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EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS OF

ALTERNATIVE TRANSPORTATION FUELS

ESL875 TERM PAPER


Submitted by:
Vinita Kumari
2011CH70188

Biodiesel:

It is produced from transesterification of vegetable oil in which the


fatty acid triglycerides are reacted with a suitable alcohol
(Methyl, Ethyl, or others) in the presence of a catalyst(KOH,
NaOH) under a controlled temperature(60-70 0C) for a given
length of time.
Combustion:

0.04437 A + 0.01675 B + 0.08432 C + 0.1766


D + 0.0205 E + 9.037 O2 + 33.98 N2 6.42 CO2 + 5.92
H2O + 33.98 N2
Chemical Composition

[6]

Emissions:

[1]

Reduced CO emission:
A 100% sulphur dioxide reduction is reasonable taking into
account that biodiesel, by its vegetal origin, does not contain
sulphur. The CO emissions for biodiesel combustion in diesel
engines are 40 to 50% lower than those for conventional diesel;
this happens due to the presence of oxygen molecules in the
biodiesel, mainly in the methyl or ethyl ester, helping to obtain
complete combustion.
Reduced Particulate Matter:
High gas temperatures and high temperatures of the combustion
chamber wall contributes to less smoke and particulates. PM
emissions among biodiesels could be due to either their chemical
composition or their physical properties.The oxygen content of
biodiesel is favorable in reducing the PM emission.PM emission
decreases with increasing degree of unsaturation. The reduction
of smoke is due to the dilution of aromatics, which are soot
precursors. PM emission depends on viscosity and surface tension.
Fuels with low cetane value undergo prolonged premixed
combustion phases that are responsible for less soot formation.

Reduced Hydrocarbons:
Since biodiesel is an oxygenated fuel, it promotes combustion and
results in the reduction of unburned hydrocarbon emissions. A
decrease of unburned hydrocarbons due to complete combustion
takes place, because the chains of carbon-hydrogen and oxygen
in esters help the formation of CO2 and water unlike to what
occurs with diesel fuel.
Increased NOX Emission

The possible reasons are:


The shorter ignition delay, caused by biodiesels higher
cetane number, because of advanced combustion timing
which increases peak pressure and temperature and hence
NOX emission.
An increase in flame temperature in either premixed or
diffusion burn, which is caused by reduction in the
concentration of carbonaceous soot a highly effective heat
radiator.
The double bonds present in biodiesel may cause a higher
adiabatic flame temperature, and hence a higher
temperature at the flame front and hence increased NOX
emission.
Unsaturated compounds present in biodiesel may form
higher levels of radicals during pyrolysis and combustion.
Prompt NO is formed by reaction of radical HC species with
nitrogen, ultimately leading to formation of NO.

Ethanol:
Ethanol refers both to ethyl alcohol and to a blend of ethyl alcohol
and gasoline used as a motor vehicle fuel. In the U.S. most
ethanol is used in blends of up to 10% ethanol and 90% gasoline
(E10 or gasohol) to reduce carbon monoxide emissions and
prevent air pollution. E10 is not considered an alternative fuel,
and conventional gasoline engines can run on E10. Although
motor vehicle gasoline engines can run on E10, only flexible fuel
vehicles (FFVs) with specially modified engines can use the more
corrosive E85. The main difference between FFVs and
conventional gasoline vehicles are the materials used in the fuel
management system and modifications to the engine calibration
system.FFV engine parts are modified to resist corrosion, and a

fuel system sensor in the engine analyzes the fuel mixture and
adjusts the fuel injection and ignition accordingly.

CO emission:
The reduction in CO concentration using blended fuels is due to
the fact that ethanol (C2H5OH) has less carbon than gasoline
(C8H18). Another significant reason of this reduction is that the
oxygen content in the blended fuels increases the oxygen-to-fuel
ratio in the fuel-rich regions. The most significant parameter
affecting CO concentration is the relative airfuel ratio () .
Relative airfuel ratio () approaches 1 as the ethanol content of
the blended fuel increases, and consequently combustion
becomes complete.
CO2 Emission:
CO2 concentration increases as the ethanol percentage increases.
CO2emission depends on relative airfuel ratio and CO emission
concentration. As a result of the lean burning associated with
increasing ethanol percentages, the CO2 emission increased
because of the improved combustion.
HC Emissions: Ethanol can significantly reduce HC emissions. The
concentration of HC emission decreases with the increase of the
relative airfuel ratio, the reason for the decrease of HC
concentration is similar to that of CO concentration described
above.

