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BAHAN AJAR
Genre: Narrative
Class: XI

CYCLE ONE
STAGE 1: BKOF
Activity 1
Observe the pictures below!

Picture 1

Picture 2

Answer these questions orally.


1. What is the pictures above?
2. Do you enjoy reading story books?
3. What kind of story books do you like?
4. Do you have any favourite authors?
5. What is your favourite story book?
6. Do you tell stories to other people?

STAGE 2: MOT
Activity 2
Your teacher will read the story of PRINCESS AND THE PEA, listen carefully
and complete the blanks with the correct words
PRINCESS and THE PEA
Once upon a time there was a .(1)who wanted to marry a princess, but
she would have to be a real(2). He traveled all over the world to find one, but
nowhere could he get what he wanted. There were princesses, but it was difficult to
find out whether they were real ones. There was always something about them that
was not as it should be. So he came home again and was sad, for he would have
liked very much to have a real princess.
One evening a...(3)storm came; there was .(4)and(5), and rain
poured down in(6). Suddenly a knocking was heard at the city gate, and
the old king went to open it.
It was a princess standing out there in front of the(7). But, good
gracious ! what a sight the rain and the wind had made her look. The water ran

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down from her hair and clothes; it ran down into the toes of her shoes and out again
at the heels. And yet she said that she was a real princess.
Well, well soon find that out, thought the old queen. But she said nothing,
went into the bed-room, took all the (8)of the(9), and laid a pea on the
bottom; then she took twenty mattresses and laid them on the pea, and then
twenty eider-down beds on top of the ..(10)
On this princess had to .(11)all night. In the morning she was asked how
she had slept.
Oh, very badly! said she. I have ..(12) closed my eyes all night. Heaven
only knows what was in the bed, but I was lying on something hard, so that I am
black and blue all over my body. Its(13)!
Now they knew that she was a real princess because she had left the pea right
through the twenty mattresses and the twenty ..(14) beds.
Nobody but a real princess could be as sensitive as that.
So the prince took her for his wife, for now he knew that he had a real princess;
and the (15) was put in the museum, where it may still be seen, if no one
has stolen it. There, that is a true story.

Activity 3
Answer the following question based on the text above!
1. Who is the first person mentioned?
2. What did this person want?
3. What happened that night?
4. Who came?
5. How is his /her appearance?
6. What did the queen do?
7. What was the guest reaction?
8. What was the ending?
9. What kind of verbs are mostly used in the text?
10. What is the type of the text above?

Activity 4
Read the following passage!
The giant was very strong. He almost caught Timun Mas again. So Timun
Mas took the third magical item, the cucumber seeds. She threw the seeds
and suddenly they became a wide cucumber field. The giant was very tired
and hungry so he ate those fresh cucumbers. He ate so much that he felt
sleepy and fell asleep soon.
o You use the simple past tense to talk about things that happened in the
past.
o For most verbs the past simple form ends in ed (regular verb) :
I work in travel agency now. Before that I worked in a shop.
We invited them to our party but they decided not to come
The police stopped me on my way home last night.
She passed her examination because she studied very hard.
o Some verbs have the irregular past form.
Mozart wrote more than 600 pieces of music
We saw Rose in town a few days ago
I went to the cinema three times last week
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I found the wallet yesterday


THE SIMPLE PAST TENSE
Affirmative Form
Subject + V 2

Time signal :
.ago.
two days ago
four years ago.
Last
Last year
Last two days
Yesterday
The day before

Negative Form
Subject + did not + V 1
Interrogative Form
Did + Subject + V 1 + ?

Activity 5
What are the past form of the following verbs? Write down your answer in
the blanks.
PRESENT

begin
break
buy
eat
get
come
sit
run
tell
cut

PAST

PRESENT

find
fly
give
take
do
feel
sleep
drive
hear
say

PAST

PRESENT

PAST

make
meet
drink
throw
catch
have
swim
shine
know
bring

Activity 6
Complete the sentences. Put the verb into the correct form, positive or
negative. No 1 & 2 has been done for you.
1. It was warm, so I took off my coat. (take )
2. The film wasnt very good. I didnt enjoy it very much. (enjoy)
3. I knew Sarah was very busy, so I ...her. (disturb)
4. I was very tired, so I ....to bed early. (go)
5. The bed was very uncomfortable. I..very well. (sleep)
6. Sue wasnt hungry, so she ....anything. (eat)
7. We went to Kates house but she..at home.(be)
8. It was a funny situation but nobody...(laugh)
9. The window was open and a bird....into the room. (fly)
10.
The hotel wasnt very expensive. It.very much. (cost)

Activity 7
Read what Shanti says about a typical working day :
I usually get up at 7 oclock and have a big breakfast. I walk to work,
which takes me about half an hour. I start work at 8.45. I never have lunch. I
finish work at 5 oclock. Im always tired when I get home. I usually cook a
meal in the evening. I dont usually go out. I go to bed at about 11 oclock. I
always sleep well.
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Yesterday was a typical working day for shanti. Write what she did or didnt
do yesterday
1. She got up at 7 oclock.
2. ....at 5 oclock.
3. Shea big breakfast.
4. ..tired when....home.
5. ..a meal yesterday evening.
6. It.to get to work.
7. ..out yesterday evening.
8. ...at 8.45.
9. ..at 11 oclock.
10. ...well last night.

