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Educational Buildings Occasional Paper No. 9

 

Evaluation of the Small Secondary Schools Project

in Thailand

BUILDING

EVALUATION

By the Project Task Force, Department of General Education, Ministry of Education, Thailand

of General Education, Ministry of Education, Thailand UNESCO PRINCIPAL REGIONAL OFFICE FOR ASIA AND THE PACIFIC,
of General Education, Ministry of Education, Thailand UNESCO PRINCIPAL REGIONAL OFFICE FOR ASIA AND THE PACIFIC,
of General Education, Ministry of Education, Thailand UNESCO PRINCIPAL REGIONAL OFFICE FOR ASIA AND THE PACIFIC,

UNESCO PRINCIPAL REGIONAL OFFICE FOR ASIA AND THE PACIFIC, BANGKOK, 1996 Report printed under UNESCO-AGFUND Regional Project, Development of Educational Facilities in Asia and the Pacific

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©

UNESCO

1996

Published by the UNESCO Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific P.O. Box 967, Prakanong Post Office Bangkok 10110, Thailand

Printed in Thailand

The designations employed and the presentation of material throughout the publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of UNESCO concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning its frontiers or boundaries.

BKAP/96/M/l83-2000

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Many thanks are extended to the UNESCO team whose professional and moral support provided the driving force to make this study a success.

This project could not have been completed without the co-operation of the staff from Sutham Witthaya School, Uthai Thani. The Task Force would like to express its most sincere gratitude to them.

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PREFACE

The Department of General Education (DGE) developed a secondary school prototype project, with assistance from UNESCO, in 1986, The building was constructed as a pilot project in Uthai Thani Province.

A task force was assigned to evaluate the prototype, taking into account its suitability for teaching-learning activities and its observance of a number of architectural principles. The evaluation results led to modification and the development of a second prototype design. Based on a policy of the Department, this design has been used for the past ten fiscal years, with about 50 schools constructed annually.

The evaluation project was implemented by two groups: the Evaluation Committee and the Professional Task Force. The two groups carried out their duties separately. This report contains their findings.

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CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

 

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i

PREFACE .

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iii.

Background of the

Prototype for Small

 

Secondary School

Buildings

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Prototype: Sutham Witthaya School, Uthai Thani Province

Scope of Study: Evaluation Contents

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Building Evaluation: Suitability for Teaching/Learning Activities

 

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Summary and Recommendations

 

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PROTOTYPE

 

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PROTOTYPE

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27

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31

BIBLIOGRAPHY

 

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41

ANNEXES

Annex A

 

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45

Annex B

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48

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BACKGROUND OF THE PROTOTYPE FOR SMALL SECONDARY SCHOOL BUILDINGS

During the implementation of the Fifth National Economic and Social Development Plan (1981-1986), the Royal Thai Government constructed secondary schools for every district throughout the country. By 1989 efforts to extend secondary education to the sub- district level resulted in the construction of more than 1,800 secondary schools. These were placed under the jurisdiction of the Department of General Education (DGE).

These schools are located throughout the country in areas with varying population densities. Therefore, their sizes differ. In practice, a big school at provincial or district level enrols approximately 1,500 to 2,000 students, while a subdistrict school enrols approximately 450 students. However, a critical consider- ation here is the number of primary graduates compared with the number of graduates who continue their secondary education.

In meeting the demand for secondary schools, the suitability of the building design to diverse conditions in different areas must be ensured. It is also important that the architects consider construction schedules, as the buildings must be ready for use before the beginning of the academic year.

Since 1964 the task of developing standard school buildings has been undertaken by the Design and Construction Division. In the initial stages, the work focused on the construction of provincial and district schools. The plan was to build three to four storeys for a big school and two storeys for a general district school. Each floor was allocated six to eight classrooms joined by a passageway or corridor. The building design allowed phased construction and/or extension of the structure to suit the needs of individual schools and their budget allocations. The construction of multi-standard school buildings helped ease the pressure to provide suitable designs for urgent projects within a short period. These standard designs were used in the construction and extension of 220 schools nationwide in 1987.

As a distinct advantage, standard building designs offered flexibility, that is, the length of the building could be easily reduced or extended and therefore the number of classrooms could be adjusted to suit the needs of individual schools. Being rectangular in shape, measuring 7 x 9 or 8 x 8 metres, the classrooms could be transformed or adjusted to meet new requirements. For example, a classroom could be made into a teachers’ room or partitioned to serve as a frost-aid room for students or as a laboratory.

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However, there are potential disadvantages. One disadvantage is the possible use of sub-standard construction materials or of poorly skilled labour in constructing the extended sections of a building. Also, the building, when finally completed, may be lacking in architectural harmony. Although standardization reduces the time spent on design, it requires both architects and engineers to spend time on follow-up work and problem-solving, addressing conditions in the areas where the schools are located.

