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A;ii

HANDBOOK OF STRUCTURAL STABILITY

Quarterly of Applied Mathematics


Report of the Shipbuilding Research Association of Japan
Report of Ship Research Institlte
SAE Journal
SAE Transactions

Quart. Appl. Math.


Rcp. Ship. Res. Ass.

Schiffbau Forschung

Schiff. Forsch.
Struct. Eng.

Structural Engineer
The Aeroaautical Journal (of the Royal Aeronautical
Society)

Japan

CONTENTS

Rep. Ship Res. Inst.


SAE Jour.
SAE Trans.

Part I.

A. FLEXURAL BUCKLING...

Trans. Inst. Eng. Ship.


Scotland

Transaction of North East Coast Institute of Engineers and


Shipbuilders

Transaction of Royal Institute of Naval Architecture

2. Combined bending and axial compression


2.1 Load-deflection re1ation............
2.2 Ultimate strength of beam-columns................'..'.
2.3 Special cases

Trans. North East Coast


Inst. Eng. Ship.
Trans. Roy. Inst. Naval
Arch.

Transactions

of the

Trans. American Soc. Mech.

B. LATERAL BUCKLING OF BEAMS


1. Elastic lateral buckling
1.1 Narrow beams
7.2 l-beams and wide flange ems...............
1.3 Tee-beams
1.4 Narrow beams with varying cross sections
1.5 Restrained beams..'............
1.6 Others .............
2. Design formula for iateral buckling strength
3. Inelastic lateral buckling ...................
4. Others ..........

ng.

Transactions of the Architectural Institutes of Japan


Transactions of the Japan Society for Aeronautical and
Space Sciences

Trans. Arch. Inst.

Japan

Trans. Japan Soc. Aero.


Space Sci.

Transactions of the Japan Society of Civil Engineers


Transactions of the Jaran Society of Mechanical Engineers

Trans. Japan Soc. Civil EngTrans. Japan Soc. Mech.


Eng.

Transactions of the Society

of Naval Architects and Marine

Engineers

Trans. Soc. Naval Arch.

Mar.

Eng.

rr'elding Journal

Weld. Jour.

Zeitschrift fr Angervantlte Mathematik und Mechanik


Zeitschrift fr Angervandte lvlathematik und Physik

ZAMM
ZAMP

t f r F'lugrvissenschaften

zFw

National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics Technical


Note

National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics Technical


Report

..............r-3

..................t-3
.....-..-...-..-...--..-.1-Zs
....----.........-.-..1-27

............-......r-3t
........--...1-s9

.............r-7i
.-.---.1-74

............................I-80
-........1-Iog

American Society of Mechanical

Engineers

Zeitschrif

..................r-.3

1. Axial compression...............
l.l Prismatic bar, concentric ioading........'...
1.2 Prismatic bar, cccentric loading and columns with initial curvature
1.3 Prismatic bar on the elastic foundation.....................
1.4 Columns with variabie section ........'...
1.5 Composite members anC built-up members

Aero. Jour.

The Aeronautical Quarterly


Aero. Quart.
Transaction of Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders in
Scotland

STRAIGHT MEMBERS

NACA TN
NACA TR

C.

.....................1-rr1

..................1-trl

.....-I-1II
...............1-ItB

............t-r2q
............1-I2s
--..-......-I-I2g

......r-2

......r-rll
....................-3t
...........r-144

FLEXURAL TORSIONAL BUCKLING

...........r-146
1. Elastic buckling under axial compression....
....
.......
............1,148
1.1 Concentric Ioading
..............1-tS6
7.2 Eccentric 1oading.............
......1-Igo
1.3 Restrained beams and columns
2, Elastic buckling under axial compression and end moments
......1-t6J
...........................-7J
3. Inelastic buckling
4. Others ..........
...........r-r78
D.
E.

CONTENTS

Part

II.

FRAMES AND CURVED MEMBERS

A. COhITINUOUS BARS

........................2_J

1. Flexural buckling
l'1 Continuous bars on rigid supports...........
1.2 Continuous bars on elastic supports
2. Flexural

torsional

..............................2_J
...................p_J
.........................2_11

buckling

.............2_16

B. RIGID FRAMES ................

...............2_zJ

1. Buckling of frames under vertical loads ..............


1.1 In-plane buckling of frames
1.2 Spatial buckling of frames
2. Ultimate strength o{ frames under combined loading
C. TRUSSES

ARCHES AND CURVED

.......,.....2_so

...................p_ss

.........................2_s7
.................2_57

...................2_sg
............................2_sg
......2_66
................2_67

BEAMS

.........................2_72

1. Parabolic arch ...............


l.l Uniformly distributed vertical load
1.2 Nonuniformly distributed vertical load

...................-.....2-72
...................2-80

2. Circular arch................
2.1 Uniformly distributed radial load
2.2 Uniformly distributed verrical load
2'3 Nonuniformly distributed load ...............
2.4 Pure bending....
2'5 Horizntal forces at supports
2-6 Concentrated load at the crown..............
2.7 Impulsive loadings, step loading and rectangular
2.8 Static hydraulic pressure
3,

..........2_zg

...................2_s7

1. Plane truss...............
l.l In-plane buckling...........
1.2 Out-of-plane buckling
1.3 Lateral buckling
1.4 Snap-through....
2. Space truss
D.