Activity 8
This is a famous story. Fill in the blanks with the correct past form of the
verbs in the brackets. Can you guess the title of this story?
One day Bawang Putih (have). to wash clothes at the river. She was
very tired and a piece of clothing was being dragged by stream. When
stepmother (notice) .that one of clothing was missing, she
(become).. very angry and beat Bawang Putih with a piece of rattan.
The she (make) her look for the piece of clothing at the river side.
Every time she (meet). somebody, she (ask) for her
missing piece of clothing. At first, she met a man who was bathing his horse.
Then she met a man who was fishing on the river.
At last, after having walked for some time, she (come).. near woods
where she (see). an old woman washing rice. When she asked her
about her clothes, the old woman (say).. that she had seen her clothes.
In fact the old woman (be) ..a demon, called Nini Buto Ijo.
Then, Bawang Putih (gather).. her courage to say that she(want)
to go home. The next morning, the demon(give). her the piece
of clothing and a melon which should be opened in her home. Quickly, she
(open). the melon and there(be).. gold, silver and precious inside it.

Activity 9
Read the Notes:
A narrative is a type of spoken or written text that tells a story of one
character or more who face certain situations. There are various kinds of
narratives such as fairy stories, mysteries, science fictions, romance, horror,
etc. Narrative text can be found in short story books, magazines, novels,
movies, etc. Narratives are popular because they present plots which consist
of complications and resolutions. They make people feel curious and anxious
with the ends of the stories.
A. Generic Structure of Narrative Text:
The narrative organization includes :
1. Orientation : Introducing the characters of the story, the time and the
place of the story.
2. Complication : The stage where something unexpected happens or
events go wrong for one of the main characters.
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3. Complication
B.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

: The ending of the story containing the problems solution.

Generic (Lexicogrammatical) Features:


A narrative focuses on specific participants.
There are many action verbs, verbal and mental processes.
It usually uses past tenses.
Direct and indirect speeches are often used.
Linking words are used, related with time.
There are sometimes some dialogs and the tense can change.
Descriptive language is used to create listeners or readers imagination.
Temporal conjunctions are also used.

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FUNCTIONAL SKILL
Activity 10
Asking for Opinion and expressing ideas
I think its
wonderful

What do you think


about the story?

Activity 11
Study the expressions of asking for opinion and expressing ideas below.
ASKING FOR OPINIONS

What is your opinion about?


What do you think about?
What do you say?
Do you have some ideas?
Etc.

RESPONSES (EXPRESSING
IDEAS)
My opinion is
I think (that) .
I think / believe (that) .
I suppose (that)
Etc.

Activity 12
In pair, practice asking for your friends opinion about something. In your
simple discussion, talk about the following points (look at the examples
above):
A.
B.
A.
B

:
:
:
:

Showing the fact (a problem that is interesting to discuss)


Asking for opinion about the fact
Expressing ideas
Giving comments on the ideas

Activity 13
In group of three or four, practice asking for your friends opinions in your
group about something. In a longer discussion, talk about the problem more
freely. The important point is that you ask for opinions and give opinions
when you are asked.

Activity 14
Role Play: The teacher will provide some problems to discuss about. He/she
will determine the speakers in the discussions: who becomes
who. The following is a sample situation that can be used.

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Situation : A parent, a teacher and a religious guide discuss seriously about


pornography in youngsters that becomes a serious problem these days.
a.
Problem: Today many students of junior and senior high school use
pictures of pornography that are kept in their hand phones, computers
and CDs.
b.
Speakers: a Parent, a teacher, and a religious guide (Ustadz/clergyman)

STAGE 3: JCOT
Activity 12
Make groups of four or five and then discuss the following questions.
Read the text again and find the characteristics listed above.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

What
What
What
What
Write

is the orientation of the story ?


is complication of the story ?
is the resolution of the story?
is the communicative purpose of the text?
the pattern of the tenses used in the text!

STAGE 4: ICOT
Activity 13
Read again the story above and then retell it with your own sentences.

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CYCLE TWO (Reading-Writing)

STAGE 1: BKOF
Activity 1
Study the following pictures and answer the questions below.

1.

What happen in the picture?


2. Have you ever heard the story Rama and Shinta?
3. Is it a legend, myth, or folklore?

Activity 2.
Before reading the following story , match the words with their synonym.
WORDS

ANSWE
R

SYNONYM

1. jealous

A. being afraid

2. quarrelling

B. asked

3. obedience

C. guilty

4. felt sorry

D. fighting

5. accepting

E. receiving

6. begged

F. condition of obeying the


rule

7. fearing

G. proposed

8. demanded

H. suspecious

Activity 3
Make the words above in good sentences in the past form.
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STAGE 2 : MOT
Activity 4
Read this story carefully and notice how he author creates the generic
structure of the text.
Generic
structures
JEALOUS WIFE AND TRICKY HUSBAND

Orientation

Complication

Resolution

A jealous wife was continually quarrelling with her husband


Over his mistress.
One day the husband said,Woman, youre driving me mad. Id
rather die then do battle with you again. Having said that, he
locked himself in his room and went without food for Few days. At
the end of it,the wife felt sorry, so she said, enough is enough! I ll
never show any jealousy over your mistress again .
After accepting a written statement of total obidience from
his wife, he got out and ate heartly. And sure enough, she became as
obidient as pet cat ever since.
A friend of the man also had a mistress and he too had got
no peace from his wife. When he heard of the trick, he decide to try
it on her.So when he came home, he locked himself up and refused
to eat. Five days passed and fearing that he would die, he began to
cry for food. Right then, his wife was in the next room preparing
meat soup and barbecued beef. The pleasant smell floated over to
his room, tempting the hungry man.
Unable to control himself any longer, he opened the door and
begged his wife, Listen! I promise that Ill never see the other
woman again if youll give me some meat to eat.
Only if you swear, she demanded. Following that, she
gave him the meat and ate it like a hungry wolf.
The next day, when he told his friend what had happened,
the friend laughed and said, Nobody can live five or six days
without food and water. As for me, I hid a bag of shelled chestnuts
in my sleeve, so that I could eat them in secret. That is the trick!