Another problem encountered in building extensions is the potentially higher cost of construction as even minimum extension could mean constructing at least two to four rooms and providing them with adequate cabinets or cupboards. While phased construction requires a minor amount of work each year, in total it could lead to higher building costs and therefore use up much more of the budget.

As planned, construction of the standard building was usually done in two stages, with the second half completed only when the number of students reached the pre-set target. This created a classroom shortage while the extension was undergoing construction. Difficult conditions are associated with a slow pace of expansion. For example, a slow expansion plan may delay the construction of building, Also, prolonged lapses in construction may not only cause deterioration at the joints of the structure, but may also create the impression of an abandoned project.

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The number of tables and chairs provided for both students and teachers was based on the number of rooms in each building. However, when the school expanded and certain classrooms were converted into special rooms, such as laboratories, the facilities were changed. As a result, some of the original facilities were put in storage. Although wastage of this kind maybe insignificant, it could become substantial when considered nationwide.

Keeping these conditions in mind, the Design and Construction Division of the DGE undertook a project from 1987 to 1988, to develop a prototype for small-sized secondary schools, to solve existing problems and promote efficient use of these buildings. The implementation of this project was supported and assisted by UNESCO.

The DGE had completed 500 small-sized secondary schools at the subdistrict level by the year 1996, in line with its policy as spelt out in the Fifth Plan.

Rationale

The project was in response to a goal of the Sixth National Economic and Social Development Plan (1987-1991), to establish small secondary schools as the core mechanism for inducing development and prosperity in rural areas and promoting occupational employment. Based on certain studies, it was anticipated that such a prototype should have a 3 - 3 - 3 classroom

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plan or a total of 9 classrooms for 450 students. This can be expanded to a 4 -4-4 classroom plan or 12 classrooms for 600 students.

Goal

The project aimed to develop a prototype design for small secondary schools in the rural areas and to complete construction within the next three fiscal years. The plan was for three classrooms to be built yearly. The buildings were designed to be self-contained and each was provided with a library, service rooms and other basic rooms.

Recommendations made during the seminars and suggestions submitted by the building users through completed questionnaires provided the working group with the necessary data to design a prototype school building within the allocated budget. The design was subsequently submitted to and approved by the concerned authorities. The prototype was first used in building Sutham Witthaya School, Uthai Thani Province.

The next step was to evaluate the building and to modify the design as needed so that the prototype can be improved and used as the standard for the future.

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b

I

PROTOTYPE: SUTHAM WITTHAYA SCHOOL,

UTHAI THANI PROVINCE

The DGE selected Sutham Witthaya School, Uthai Thani as the site for the prototype because of its small size and limited area. In its original location within the grounds of Wat Tha Sung near the town

Centre, the school could not accommodate the rapid annual increase Being in the town Centre, the school had sufficient water and

in student numbers. The construction of a nine-classroom secondary school was therefore proposed in line with the goals of the Sixth National Economic and Social Development Plan (1987-1991). The Secondary Education Committee of Uthai Thani was enthusiastic in finding a site that suited the DGE criteria, which called for an accessible and centrally located site to ensure that construction was supervised and followed-up.

However, the schools water pipes had to be

extended and the old transformer improved. Although there was no need for land falling, it was suggested that funds for ground leveling

along the slope should be set aside. Money saved on the foundations was an obvious benefit.

area was bound by Sakae Krang Hill, west by Wat Tha Sung, and east by Uthai Thanis Land Reform Office.

electricity supply.

The school had many advantages. It was centrally nearest secondary school was 3 kilometres away), supported by the temple and the community.

located (the and it was

Site

The site, an 11 rai (17,600 sq.m.) plot of land owned by Wat Sangkat Ratanakiri, was in Uthai Thani’s town Centre. It did not include the mountain and sloped areas behind the school which could have been used to provide housing for the teachers and agricultural plots or recreational gardens. The school faced Tha Chang Road and was located about 500 metres from the town Centre. The back

Design Evaluation Significance

Architectural design involves a study of the building materials and the structural system to serve as a basis for the formulation of a practical construction plan. Once construction of the building is completed, solutions for anticipated problems must be identified. These problems may concern the efficient use of various areas (both

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inside and outside the building), as well as building stability, physical looks and economic viability. Architectural design should be handled by those who are knowledgeable of relevant structural systems and the property of materials. At the same time, they should also have some artistic training.

The design should incorporate a wide range of details concerning the building and the purpose for which it is being built. These design details are crucial to solving problems which may arise in the future. Buildings that are based on the same design are used under different environmental conditions. This shows the need to ensure that the preliminary design is of a high standard.