..........................z-zr

Tapered circular arches connected at the

.....................2-82
............................2_gz
.........................z_s6
..---..........2_rol

.....z_tls
.........2_IOs
--..............2_Iog
loading.. ..............-..-..-................2_ItJ
...........--.....2_116

v
crown.............

..............2-116

3.1 Uniformly distributed radial load

...........................2-116

4. Sinusoidal shallow arch .............


4.1 Uniformly distributed vertical load
4.? Sinusoidaly distributed vertical load
4.3 Sinusoidaly disributed radial load
4.4 Concentrated vertical load
4.5 Horizontal thrust...........'..
4.6 Stochastic vertical load

...........................2-rrs

5. Arch with the axis of arbitrary shape..........'....


5.1 Concentrated load at the crown..........'...

6. Circular ring................
6.1 Uniformly distributed external pressure...........
6.2 Uniformly distributed pressure and circumferential force
6.3 Circular ring in a cavity...........'..
8I8LIOGR4PHY..................

........................2-IIg
.....................2-II9
........................2-Izt
............2-I2z
.....-.-.....2-123
.............--..-2-124

....2-r2i
..-.............2-124

....................2-rzs
.......2-I2s
......--.......2-I3o

.........................2-rJI
.....................2-rrs

'ii

CONTENTS

HANDBOOK OF STRUCTURAL STABILITY

4.4

Other

loading....

5. Postbuckling behaviour'of plates


5.1 Compression
5.2 Shear ..........'..
5.3 Combined 1oading...........'.
5.4 Thermal loading ............
6. Plastic buckling of plates
6.1 Compression
6.2 Shear ..........'..
6.3 Comprcssion and bending

B. POLYGONAL PLATES
1. Triangular p|ates...................................:..
l.l Compression
1,2 Compression and shear
2. Parallelogram.
2.1 Compression
2.2 Shear .............
3. Trapezoidal plates ...'.........
3.1 Compression
4. Other regular polygons
4.1 Compression
4.2 Shear ..'....'..'..
C. CIRCULAR PLATES
1. Circular plates '............
l.l Uniform external pressure
1.2 Partial external pressure
2. Circular plates with variable thickness
2.1 Uniform external pressure
3. Annular plates......'......
3.1 Uniform external pressur
3.2 Uniform internal pressure .........'..'.......
3.3 Uniform external and internal pressure
4. Sectoral plates .......'...'.
4'l Bending and other loading

......J-76
............................s-77
..........g-77

......s-sl
...............5-94
................J-96
...............r-roo
........-J-IOO

.....s-to,
..--.-.........3-Io,
..................3-r1o

................s-tto
.........3-1Io

..................J-II7
...........J-tts
.........9-IIs
.....3-tI6
..............9-rr7
.........3-117

......-......-...'s-12t
'........3-121
.--.-3-122

.-...'....'..'......'..'s-I2s
..............'.....3-123

"""

""'3-123

"""""""'3-126
..............'...3-127
'.'..".'..3-127
..'....'............3-129

"".....'.'3-12!)

""""""""3-131
-.-...---..-'.....3-132

.....'......... ."3'131
...'.....".3-134

5. Postbuckling and finite deformation behaviour of circular plates........................3-137


....'.".."'..,v
5.1 Uniform external pressure
" """""'3'137
..-.....-..3-139
1.2 Fi:i: deformation behaviour under thermal loading..'..'.. ....

D. STIFFENED PLATES
l. Stiffened p1ates........ .....

......'..............r-r13
'.'..'...'.........3-143
....-..-.3-143

l. I Compression
1.2 Shear .....'.......
1.3 Bending ..........
1.4 Comprcssion and bending
1.5 Compression and shear

.....3-58
..-.'3-167

---.-..-.......3-171

.'..'...'.........3-.f83

2. Plastic buckling of stiffened plates .............


2.1 Compression

........'..3-t83

.'"".'

3. Ultimate load of stiffened plates .......'....


3.1 Compression

E. PLATE STRUCTURES... ... ....'..'......


l. Plate structures........