Activity 5
Answer these question based on the story above.
1. Who are the main characters in the text ?
2. Why was the first wife angry to his husband?
3. How did the first husband conqure his wife?
4. What did he bring when he locked himself in his room?
5. How long did the second husband stay in his room without food?
6. How was the result of his trick?
7. What is the social purpose of the text ?
8. The temporal sequences used in the text are : one day, ,..
9. Are the verbs in the present or in the past ?
10. What was the trick that wasnt showen by the first husband to the second?

STAGE 3: JCOT
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Sometimes we have to write a story. A good story or narrative text has a


sequence, which is the order of events, one following another in time or
place.

There are some words that are used to show the tie sequence, such as:
before
after
then
finally
while
later
first
after that

There are also sequencing links that we use in narrative story:


First/at first/ at the beginning
Previously/ before long
Then/ after that/ next
It was then that.
Finally/ in the end/ eventually

Activity 6
Arrange the following scrambled paragraphs to become a meaningful
passage. Pay attention to its generic structure.
POOH and THE HONEY POT
1. Making noises which he hoped would frighten the Heffalump, Winnie the
Pooh looked under the bed. Well, he didnt find Heffalump, but he did find
his pot of honey!
2. Apart from seeing Christopher Robin, there is nothing Pooh likes better
than eating honey. So when Christopher brought Pooh some honey one
day, Pooh was doubly happy ! Dont eat it all at once, chuckled
Christopher. Put in a safe place in case a Heffalump comes along and
tries to steal it !
3. Silly me! he laughed. Thats where I put the honey to keep it safe!
Still, a safer place would be in my tummy! So he ate the honey, and then
fell asleep again.
4. Christopher was only joking, of course, but Pooh wasnt taking any
chances. He did put the honey in a safe place, and then he went to bed
and fell fast asleep. But he began to dream that a Heffalump was trying to
steal his honey!.
5. Pooh awoke with a surprise and ran to his cupboard. And the pot of honey
wasnt there! Oh, no, cried Pooh. I wasnt dreaming ! There really is
Heffalump here in my house!

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Activity 7
Give the number based on the order of Tangkuban Perahu story.
Pictures
Words
When he was a man, Sangkuriang
met a beautiful woman. He didnt
know that she was his mother but
the woman knew he was her son.
Sangkuriang wanted to marry her.
His mother asked him to make a
lake and a boat.

Once upon a time there was a


woman (Dayang Sumbi) who lost
her tread. A dog found it and gave
it back to her. According to her
promise, the dog became her
husband.
He told his mother trhat he had
killed the dog.Dayang Sumbi hit
him and his head was injured.
Sangkuriang ran away and lived as
a monk.

The dog was really a man. One day


Dayang Sumbi had a child. His
name is Sangkuriang.

Sangkuriang tried to make a lake


and boat, but he could not finish it
in a day. He was angry so he
kicked the boat and the boat
turned upside down. It became the
mountain of Tangkuban Perahu.

Dayang Sumbi wanted to eat the


heart of a deer. So Sangkuriang
and the dog looked for a deer in
the forest. Because it was difficult,
Sangkuriang killed his dog and
took the heart to his mother.

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STAGE 4 : ICOT

Activity 8
Make a draft telling about your plan to write a story of Tangkuban Perahu. You
can write your draft by filling the chart below.
The Title :
The Figures/Character :

The Time/Place :

An Orientation :

A Complication :

A Resolution

Activity 9
Write a composition of the story above in your own sentences.
Mengetahui
Kepala SMA Tri Murti

Surabaya, 15 Juli 2008


Guru Mata Pelajaran

Dra. Hadiastuti Sri Muljani

Tri Astutik, S.Pd

PENGEMBANGAN BAHAN AJAR


Jenjang Pendidikan
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Mata Pelajaran
Kelas/Semester
Genre / Text
Siklus
I.

:
:
:
:

Bahasa Inggris
XI / I
Narrative
Written

STANDAR KOMPETENSI :
c. Membaca
:
1)
Memahami makna teks fungsional pendek dan esei berbentuk naratif dalam
konteks kehidupan sehari-hari dan untuk mengakses ilmu pengetahuan.
d. Menulis
:
1)
Mengungkapkan makna dalam teks esei berbentuk naratif dalam konteks
kehidupan sehari-hari dan untuk mengakses ilmu pengetahuan.