Sometimes in responding to specific problems, it is possible that certain building designs could give rise to other problems. For example, due to the warm weather in Thailand, many building designs allow the open flow of the wind, but in so doing they may not be able to prevent the rain from getting in.

The architect should check and re-check the design, aware of the need to evaluate and improve it. The evaluation should cover all aspects of the construction and should be carried out at all stages of the construction. The architect should study the significance of all details concerning the building’s dimensions, such as the width of stairs, the distance between buildings, the use of various materials in different areas of the building versus the resistance from both natural

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deterioration and normal wear and tear, and the visual or general impression of the building.

Although undertaken by field experts such as architects and engineers, this type of evaluation does not guarantee that the building will be trouble-free. It is impossible to simulate actual conditions in a single design. Human knowledge has its own limitations.

Currently available testing instruments do not cover all the details that need to be studied. Sunshades can prevent direct light from hitting the building, but they do not necessarily prevent the rain from getting in. Depending on conditions at certain times of the day, they can reduce the amount of glare entering the building’s interior, but they can also absorb more natural light. The limited time set aside for designing a building does not always permit a thorough checking of all relevant factors. Thus, follow-up work and monitoring even after the building is put to use are important. Modifications should be made as required. Follow-up also provides inputs for further studies in building design.

Evaluation Objectives

To develop a design for a prototype building, a standard building design is modified and improved. Eventually the prototype becomes the standard. After a period of use, the prototype is evaluated to determine the level of users’ satisfaction and the efficiency of building use.

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The teaching and learning activities carried out in the building, the utilization of various areas and the physical aspects of the building should be in accordance with the goals set by government policy.

It is the policy of the government to construct small secondary schools nationwide, particularly in the rural areas. The evaluation should cover the following areas:

+ Suitability of the building with regards to teaching/learning activities;

+ Extent to which it has been used to serve the community; and

+ Adaptability of the building design for nationwide use.

Evaluation Goals

The evaluation should also cover the following details:

+ General aspect arid size of each type of building, viewed from its suitability to serve specific teaching/learning goals;

+ Various components and details of the materials and facilities, to check their suitability to serve the purpose of the building;

+ Position of the building and its various components;

+ Extent of the building’s flexibility with regards to inter- building links; and

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+ Extent to which the design makes use of readily available materials and skilled local labour.

As the building design is multidisciplinary in nature, the evaluation should cover a variety of details. These are addressed by setting up sub-goals.

Evaluation Methods

To formulate a concept that would provide the basis for the development of an appropriate design, a team of architects from DGE carried out a problem identification exercise through

questionnaires and by brainstorming with the building’s users and

The design was evaluated to determine

other concerned parties.

whether it responds to relevant problems, as it is meant to do, or if it

diverts from the set goals, and if so, to what extent.

The conceptual aspect of the design should be carefully analyzed and clarified, so that it can be applied in the formulation of evaluation goals and used as basis for a new design that responds better to actual needs.

Careful consideration of recommendations from a “concept” seminar, which appeared in a report entitled The Prototype for Small

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Secondary Buildings* (submitted to UNESCO in 1988 by the Design and Construction Division, Department of General Education), provided the basis for an evaluation approach in- corporating the aspects described below:

1. The basic purpose of a school is to provide education and to serve as a community education centre. School buildings should, therefore, be so designed that they can also serve the

The following points should be taken into

community.

account:

Access.

Space for student recreation.

Lighting system.

Relevant materials and facilities.

Water supply, including drinking water and water for general use.

Management of school buildings according to various services rendered to the community.

Management of space for public activities.

Preparations for building and property safety.

* (Published in 1990 as Educational Building Report No. 19, Innovation in Construction of Small Secondary Schools in Thailand by UNESCO).

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2. A self-contained school building should meet the needs of a 3-6-9 classroom school (that is, a phased extension). The following points should be taken into account:

+ Does the existing design allow future extension?

+ Does the nature of the classrooms and facilities allow

future modifications to serve new activities?

+ Is the allocation for extension/modification sufficient?

3. As the school buildings are inter-linked, the design should take into account the site and utilization of outdoor areas, as for example, shaded areas for outdoor activities. The following points should be considered:

Nature of activities for which the shaded areas are used (workshop/training, teaching/learning, recreation, exer- cises, carpark, storage). Size of a suitable shaded area. Features of a desirable area. School buildings in relation to the shaded areas. Direction in which the buildings were constructed. Rotation in which the buildings were constructed. Rotation of room usage. Width of corridors and linking passageways. Suitable length of corridors and linking passageways. Effectiveness of protection against the sun and rain. Waiting areas to be used during room transfers between classes.