:l i::ffi;'",;;;:

iii

::

3-83

...........'...3-185

"""'3-185
.......'...............3-rer
'..'..............-.....-3-191

:::

: :: ::

::'';:

2. Tension eld of plate structures


2.1 Tension eld

"""" """"""""'3-202

3. Ultimate load of plate structures


3.1 Compression
3.2 Bending .'........
3.3 Shear .............

" " """"""""""3-208


" """3-208

""""'3-202

""'3-2Io
.....3-214

""""""""""'3-217

F' SANDWICH PLATES


1. Isotropic sandwich plates ......."..'
I.l Compression (Overall type)
1.2 Compression (lryrinkling type) """""""
1.3 Shear.'...........
2. Sandwich plates with isotropic faces and orthotropic
2.1 Compression
2.2 Compression and bending
2.3 Compression and lateral pressure
3. Orthotropic sandwich
3.f Compression
3.2 Shear ... "'. "

plates..

" """

4. Sandwich plates with corrugated cores...."""""'


4.1 Co-nression
4'2 S\t and comoression
4.3 Bending .....'....

"""""""""""""'3-217
""""""3-21
""""""""3-221
""'3-223
cores

""""""""""""""""3-224
""""'3-224

""""""""3-229

""""""""""""""3-231
"""""""""""3-233
"""""3-233
"""3'237

""""""""""

"""3-239

""""'3-239

""""""""'3-243
""'3-215

fe

::

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x x

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::::::::::::

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t!

',i

HANDBOOK OF STRUCTURAL STABILITY

2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2-8
3.

Edge

moment....

.....1-3Os

External pressure and concentrated load......'...........


External pressure and edgc moment.......'.....

buckling
buckling

Isotropic trunci'tc(l s'h1 ri;l shclls

3.1 Axial

.-..-..-..-4-306

......................-.1-307

Dynamic
Creep

........................4-gO4

............1-31s

..............

...---....4-g16

comprcssion

3.2 Tension . ... ...


3-3 ltS own rveight
3.4 Torsion .... .. .

................1-317

.....4-3t7
.. . 1-318

4. Stiffened spherical she11s...............


4.1 External prcssurc............
4.2 Half-side cxternal pressure
5. Sandwich srherical shells .............
5.1 Extcrnal pressure..'........'
E. SHELLS IffITH MISCELLANEOUS SHAPE
1. Elliptic cylindrical shells (Including
D-section cylinders)
l.l Axial compression .'...'....'.......
l-2 Bending
1.3 Torsion ..........

..........................'4-s2o
........ ......4-320
'.. ...... .4-323
..........................4-Jzs
...............1-325
.........4-328

stiffened elliptic cylindrical shells and

2. Other cylindrical shells


2.1 Non-circular cylindrical shell-Axial compression
2.2 Cylindrical shell with circular-arc section-Bending
3. Spheroidal shells.'....'....'..
3.1 External pressure............
3.2 Internal pressure.....................
4. Toroidal shells and toroidal shell segments
4.1 External pressure............
4.2 Axial tension....

........................4-szg
. ....4-328
.....,,.....,.,4-330

... '1-333
......'....'....'.4-335
...........................4-335
'...'...................1-335
----............1-336

.. ... '......'4-336
..'...1-339

.......'.. .1-s4o
............,..4-340
.....1-343

....................4-311
5. Other axi-symmetrical shells '.'...'......
pressure.'...............
1-344
5.1 Cylindrical shell with hemispherical ends-External hydrostatic
5.2 Torispherical bulkhead and elliptical bulkhead-internal pressure ........'................'.4-315
...-........1-318
5.3 Logarithmic shell-Torsion

6. Hyperbolic paraboloidal shells....'...'.....


6.1 Its own weight.
8I8LIOGR4PHY..................

....-..--........"4-349
..-.-4-340

.....................4-350

Plnr

STRAIGHT MBMBERS

_' _

fq"-

-!'

- ':

ii,

SYMBOLS USED IN PART

t.
qiril
.;

area
are

b":
D:
d:
E:
Et:

br

4:.
if .'
.'

ifci{:r . '

{6. ".'

width of plate

flexural rigidity of a plate per unit width

of

depth

section

stress-strain modulus of elasticity


strain-hardening modulus (initial)

shear center lies between centroid and compression flange' otherwise negative), distance from shear center to the middle plane of a
channel web, eccentricity of end load in a beam-column

if

ifiir:
,l:
',t

cross section'

effective plate width

Er:. tangent modulus


ei distance from centroid of girder cross section to shear center (positive

v..
ft..''
,e^

Atz
A,o

of flange
of web
ls: width of rectangular

,9,

..

