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There are 118 elements in the periodic table but these elements dont just stand by

themselves in the environment. It bonds with other elements. These bonds happen when two or
more atoms combine and form compounds (NH 3, BeCl3, etc). A bond is a chemical process born
from an attraction between two or more atoms. However, atoms dont bond with other atoms like
humans date fellow humans. Atoms are kind of choosy species. While humans follow are certain
standard like, attraction, beauty, financial stability, intelligence, sense of humour, atoms on the
other hand, bond with other atoms base on their stability. Not financial stability but Electronic
Stability. A bond is a chemical process born from an attraction between two or more atoms. For a
human bond to stay together they should share or give LOVE, TIME, EFFORT but in order for
atoms to stay bonded, its ELECTRONS are transferred or shared in a way that each atom reaches
a stable noble-gas configuration, which is a valence shell electron or an octet. This question
might come across to you, why do we try to imitate the configuration of stable noble-gases? The
answer to that is the chemical inertness of the noble gases. These noble gases are like the ideal
girl/boy for atoms. The inertness of noble gases indicates a high degree of stability of electron
We already know the basis of how atoms choose the atoms that they bond to. The
question now is how does bonding happen between these species? If we compare atoms with
humans, first off there should be an ATTRACTION between the two species. Atoms, interact thru
its outermost electrons depending on it valency. It is attracted to atoms that complete their
octet. In bonding, atoms are classified as Anion and Cation. An atom that gains electrons
becomes negatively charged and is called anion, and an atom that loses electrons becomes
positively charged and is called a cation. When an Anion interacts with a Cation, there is
electrostatic force of attraction between opposite charges, either between electrons and nuclei,
result a dipole attraction. This results an Ionic Bonding. Both atoms become ions as one atom has
one electron less, while the other has an extra. This bonding occurs when elements with low
electronegativities react with high electronegativites to form ionic compounds. Electronegativity
is a measure of the force of an atoms attraction for electrons that it shares in a chemical bond
with another atom. To form an ionic compound the difference in electronegativity between
atoms is approximately 1.9 or greater. An atom may share electrons with one or more other
atoms to acquire a filled valence shell forming a covalent bond. This bond exists when the
difference between the electronegativities of the atoms is not enough for an electron transfer.
Covalent bonds involve atoms that SHARE electrons, these atoms do not loose or gain electrons
but instead will share them to gain a full outer energy level. By sharing electrons each atom pulls
on them and the atoms form a bond through the electron sharing known as the covalent bond.
Although all covalent bonds are involved in sharing of electrons, they differ widely in the degree
of sharing. Covalent bonds can be further classified into single, double, and triple covalent bonds
respective of how many electrons are shared. Each electron shared forms one bond.
We classify covalent bonds as nonpolar covalent and polar covalent. In nonpolar covalent
bonds, electrons are shared equally. The difference in electronegativity between atoms in a
nonpolar covalent is less than or approximately 0.5. In a polar covalent bond, electrons are
shared unequally. The difference in electronegativity between atoms in a polar covalent is
between approximately 0.5 and 1.9.
How do we know whether the participating atoms in a compound are joined by an ionic
bond or a covalent bond? One way to answer this question is to consider the relative position of
the atoms in the periodic table. Ionic bonds usually form between a metal and a non metal. By
contrast, when two non metals or a metalloid and a non metal combine, the bond between them
is usually covalent.

Besides the obvious difference of spelling between Ionic and Covalent bonds, these two
bonds have quite many distinctions that make them unique from each other. At room
temperature, most ionic compounds are crystalline solids. Thus, they are called ionic solids.
These ionic solids are made of ions that are held in place by ionic bonds in a repeating pattern
called its crystal structure. On the other hand, covalent compounds are aqueous or gaseous at
room temperature. In terms of polarity, Ionic bonds have noticeable dipole moments compared
to Covalent bonds. This is due to the wide difference of electronegativity in Ionic bonds than in
Covalent bonds which have relatively close electronegativities.
By knowing the structure of Covalent bond and Ionic bond, we can identify its properties
and determine its differences. In ionic bonds, due to the strong electrostatic forces between the
cations and anions, a large amount of energy is required to break its bonds. Hence, compounds
with Ionic bonds have high melting and boiling points. Atoms of covalent materials are bound
tightly to each other in a stable manner but are generally not very strongly attracted to each
other. This generally leads to low melting points and low boiling point for covalent bonds. Ionic
compounds are usually in the form of solids (salts). They are highly soluble in water. When they
are in water, they also have a high electrical conductivity. Covalent solids usually have lower
solubility compared to the solubility of ionic solids. For covalent bonds they usually have no
electrical conductivity.
As of the moment, I have written exactly 950 words and still writing. Never have I written
before a chemistry essay as long as this. I guess there is always first for everything. After
searching and judging sites from the internet and unearthing my ancient notes in chemistry
during my high school years and my freshman year in college, I definitely understood now the
difference between Ionic bonds and Covalent bonds. Just needed the refresh button in my brain
after all.