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+ Management of linking passageways to ensure maximum utilization.

+ Study of construction site.

+ Suitable height of buildings according to actual usage (one, one and a half or two floors).

Building utilization as a means of alleviating environ- mental problems.to actual usage (one, one and a half or two floors). 4. Deployment of the most

4. Deployment of the most economical and beneficial con- struction system. The following points should be taken into consideration:

+ Construction methods.

Materials.should be taken into consideration: + Construction methods. + Building dimensions (height, etc.). + Skilled and

+ Building dimensions (height, etc.).

+ Skilled and unskilled labour.

+ Construction techniques.

+ Maintenance cost.

All these issues should be taken into account when evaluating the building’s suitability to specific geographical areas. They should be incorporated in the evaluation process.

The architectural team consisted of five individuals who were selected for their experience and expertise in government school design. Their inspection of the Sutham Witthaya School in Uthai Thani, focusing on buildings based on the prototype design, took

into account real life conditions. Further improvements of the design were discussed.

Although highly experienced, the team members were hindered by the narrowness of their technical specializations. To gather supple- mentary data, they discussed with a group of teachers who were users of the school buildings. Prior to the team’s mission, a working group was fielded to survey the users of the prototype and to compare their responses with those of users of other types of buildings.

The second working group, which consisted of senior educators, started its task by formulating questionnaires for school admin- istrators, representatives of the Provincial Secondary Education Committee, and students and community representatives. These questionnaires were tested at Niwitras Upatham School, Tha Maga District, Kanjanaburi Province. After modifications, they were used at Sutham Witthaya School, Thammaprany Witthaya School Kangkhoy District, Saraburi Province, Srikhotaboon School, Muang District, Nakhom Phanom, and Chaiburi Witthayakhom School, Tha Uthain District, Nakhom Phanom.

The data was subsequently analyzed to assess use of the building for teaching/learning purposes. This analysis, together with the evaluation of the design drawn by the architectural team, was an important input to the development of a better design standard to suit specific objectives.

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SCOPE OF STUDY: EVALUATION CONTENTS

I

Expenses incurred in constructing the prototype building were paid from the government’s budget. Clearly, the benefits reaped cannot be assessed in financial terms only.

The analysis of Sutham Witthaya School in Uthai Thani was based The scope of the evaluation was limited to the physical attributes of on the blue print and actual conditions of the buildings. Up to the the prototype building and how they could be modified to enhance period of the study (1989-1990), it was the only school which was the usefulness of secondary school buildings and to solve problems built based on the prototype design. arising from certain conditions during construction. The results of this study will be applied to improve school buildings and to solve problems occurring in the rural areas.

Scope of Geographical Sampling

The buildings that were evaluated had been in use for some time.

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BUILDING EVALUATION: SUITABILITY FOR TEACHING/LEARNING ACTIVITIES
BUILDING EVALUATION:
SUITABILITY FOR TEACHING/LEARNING ACTIVITIES

The school buildings at Sutham Witthaya School in Uthai Thani had 2. The reliability of these tools was tested at Niwitrat-Upatham

been in use since 2 July 1989. A working group consisting of four educators was sent there from 25 September to 14 October 1989 to evaluate the suitability for teaching/learning activities of prototype- based buildings at the Wat Sutham Witthaya School and of buildings in three other schools which were based on different designs. The following steps were taken:

School, Thamaka District, Kanjanaburi Province, with a view to improving and modifying them prior to actual use.

3. The working group carried out its tasks at the prototype school at Sutham Witthaya School, Uthai Thani, and at three other schools which consisted of two-storey standard build-ings (that is, eight classrooms). These were Thamaprang Witthaya School, Kangkhoy District, Saraburi, Srikhotboon School, Muang District, Nakhon Phanom; and Chaiburi Witthavakhom . School. Tha-Uthen District. Nakhom Phanom.

4. The data collected was analyzed by the working group. The results were as follows (see Annex A):

1. A questionnaire was constructed to be used as an assessment tool. The questionnaire was used by three groups:

Group 1:

School administrators and representatives from the Provincial Secondary Education Committee;

Group 2:

Teachers; and

Group 3:

Currently enrolled students in grades 7, 8, and 9.

Group 1: Both the school administrator and representatives from the Provincial Secondary Education Committee

A separate questionnaire was distributed to: agreed that classroom size and utilization of the prototype school were better than in the other

schools. As for the workshops, there was no difference between the two types of schools.

Group 4: Community representatives engaged in different occupations.

10

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Group 2:

The teachers found that the size and use of classrooms in the prototype school were more beneficial compared with the other schools. There was no difference in their workshops.

