1 Bleaching.
1
1 glgwhlng.
1

&9OE-7
I

l.OOE-5

l.OoE-5

UZ-atage

remI tank vat

1 Z.UE-6

E2-staga
EZ-gt+

tower vent
rasher
vmt

1 3.1lE-3

2.7OE-3

1 C.ZIE-2

3.9OE-2

E2-staga

seal tank vent

I J.OSE-2
#

7.SOE-6

2.93E-2

T
7
t
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
L

Cltl-Ef

2.9OE.4
2.9OE-4
2.57E-6

VfiO~fAC

SIREAM

3.62~~1
1.4OE.2
2.4OE-2

VEYI

3.62E-1

VEYI

l.LIN-2

VEYI

Z.COE-2

VEYl

3&E-1

#ii1

l.C(Y-2

VEYI

Z.LQ-2

WJl

3&E-1

VEYI

l.C(Y-2

VEiil

3.4OE:Z

#iii

S&E-l

VEYI

l.COE.2

Z.LQE-2

VEYl
VEiil

YEW?
VEYI

- Emisrim

J
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

ItEK-Ef

factor

~---.r

SflO-fAC

1 WiAP-COtI-1 SiiAP-COY 1 IIAl_SIAIUS 1

I
/
I
I
I
I
I
t
II

1 PCDB-Ef

Q.ofx-3
6.0&-3

7.23E-4

1 I.ooE-4

Z.pot-4

7.OOE-3

1 I.oix-4

3.a.3

J.IlE-3

1 l.ZZE-S

Z.IOE-3

6.5oE.3

4.07E-4

6.3oE-2

s.uy-3

3.43E-2

3.67E-3

2.lOE-7

4.6lE-6

Z.loC-7

Z.OOE-6
l.O9E-6

3.2SE-3

3.151-2
l.IlE-2

1
I
I
I

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
Li

fCHtit-Ef

1.0X-6

1 3.73E*2

1 6.9&+1

1 9.34E*2

1 1.62E+2

1 6.61Etl

1 1.03EtJ

I 6.61Ell

1 4.5aE*o

1 4.6OE+o

1 6.6@*1
I 4.s7E+o

1
1

1 4.%+0

1 6.1oE+l

S-ry

7.OOE-4

Z.OOE-6

--.--

,.

----

,.,.I

ou12J93

Chgrutcristlca

SfPEM

II
I
I
I
I
f
I
II

ltadeig7
I 'WU-CCOE
1

. Strew

---I
7--EYCmsuflE
.------r
1 SOUilCE-IVP
UOCKI-IIP
1
I __-. --

-------.

6.01X-l
1 .:.lSE-5
1 4.6lE-6
1 6.WE-S
1 i.lSE-5
1 2.03E-4
1 2.6SE-3
1 l.NE-3
1

YCL-Ef

l.UE-5
Z.OOE-4
l.S4E-4

I
I
I
I
I
I
II ;

ClZ-Ef
.__

S.Olw~Z
s.oOE-2
1.27E-3

l.OoE-2
l.OOf-2

2.54E-4
l.OOE-2

l.OOE-2
2.54E-4

I
I

1
I
I
I
I
I.
I
I
Li

)(CCL-Ef 1 CNCLI-EF
-+-6.OOE-3

1 2.22E-3

3.3&-3

1 S.94E-4

5.02E.c

I l.i7E-3

I.ow-4

1 l.l7E-3

b.W-5

1 7.46~~5

4.59E-3

1 J-9&-3

6.44.3

1 3.96~-3

I.UE-4

1 2.W.4

l.ME-3

1 6.2Y-5

1.50E-3

1 6.2OE.I

1.37E.4

1 4.03E-6

l.ME.3

I 4.62E-5

1.50E-3

1 (&YE-5

1.37E-4

1 Z.W&-6

2.29E.3

1 1.98~~3

3.2OE.3

1 1.96~.3

2.92E-4

1 1.27E-4
I

T
-tI
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

L~BEYZ~Ef
-----

I
7
1 PYEYL-E
1 --.
.__

f I lUWCL3Ef

---+----.,

-1.
I
I

I
1
1 lCP245Ef 1
1 3.7w-3

1
1

I l.llE-6

1 I.OOE-4
I.OOE-4

/
I
I
I

I
I
I
I

I
I
I
I

z
a
f
z
5!
E
::
3
jc
z
3
i
z
2
3
2
i
3
::
:I
I
=,
B
z
> I
!! iii
f3
i
s
Z
.,*
s

=,
r
3
,d

t,
1
b
r
Li E
2
i
<
$1
B

______e

----w----m_

______

-_----------

-----

____-----w-w

________

----------

---m--------------

------------------

-----------------_
m*m

g &h$
n; cc4
---.------------mm
??T????*
EtEIE(HLW
GGdd;dd;

iii;
Hi4 0:

-----------------y-~f????rn?.
f;
,d

EWPHEPHb&lk
0: G i i 4 mi s d ri i i,r;

yf~yyy?~??b?en%mt*
H3SH~uwH~HH~~~~
. . . . . .
a-~nnc~~~~,,&;iL~

__-.---------_---*
t
.:
---.--------B--e--

ff~f+,ff~ffgj,g

rr5fffllr3rll1353
-------d-w------.~..*.......~~.1.
-------e-e_

s
I
:

i f id
--Be

------

13~33m$S6kRs3SS$~~
CCCCCCLCC

m-------------m--

r
i

.hhhhhhhbhhbhhhhb
..m....*....*..**
--

-__-

----A--

--_-

C-73

0
62

t
:
6
I
8

I1 I-T-o- .-I
I

:
I
I
I

8
I

----ce.--

I
I
6

,O-

C/D
t

STAGE

I66
I

TOWER

I
_

I
I

I'

SEAL
rl-

i
I

-_

N\ -.ACID
-_

58

-.

-.\

.
-N

-.

-\

-w

hwnBl*un
. . . . . . . . . . . .

mm-

------

JqAdaum

58

CAUSTIC

\
.

-N
-2

LEaNo

SEAL

cl I

1 &TREATMENT

r-I
TOWER

TANK

--I

312

TANK

D2

STAGE

Figure 88. Bleaching Identification - CdEDEQ (HIGH) SWD

I-I WU~CODE

.-

.
1 EP-CODE

_-.

Olcuhwag,

C-stage

lld

SCYIT

Ileaching.

Cl02 s&t.

ItcachIng,

c.stage

touer vent

Ileaching,

C-stage

wrshcr

seal tank vent

thigh) caustic

-I
sewer I

vmt

Ileaching.

C-stage

Blcuhing.

El-stage

thigh)

toner vent

Olcaching,

El-stmgc

thigh) masher vent

Ileaching,

El.rtagc

lhbgh) seal tank vent

Ilwching,

Ol'st~gc

(hi&!) towr

Ileaching,

Ol-stage

thigh) washer wmt

Ileaching.

Dl-stage

(high) scml tank vent

Ilcuhing,

DZ:stagc

toucr wnt

Ileaching,

02.stage

uashcr rant

Ileaching,

Di-r1.o.

seal tank rent

Ileuhinp,

EZ-staw

tower vrnt

Ileuhing.

CZ-stage

masher vmt

glcuhin&

EL-stage

srml tank vent


_--___

vent

BLEACH

-t-

Sofl

-IENCLOSURE
souIcE~IvP
-.---_. .-..
/SIIEM

jY

i
i i
I i
I I
I I
(
I
I
I
I
L
9lEACW

ILEALI(

ILEACll

OLEACII

ILEACH

SLCACY

sorr

,"I I
SOfl

Vttll

Wfl

WI1

SOfl

IN1

soft

VEYl

9LEACll

OLEACW
OLEACV

Sdfl

ILEACH

Sofl

ILEACY.

Sofl

Sofl

-~--EP-CODE

I
56

*
II
II
m
Z.

nl
II
41
al

1
;

50
62
04
I6
104
106
106
126

130
132

146
143

150
1oI

I *

310
312
A

I
1
I
I
I
I
I
I
/I
I

SaJIcE

Sofl

ILEACll

Sofl

ILEACII

Sol1

ILEACll

Sofl

ILEACN

Sot1

Ileaching,

1
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

ACEI-Ef

C-stage

lctd s-r

Ilobching.

Cl02 s&t.

Ilwching,

C-staga

towr

Ileaching.

C-staw

uwhw
ral

Z.IOE-3

thigh) cauctlc

scow

rmt

z.zoE-6

vent

Ilmching,

C-stwe

Ileaching.

