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6/9/2015 CleaningdatainStata|data.library.utoronto.ca CleaningdatainStata TableofContents

CleaningdatainStata

TableofContents

Someusefultipsbeforeyougetstarted

Creatinganumberofsmallersubsetsbasedonresearchcriteria

DroppingobservationsCreatinganumberofsmallersubsetsbasedonresearchcriteria Droppingvariables Transformingvariables Dealingwithoutliers

DroppingvariablesDroppingobservations Transformingvariables Dealingwithoutliers

TransformingvariablesDroppingobservations Droppingvariables Dealingwithoutliers Creatingnewvariables Movingvariables

DealingwithoutliersDroppingobservations Droppingvariables Transformingvariables Creatingnewvariables Movingvariables Labellingvariables

CreatingnewvariablesDroppingvariables Transformingvariables Dealingwithoutliers Movingvariables Labellingvariables Renamingvariables

MovingvariablesDealingwithoutliers Creatingnewvariables Labellingvariables Renamingvariables Afewlastwords

LabellingvariablesDealingwithoutliers Creatingnewvariables Movingvariables Renamingvariables Afewlastwords

RenamingvariablesCreatingnewvariables Movingvariables Labellingvariables Afewlastwords

AfewlastwordsMovingvariables Labellingvariables Renamingvariables

Cleaningdataisaratherbroadtermthatappliestothepreliminarymanipulationsonadatasetpriortoanalysis.Itwillveryoftenbethefirstassignmentofaresearch

assistantandisthetediouspartofanyresearchprojectthatmakesuswishweHADaresearchassistant.Stataisagoodtoolforcleaningandmanipulatingdata,

regardlessofthesoftwareyouintendtouseforanalysis.Yourfirstpassatadatasetmayinvolveanyorallofthefollowing:

Creatinganumberofsmallersubsetsbasedonresearchcriteria

DroppingobservationsCreatinganumberofsmallersubsetsbasedonresearchcriteria Droppingvariables Transformingvariables Dealingwithoutliers

DroppingvariablesDroppingobservations Transformingvariables Dealingwithoutliers

TransformingvariablesDroppingobservations Droppingvariables Dealingwithoutliers Creatingnewvariables Movingvariables

DealingwithoutliersDroppingobservations Droppingvariables Transformingvariables Creatingnewvariables Movingvariables Labelingvariables

CreatingnewvariablesDroppingvariables Transformingvariables Dealingwithoutliers Movingvariables Labelingvariables Renamingvariables

MovingvariablesDealingwithoutliers Creatingnewvariables Labelingvariables Renamingvariables

LabelingvariablesDealingwithoutliers Creatingnewvariables Movingvariables Renamingvariables

RenamingvariablesCreatingnewvariables Movingvariables Labelingvariables

Whetherthisisyourfirsttimecleaningdataoryouareaseasoned“datamonkey”,youmightfindsomeusefultipsbyreadingmore.

Someusefultipsbeforeyougetstarted[1]

UsetheStatahelpfile.Statahasabuiltinfeaturethatallowsyoutoaccesstheusermanualaswellashelpfilesonanygivencommand.Simplytype“help”inthe

commandwindow,followedbythenameofthecommandyouneedhelpwithandpresstheEnterkey:

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6/9/2015 CleaningdatainStata|data.library.utoronto.ca Writeadofile.

Writeadofile.Nevercleanadatasetbyblindlyenteringcommands(orworse,clickingbuttons).Youwanttowritethecommandsinado­file,andthenrunit.This

way,ifyoumakeamistake,youwillnothaveruinedyourentiredatasetandyouwillnotneedtostartagainfromscratch.Thisisageneraladvicethatappliestoany

workyoudoonStata.Workingfromdo­filesletsotherpeopleseewhatyoudidifyoueverneedadvice,itmakesyourworkreproducibleanditallowsyoutocorrect

smallmistakessomewhatpainlessly.

Tostartado­file,clickontheiconthatlookslikeanotepadonthetop­leftcornerofyourStataviewer[2].

r [2] .