Group 3:

The students felt that the size of the prototype school, its classrooms and workshops, as well as their usage, were better, compared with the other schools.

Group 4:

According to the community representatives who were interviewed, the prototype school had not yet offered its services to the general public, while the other schools had already done so.

Discussion Summary

1. The prototype-based school buildings had suitably sized classrooms, special rooms and workshops, compared with the other schools, because their design took into account the nature and range of teaching/learning activities carried out in small-sized secondary schools, where student enrolment is usually smaller than large schools.

2. Since the prototype school was only introduced in 1988, there was still a shortage of equipment in special activity rooms. This impeded the flexibility required in conducting teaching/learning activities. On the contrary, other schools

11

which were set up two years earlier had more teaching equipment and hence enjoyed more flexibility.

3. The prototype school had yet to offer public services. Both school administrators and teachers agreed that these services would be made available in the near future.

In summary, the assessment, in terms of the teaching/learning aspect, revealed that the size of buildings, classrooms, special rooms and workshops at Sutham Witthaya School, which was based on the prototype, was suitable for small-sized secondary schools.

Evaluation of Design Aspect

The physical aspect of the study was tackled by an expert group of five architects who collaborated with the school administrators. The group interviewed some teachers and used their responses as guidelines for improving and modifying the prototype design, eventually making it the standard.

Using the assessment table, that was developed for use as an observation tool, each architect checked and assessed various items as shown in the table. These items and details were derived from an analysis of the role of school buildings in the implementation of the government’s policy on educational service, and their adherence to the design concept. The architects were then each allowed to select those items or details which they thought were worth discussing in order to devise solutions and to improve the prototype design.

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Discussions focused on problem identification and analysis, and proposed solutions. These were presented, discussed and agreed upon at the Organizing Committee Meeting.

The problems were analyzed in terms of their causes and solutions. A part of the discussion was devoted to identifying the scope of problems at Sutham Witthaya School and the means to solve them, while another part covered the best ways to modify the existing design so that it could become a standard.

Problems and Solutions

Community System and School

1. The Sutham Witthaya School operates on a 3-3-3 classroom basis and is regarded as a fully-expanded small school. However, the introduction of upper secondary education is hindered by the limited land area.

Causes

II+The school is situated within the town Centre where student enrolment is relatively high.

* The school buildings have been designed to meet a limited student enrolment. The school buildings have been designed to meet a limited student enrolment.

The area is limited as the land is located at the foot of a hill. Besides, the area is shared with other agencies.have been designed to meet a limited student enrolment. 12 Solutions * * Before expanding the

12

Solutions *

the area is shared with other agencies. 12 Solutions * * Before expanding the school, careful
*
*

Before expanding the school, careful attention should be paid to the needs of the community.

The school should have legal right to the land, allowing it to introduce certain developments.

* The school site should be on the district plan. The school site should be on the district plan.

2. Outsiders find it confusing to locate different sections of the building.

Causes

*
*

The school has to share the area with other agencies.

*
*

The school entrance, the passageways and public areas are not well identified.

Solutions *

Solutions *

An architectural design which emphasizes the

The position of the main gate should be changed to

 
*
*

entrance to the building should be adopted and a friendly atmosphere created.

help clearly delineate public areas.

3. It is not convenient for outsiders to conduct official/business inter- actions with the school.

Causes

* The office of the headmaster and the administrative rooms are located at the back of the school. They are difficult to access.

of the headmaster and the administrative rooms are located at the back of the school. They

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The workshop is built in the front area next to the main entrance, thus blocking the rear building.image form, click on "Original" button on 1st page. Solutions An appropriate architectural design should be

Solutions

An appropriate architectural design should be used.main entrance, thus blocking the rear building. Solutions A public relations section should be added to

A public relations section should be added to the area.An appropriate architectural design should be used. 4. Maintenance and safety measures for the buildings and

4. Maintenance and safety measures for the buildings and movable assets are inadequate.

Causes

Solutions

There are no fences.movable assets are inadequate. C a u s e s Solutions The school shares the area

The school shares the area with other agencies.inadequate. C a u s e s Solutions There are no fences. There are several deserted

There are several deserted comers.no fences. The school shares the area with other agencies. Private fences and roads should be

Private fences and roads should be built.area with other agencies. There are several deserted comers. A passage for security checks around the

A passage for security checks around the area should be provided.deserted comers. Private fences and roads should be built. Adequate lighting system should be provided within

Adequate lighting system should be provided within the area. within the area.

Linking passageways between school buildings should be extended so as to expand public areas. should be extended so as to expand public areas.

The position and design of storage rooms for valuable assets should be modified to ensure tighter security. valuable assets should be modified to ensure tighter security.