II. KOMPETENSI DASAR:


c. Membaca
:
1)
Merespon makna dalam teks fungsional pendek resmi tak resmi yang
menggunakan ragam bahasa tulis secara akurat, lancar, dan berterima dalam
berbagai konteks kehidupan sehari-hari.
2)
Merespon makna dan langkah retorika dalam esei yang menggunakan ragam
bahasa tulis secara akurat, lancar, dan berterima dalam konteks kehidupan seharihari dan untuk mengakses ilmu pengetahuan dalam teks berbentuk: naratif.
d. Menulis
:
1)
Mengungkapkan makna dalam bentuk teks fungsional pendek resmi tak resmi
dengan menggunakan ragam bahasa tulis secara akurat, lancar, dan berterima
dalam berbagai konteks kehidupan sehari-hari.
2)
Mengungkapkan makna dan langkah retorika dalam esei yang menggunakan
ragam bahasa tulis secara akurat, lancar, dan berterima dalam konteks kehidupan
sehari-hari dan untuk mengakses ilmu pengetahuan dalam teks berbentuk: naratif.
III. INDIKATOR
:
c. Merespon makna dalam percakapan transaksional (to get things done) dan
interpersonal (bersosialisasi) dalam bentuk tindak tutur:memyampaikan dan meminta
pendapat.
d. Merespon makna dalam teks monolog dalam bentuk cloze passage.
e. Mengungkapkan makna dalam percakapan transaksional (to get things done) dan
interpersonal (bersosialisasi) dalam bentuk tindak tutur:memyampaikan dan meminta
pendapat.
f. Mengungkapkan makna dalam teks monolog dalam bentuk cloze passage.
VI. TUJUAN PEMBELAJARAN :
c. Siswa dapat merespon makna dalam percakapan transaksional (to get things done)
dan interpersonal (bersosialisasi) dalam bentuk tindak tutur:memyampaikan dan
meminta pendapat.
d. Siswa dapat merespon makna dalam teks monolog dalam bentuk cloze passage.
e. Mengungkapkan makna dalam percakapan transaksional (to get things done) dan
interpersonal (bersosialisasi) dalam bentuk tindak tutur:memyampaikan dan meminta
pendapat

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PENGEMBANGAN BAHAN AJAR


(PBA)
Jenjang Pendidikan
: SMA
Mata Pelajaran
: Bahasa Inggris
Kelas/Semester : XII/ I
Genre / Text
: Discussion

KELOMPOK:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Drs. Sunarso
Djoko Srijatno SPd
Drs. M. Amiril M.
Drs. Lukman Hakim
M. Yakut Anas
Warsono SPd

SMA
SMA
SMA
SMA
SMA
SMA

Negeri
Negeri
Negeri
Negeri
Negeri
Negeri

2
2
1
1
1
1

Tanggul Jember
Tuban
Wringinanom Gresik
Papar Kediri
Ngawi
Gambiran Banyuwangi

WORKSHOP PENGEMBANGAN BAHAN AJAR TAHAP 1


INSERVICE 2
27 SEPTEMBER S/D 29 SEPTEMBER 2006

BATU, 2006

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PENGEMBANGAN BAHAN AJAR


Satuan Pendidikan
: SMA
Mata Pelajaran
: Bahasa Inggris
Kelas / Semester : XII / 1
Genre / Text
: Discussion
I. Standar Kompetensi
:
2. Listening
Memahami makna dalam teks fungsional pendek dan monolog berbentuk
narrative, explanation dan discussion dalam kontek kehidupan sehari-hari
4. Speaking
Mengungkapkan makna dalam teks fungsioanal pendek dan monolog
berbentuk narrative, explanation dan discussion dalam konteks kehidupan
sehari-hari
5. Reading
Memahami makna teks fungsional pendek dan teks tulis essei berbentuk
narrative, explanation dan discussion dalam kontek kehidupan sehari-hari
dan untuk mengakses ilmu pengetahuan
6. Writing
Mengungkpkan makna dalam teks tulis monolog yang berbentuk narrative,
explanation dan discussion secara akurat, lancar dan berterima dalam
konteks kehidupan sehari-hari.
II. Kompetensi Dasar
2.2 Merespon makna dalam teks monolog yang menggunakan ragam
bahasa lisan secara akurat, lancar dan berterima dalam berbagai konteks
kehidupan sehari-hari dalam teks: dicussion
4.2 Mengungkapkan makna dalam teks monolog dengan menggunakan
ragam bahasa lisan secara akurat, lancar dan berterima dalam berbagai
konteks kehidupan sehari-hari dalam teks berbentuk: discussion
5.2 Merespon makna dan langkah retorika teks tulis esei secara akurat,
lancar dan berterima dalam konteks kehidupan sehari-hari dan untuk
mengakses ilmu pengetahuan dalam teks berbentuk: discussion
6.2 Mengungkapkan makna dan langkah-langkah retorika secara akurat,
lancar dan berterima dengan menggunakan ragam bahasa tulis dalam
konteks kehidupan sehari-hari dalam teks berbentuk: discussion.
III. Indikator
Memahami isi wacana berbentuk discussion
Memahami lexicogramatika dari wacana berbentuk discussion
Memahami generic structure dari wacana berbentuk discussion
Memahami fungsi sosial dari wacana berbentuk discussion
Memproduksi wacana berbentuk discussiopn secara lisan maupun tulis
IV. Tujuan Pembelajaran
Siswa dapat :
Memahami isi wacana berbentuk discussion
Memahami lexicogramatika dari wacana berbentuk discussion
Memahami generic structure dari wacana berbentuk discussion
Memahami fungsi sosial dari wacana berbentuk discussion
Memproduksi wacana berbentuk discussiopn secara lisan maupun tulis

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V. Siklus Pembelajaran

1. Oral Cycle
Building Knowledge of Text
Gambar: A teacher shows the picture of Inul and asks some questions.
Task 1.
Answer the following questions orally!
1. Do you know the woman in the picture
2. Who is she? and what is she?
3. What do you think of her performance on the stage?
4. Do you agree on your friends opinion?
5. What about the public opinion, do they all agree?
6. What is the government attitude on the contradictive views?
Task 2.
Listen the following text and complete the missing words.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Inul is a very famous Indonesian dangdut


singer. She is well-known not only in Indonesia but
also in other countries.(1) ..., we all see in
television that many people like her but many
others do not.
People who do not like her say that it is
a(2) ... , it is not (3) ... with our culture and
religion.(4) ... those who like her say that it is an
(5) .... Art (6) ... be expressed (7) .... A French
proverb says that L art pour L art that means
art for art.
Because of that now, the parliament is still
discussing about the bill of pornography and
pornoaction.