Inthepreliminarystagesofyourwork,youmayfeelthatado­fileismorehindrancethanitisuseful.Forexample,ifyouarenotsofamiliarwithacommand,you

mayprefertotryitfirst.Onesimplewaytodothatandstillhavedisciplineaboutwritingdo­filesistowriteyourdo­fileinstages,writingonlyafewcommandsbefore

executingthem,correctingmistakesasyougo.Inordertoexecuteanumberofcommandsratherthanthewholedo­file,simplyhighlighttheonesyouwantto

execute,andclickonthe“ExecuteSelection(do)”icononthetopofyourdo­fileeditor,atthefarright.

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AsyoubecomemoreproficientwithprogramminginStata,youwon’tneedtotryoutcommandsanymore,andyou’lldiscoverthejoyofwritingado­fileandhavingit

runwithoutaglitch.Torunawholedo­file,donothighlightanypartofitandclickonthe“ExecuteSelection(do)”icon.

Youmaywonderaboutthecommands“clear”,“setmoreoff”and“setmem15000”inthescreenshotexample.Thesethreecommandsareadministrativecommands

thatarequiteusefultohaveatthebeginningofado­file.Thefirst,“clear”,isusedtoclearanypreviousdatasetyoumayhavebeenworkingon.Thecommand“set

moreoff”tellsStatanottopauseordisplaythe­­more­­message.Finally,thecommand“setmem15000”increasesthememoryavailabletoStatafromyour

computer;herewewillneeditasthesizeofthedatasetwedownloadedfrom<odesi>[3]islargerthanthe10mballocatedtodatabydefault.

Onelastcommentaboutdofiles:ifyoudoubleclickasaveddofile,itwillnotopenforediting,butratherStatawillrunthatdo­file,whichcanbeabitannoying…To

reopenado­filefromafolderwithoutexecutingthecommandsinit,right­clickonitandselect“edit”ratherthan“open”.

Alwayskeepalog.Again,thisisageneralruleofthumbonStata.Keepingalogmeansyoucangobackandlookatwhatyoudidwithouthavingtodoitagain.

Startingalogisjustamatterofaddingacommandatthetopofyourdo­filethattellsStatatolog,aswellaswhereyouwantthelogtobesaved:

logusing“whateverpathyouwant:\pickanameforyourlog.smcl”[4],replace[5]

Notehowlogsaresavedunderthesmclextension.

Donotforgettocloseyourlogbeforestartinganewone.Thelastcommandonyourdo­file[6]willusuallybe“logclose”.

Saveasyougo.Computerscrash,powergoesout,stuffhappens.Saveyourdo­fileseveryfewminutesasyouwritethem.Savingadofileisdonethesamewayas

savinganytexteditordocument:eitherclickonthedisketteicon,orpress“CTRL+S”:

Youshouldalsosaveyourdatasetasyoumodifyit,butmakesuretokeeponeversionoftheoriginaldataset,incaseyouneedtostartover.Thecommandtosave

adatasetonStatais“save”,followedbythepathwhereyouwantthedatasettobesaved,andthe[optional]command“replace”.

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NotehowtheextensionforStatadatais“.dta”,andalsonotehowthenewdatasethasadifferentnamefromtheoriginal[7].

Becomefamiliarwithyourdataset.Datasetscomewithcodebooks.Youshouldknowwhateachvariableis,howit’scoded,howmissingvaluesareidentified.A

goodpracticeistoactuallylookatthedata,sothatyouunderstandthestructureoftheinformation.Todoso,youcanclickon“Data”inthetop­leftcornerofyour

viewerandselectDataeditor,thenDataeditor(browse).Anewwindowwillopenandyoucanseeyourdata.

Youcanalsousethecommand“browse”,eitherbytypingitdirectlyinthecommandwindow,orfromadofile:

Oneofthedistinguishingfeaturesof<odesi>isthatwhenyoudownloadadataset,itcomeswithlabels.Variablelabelsaredescriptionsofvariables,andvalue

labelsareusedtodescribethewayvariablesarecoded.Basically,thevaluelabelsitsontopofthecode,sothatwhenyoubrowse,youseewhatthecodemeans

ratherthanwhatitis.Tomakethisclearer,let’slookatthedatawithnolabels.Look,forexample,attheGEOPRVvariable.