El-stage

(high) towr

3.olx.5

tank vent

2.16E-5

vmt

Ilwching.

El-Mm

thigh) uarhw

Ilaoching.

El-stage

thigh) seaI tu?A vent

Ileuhlng.

Dl-stage

(hi*)

t-r

3.soE-3

vmt
vent

Ilmuhinp,

Ol-staga

lhigb) usher

Ileaching,

Dl-stage

thigh) acal tan& vent

IIwchin&

OZ-stage

towr

Ileaching.

DZ-MaI*

wshcr

Ilwchtng,

DZ-stag*

swl

Ileaching,

EZ-stage

1-r

Ilauhing,

EZ-stwe

usher

Ilawhin&

EZ-atage

seeI tank rant

vmt
vent
tank vent
vmt
vmt

rmt

6.2%.3
I.%-2

t..llE-2
Z.wE~l
4.ooE-6
Z.WE-b
2.9OE-7
L.ooE-6
2.376-6
3.111-3

4.25E.2
Lost-2

MEOH-Ef

1
s.ooE-1
I I.rw-1
b.ZI-4
I 9.OOE.3
i.ZrE-3

I 5.4oE-3
7.&X-2

S.ISE.2

/ 6.9OE-7
l.OOE-5
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313

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sewer

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I

SOfl

VW1

1 3.62E-1

SOfl

YEN1

1 1.4OE-2

SDf1

VENI

1 Z.LOE-2

tiff

VENl

1 3&E-1

SOfl

VENI

1 l.:W-2

SOff

SMI
SOfI

SOfl

Sofl
SOfl

SDfl

i
.A.-

SDfl

I
L

sofl

ItEM-Ef
--

1 2.7OE-3

5.DDE-1

I 3.5OE-3

3.w.1

110

54

I @leachin&

C-step

tower vent

1 2.206-b

6.23E-4

llO

80

I Bleaching,

C-rtatp

masher vent

1 3.ooE.s

P.OOE.3

/
L

scel tnlr vent

I'2.lbE.l

6.RE-3

1 6.22E.3

5.4OE-3

ClEl-Ef

i
I
I

VENI

1 2.4t1. ?

VEWI

I 3.62E-1

VENI

1 1.4llE-2

VENl

1 2.4DE-2

MN1

1 3&E-1

VENl

1 1.4DE-2
1

. Erirsta,
I
1 *EC-Ef

_.-_-_

-r
SftO-fAC
.VWAP-COY
--.-.i.
l.O4E*l

i
:
I
I
I
I
I
I
Ii

9.obttO

---yzk$

1 fDRft_Ef
v

---yQz

1 I.DDE-4

1 b.wE-3

3.DDE-4

1 l.O3E-6

I 3.oOE-4

3.w.4

1 l.DDE-5

I I.ODE-4

2.&E-6

1 S.LLE-6

1 1.22E.S

1 4.07E-4

110

12

I Ilwchiqt,

C-staw

PI

1 Blcuhinp,

El-stage

(IDOX) tour

100

1 Blwchiq,

El-stage

(100X) usher

1 8.5DE-2

7.ME-2

1 6.3QE-2

1 5.3wQ-3

102

I Bleaching.

El-stage

(100X) seal tank vent

S.bSE-2

1 3.43E-2

1 3.67E-3

I b.llE-2

122 I Weuhinp,

bl-stage

(1MX)

1 Z.p(Y-7

b.voE-7

1 Z.lDE-7

1 4.blE-6

124 1 Bleaching,

DIestage

(100X) usher

1 ~.ooE~b

l.ooE-5

1 z.ooE-6

1 b.ooE-5

126 I Blcuhino,

Dl.stwp

(100X) seaI tmk

1 2.a7E.b

I.IoE-6

146 I Blanching.

DZ-stqta

tower vent

1 2.VDE.7

b.wE-7

14b I #Iaching,

DZ-stage

usher

1 4.ooE-6

1.OOE.s

:I

:::

:::

810

NO

I ml0 I
I @IQ I

vent
rent

toner vent

vmt

vent
rent

I
I
I
I
I

b.%-3

1 l.O9E-6

1 4.lSE-5

1 Z.loE-7

1 4.blE-6

1 z.om-6

b.DDE-I

150 1 Bleaching,

DZ-stage

seal tank vent

1 Z.b7E-b

7.5clE*b

1 l.D9E-b

1 4.lIE-5

314

I Blwching.