Area Plan System

1. As the workshop is the most accessible area from the main entrance, workshop staff act as receptionists for other offices in the school as well as for other agencies.

Causes

*
*

The land area determines the positioning of buildings.

*
*

The location of the main entrance and the positions of various buildings are not well-related.

Solutions *

Solutions *

The main gate should be re-located.

 
*
*

For building clusters in a school, the minimal width of the flat area should not be shorter than the length of the longest building.

*
*

School buildings should be designed so that they can be linked in various ways. The formation and direction of a building cluster should be flexible.

2. There is no sports field. At present, the school makes use of the provincial stadium.

Causes

* The land area is small. * The school does not have its own land.

area is small. * The school does not have its own land. Solutions * General school
area is small. * The school does not have its own land. Solutions * General school

Solutions * General school policy and the curriculum should indicate whether a sports field is indispensable for teaching/learning. If it is, land use must be adjusted to make room for a sports field.

13

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*
*

The school’s open area should be used to compensate for the absence of a sports field.

3. Roads within the school are in poor condition.

Causes

*
*

The materials used are not good enough.

*
*

Footpaths, parking spaces and lighting have not been adequately provided.

*
*

The school should recognize the importance of a good road system to ensure the safety of lives and property, to promote public health and to provide an atmosphere conducive to learning.

4. The areas for recreation and outdoor activities do not provide an atmosphere which is conducive to learning.

Cause * The area concerned is not fully utilized. As recreation areas, the students use the open space on the ground floor of the two-storey buildings and the passageways/balcony for recreation.

buildings and the passageways/balcony for recreation. Solutions * * Students’ use of space for relaxing and

Solutions *

and the passageways/balcony for recreation. Solutions * * Students’ use of space for relaxing and doing
*
*

Students’ use of space for relaxing and doing specific activities should be studied.

Suitable activities intended for such spaces should be planned, e.g. to allow the students’ study space, outdoor tables and chairs should be placed under big trees.

Shaded areas outside the buildings should be used to benefit teaching/learning, e.g. shaded areas should not be used exclusively for parking.outdoor tables and chairs should be placed under big trees. Improvement of certain areas (e.g. open

Improvement of certain areas (e.g. open fields, gardens, etc.) based on an architectural plan, should be undertaken.shaded areas should not be used exclusively for parking. School Building System The school has three

School

Building

System

The school has three buildings.

A. The first building is a two-storey structure with classrooms and

service rooms upstairs.

The ground floor is left open.

1. First Aid

*
*

Access is difficult.

Room

*
*

There is no water for cleaning.

*
*

It is inconvenient to use.

Causes

*
*

As the room is located upstairs, the students must climb the stairs to reach it.

*
*

The room is too small.

Solutions *

Solutions *

It should be re-located downstairs.

14

*
*

A toilet, a sink and a cleaning area should be provided.

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2.

3.

4.

*
*

The area should be extended to

provide separate

sections for boys and girls. The

officer-in-charge

and the students can also be given separate working

areas.

Solutions

A backstage room should be constructed. * The safety system should be given adequate attention.

*
*
should be given adequate a t t e n t i o n . * 5.

5. There is no room to store physical education equipment.

Administrative

Room

Access by parents and outsiders isto store physical education equipment. Administrative Room i n c o n v e n i

inconvenient. Cause * At present, the space on the ground floor is used for physical education exercises, but since it serves

as an all-purpose area, partitions are undesirable because they restrict storage of equipment.

are undesirable because they restrict storage of equipment. C a u s e It is located

Cause

It is located upstairs and is not accessible.because they restrict storage of equipment. C a u s e Solution * It should be

Solution

* It should be re-located downstairs to allow easy access by the general public. It should be re-located downstairs to allow easy access by the general public.

The ground floor is under-utilized.

Cause

* It is sometimes used for meetings and stage activities. However, the low ceiling restricts stage activities.

* It is sometimes used for meetings and stage activities. However, the low ceiling restricts stage

Solutions

The distance or space between floors should be increased.Solutions

The height of the stage should be increased.The distance or space between floors should be increased. The sound system is inadequate. C a

The sound system is inadequate.

Cause

The amplifier is at present kept upstairs, it is there- fore inconvenient to use during meetings.be increased. The sound system is inadequate. C a u s e Solutions * A room

Solutions

*
*

A room underneath the stairs should be renovated and used for this purpose.

*
*

The space underneath the stage should be converted into a storage room.

6. The guidance room is under-utilized.

Cause

*
*

As the guidance room is in the teachers’ lounge, it is inconvenient to use.

Solutions

*
*

It should be in an area with easy access.