:
g:
hi

compressive stress due to bending moment


of transverse
distance from shear center of girder to point of application
load (positive when load is below shear center, other-\'vise negative)
cross section' clear depth of plate girder web

depth

of a

rectangular

between flange comPonents

h, I distance to compression-flange centroid from centroid of section


hta distance to tension flange centroid from centroid of section
h*: depth of web
Iz moment-of-inertia of section
I" z moment-of-inertia of compression flange bout y axis
I : moment-of-inertia of a flange about 3t axis
Io : polar moment-of-inertia of cross section
f. : moment-of-inertia of stiffener about web-face axis
It i moment-of-inertia of tension flange about I axis
the coordinate
1,,1" :, moment-of-inertia of cross section, and g denoting
axes

J z torsion constant
j , lateral-torsional buckling constant' number of panels in a stifiened Plate
K : effective or equivalent length factor
L,t length of member, particularly a laterally unbraced length
"
M a moment
Ma,Mo: end moments acting on a beam-column at ends and ' respectively
M^o, i maximum bending moment

1_2 I. STRAIGHT MEMBERS


Mo : plastic bending moment
Mr,My,Mr: moment.about coordinate
M, I yield moment
N ; nominal axial load
P : column axial load
P", : critical load
P,P,,P,P,

D.
ta.

axes

,y,

A. FLEXURAT

and z, respectively

1. Axial compression

Euler buckling load


maximum column load
tangent-modulus column load

1.1 Prismatic bar, concentric

Pt:
Pvi column axial load at full-yield condition
@: transverse shear in centrally loaded column
r: radius-of gyration of member
ro I polar radius-of-gyration of the cross section about its shear center
radius-of-gyration of one chord in a battened column
rrz radius-of-gyration about the certroidal axis - (strong axis)
rvl radius-of-gyration about the centroidal axis g-y (weak axis)
tt I thickness of tension flange
t-: thickness of web plates of box-section beam, thickness of web
u'. displacement in the direction
i displacement in the y direction
u'. displacement in the direction

X-X,r-x

ui
Io

'.

Y-Y,v-v

yi
lc"
loi
2a

:
sr

coordinate axis
coordinate axis, particularly a principat axis, distance
distance between the shear center and the centroid in the direction of
the . axis
coordinate axis
coodinate axis, particularly a principal axis
distance from centroidal axis - to face of tee flange
distance between the shear center and the centroid in the
coordinate axis
angle

of twist of

a) Elastic buckling
cond

ref.

itions

At one end, rotation

is

restrained, free to srvaY,


another end is fixed.

lP

rr
\

,
I

One encl hinged, another


6xecl

P"=2'946I'EI
value

of the coefficient is

2.04574

axis

cross section

Euler buckling stress

dv i

yield

angle

0:

loading

strain at initial strain hardening


elastic strain at yield stress

ti
v3 Poisson's ratio
o'. normal str*s
oE,d

BUCKTING

stress

of rotation, curvature
angle of rotation
shear stress

Upper end is elastically


suprorted with spring
constant r. lorver end is
6xed.

P-=t:+
The coefficient ro is obtained from

*"*--.Q-{ff)

A. FLEXURAI- IJUCKI.ING I_3I


1_30

I. STRAIGHT

MEMBERS

ref.
conditions
Critical axial force is given

in

dation

UniformlY

distributed
ge
and axial
loads
lateral

bY

qL

32

by a
=uniform lateral displacement of beam caused
of
state
neutral
the
qo
at
load
uniform lateral

Both ends hinged


The section is varYing
linearly.

Tble

ta\.

l
-_k__
t- I -

Foundation characteris-

Equivalent length

tics
(zru)

p=sinh
reaction

of

is obtained as,

2tt

foundawhere,

tion Per unit length

, tr_

Buckling of microbers

Infinitely long 6ber in


in6nitely large volume of
elastic matrix

Fiber has round

e'2

and relative contraction

et
in the

/-l;
7;

"={

E'I

Teble

ro2

of the fiber' * are

given

o'f

6gures.

l"

Approximate formula

cross

Compression is aPPlied to

Fig.

the fiber.
Two possible buckling

modes are given in the


figure.
Fiber buckled into srne

in the r,

1.

GraPhs

of

er

Upper end free


Lower end fixed

Moment of inertia

z-Plane

with orientational lines

varying linearly,

perpendicular to (a) the


z-axis and (b) the bent

shape

of the

line of the

(a)

Fig.

central'

0.1
100

E IE

(b) =l

2.

GraPhs

of cr

and * vcrsus
f,,tlE tor v=O.4
and for =1.

ber.

F=0

/r=depth of the section

and + versus
E ID for t=O.4
and for P=0'

0_

v=Poisson's ratio of matrix


6ber
E'=modulus of elasticitY of

matrix
E=modulus of elasticitY of
ro=radius of fiber
v

Io

a I oo I r o

@*l;T;l
*E'*t
, *.i, rr.l, *q''*tl'=*i'-t'*ti,-*F*tit*til

section.

curve

33

r=r_*\7)

=0

Approximate formula

t =

ref.

resul t6

itions

n",=otl{,-

Bro is

,"n

with varible section

which

equilibrium

thrust N

Columns
cond

N,,=2'/81"""h6

Column on a elastic foun-

l'4

30

Ir = Io(l

-)

A. FLEXURAL BUCKLING I-3.?

1_32 I. STRAIGHT MEMBERS


resulte

conditions

C2(K2 -l) .-tt2 EIo


Ii,=-
F
Xzttz
(o is given by the first root of the next equation,
J'(K Y (K() -Jr (K() Yr (() = 0

Both ends hinged

Distribution o{ the
ment of inertia is,

Lo'er end 6xed


Circular section

where

Kr=L, */;;

(02(K2 _

Upper end : Rotation is

is free.

where

I is the 6rst root of

t'---.;':t-.

the next equation,

ftlt ,,.