EZ-stage

towr

1 I.llE-3

2-m.3

1 3.2SE-3

1 2.03E-4

316

1 Blouhl~,

EZ-tetje wshcr

1 4.2%.2

3.%-Z

1 3.15E-2

1 Z.b5E-3

316

I Blwchiw.
1

EZ-stage

1 3.05E-2
1

z.v3EE-2

1 1.71E-2
1

1
1

1 lab-3
I

vent
vent

seaI tank vent

I
I
L

jY

I
1

6.57Ell

b.NWl

4.59E+o

1.2oE+2

2.4bE+l

EL5801
1.sbE*2
l.OJE+I
4.57E*o
b.%Wl

I
I
I

4.57E.O

4.wE+o

SWAP-CON

r---.1
1 HAL~SIAIUS )

7.7901
3.28Eel

I S.l3E+2 /
I
1.

factor S-TV
I
1 PCDI-If

110

I 0
1

I
1 EP-CODE

08~12193

Charactcristlcs

SOfl

It061 110
I
1 NPU~CCOE

StreY

r.__.-_-.-_I-- -_- .- -. -T------EYCLOSURE


SOURCE~IIP 1 VfLO-fAC
1.
--.-__-.i- ----+.-~.

._

1
I
I
I
/
I
I
I
LI

NCL-Ef

I CLZ-Ef

ii

Z.OZE-5

1 I.ODE-2

3.DDE-4

1 I.OOE-2

2.3DE-4

1 1.27E-3

I
I l.DOE-2
1 l.ODE-2

b.DW-3

1 b.OIE-4

3.uy-3

1 3.69E.4

1 1.4Y-4

I l.VY-3

1 P.oQE-4

1 l.PJE-3

1 l.QE-5

I 1.24E-4

I C.WE-3
b.LOE-3

1 WllCL3Ef

1 KP245Ef

--y----E

2.9OE-3

1 2.9OE-3

I 5.8X-4

I l.DaE-3

I 3.3&t-s

I l.SOE-3

I 3.3&E-5

1.8bE.4

1 Z.SLE-4

1 1.37E-4

I z.w-6

1 l.DDE-2

1 l.wE-3

I 3.3&E-5

1 l.DDE-2

1 1.5a-3

I 3.3aE-5

1 2.54E-4

1 1.3R-4

1 2.vbE.b

2.2W-3

1 1.4SE-3

3.2OE-3 1 1.45E.3
2.92E.4

i
I
I
I
I
!I

L-bEtlZ_Ef 1 PNENL-Ef

1 9.3DE.S
1

I
I

I
I

I
1

ftcdcl 110 * Emission


,

1 Wtf-caDE
I

1 EP-CODE
4
I
40

1 SOWCE
1
1
I Ilouhing.

i
1

810

IO

1 Blowkin&

cID2 s&at.

54

1 6lmchin#,

C-stage tamer vent

80

1 #Iaching,

C-Atw

tamher vent

a2

1 Blmchill#,

Castle

seal tata vmt

9U

1 Bleaching,

::oO

010

a10
810
"O

BlB

BlO

BlO

t::

n10

scuw

BlO

#IO

I
I

100 I Blmching,
I
I
I
I
1

I
!

(100X) caustic scycr

1 ACRDlElNEf

1 1.7SE-3

El-At-

(1MX)

El-stw

(100X) vrhcr

twer

PIDf'Al-Ef

vent

(IDOX) seAI cm&


ClOaXl to*r

124 1 Ilwchina,

Dl-At-

(100X) lwrhrr

126 1 Ileaching,

Dl-stage

(100X) Aoal tnlr vent

146 1 Ilwhirp,

DZ.stage

tower vmt

DZ-At*

wmhor

150 1 Ilmchlry.