[2
]
NOX Emission:
As the percentage of ethanol in the blends increases NOX
emission increases. When the combustion process is closer to
stoichiometric, flame temperature increases, therefore, the
NOx emission is increased, particularly by the increase of thermal
NO.
Carbonyl Emissions:
Carbonyl
emissions(acetaldehyde,formaldehayde,propionaldehyde)
increases with increasing ethanol percentage in the ethanol
gasoline blend. Carbonyls are formed primarily from the reaction
of hydrocarbons with OH radicals. Combustion of ethanol tends to

form carbonyl compounds due to its hydroxyl structure. In


addition, the combustion of ethanol with two carbons in structure
can easily form acetaldehyde which contains two carbons as well.
The higher emission of carbonyls can be attributed to the
addition of rich oxygen-containing ethanol.

LPG(Liquified Petroleum Gas):


LPG is a quite niche alternative fuel that can be used in special
spark ignition engines or as an auxiliary fuel in dual fuel
compression ignition engines together with diesel oil. LPG is
recovered directly from oil and gas fields (WLPGA) in which case
no actual refining is needed and also formed as a by-product in
crude oil processing either in distillation phase or after-treatment
(cracking) processes. The use of LPG in transportation is
concentrated in few countries (Korea, Turkey, Russia, and Poland)
and it is mainly used in bi-fuel light duty vehicles. LPG forms
easily a homogenous mixture with air. This combined with the
relatively simple chemical structure of LPG, it burns cleanly and is
well-suited for spark-ignition engines. For compression ignition
(diesel) engines, LPG is not suitable as the sole fuel.
In spark ignition engines, similar compression ratios are typically
used with LPG as with gasoline, even though the octane number
of LPG (112 for propane, 94 for butane) is higher than that of
gasoline. This is due to the fact that the combustion temperature
is higher when LPG is used and this lowers the knock limit
especially at high engine loads. Exceptions to this are the engines
in which LPG is injected in liquid form. In bi-fuel cars, the upper
limit for compression ratio is restricted by gasoline. Efficiency of
LPG engines is similar to gasoline engines. A higher thermal
efficiency and, therefore, improved fuel economy can be obtained
from internal combustion engines running on LPG as opposed to
unleaded gasoline. This is because LPG has a higher octane

number, typically 112 research octane number(RON) for pure


propane, which prevents the occurrence of detonation at high
engine compression ratio. In dual fuel engines under low loads,
when the LPG concentration is lower, the ignition delay of the
pilot fuel increases and some of the homogeneously dispersed
LPG remains unburned, resulting in poor emission performance.
Poor combustion of LPG under low loads because of a dilute LPG
air mixture results in high CO and unburned HC emissions.
However, at high loads, increased admission of LPG can result in
uncontrolled reaction rates near the pilot fuel spray and lead to
knock.

Emission Characteristics:

Hendriksen(2003),Verbeek
2008)

HC emissions have been reported as 40% lower, carbon monoxide


(CO) as 60% lower and carbon dioxide (CO2) as substantially
reduced, principally due to the high hydrogen/carbon

ratio(propane,butane) of LPG when compared to gasoline. It can


also be attributed to the better mixing obtained by gaseous fuel
dosification and due to the higher cylinder-to-cylinder uniformity
achieved. In some cases LPG having a slightly greater tendency to
produce CO may be due to its higher combustion chamber surface
to volume ratio and thus a proportionally higher charge cooling
and flame quenching effect. An increasing proportion of LPG in
gasoline promotes faster burning velocity of mixture and hence
reduce the combustion duration and subsequently the in-cylinder
peak temperature increases.
LPG combustion normally
produces higher
temperatures due its slightly
superior heating value, its
higher burning speed and its
lack of charge cooling effect
(obtained with gasoline by its
evaporation). Therefore NOX
emission is increased with
increasing proportion of LPG
in gasoline. Combustion of
LPG occurs in a nearly
[5]
uniform fuel air mixture
leading to a reduction in
incomplete combustion
As compression ratio increases, brake thermal efficiency
increases. LPG has a higher octane rating and hence the engine
can run effectively at relatively high compression ratios without
knock. The CO and HC emissions increase as the compression
ratio, speed, and load increase.