Task 3.
Once again, listen to your teacher reading the text then state whether the
following statements are true (T) or false (F)
1. Most Indonesians know about Inul Daratista.
( ... )
2. No one objects to Inuls action.
( ... )
3. Inul fans say her action is not a porn but it is art.
( ... )
4. The government doesnt care about this matter.
( ... )
Task 4.
Now to know the generic structure of the text, complete the spaces on the
left side of the text with the following words.
conclusion / recommendation
issue
argument

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Task 5.
The social function of the text is to present ( one, two, three ) points of view
about an issue.

Modeling of Text

Task 6
Answer the following questions while you are listening to your teacher
1. What is the energy we use now?
2. People agree to use nuclear energy because it is ..
3. People do not agree to use nuclear energy because it is .
4. Because of the different opinion, the scientists try to do ....

Task 7
Your teacher will read the text again. Guess the generic structure of the text
as he stops reading the part of it. Whether it is an issue, argument or a
conclusion.
Task 8
What is the social function of the text?
Task 9
Your teacher will read the text again. List the verbs as many as you can, then
guess the tenses used in the text.
The verbs
Meaning
.......................................
.......................................
.......................................
.......................................
.......................................
.......................................
.......................................
.......................................
.......................................
.......................................
The tenses : ...................................................................

Joint Construction of Text


You have got some knowledge about Discussion Text. In this stage you will
have to create another one. Do it with your group. As you finish it, present
the result to your class.
Task 10
With your group, create a draft of monolog spoken Discussion text, then
everyone of you should present the text orally. When one of the group
members presents the new created text the other members are expected to
give comment.

Independent Construction of Text


As your knowledge on this kind of text becomes more complete, now it is
time for you to try to create a text by yourself.
Task

11
Create a draft of spoken discussion text individually
Consult your draft to your teacher
Present your revised text in front of your class

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2. Written Cycle
Building Knowledge of Text
In this stage you will deal with written text of discussion. Again observe : the
content, the generic structure, the social function and the language features
of the text.
Gene Splicing
_____________
Genetic research has produced both exciting and frightening possibilities.
Scientists are now able to create new forms of life in the laboratory due to
the development of gene splicing.
_____________
On the other hand, the ability to create life in the laboratory could greatly
benefit mankind.
For example, because it is very expensive to obtain insulin from natural
sources, scientists have developed a method to manufacture it inexpensively
in the laboratory.
_______________
Another beneficial application of gene splicing is in an agriculture. Scientists
foresee the day when new plan will be developed using nitrogen from the air
instead of from fertilizer. Therefore food production could be increased. In
addition, entirely new plants could be developed to feed the worlds hungry
people.
_______________
Not everyone is excited about gene splicing, however. Some people feel that
it could have terribled consequences. Laboratory accident, for example
might cause an epidemic of an unknown disease that could wipe out
humanity
_______________
As a result of this controversion, the government has made rules to control
genetic experiment. While some members of the scientific community feel
that these rules are too strict, many other people feel that they are not still
strict enough.
Task 12
Answer the following questions.
1. What has the genetic research produced?
2. Why have the scientists developed new method?
3. Where can we find another benefit of gene splicing application?
4. What do the scientists do to develop new plants?
Task 13.
Write the generic structure of the text on the spaces provided on the above
of each paragraph.
Task 14.
The social function of the text is .
Task 15.
Rewrite the conjunction that shows contrast on the spaces below.

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Modeling of Text

Read the following text carefully.


Good morning Ladies and Gentlemen,
First of all, I would like to thank the organizing committee for giving me the
opportunity to say a few words at this seminar. In this occasion Id like to
speak about Abortion: pro and contra
As you see, there has been a great deal of discussion on the problem of
abortion in this country and abroad. The discussion includes: is abortion legal
or illegal?, is abortion morally justified or not? But in this discussion I would
like to talk from another side.
To begin with, let me say that abortion is one of the method of birth control.
Lets see the fact about the population problem in a country. When a country
faces the problems of population explosion, the government should find
methods to solve it. But since no methods of contraception is one hundred
percent effective and successful, abortion becomes the only way out when
prevention fails.
On the other hand, abortion may cause many negative effects for womens
health.
Women risk their health and lives in bearing the weight of the operation and
its consequences. The most common complications are inflammation,
interruption of menstrual patterns, infertility, endometriosis, myoma of the
uterus and many other kinds of ovary illnesses.
So far, abortion becomes a dilema for countries with a large number of
citizens. On the one hand, it can control the birthrate but on the other hand,
it brings terrible consequences, especially for the womens health.
Task 16
Answer the following questions.
1. What is the topic of the text above?
2. What do you know about abortion?
3. Why is abortion considered legal?
4. Why is abortion considered illegal?
5. Do we need to control the birthrate?
6. So what is the problem in reducing the birthrate by abortion?

Focus on Grammar
You are going to produce an oral monolog discussion text. For the purpose,
you are going to be enforced by the following grammar features.
Sentence Connectors
Task 17
In the previous section you have found some sentence connectors such as :
however, on the contrary, etc.
Now study the following sentences and answer the questions below.
1. Inul Daratista is very popular, however not all people like her
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2. Nuclear is great source of energy on the contrary its radiation is very


dangerous.
3. It was raining therefore I stayed at home
4. Gita didnt study hard consequently she failed the exam.
Questions
1. Mention the sentence connector in the sentences above
2. What is the function of a sentence connectors?
3. Which sentence connector have similar meaning?
4. Can you mention some other sentence connector?
Study the following
How do you connect two sentences into one?