02-H-

Awl

314

1 W.achl~,

LZ-st~

t-r

3lb

I Ilqachlfu,

EZ-tAsm uAh*r

318

1 Iluchln&
I

El-A1a.e

vent

ralt

remI tank rmt

z.OOE-8
Z.oQL-7

I b5E-4

P.75E-5

2.14-3

l.ZOf-3

t.302.3

7.94E-4

l.MfQ-7

4.9m-7

Z.OOE-6

b.QM-6

1.241-b

3.VlE.b

l.uIc.7

4.x%-7

z.DtlE-6

b.OM-6

l.ZCE-6

3.97E-6

9.27E-5

4.m.S

l.DsE-3

b.DDE-4

b.4R-4

3.97E-4

I
I
I

vent

rant

b.OIX-4

1.21-b

3.oOE-7

vmt

rmt
tmh

vent

l.ba.4

1.2&-6

El-stage

l.loE-3

1.21-b

vCnt

Dl.stqtp

Z.oot-4

102 1 Bloachlng,

10

I
I

122 I Blushing,

I Ilwching,

1 PEP-Ef

IOLI%YE-Ef

---,--a

I
I
1 CffElNANEEf 1 IWf-Ef

I
1 ICDf-Ef

,
1 ACEKWUlEf

I
1 GWS-Ef-i

NEXANE-Ef

I
1
1 IOltlAPEf 1 IOIWCEf

IRS-Ef

3.OOE*8
1
-I----+---+b.o(y-L
1

2.5M-6

1 3.14E-1

1 3.14E.l

1 5.39E.2

I 3.72E-3

I 6.2t.f.2

1 l.ZlE-2

1 I.LlE-3

I 6.94E-3

5.W.4

b&If-5

I.OOE-4

1.92f-6

2.27E-5

b.OOE-3

I 2.63E6-2

I Z.WE-2

b&X-3

I l.b7E-1

I 2.47E-1

1.92E-4

I l.OlE-1

1 l.blE-1

1 l.llE-2

1 4.07E-S

1 l.lbE-2

I 1.21-4

1 4.52E-4

1 b.4Y-5

1 l.llE-2

1 4.OiE-5

1 l.lbE.2

I 1.23E-4

I 4.12E-4

I b.41E-5

I
.L

1 S.ZDE-1

b.DOE-5

1 5.2oE-1

J.ODf*3

3.oQ-3

e.b2e-5

1
1

!
i

I l.llE-2

I 1.44E.2

1 I.35E-2

1 l.ZY-1

1 S.OCE-2
1

1 LObE-2
I

I
1

C-stage wid

ml0
BIO

__-.

Obf12/93

factor Slury

------------

1
/

I
I

0
g
f
.
.._...__.
--__..-___..
(0.
0

I_...
_...
$ MS

-rx
z
4
as

___......._._..
__.._........_._.__
03 4..._...__.*._
EOP TOWER VENT

g
*
.-.......---.
-.
..__._
0
0
3
.q..
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
_
.
..-.-.....__.
3
0
-sm.-.

O2 DELIGNIFICATION
BLOW TANK

c-83

llcdd 811

. strem

08112193

Characteristics

--~~
j%U~CODE

1
I W-CODE

I fUJRCE
1

-1

I
I

1 PRDC-IYPE

1 UXD-IYP

1 ENCLOSURE
I

1 SWtCE-IYP

I
1 VFLOJAC

1 SFLO-FAC
I

I
1 VW-CON

1 SHAP,CCRl I
I
1 HAL-SlATUS

1
I

I
1

I
1

Rll
ill

403
401

1 DKYCEY
OwlDEN DELIG. UASHER
OLW YANK
IAUK VEYI

1 .RLEACH
BLEACH

HARD

VEYY
VE

1 2.6W2

1 l.DZE*Z
1.92E+2

1
I

Y
N

I
1

CO5
4D7

1 EC+-SlACE
i iOF-SIAGE

(100X) lOWI VENI


iiODXi SEAL iANK VENi

1
/

RLEACK
RLEACH

1
/

MRD
VARD

1
/

VENI
YEN;

1 ;.z-;
.
i 1.35-2

1
1

1 l&E*2
; :.OJE*3

1
;

N
N

Bll

I
I

409

1 EW-SAGE
I

(100X) UASRER VENI

1
I

RLEACII

1
I

HARD

1
t

VENI

1 3.6.--l
1

1
1

1 6.6lE*l
I

1
I

i 91:i
I

iI

cl11 - Emission

model
I
1 *#I-ClXIE
i
1

Bll

111

I
L

:::

G1
I
I

SWRCE

401
CO3
405

401
409

T
/
II

l-

1 7.9lE-3

4-m-3

1 &2oL-2

5.97E-2

1 6.22E-3

I 1.26E-2

1 7&E-3

1 S.LLE-2

1 6.46E-2
1

t
I

1 HEOR-El
I

CYEl-EF
-I-

OXYGEN DELIG.