[5]

Because the C.V.of Gasoline


is (43MJ/Kg) less compared
to the LPG
(46.1MJ/Kg).When load
increase on the engine the
CO,HC and CO2emissions
also increase. However,
these emissions higher for
Gasoline when compared
with LPG,because of high
hydrogen to carbon ration
in LPG(propane +butane )
as compared to Gasoline.

[5]

[5]

Hydrogen(H2)
Hydrogen (H2) is the lightest and simplest gas. This makes it a
very clean energy source. Storage of this gaseous fuel for
transportation use poses challenges that are currently being
researched. The two methods of manufacturing hydrogen fuel
currently result in costs of $3 to $4 dollars a gallon and use
electricity or natural gas, which typically results in air emissions.
A safe hydrogen fuel distribution system needs to be developed to
make the quantities necessary for transportation readily
available. The ability to create the fuel from a variety of resources
and its clean-burning properties make it a desirable alternative
fuel.
Pure hydrogen and hydrogen mixed with natural gas (hythane)
have been used effectively to power automobiles with internal
combustion engines. Hydrogen's real potential rests in its future

role as fuel for fuel cell vehicles. Hydrogen and oxygen fed into a
proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell "stack" produce
enough electricity to power an electric automobile, without
producing any harmful emissions from the vehicle. However,
there are four basic issues regarding hydrogen-fueled engines and
vehicles: engine backfire and susceptibility of hydrogen to surface
ignition, somewhat reduced engine power, high nitric oxide (NOx)
emissions, and the problem of on-board storage of the fuel and
safety. Although partial solutions have been found to most of
these problems, there still is no general consensus of the best
method to finally resolve all of these issues .
Emission Characteristics:
It can be observed that
the minimum HC emission
for the three compression
ratios used in testing
occurred at an
equivalence ratio of about
0.7 and for a compression
ratio of 11:1, and further
increase of the
equivalence ratio beyond
this value resulted in a
[3]
As seen from the figure, the highest HC emission for the three
compression ratios used in testing occurred at an equivalence
ratio of about 1.2 for a compression ratio of 7:1. At equivalence
ratio of 1.0, the percentage reduction in HC emission noticed
when the compression ratio was increased from 7 to 11 was
around 22.4%.

The HC and CO emissions as


seen in the Figures are
extremely low as expected
in an engine using
hydrogen-ethanol as a fuel.
This is because the
hydrogen fuel has no
hydrocarbons, and the fact
that HC emissions arise
mainly from unburned fuels.
The absence of
[3]
Ideally, all of the carbon in the hydrocarbons should be converted
to CO2 in complete combustion. Incomplete combustion on the
other hand leads to the generation of some CO. The reason for
the presence of some CO and HC emissions in the engine fuelled
with hydrogen-ethanol is due to combustion of the lubricating oil
in the engine. The oil is not intended for combustion, and there
are ways of minimizing its ingress into the combustion chamber.
The oil can make its way into the combustion chamber past the
piston rings, through leakage at the intake valve guide, or through
the crankcase ventilation system.

[3]
As seen from the above figure variation in NOx concentration
levels is a function of the equivalence ratio for all compression
ratios. It increases for all compression ratios initially with
increasing equivalence ratios, reaches a peak value, and decline
with increasing equivalence ratio thereafter. These trends can be
explained by the fact that NO formation reactions depend upon
temperature in the combustion chamber, mixture strength, and
available oxygen, and they occur primarily in the post flame
gases. The type of the fuel used affects the flame temperatures
and the sufficiency of the available oxygen is affected by the
stoichiometry, which is in turn a function of the type of fuels used.
As the mixture air-fuel ratio gets leaner, the temperature
prevalent in the combustion chamber drops thus leading to a
weakening of the NOx formation kinetics. As the compression
ratio increases, it is observed in figure that the peak NOx
emission occurs at equivalence ratios that are leaner. At higher
compression ratios, the charge condition at the start of
combustion would be more homogeneous and this helps in
shifting the peak NOx occurrence points to the leaner side.