First sentence

First sentence

However
On the
contrary
Therefore
Consequently
However,
on the
contrary,
therefore,
consequently,

Second sentence

Second sentence

However and On the contrary express a contrast


Example
1. It was cold. However I still went swimming
2. Fita goes on picnic, on the contrary, Zaskia studies at home for exam
Some other connectors expressing contrast are: nevertheless, on the other
hand, although, even if, etc
Therefore and Consequently express a result
Example
1. Dani is sick, therefore he cant come to Yudas birthday party
2. Susan eats too much, consequently, she has stomachache
Some other connectors expressing contrast are: as a result, so that, as
consequence, so, so as, etc
Task 18.
Combine the sentences using however, therefore, consequently or on the
contrary.
1. Vita always study hard. She often gets good mark.
2. I bought a pair of shoes last week. I havent worn them yet.
3. Yuda broke an expensive ceramics. He was grounded by his mother.
4. It was raining. Mr. Candra arrived at the meeting on time.
5. Sakiya has spent her money carelessly. She can not buy any new books
6. Mr. Indra worked until midnight. He went to his office very early.
7. The doctor is very busy. He always has time for dinner with his family.
8. It was cold outside. Tina didnt wear a jacket.
9. Gita didnt use a dictionary. She made a lot of spelling mistakes in her
composition.
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10.
Our team were very happy as the winner. The opponent team felt
very sad.
Adverb of Manner
Task 19.
Study the following sentences and answer the questions.
1. The waste of the nuclear product completely destroy the environment.
2. The nuclear blast imperilled environment and human severely.
3. Many people say that art should be expressed freely.
4. The room was beautifully decorated.
Questions
1. What are the underlined words in the sentences above called?
2. Where are those words usually placed in the sentence?
3. How are those words formed?
4. Can you give some more example?
Study the following :
The words completely, severely, freely, beautifully are called adverbs.
Adverbs explained how something done. Adverbs are formed by adding ly
into the adjectives.
For example :
- complete + ly completely
- severe
+ ly severely
- free
+ ly freely
- beautiful + ly beautifully
The position is usually before or after the main verbs. And after the
direct object.
Example
1. He drive carefully
2. They have finished the work quickly
Note
The position of adverb before the main verbs is amphasizing the
verbs.
e.g The waste of the nuclear product completely destroy the environment
The adverb of manners in passive sentences is usually right after
the to be
e.g The lesson is completely taught to the students
There are adverbs that have the same form of adjectives. They are:
early, far, fast, hard, etc.
Note
The adverb of good is well
Badly, highly and deeply mean very.
Task 20.
Fill in the blanks with the suitable adverbs.
1. We waited . For David to turn up, but he must have forgotten all about
the appointment.
2. When turned up, the show had started.
3. It was a exciting show, but we missed part of it.
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4. She packed her books and placed them on the shelf.


5. Can you talked please? I cant hear you .

Joint Construction of text

Do the following instructions.


1. Make a group of four or five.
2. Choose one of the following topics :
1. The use of calculators in the classroom: pro and contra
2. Is homework necessary?
3. Too young to be married: good or bad
3. List of the positive and negative points.
Positive Points
a. ..
b. .
c. .
d. .
e. .

Negative Points
a.
b. ...
c. ..
d. ..
e. ..

4. Write monolog discussion text based on the above data


5. As you finish writing, attach the result on the wall of your class. One or
two members of each group have to stand near the text and ready to
explain or receive the comment from the other group. The rest of the
members walk around to give comment on the other groups work.

Independent Construction of Text

In this stage you have to produce a text individually. Do the following


instructions.
o Write a draft of monolog discussion text individually.
o Split your draft with your friends
o You have to correct your friends work and your friends will do it for
you
o As you finish, submit your friends works and ask yours
o If you feel OK, submit it to your teacher to get writing score.
List Script
We all need energy in our life. Most of the energy we use now comes
from oil and coal. This kind of energy will not lost long, so the scientists begin
to think to find another kind of energy. They consider the use of nuclear
energy.
People who agree with the use of the energy say that it is worth to use
because it is cheaper than any other sources of energy. On the contrary
people who do not agree with it oppose it, because it causes pollution that it
is dangerous for mankind.
Because of different opinion above, people now try to find another
alternative which is supposed to be safer and cheaper.
A disscussion text is a kind of text to present ( at least) two points of view
about an issue.
The structure usually consists of:
- issue ( statement and preview)
- arguements for and against or statement of different points of view
(point and ekaborations).
- conclusion or recomendation.
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A discussion text focuses on generic human and generic non-human


participants.
Your answer:
1. .....................
4. .....................
7. .....................

2. .......................
5. .......................

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3. .........................
4. .........................