.b_atdbl
A--T - tan A

=,,,.{

(r

-)o

rI

l)

u=- 4yz-

35

EI"
- tr72a2b2E
t;=_;,p
=p F

59

restrained but side sway

ref.

results

condition.q

0 0.2 0.{
a/b

Both ends hinged

of the

Distribution
ment

of inertia

P"=l'AP

mo-

Both ends xed


Circular section

is,

,=i,{r-(f)'}'
aL

--l- t.

lla"
ll/l\

h ;il

I l,1l

;; '.tl ; .-o, I i.;


I

",Ltlz

--j-Ei@lel 'i; :l : "i l"rlrs

i I I \.

'#

iIIJ]
lP

,"

Upper end free

Lower end fixed

of the

where

mo-

ment of inertia is,

,=,"(i),01n12

EIn
I; ,

ah

36

^=-; is the rst root of the next equation,

Distribution

I "E
l'(t=-nt'tt'F=11

60

ft

!!fl

r
-, {
}
^=1t*a-t>u:1"-;.{__<i#tr;}

l, -

-!=,:'-l*,r

-T)" rI-]
l.'. i..in{(t
-(a;!)'z
-[9:')s'+q<a'!a).
a"A" I
,J
I do
aab
I

!:F;17

P"--oo'#
-pn'=\-,_l Q-9,\'
2

where Co is the rst oot

J"-

of the next

1- '()

equation,

=0

'll+

r'"iial;

o/

6l

37

Upper ^-d hinged

Lowcr*-J

xed

where

I is the rst root of the

next equation,

A. FLEXURAL BUCKLING I-35


T_34 I.

STRAIGHT MEMBERS

Circular section
- ttb'

to_

r+f

to-

r""(L:xr)

e;aF;r

P 2o

conditions

ref.

results

conditions

cot

iln

is given by the first root of the ncxt equation'

*,]r9=;=),

(Kl)=|
ll

2r;t3 /

t,

Rcctangular cross section

fi

rvith constant

thickness,

and varying breadth


Both ends hinged

P"= "b\

/ a_b\2
P,'=nlzab2
a,,;\ t )=o

Upper end free


Lower end fixed
Circular section

where

a_b\2 EIo
t )=o F

,,(/:i

y,e)

^)
- ,-j:--)
v"<t>

;(

+ ^)

(r a) (b - a)
- y,(r/ !br)"r, ro _
^! *r/i--=-tanl
- v,(/ i lt
.

- *,

(*

"<t>

*
Rectangular cross section

s'ith constant thickness,

ilil
LW
l--'/,I
i '[
#r

1,

the diagram'

]ztr / a-b\z

Tapared round column


Both ends hinged

-+

3?

EIo
t"

63

is the rst root of the next equation,

a"le--s)fo-:)

, -obn
,o_

(r't)

-,

is given by the 6rst root of the next equation'

p is presented in

62

is presented in the diagram'

-- b-a

]li

and varying breadth

One end hinged,


another end 6xed

n2qbz / a_b\2
r",=-tr"
\- t )=o

EIo

37

P,,= so'o\ t-)=P

EIo
t"

given by the first root of the next equation'

'W
^a/

^)

"<t>

- v,(/

is presented in the diagram'

olb

)t,<t>

A. FI-EXURAI- BII(-KLING

1_36 I. STRAIGHT MEMBERS

and varying breadth


Both ends 6xed
Upper end free to swaY
>-O a

ref.

conditions

conditions

Rectangular cross section


with constant thickness,

),zEcb

'P!_(.b-a\2_. EIo) --p t

- _ qlr"b\-,1,=
I

with constant breaclth


d varying thickness

is given by the 6rst root of the next equation,

t"V

i^)v - v"(/ ; t)r"a> .-_ r(r_a)(1),l

2;b

W=tanl

p is presented in

= 48'.

Rectngular cross section

Both ends hinged

/ a_lt\2
-)=o EIn
t"
\ /

is given by the rst root of the next equation'

t,(/ * Y - v,(/'L t)t "tl 2 (0-a)(t-a)1


^)
=T+cotl 2;; I
!\t,o,>

Q 1^,on",/

^l

r is presented in the

the diagram.

diagram.