Compressed natural gas (CNG):

The term CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) stands for natural gas
which is
compressed at a pressure of 200 bar. The use of natural gas as a
fuel requires engines which work according to the Otto principle.
Therefore, for cars running on natural gas, Otto engines are used,
which are optimised for the use of natural gas. The adaptation
can be done exclusively for natural gas without the possibility of
using gasoline (dedicated vehicles) or for gasoline and natural gas
(bivalent vehicles). Switching from one fuel to the other can be
done by the driver at the dashboard or automatically if one of the
fuels is running out. However, diesel engines are required in
natural gas fuelled trucks and buses, which are adapted to the
Otto principle exclusively in the monovalent mode.

Emission Characteristics:
CO emission:

[4]

Carbon monoxide present in the exhaust gas is due to


unavailability of oxygen during the combustion process. Poor
mixing, local rich regions and incomplete combustion is also the
source for CO emissions The carbon monoxide values for diesel
are in range of 0.08% to 0.02%and it is getting more while
inducting CNG gas. Some amount of CNG gas replacing air in the
intake pipe that leads to insufficient of air for proper combustion
and fuel becomes rich mixture. This may be the reason for getting
more CO emissions while using CNG gas as fuel.

CO2 emission:
The carbon dioxide values for diesel are in range of 1.5% to2.00%
and it is getting less while inducting CNG gas. Some amount of
CNG gas replacing air in the intake pipe that leads to insufficient
of air for proper combustion and fuel becomes rich mixture. This
may be the reason for getting less CO2 emissions while using
CNG gas as fuel. Figure shows that the CO2 emission values are
getting lower for CNG induction of irrespective of induction length
and for induction length decreasing the CO2 values is decreasing
with load compared to other induction lengths.

[4]

Unburned hydrocarbons:

[4
]

Because of non-homogeneity
of fuel air mixture some local
spots in the combustion
chamber will be too lean to
combust properly. Other
spots may be too rich,
without enough oxygen to
burn all the fuel. With under
mixing some fuel particles in
fuel rich zone never react
due to lack of oxygen. By
induction of CNG at, there
was a little replacement of
CNG which causes low volumetric efficiency and leads to improper
mixing of fuel.

[4]
NOx emissions are result of attaining very high temperatures in
the combustion chamber. In cylinder pressure and fuel air ratio
also decides the NOx emission in the exhaust gas. As the
induction distance increases away from the engine the NOx
emissions are decreasing . The increasing in NOx emissions is due
to increase in temperature and in cylinder pressure compared to
that of diesel operation

References:
[1]California Air Resources Board, National Biodiesel Board and A Comprehensive Analysis of
Biodiesel Impacts on Exhaust Emissions, United States Environmental Protection Agency,
EPA420-P-02-001, October 2002
[2] B. Ghobadiana, T. Tavakolia, D.R. Buttsworthb, T.F. Yusafb, M. Faizollahnejad,Performance
and exhaust emissions of a gasoline engine with ethanol blended gasoline fuels using artificial neural
network, Applied EnergyVolume 86, Issue 5, May 2009, Pages 630639
[3] Syed Yousufuddin K. Venkateswarlu G. R. K Sastry, Effect of Compression Ratio and Equivalence
Ratio on the Emission Characteristics of a Hydrogen-Ethanol Fuelled Spark Ignition Engine,
International Journal of Advanced Science and TechnologyVol. 40, March, 2012
[4] Alpesh K. Panchal Chirag M. Patel Gaurav P. Rathod Tushar M. Patel,Performance and Exhaust Gas
Emission of Compressed Natural Gas Fueled Internal Combustion Engine in Dual Fuel Mode,
International Journal for Research in Technological Studies| Vol. 1, Issue 6, May 2014
[5] Norazlan B. H The Study of Combustion Characteristics for different Compositions of LPG, Faculty
of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering Universiti Malaysia Pahang MAY 2008
[6] Christian R. C., Joao A. C. Jose L. S., Biodiesel CO2 emissions: A comparison with the main fuels
in the Brazilian market

Fuel Processing Technology,Volume 90, Issue 2, February 2009, Pages 204211