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PENGEMBANGAN BAHAN AJAR


(PBA)
Jenjang Pendidikan
: SMA
Mata Pelajaran
: Bahasa Inggris
Kelas/Semester : XI / I
Genre / Text
: Narrative

KELOMPOK:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Djulia Andriati, S. Pd
Yunik Astutik, S. Pd.
Samiran, S. Pd
Daris, S. Pd
Drs. Edy Mulyono
Drs. Herry Effendy, M.Pd

SMAK Mater Dei Probolinggo


SMAN 1 Nganjuk
SMAN 2 Lamongan
SMAK St. Thomas Wlingi, Blitar
SMAN 1 Kedungwaru
SMAN 1 Tumpang Malang

WORKSHOP PENGEMBANGAN BAHAN AJAR TAHAP 1


INSERVICE 2
27 SEPTEMBER S/D 29 SEPTEMBER 2006

BATU, 2006

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Jenjang Pendidikan
Mata Pelajaran
Kelas / Semester
Genre/ Teks
Standar Kompetensi
Kompetensi Dasar

: SMA
: Bahasa Ingggris
: XI / 1
: Analytical Exposition
: 2, 4, 5, dan 6
: 2.1, 2.2, 4.2, 5.2, dan 6.2

UNIT 1

Genre : Analytical Exposition


Learning Objectives :
In this unit, you will.
- to identify and perform the text of analytical exposition orally
- to identify the generic structure of an analytical exposition
- to identify and use Nouns
- to write an analytical exposition text

ORAL CYCLE (Listening and Speaking)


Building Knowledge of The Field
Task 1. Answer the following questions !
1. Do you have animals at home? What are they?
2. Do you think they are pet or cattle?
3. What do people usually use the cattle for?
Task 2. Look at the pictures and name each of them!

1. .

2..

3..

Task 3. Listen the following sentences and identify the nouns!


1. Some farmers have beef cattle
2. Do you think a cow is a kind of cattle?
3. The woman milks the cow once a week
4. A lion is the king of the jungle
5. The children always love rabbits

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Modeling of the Text


Task 1 Listen to the following text and answer the questions that follow!
Cattle play a major role in modern society. Broadly speaking, there are four major
categories for the use of cattle: food, work, commercial products and sports. Over fifty percent of
the meat we eat is beef or veal, and more than ninety-five percent of the worlds milk supply is
from cattle.
In developing countries like Ethiopia, cattle play a role in agriculture by pulling plows and
carts. In countries like Sudan and Chad, cattle are often used as a pack animal. Additionally,
many commercial products are derived from cattle. Glue for instance, is made from their bones,
leather goods such as bags and shoes, from their hides. Certain type of carpets and blankets, and
even brushes are made from cow hair.
If that is not enough, one popular spectator sport in Oklahoma in the United States is the
rodeo, where cattle play an important role. In Spain and Mexico, their task is grueling as they
provide entertainment for the bullfighter.
We can conclude that cattle are obviously useful in modern life.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

What is this article about?


What are the uses of cattle in Ethiopia and Sudan?
Is there another use of cattle? What is it?
Cattle are also used in sport. Give an example!
What is the purpose of the text?

Joint Construction of Text


Task 1 : Complete the following table about the uses of cattle based on the text you have heard!
One of them has been done for you.

No

Ethiopia

Sudan

Chad

Oklahoma

Spain and
Mexico

Pack animal

1.

Task 2 Based on the prompt above, construct its oral text in pair! No 2 has been done for you.
1.

Thesis

2.

Argument 1

3.

Argument 2

4.

Reiteration

In countries like Sudan and Chad, cattle are


often used as a pack animal.

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Independent Construction of Text


Choose one of the following pictures and construct an oral analytical exposition individually!

WRITTEN CYCLE (Reading and Writing)


Building Knowledge of The Field
Task 1: Look at the picture below?
1. Where can you find the situation depicted in the picture below?
2. What do you think about the picture?

Task 2 : Answer the following questions!


1. Is your environment clean enough to live in? Why do you think so?
2. Is it easy for you to get clean air around you?
3. What might cause air pollution in your environment?
Task 3 : Fill in the following sentences with the words available in the box!

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

harmful

corrode

dump

insulator

emit

decompose

Acid can most metals.


Doctors have warned against the ..effects of smoking.
Barry had to drive six miles just to .her garden waste.
Materials that do not conduct heat well are called
An average car ..five lungful of poisonous carbon monoxide gas per mile
A dead fish in the aquarium will ..rapidly

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Modeling of the Text


Task 1 Read the text carefully and answer the questions that follow!
Air pollution is one of the harmful substances that cause damage to the environment,
human health, and quality of life.
It makes people sick like having breathing problems and cancers. It also harms plants,
animals, and ecosystems in which they live. Some air pollutants return to earth in the form of
acid rain and snow which corrode statues and buildings damage crops and forests, make
lakes and streams unsuitable for fish and other plant and animal life.
Pollution is changing earths atmosphere so that it lets in more harmful radiation from the
sun. At the same time, our polluted atmosphere is becoming a better insulator, preventing heat
from escaping back into space and heading to rise in global average temperature. Scientists
predict that the temperature increase called , global warming, will affect world supply, change
sea level, make weather more extreme, and increase the spread tropical disease.
Most air pollution comes from one human activity: burning fossil fuels - natural gas, coal
and oil to power industrial processes and motor vehicles.
Among the harmful chemical compounds put into the atmosphere are carbon dioxide,
carbon monoxide, nitrogenoxides, sulfur dioxide and tiny solid particle, called particulates.
Between 1900 and 1970, motor vehicle use expanded rapidly, and emissions of nitrogen oxides
increased 690 percent. When fuels are incompletely burned, various chemicals called volatile
organic chemical (VOCs) also enter the air. Pollutants also come from other sources. For
instance, decomposing garbage in landfills and solid waste disposal sites emits methane gas and
many products give off VOCs.
Some of these pollutants also come from natural sources. For example, forest fires emit
particulates and VOCs into the atmosphere. Volcanoes spew out sulfur dioxide and large amount
of lava rock called volcanic ash. A big volcanic eruption can darken the sky and affect the earths
atmosphere. The 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines, for example, dumped
enough volcanic ash into the upper atmosphere to lower global temperatures for the next two
years. Unlike pollutants from human activity however, natural pollutants tend to remain in the
atmosphere for a short time and do not lead to permanent atmosphere change
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

What is the best title of the text above?