-;-t--11-r'; t-_ to
rp-o

l/lo |

r/s
rl4
l/3
rtz

I o.zsz

0.4671 1.5

I t.oezl l.o
| t.tul t.zzn
| z. o I a. aoe
I e.ozsl o.oos
2t3 | s.zl 2.s99

3/4

Rectangular cross section


with constant thickness,

and varying breadth


Upper end free
Lower end fixed

1 ..?7

o - zDtt ( .b-a\2- .. EIs.


r"=
a1',b\ t )--u r

I is given by the rst root of the next


when a I,
t (/ i t) v
- v'(/ vu":y
">

,,(/ I

^)",,^)
when a=1,

- r,(/

_l

6.483

& 542

o - 72Ecb ( a-\'- ..
Y"=
4B,.,\ t )=oV'

EIo

Rectangular cross section


rvith constant breadth

equation,

tL--e
:i-t-;*^,=^"lT
=, ^!

and varying thickness


Upper end hinged
Lower end fixed

e-

"F

^l

is given by the rst root of the next equation,

ff"'-r-',V+t*
v,(r/ 1
t,(/ * v, ^)

t)"r

, *ffi'"\fi?)^l
(o-d)(b4)l

=T- b-

',(/:^) :,
%(r)

2;b

db ^-n\-

,'(/l^)

l is presented

,r is presented in the diagram.

in the

diagram.

u2

tt
20

r/r0
u5

2.tu

t8
t6

ll

rl4

4.510
s.685

1/3

7.6

u2

11. 340

8
6

213

M.7m

311

16.346

2
0

t2
t0

lt-

1-38 I.

A. FLEXURAL BUCKLING /-39

STRAIGHT MEMBERS

Rectangular cross section

with constant

breadth

and varying thickness


Upper end free
Lower end fixed

Rectangular cross section,


thickness of which being
in reverse proportion to

is given by the first root of the next equation,

'!1

!!1(/!

t) n

- a)rs:-4 r
-, ^^!,
^

zt-

1/ |^rt^>-r,Vnr ^)t*='-'^"1
p is presented in the

breadth in the upper region

Both ends fixed

diagram.

-s.g&-\l
o I

' I't"
lo

u20 |

l/r0

l/s |
rl4 |
1/3 |

----9-

,o.

r-THfr

dH',"fl

0.5971 1.618
0.7281 r.772
0.e351 r.953

314 | r.9721

in the upper re-

gion

Upper end hinged


Lower end fixed

,l is given by the 6rst root of the next


{,() +'{,() } s;,,r,

-!:-z(t-<>lb--ur=,|
,

(^) =

"

c
a

^
when

ros

l)+

t=

"^l(l-?:?

-t

f(l-a)(-),-
-i , 'yL-^'I

-lrio-t-!#tu=

,1

x"nl\>i!=>'/;trl
wn""

f;> |, r uu"o*"s imaginary.

r is presented in the diagram.

is given by the first root of the next equation,

(j

-b# ./ | -F

(t-2a)(b-a)
,\t)=-cos\

2.359

/ulffi)=t
cotr,

- " <t>"*r,

*!#*"1#u=rl

t----7-mT

,<r>=;fu"^l--::=ur=*l

zz is given by the next equations,

(}

equation.

r"s ) : z tlz
/

where

n",--$-'ff-=r+

Rectangular cross section,

breadth

/__
ryX=
r-n\-t_",

y'

rl2 | r.3371 2.174


213 | r.?2rl 2.3

thickness of which being


in reverse proportion to

zr is given by the next equations,

0.646

0.32r1 r.ro3

39

P",=+^'t!-=r+

38

o _ 2Ecb_( g-\'?_ .. EIo


r*=
4B'"-\--)--P t,

ref.

conditions

ref.

conditione

vr-=

L+#tr=Y.*"12#ur-l

ffi a=r-."1('-?#")

tt='

ffi< ], I b""o-"s imaginary.


0

breadth in the upper region

0.2 0.1

lb

olb

I "Ecb EIo
rc,=Em-z =lt F

Rectangular cross section,

thickness of which being


in reverse proportion to

0.2 0.1

ze is given

by the next equations,

t___7 ndy
/ t-4\)=^

,l is given by the first root of the next

equation.

(}

r 1)

-rA. FLEXURAL BUCKLING 1 41

1-40 I. STRAIGHT

N'IEMBERS

ref.
conditions

conditions

n2

r-tr,(jr.sl)+r

Upper end free


Lower end fixed

="/r4"1e4:Feut*l
I b""ot"" imaginarY'

*n n ffi'|'
p

33

EI

P",=p:_;!,

;;-;i:'l-----l-l_r=l';t--l
onae
o.lol
u I
I
I

Symmetrical column with


straight code members

o610

Both ends hinged

t"th^ | ou I ot I to
t
I o.zg | _088t l--r'oo-

/ denotes height of cross


section.

is Presented in the diagram'

Approximation on condition, holh^20'2

r=r.(r-|)'

2.6

"

t'=0.34+o-66v/*

2.1

2.2
2.0

| - Ecb ttVEIo
Pc,=Tm'-tl=
Rectangular cross section,
thickness of which being

/----7-ru
/ r-4\b4 ) =^

in

reverse ProPortion to
breadth in the uPPer region

Both ends hinged

is given bY the next equations,

is given by the first root of the next equation'

section

Upper end free


Lower end xed

,='.('-

r*,r,(|r.sl)+r

-- ; '-l
-,* |

Column with varing cross

',, _l__l--l 'o1u


-_
l*?_l _'ot I

l)'

_t, cottt{r_a)!_3)upl
= _y'r
,
2

'

ob

w"" #>T, I becomes imasinarv'


g is presented in the diagram'
EIo
EI^
,pc?=ttn-T=paV.