BLON 1ANK

DKYGEN DELIG.

UASKER

TANK VENl

EOF-STAGE (100X1 TOUER VENI


LOP-SlACiE (100X) SEAL TANK VENT
EDP-STAGE

(1DDX) MASHER

VENY

1 b.SOE-2
1

1 ::z,::
1

I
L

1 EP-CODE

1 SWRCE

1 PCPJF

1 ACROlElNEF

1
I

1
I
1

1.63E-4

2.WE.3

l.OSE-4

l.lDE-3

Z.lOE-3

401

I
1
1 DRVGEN DELIC.

403

1 OXYGEN

405

1 EOP-SIADE

(IDOX) IOUER VENT

RI1

407

1 EM-SIAGE

(100X) SEAL VANK

111

409

1 EDP-SIACE

(100%) WSHER

I
1

Ill

FORN-EF

1 ::z::

1 ACEI-Ef
,

Factor Suury
I
1 PCDR-EF
I

1 7.3OE-2

1 WU-CalE

I
1 ttEK-EF
I

I
1 HCL-EF
I
I
I

RLW

IAYK

DELIC. UASVER

IANK VENl

WY1

VENI

PROPAL-EF

I
I
L/

7.4QE.c
l.ooE-2
9.75t-5
I-WE-4
1.2m-3

1 IOLMNE-EF
1

i
I &WE-3
1 1.926.4
1 &DDE-3
1

I
1 CLZ-EF
I
t

I
1 WCL-EF
I

I
1 CHCLl-EF
1
I

I
1 L-IENZ-EF
I

1
1 PWENL-EF
I
I

I
1 KHCLYF
I
I
I.

1 ACElOPtiNEF 1 CARRDIS-EF
1
I
I
I

1 ICDF-EF
1
I

1 NEKAtlE-EF 1 1OlNAPEF
I
I
1
i cm-2

I
I

I
/

12.41-l
12.73E-2

1 CttElNANEEF 1 YCDD-EF
1
1

1
I
1 lCP245EF 1
I
1
I

1 l.OlE-1
1 l.aE-1
I

I
YOYvo(TF

1 lRS_EF

1
1

m
s:ta-1
3.46E-2
l.OlE-1
Z.SiE-1

1
1

1
1

08
* e-.-....---.-.--..--.-..
_...__.--_..._
..
EOP TOWER VENT

22
a

0
3

0
g

8
lt
4 ....-..
_.-.-._..-_...
- .-..(0

l=
0
C
0
22

* .--.._..-__.._
---.-_......___....
_.._..__
.__. O2 DELIGNIFICATION
BLOW TANK

(b
5
Icu
5
E
.$
IL

c-85

06/12193

nodeI 812 - Stream Charactciicticr


iI(W_COOE
t

II
i

B2
2

I
1 PROC;lYPE
I
1

I
( WBD-IYP
1
I

I
1 ENCLOSURE
L

I
I
1 SOtNtCE~lVP 1 VFLqFrC
I
I

1
1 SFLO-FAC
1

I
I
I
1 V,HAP-CON 1 SHAF~COilI HAL-STAYUS
1
1
1
I

4~

1
IANK VENl
1 ONYCEN
OKY*CEN DELIC.
DELIC. UASMER
SLW
TANK
] E(JP-SIAQ, !!WX)
(MI! VENI

1
1
I

RLEACH
RLEACH
RLEAC!!

)
1
i

SOFI
SOFY
SOFY

1
1
i

1
i

408

1 EOP-WAGE

(100X) UAStlER VENI

BLEACH

SOFI

410

1 EOP-SYAGE
I

(00X) SEAL TANK VENT

1
I

OLEACH

1
I

SOT1

1
1

II

:I:
RI2

I
1 SWRCE
1

LO4
402

/
1

VENT
VENT
VEN?