What is the main idea of the text?
What does the word It in It makes people sick (paragraph 2) refer to?
What is the writers position on the text?
Find an argument that supports the writers position!
What kind of text is it?

Joint Construction of Text


Lets take a look again at another following example of analytical exposition in a form of
interview. In group, write the interview into this text organization!
Interviewer

Melisa
Interviewer

:
:

Melisa
Interviewer

:
:

Melisa
Interviewer

:
:

Hey guys! Nice to see you again. Welcome back again in the Young
Learners programme. This time Id like to interview a high school
student named, Melisa.
Good morning Melisa.
Good morning. Nice to see you
Well guys. In this occasion wed talk about an interesting topic. Guess
what it is.uhhit is HOMEWORK!.
Okey. Melisa. Do your teachers always give you homework to do at
home?
Most of the time
Hmreally? And what do you feel about that? Is it effective or
ineffective?
Well, I think that homework is ineffective in developing students skill
Oh..that surprises me. Tell me about that!

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Melisa

Interviewer
Melisa

:
:

Interviewer
Melisa

:
:

Interviewer
Melisa

:
:

Interviewer
Melisa

:
:

Well, firstly homework is a burden, because you are just forced to do tasks
that you already know how to do.
Now, thats an interesting point. And then?
Hmm.secondly , homework is ineffective because the task you do seems
like memorizing. Most of the tasks you must do have already been known
and therefore you dont discover anything
Aha..is there any other reason?
Yes, another way in which homework is ineffective is because when most
kids come home from school theyre usually tired from all the work that
they have done during the day.
Those are good reasons, Melisa. So what is your conclusion then?
My conclusion is that homework is ineffective and is not the best way to
develop students skills.
Well, thank you Melisa. See you.
See you guys.

Thesis
Argument (1)
Argument (2)
Argument (3)
Conclusion

Independent Construction of Text


Now make your own analytical text. These are additional persuasion topics that you may
consider to write
1. You persuade the readers that a person should not be allowed to have a hand gun unless
he is a law-enforcement agent.
2. You persuade your friends not to activate their mobile phones during the class.
3. You persuade the society to be in line with anti pornography code.

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EVALUATION ON ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION


Listening
I. Listen to the following text and complete the blank spaces!
Cars Should Be Banned in Cities
Cars should be banned in the city. As we all(1).., cars(2). pollution, and (3)
. a lot of road (4) . and other accidents.
Firstly, cars, as we all know, (5) to most of the pollution in the world. Cars (6)
.. a deadly gas that cause illness such as (7) ., lung cancers and triggers of (8)
. Some of these illness are so bad that people can (9) from them
(10) .. , the city is very busy. (11).. wander everywhere and cars
commonly hit pedestrians in the city, which causes them to die. Cars today are (12)
roads biggest (13).
Thirdly, cars are very noisy. If you live in the city, you may find it is (14) to
sleep at night, or (15) .. your homework, and especially talk to someone.
In(16) cars should be banned from the city far the reasons listed (17)

Speaking
Tell why cars should be banned in your city!

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Reading
Read the text carefully and answer the questions that follow!
Air pollution is one of the harmful substances that cause damage to the environment,
human health, and quality of life.
It makes people sick like having breathing problems and cancers. It also harms plants,
animals, and ecosystems in which they live. Some air pollutants return to earth in the form of
acid rain and snow which corrode statues and buildings damage crops and forests, make
lakes and streams unsuitable for fish and other plant and animal life.
Pollution is changing earths atmosphere so that it lets in more harmful radiation from the
sun. At the same time, our polluted atmosphere is becoming a better insulator, preventing heat
from escaping back into space and heading to rise in global average temperature. Scientists
predict that the temperature increase called , global warming, will affect world supply, change
sea level, make weather more extreme, and increase the spread tropical disease.
Most air pollution comes from one human activity: burning fossil fuels - natural gas, coal
and oil to power industrial processes and motor vehicles.
Among the harmful chemical compounds put into the atmosphere are carbon dioxide,
carbon monoxide, nitrogenoxides, sulfur dioxide and tiny solid particle, called particulates.
Between 1900 and 1970, motor vehicle use expanded rapidly, and emissions of nitrogen oxides
increased 690 percent. When fuels are incompletely burned, various chemicals called volatile
organic chemical (VOCs) also enter the air. Pollutants also come from other sources. For
instance, decomposing garbage in landfills and solid waste disposal sites emits methane gas and
many products give off VOCs.
Some of these pollutants also come from natural sources. For example, forest fires emit
particulates and VOCs into the atmosphere. Volcanoes spew out sulfur dioxide and large amount
of lava rock called volcanic ash. A big volcanic eruption can darken the sky and affect the earths
atmosphere. The 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines, for example, dumped
enough volcanic ash into the upper atmosphere to lower global temperatures for the next two
years. Unlike pollutants from human activity however, natural pollutants tend to remain in the
atmosphere for a short time and do not lead to permanent atmosphere change
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

What does the text tell you?


What is the topic sentence of the first paragraph?
What does the word it in it lets in more harmful radiation from the sun refer to?
What is purpose of the text?
After reading the text, what is your conclusion?

Writing
Write an analytical exposition based on the topic below!
Rubbish is a serious problem to our city.
Note: consider the generic structure on your composition

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