Column with

varYing

p^

cross section

alb

r()=r^-(r^-u>(z;"
n

- lrr=t

p are presented in the diagram'

n='
I^

Both ends hinged

arrd

A. FLEXURAL BUCKLING 1-43

I.

STRAIGHT MEMBERS
conditions

ends hinged

zl
o.2 I

4.43

0.4 I
0.6 I

o. zs

a.

{;

Both ends hinged

r"'=PJ!)=
'(2t1',
Both ends hinged

where

p=qo"z_"gff

en(t-$l
.--+(,-/+)
Both ends xed

,rrftrr,

/ x\n
r=r,\ul),

03r3h2L

If r=9, p and (oare given Y fuUl" t'


If z=1, (o is given bY Table 2'
Table I
n

r_l

l(o

5.76
2.40

7.02

2.t2

It

8.

Co

t.74

tp
I

EIN

P,,=P-F'

0.8
0.6

nnl;"
r=r.(t-ft

*=-i,t,

312

s/3

?14

3.00

3.83

5.14

6.38

s.06
2.70

4.25
3.30

3.21
4.30

2.49
5.20

2.t5

2.50

3.00

3. 30

r.45

r.55

1.70

1.80

4l

9.30
ltt

)/
t-2

113

Table

>t'l

0.8

o.r

o.2

0.4

0.6

2.80

3.

4.66

7.32

0.8 I
t.*
0.6 l ".oo
0.4 I r. 30

2.74

3. 50

2.45
1.50

4.70
2.90

7.00

2.6

r.60

r.85

l.o |

1.30

3.60

lr-'
] ,44 I. STRAIGHT MEMBERS

A. FLEXURAI. BUCKLING T-45

conditions

p,,=ptrL

Both ends hinged

H
r'-- '
llo /--------\
L

t.

l is presented

in the

table.
0.4

0!rS12

o.6

0.8

8.68
8.08

7.U

,=,,(i),

7.
8.91

2l 6.371 7.49
3 I 6.14 | ?.3r
4l 6.02l7.zo

the ends, 1=/o

P,,=pIrL

Both ends hinged

r is presented in the tables.

r I 6.48 I ?.s8
2 | s.4o | 6.62
3l 5.011 6.32
4| 4.sr| 6.n
t I r.ot-l-ise

,=,,(i).

At

ref

conditions

8.6

8.49
4.42

,-1tl
o

At

lo.orl o.r I o.z I o.r I o.o I

the ends, f=/o

9.74

Table

9. 63

ou

I ll

8.611

9.27
9.24
9.23
9.23

H,,

01r

12

At the ends, l=/o

9. 46
9. 45

ol

l,,

9. 49

Tble

oJ

2
3
4

22.36

21.25
20.88
20.7r

I
t

27.80

27.20

27.35

0.4 | s.4zl z-u I 8.4e1 e.rol s.aol s.os


0.6 I z.sel s.rl s.ssl s.oei s.zl s.s
o.B I s.oal s.ttl e.atl saol s.asj s.

It_ ra.ar

20.29

zlt

19_

60

22.39

ra. ra

.00
27.67

n.24
n.03

a.

33.08

8.52

32. s9

n.

28.40
28.33

32.44
32.35

32.20
32.02

31.96

32.92
32.77
32.72

35.m

3
4

35.60

31.94

32.69

35.56

|
I

rl.rel

I
I
I
ara_ .32 |
36.00
35.97
35.96

o.

t_

35.40
35.35
gs.gz

Elll-l-1 1 [:I I j1[;T'" "


o I z.ss I s.or I r+l z.sz e.so I s.
z=3 o.z I a.or I o.sz I z.ar I a. | s.oz I s.so

the table.

"ltl

l
2 II
s I

9.50
9.50

f",-pE*
p is presented in

,=,,(i).