*
*

Adequate space to organize exhibitions should be provided.

*
*

It should be located near the library so that equipment and facilities can be shared.

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7. The library should have a better atmosphere.

Causes

*
*

The polished cement floor contributes to an unappealing atmosphere.

*
*

Specific rules should determine the kinds of ials to be used in construction.

Solution

*
*

The floor surface should be decorated with clean, colourful mats, tiles or coverings which induce a convivial atmosphere.

8. The walls of the room underneath the stairs permit sounds to echo. It is also badly ventilated.

Cause

The stairs were made in such a way that all thepermit sounds to echo. It is also badly ventilated. Cause Lighting and ventilation are sides are

Lighting and ventilation are

sides are solid. inadequate.

Solution * Lighting and air vents should be increased.

Solution * Lighting and air vents should be increased. 9. Passageways to link the buildings are

9. Passageways to link the buildings are inadequate.

Cause

*
*

The common area at the hall near the stairs on the ground floor is very small. It gets crowded when a large number of students converge there to change classrooms.

Solution

*
*

The linking area should be enlarged.

16

B. The second building has only one storey. Its floor is raised about one metre above the ground. It is connected to the first building by an L-shaped passageway.

1.

The area under the floor is difficult to maintain.

Cause

x
x

It is difficult to clean as the ceiling is low. It may turn into a water-locked area in the future.

Solution

*

The height should be increased to maximize use.

 
*
*

The area should be enclosed to control usage.

2.

The connected buildings are too close.

Cause

*
*

The linking passageway is short and the roofs are too close to one another.

Solution * The linking passageways should be widened and lengthened. The buildings should be linked in various ways to allow flexibility.

linking passageways should be widened and lengthened. The buildings should be linked in various ways to

C.

The third building is the workshop. It has one floor constructed near the ground, its roof is higher than in normal classrooms.

1.

Use of the co-operative room has proved inconvenient.

Cause * There is no special room for carrying out co- operative activities. As a result, a section of the workshop is devoted for this purpose.

r a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s

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Solutions *

click on "Original" button on 1st page. Solutions * * A co-operative room should be provided
*
*

A co-operative room should be provided outside the workshop.

The purpose and use of each room for various activities should be studied.

2. Storage space for materials and equipment used in agriculture is inadequate.

Cause

*
*

There is no room for this purpose.

Solution

*
*

A proper way of storing such equipment should be studied. They should not necessarily be stored in the workshop.

3. Rain enters the building.

Cause

*
*

Rain goes through the deteriorated air-vents.

*
*

It enters the air-vents between the two sections of the roof. (The roof was designed in two layers of gables to release heat).

Solutions

*

The air-vents at the front and rear of the building should be improved.

*
*

A better method of monitoring the laying of roof

tiles

workmanship.

should

be

found

to

ensure

quality

4. The area is restricted.

Cause

Designed as a multi-purpose workshop, the whole area had to be divided to accommodate the courses on offer. This tended to create confusion during practical training hours.be found to ensure quality 4. The area is restricted. Cause The shaded areas should be

The shaded areas should be used for practical work so as to enlarge the working space.

Movable blackboards should be made available as they will increase flexibility in dividing the area to accommodate varying numbers of students.used for practical work so as to enlarge the working space. Solutions * Learning Facilities and

Solutions *

to accommodate varying numbers of students. Solutions * Learning Facilities and other Components 1. Rain gutters

Learning Facilities and other Components

1. Rain gutters have not been utilized.

Causes

*
*

Rain water flowing through the gutter has not been stored for future use.

*
*

There is no system to drain rain water from the gutter.

*
*

There is no drainage system within the school area.

Solutions

*
*

A resting pond to keep rain water from the gutter should be dug.

*
*

A drainage system using the gutters should be provided within the area.

17

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2. The walls become dirty easily.

Causes

*
*

The walls are painted with a light coloured plastic paint which becomes dirty at the slightest touch.

Solution

* At the 1.20-1.50 metre-level, oil paint should be used to make cleaning much easier. At the 1.20-1.50 metre-level, oil paint should be used to make cleaning much easier.

3. It is not convenient for the students to use the toilets.

Cause

*
*

The toilets are located outdoors and are far from the buildings.

18

Solutions *

outdoors and are far from the buildings. 18 Solutions * The toilets should be built within

The toilets should be built within the school building to meet the needs of various people, i.e. toilet in the first-aid room for patients, another in the teachers’ lounge, etc.

The quantity of water required for cleaning within the school should be studied.room for patients, another in the teachers’ lounge, etc. Appropriate locations for the toilets should be

Appropriate locations for the toilets should be determined.