1 2.68X-2
.0DE-1
i
I Z.COE-2

1
i
I

1
.92E*2
1 2.75b2
I !.5&+2

I
1
1

VENT

I 3.62E-1

1 6.57E*l

VENT

1 .40E-2
1

I
1

1 l.OYI3
I

I
I

Node1 R12 - Emirrion


I
1 WU-CtBE
I

I
1 EP-CODE
1

I 2 I
I

I
,

1 SWICE
1
I

402

1 OKYGEN DELIG. RLOU

1ANir

404

1 OXYGEN DELIC. UASHERIANK

VENI

:::

4011 1 EOP-SIACE
4D6
TOP-SIAQ

(100X) KWER
IOWl

I 2

410

(IDDX) SEAL TANK VENY

I
1 MPU_tODE
i
1

RI2

B12

112

112

EP-CODE

I
I
I
I
L

402
404
406
406
410

1 EOP-SIACE

VENT
VENI

SCMCE

T1
L/

OXYGEN DELIG. RLW


(100X)

.N
N
N

I
/

N
N

Factor Swry

I
I ACEI-EF
I

I
I MOlt-EF
I

I
I CTEI-EF
I
I

I
I IIEK-EF
I
1

I
1 PEDBJF
I
I

I
1 FCW-EF
I
1

I
1 NCL-EF
I
I

I
1 CL2-EF
I
I

1 l.O0E-3

1 5.00E-2

1 Z.OOE-4

1 7.3OE-2

1 7.6OE-2

1 I.ZOE-2

1 5.97E-2

1
( 6.22E-3
I.SOE-2

1 8.59E-2
I
1.17~~2
I 5.92E-2

1
I
I

1 6.458-2
7.67E-3
1 3.44E-2

1
I

1 5.3OE-3
4.07E-4
1 3.67E-3

1
1

I
1 HEEL-EF
1

I
1 CWCLI-EF
1

I
1 L-RENZJF
1

I
I
1 PltENL-EF 1 ~wuLYF
I
I
I
I

1 YCP245EF
1
I

I
I

I
I
I

IANK VENl

(100X) UASHER

EOP-SIAGE

(00X)

SEAL

MYI

IANK VENI

1 PCP-EF

1 ACROLEIYEF

1 PROPALJF

1 IOLuENE-Et

1 CMIHANEEF

1 ICDD-EF

1 ICDF-EF

1 ACEIOPRNEF

1 CARRDIS-EF

1 NEKANETEF

1 IOYIIAPEF 1 IOYWCRF

1 IRS-EF

1
I

I
1

I
1

,
I

I
8

I
1 5.02E-2

I
1
1 1.41-l

1
I
1

Z.OOE-3

l.OOE-2

9.75E-5

6.DDE-3

1 2.43E-1
1 2.63E-2

1 L.lQ-1
1 3.35E-2

I
1

.65E-4

I
1

1
1

Z.lQ-3

.20E-3

6.oQ-3

1 2.SY-1

.3OE-3

7.94E-4

'.92E-4

I
I

1 '.67E-1

1 l.DlE-1

1 l&E-1

IOUER VENI

EOP-SIAM

I
I
I

1 6.llE-2

1WK

OXYGEN DELIC. WSHER


EOP-WAGE

I
1

APPENDIX C.3
DEFiNITlON OF TERMS
Unitsa

Description/Compound

Abbreviation
ACET-EF

Acetone

kg/Mg pulp

MECH-EF

Methanof

kg/Mg pulp

CTET-EF

Carbon tetrachlorfde

Wh

pulp

MEK-EF

2-Butanone (Methyl ethyl ketone)

kg/M

pulp

HPS-EF

Hydrogen sulfide

w4

Pulp

MMER-EF

Methyl

DIMES-EF

Dimethyl sulfide

WW

DIMDS-EF

Dimethyf disulftie

@/Mg pulp

ALPINE-EF

Alpha-plnene

kg/W

pulp

HCL,EF

Hydrogen chloride

kg/W

pufp

Cu.-EF

Chlorine

kc04

pulp

CLC2-EF

Chlorine dioxide

kg/N

pulp

MECL-EF

Methyiene chloride

WMg

pulp

CHCL3-EF

Chloroform

kg/Mg puip

Benzene

kg/W

pulp

PHENOL-EF

Phenol

WMg

pulp

TCDD-EF

2,3,7,8-Tetrachloro-p-dioxin

kg/Mg pulp

TCDF-EF

2,3,7,8-Tetrachloro-p-furan

kg/h

pulp

MCHCL3-EF

Methyl chloroform (1,1,1 Trichloroethane)

kg/W

pulp

TCP245 EF

2,4,5Trichlorophend

kg/W

pulp

TCP246-EF

2,4&TrIchlorophend

WMg

pulp

L-BENZ-EF

kg/Mg pulp

mercaptan

c-87

puip

DEFINITION OF TERMS (Continued)