9.55
9.48

3:31

9. 54

Both ends 6xed

r-r-l

e.r2

Ii_i3 I 3:3 II
I 101 -n

;_-r-,i{;l Fi ;; li

9.62
9.62

o.a

li.l I s.ra lo.s lJ.o' ll ls.oi ls.z?


n. t, n t.
lz.ulr.tt I z. | t.so I a.ss
I
I
I B.3s I s.4o I s.63 I 8.e0 I g.rg I g.ss I s.68
g.oo
g.ou
g.to
g.zo
l r. I
I
I s.t. I
I
I s.r,

0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8 ls.eole.aoln.azls.rrls.*ls.ruln.*

0lxl12

9.63
9.44
9.39
9.38

36.36
36.34
36.32

35.64

36- 84

36.80

36.m
yt.78

I
I
I
I

37.84
sz. al

sz.

az.ao

Strut with constant thickness plate


n,. =

o +.r' ),

?1,.

Strut with two solid cones

M)i,l'

P",=la"f:"]r.ffi]"
Stut with four angles connected by lattices

Itr-

1-46

A. FLEXURAL BUCKLING I-47

STRAIGHT MEMBERS

Buckling in

r-7

ref.

results

conditions

r",--\ffila\l'-,J':,i"2

plane

d=:

Tapered struts

of

length

buckling), or a taPered

lo

tower section
42

Both ends hinged

fl4r
P!
"\l/_l

z=3:

o"==,'

width and

I, / b\^
,=7;=\;)
For m=1,

n",=lo+tr"o"'o

For m=4,

p,,={ .-a-.2EI"
lz

Fot m=2,

n-n(fr;\

It

strong axis buck-

39.18

ling of a at Platc having uniformlY varYing

where

l,

,",m'

having

constant reas concen-

trated at the corners

,(r-\)o-',/^) -y zEro
P"=l-r:;v^:wl--f

I
Compressive force

flange area and taPering depth (strong axis

It

(1)

86

ref.

conditions

constant

thickness, or weak axis


buckling of a ll-section
with uniformlY varYing
flange width

n-4: a solid truncated

*Er-'-

cone

or

PYramid
bt/bo

Symmetrical with resPect

(2)

k2
1
-:ct(l_e-k/2)2

to the central section

'

(1) ,=r"(:)^

(b) Buckling loads for

r2EIo

12

--L------1
o[Mo'
a
I=t z'

(2) I- In*''rt,
o 1r 1ll2
44

87

(1)

Tapered column

IF;
' l-.'
ti:l-

tapcred

columus (fixed-fixed ends).

(1)

---+I

u"ffi=,,

_L, = t

EI"

l,2-

2.6
2.

t
t

I=kzo

1.8
1.6

t.4
I
1.0

'=n['-;('-*)J
n--l:. weak-axis buckling of a flat plate hav-

ing uniformly varYing

width and

0
5

0.

0.2

constant

thickness

n=2: open web cross


section with constant

hl bo
(c) Buckling loads for

h lbo
(a)

Buckling

loads

cotumns (hinged

for

h/bo
taPered

columns (xed-hinged ends).


tapered
'cd ends).

(d) Buckling loads for

tapered

columns (xed-frce ends).

A. FLEXURAL BUCKLING -49


I -48 I.

S'TRAI(;H'I' MEMBERS

conditons

I Et
p*-_1m-'

88

(2)

Cantilevered taPere<l
steel l-beams, braced at

o"=lr

the free end on the toP


concentrated

plane

of the

biF

f=the

the next equation,


m2

e{

Z,b,d--the

flange thickness
section modulus' flange

width

a=rtlrz

an<l bcam

6.

8l

l0'

264 (l

a2) = 0

0.4

0.6

fr

1. 680

l.

end
designate values at the larger and smaller
ivelY'
resPect

(3) Cantileveretl taPered


steel I-beam-columns'

(3)

braced at the free end on


the top (tension) flange

evaluate from Fig' I (c)' rvith


evaluate from Eq' (1)
are shown in Fig' 2'
results
Test

(+).("-)='

T,,i
Pu i

r=3

&

fr

46

89

Triangular plate
Upper end free
I-ower end xed

P",=0.6+

A;t

(2)
90

P,,=O'54rry

Triangular plate

Upper end simPlY


ported

Lower end fixed

free encl.

A;*

91

Circular plate

Both ends
0.2

ported

'When

r/f

is

'When

r/f

is smaller,

simPlY

larger, P,,=O-37544
r
Et3

P,,=lO------- o;
o-

0.1

Ratio, P/P.,

Fig.

P=transvcrse load' 1=axial load


2. Interaction tests (tapered l-beams)'

151

1.0

I
depth, respectively' The subscript 0 and

itb,

concentrate(l transverse
loacl P are aPPlied at the

portcd

at the support

I-=the span length

web

ThrustTandasingle

m is given in the table and is given approximately by

'=\7,

the

iH"
:--

(1)
\r/

b,

47

12

Hollowed disk
Both ends simPlY suP-

/ a \ l/ " \//' \"?


/1\ ' i \/i

transverse load aPPlied

at the frec end in

7' I
I

- "l[
'lLsiso

oc,=the maximum llexural stress


in ksi,

(tension) fange

A single

110000
i.nltnt

I ref'

reeults

conditions

o?so8+--i-