*
*

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image form, click on "Original" button on 1st page. SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS This report gives an
SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS
SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This report gives an account of the development by the DGE of a prototype for secondary schools to help promote education in the rural areas. It is hoped that this prototype design, which was developed following standard design procedures, will be used as a standard design in rural areas throughout the country. With assistance from UNESCO, the Design Division conducted a survey to gather relevant data and useful information. Using government funds, the final design was constructed as a prototype at Sutham Witthaya School, Uthai Thani Province.

This prototype had been in use for a period of time when an evaluation was undertaken. The findings were used to further improve the original design so that it could serve as a standard design later on.

The assessment focused on the physical aspect of the prototype and was conducted in two stages. Firstly, the prototype users were asked to rate their satisfaction with the way the prototype building suited teaching/learning activities. Secondly, the evaluation tackled the efficiency by which the prototype responded to the original concept of the design. The results are summarized as follows:

Evaluation of Teaching/Learning Aspects

Discussions based on the completed questionnaires from represen- tatives of administrators, teachers and students yielded the following results.

+ The prototype, which had better-sized classrooms, special rooms and workshops, compared with the conventional standard type buildings, satisfied the teaching needs of small secondary schools in rural areas.

+ Having been established recently, the prototype was short of, if not lacking, teaching facilities. It was not as flexible as it should be, nor was it ready to render public service.

Evaluation of the Design Aspect

This task was conducted by another working group consisting of experienced architects. They interviewed teachers and admin- istrators. Their discussions confirmed that the classrooms, special rooms and workshop in the prototype building at Sutham Witthaya School were suitably sized for teaching/learning activities in small

19

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secondary schools. These coincided with the evaluation results of the first working group.

The architects’ working group proposed the following actions so that the prototype can become the standard design in the future.

1. Make sure that only a small sized school is to be built within the allocated area.

2. The school should have its own private area with adequate flat land around it to meet certain needs and specifications. The immediate environment determines the size of the school area. For instance, if a school is located near a public stadium, it may have to be smaller than the size originally planned.

3. Service offices, such as the administrative section, should be re-located to areas with easy access to facilitate interactions with outsiders.

4. The building layout should have an uncluttered look and should allow for a small path around the building for maintenance and security purposes.

20

5. Internal traffic and transportation arrangements should be adequately organized to ensure convenience and security.

6. Recreational and multi-activity areas should be suitably provided inside and outside the building.

7. The open space on the ground floor of a two-storey building should not be enclosed by walls.

8. There should be a special room for storing expensive equipment, such as scientific tools and musical instruments.

9. Materials should be used properly in order to enhance the teaching/learning environment, while promoting health and hygiene.

10. The building should be efficiently utilized, as for example, by rotating the use of classrooms.

11. Some variety should be incorporated in the design of passageways to link buildings.

12. Detailed building specifications should suit climatic conditions and the availability of skilled local labour.

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I
I

Schedule of accommodation

1. Classroom building

6 classrooms

403.2

sq.m.

Principal and assistant

32

sq.m .

Administration

124.8

sq.m.

Guidance and first aid

32

sq.m .

Teacher room

64

sq.m .

Library

124.8

sq.m.

Laboratory

96

sq.m.

Multi-purpose room

64

sq. m

Audio-visual lab

96

sq.m .

Circulation and toilets

334.4

sq.m .

Total area

1,371.2

Estimated cost: US$120 per sq.m.

US$164,544

2. Cafeteria (ground floor)

499.2

sq.m.

Estimated cost: US$60 per sq.m.

US$29,952

3. Workshop

240

sq.m .

Estimated cost: US$120 per sq.m.

US$28,800

Total area

2,110.4

sq.m.

Area per student

4.69

sq.m.

Cost of buildings 1 + 2 + 3 =

US$223,296

Approximate total cost

US$223,000

23

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in image form, click on "Original" button on 1st page. AERIAL VIEW FROM THE MOUNTAIN LOOKING

AERIAL VIEW FROM THE MOUNTAIN

LOOKING THROUGH OPEN COURT

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image form, click on "Original" button on 1st page. 25 Some Problems: The linking area is

25

Some Problems:

The linking area is very small, so it becomes crowded when a large number of students have to change classrooms.

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PROTOTYPE II

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I
I

30

PROTOTYPE II Walkway and Exhibition 290 sq.m. Social Study 125 sq.m. T e a c

PROTOTYPE II

Walkway and Exhibition

290 sq.m.

Social Study

125 sq.m.

Teacher

125 sq.m.

Admin.

125 sq.m.

Co-operative

160 sq.m.

5 Classrooms

400 sq.m.

Storage

64 sq.m.

Toilet

64 sq.m.

Library

125 sq.m.

Lab.

128 sq.m.