C-88

DEFUWON
OF TERMS (Continued)
Abbreviation

Description/Compound

Unitsa

VFLO.W-FAC

Vent flowrate

scmm/Mg
PWVday

SFLO-FAC

Wastewater stream flowrate

.e/min/Mg
PWdw

Vent HAP concentration

fwmv

SHAP-CON

Wastewater stream HAP concentration

w/L

HWD

Hardwood

Unitless

Is the vent stream halogenated (yes or no)

Unitless

SW0

softwood

Unitless

Chlorine

Unitfess

cd

Chlorine dioxlde substitution

Unidess

Extraction

Unitless

Hypochlorlte

Unittess

Chlorine dioxide

Unitless

ENCLOSURE

Number of endosures required

Unitfess

VHAP CON
--

HAL STATUS
u-

aKey:
WMg

pulp = Kilograms of alr emissions per megagram of pulp produced.

scmm/Mg pulp = Standard cubic meters per minute vent flow per megagram of pulp produced.
I/min

= Liters of wastewater per minute.

ppmv = Parts per million by volume.


mg/a = Milligrams of compound(s) per liter of wastewater.

c-89

REFERENCES
1.

Memorandum from Olsen, T.R., Radian Corporation, to


Shedd, S.A., EPA/CPB. Revised model process units for
the Pulp and Paper NESHAP. September 21, 1993.

c-90

TECHNICAL REPORT DATA

Pkes~ mud htnrrrions on the revuse befm


REPORT

NO.

EPA-453/R-93-050a
TITLE

AN0

complettig)

2.

3. AEC!PlENTS

SUBTITLE

5. REPORT

Pulp,Paper;and Paperboard Industry - Background

ACCESSION

NO.

DATE

October 1993

Information for Proposed Air Emission Standards


6. PERFORMING
ORGANIZATION
Manufacturing Processes at Rraft, Sulfite, Soda and Semi-Chemical Mills

COOE

AUTHOR(S)

REPORT

PERFORMING

8. PERFORMING

ORGANIZATION

NAME

AN0

AOORESS

10. PROGRAM

Office of Air Quality Planning and.Standards


US Environmental Protection Agency
Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711
2. SPONSORING

AGENCY

NAME

AN0

ELEMENT

11. CONTRACT/GRANT

No.

NO.

NO.

68-Dl-0117

ADDRESS

13. TYPE OF REPORT

Office of Air and Radiation


US Environmental Protection Agency
Washington, D.C. 20460
5. SUPPLEMENTARY

ORGANIZATION

AND PERIOD

COVERED

Interium Find*
14. SPONSORING

AGENCY

CODE

EPA/200/04

NOTES

.
1.ABSTRACT

National

emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP)


are being proposed for the pulp and paper industry under authority
of Section 112(d) of the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990
This
background information document provides technical information and
analyses used in the development of the proposed pulp and paper
IvESHAl?. This document covers air emission controls for wood
pulping and bleaching processes at pulp mills and integrated mills
(i.e.,, mills that combine on-site production, of both pulp and
Effluent guideline limitations for pulp and paper mills
paper).
are being developed concurrently under the Clean Water Act.
Technical information used for the development of effluent
guideline limitations is in separate documents.

KEY WORDS

AN0

DESCRIPTORS

ANALYSIS

b.lDENTlFlERS/OPEN

Air Pollution
Volatile Organic Compounds
Hazardous Air Pollutants
Pulp and Paper Mills
Pulp Mills
Paper Mills
.DISTRIBUTION

DOCUMENT

ENOED

TERMS

Air Pollution Control

STATEMENT

lg. SECURITY
20. SECURITY

Unlimited
Form

ZZZU--1

CLASS
CM

Unclassified
(Rev. 4-n)

PLICVIOUS

13 b

(TM

Reppow)

Unclassified

rzrA

c. COSATI Field/Group

CDITION

IS OBSOLETE

(Thk polr/

21. NO. OF PAGES

385

22. PRICE