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6/9/2015 CleaningdatainStata|data.library.utoronto.ca Backtotop Creatinganumberofsmallersubsetsbasedonresearchcriteria

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Creatinganumberofsmallersubsetsbasedonresearchcriteria

Therearemanyreasonswhyyoumaywantasmallersubsetofyourdatabutthemainoneisthatthebiggerthedataset,theharderitisforStatatomanage,which

slowsdownyoursystem.Yourgoalistomakeyourdatasetassmallaspossible,whilekeepingalltherelevantinformation.Yourresearchagendadetermineswhat

yourfinaldatasetwillcontain.

Let’ssayyouhavedataonthehealthhabitsofCanadiansaged12andup,butyourresearchquestionisspecifictowomenofreproductiveagelivinginOntario[8].

Youclearlydon’tneedtokeepthemeninyourdataset,andyouwon’tneedtokeeptheresidentsofprovincesotherthanOntario.Furthermore,youcanprobably

dropwomenunder15andover55yearsold.Now,let’slookathowyouwoulddothat.

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Droppingobservations

Todropobservations,youneedtocombineoneoftwoStatacommands(keepordrop)withthe“if”qualifier.

Makesureyouhavesavedyouroriginaldatasetbeforeyougetstarted.

The“keep”commandshouldbeusedwithcaution(oravoidedaltogether)becauseitwilldropallbutwhatyouspecificallykeep.Thiscanbeaproblemifyouarenot

100%certainofwhatyouwanttokeep.

The“drop”commandwilldropfromyourdatasetwhatyouspecificallyaskStatatodrop.

The“if”qualifierrestrictsthescopeofthecommandtothoseobservationsforwhichthevalueofanexpressionistrue.Thesyntaxforusingthisqualifierisquite

simple:

commandifexp

Wherecommandinthiscasewouldbe,dropandexpistheexpressionthatneedstobetrueforthe“drop”commandtoapply[9].

[9] .

UsingtheexampleofwomenofreproductiveageinOntario,thefirsthighlightedlinedropsmen,thesecondlinedropsanyobservationnotinOntario,whilethelast

linedropsobservationsinagegroupsolderoryoungerthanoursubsetofinterest.

Youhavetobecarefulwithlogicaloperators;noticethesyntaxinthethirdline.AcommonmistakeistoaskStatato“dropifDHHGAGE>10&DHHGAGE<2”.There

arenoindividualsinthedatasetwhoareolderthan55ANDyoungerthan15.Wewanttodropifolderthan55ORyoungerthan15.

Hereisalistofoperatorsinexpressions.Youwouldmostlyuselogicalandrelationaloperatorsinconjunctionwith“if”:

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6/9/2015 CleaningdatainStata|data.library.utoronto.ca Backtotop Droppingvariables

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Droppingvariables

Anotherwayinwhichyoumayneedtomakeyourdatasetsmallerisbydroppingvariablesthatarenotusefultoyourresearch.Itmaybethattheinformation

containedinagivenvariableisduplicated(i.e.anothervariableprovidesthesameinfo),ormaybealltheobservationsforavariablearemissing,oravariablejust

happenstobeinyourdatasetbutisirrelevanttoyourresearch.Droppingvariablesisverystraightforward;simplyusethe“drop”command.

LookingatthedatafromCCHS,thevariableSLP_01(Numberofhoursspentsleepingpernight)iscodedas“.a”(NOTAPPLICABLE)foreachobservationinthe

dataset.

dataset.

Clearlywewillnotlearnanythingfromthatvariable,sowecandropit.Thesyntaxfordroppingvariableissimple:

dropvarlist

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Wherevarlististhelistofvariablesyouwouldliketodrop.It’seasytodropanumberofavariableatatimethisway.HereIamdroppingallthevariablesthatwere

codedasNotApplicableformorethan95%ofobservations[10]:

codedasNotApplicableformorethan95%ofobservations [10] : Backtotop Transformingvariables

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Transformingvariables

Sometimesvariablesarenotcodedthewayyouwantthemtobe.Inthissectionwewilllookattwotransformationsyoumayneedtodoonsomevariablesbefore

usingthem:recodeanddestring.

The“recode”commandchangesthevaluesofnumericvariablesaccordingtotherulesspecified.IntheCCHSdataset,manyvariableshavemissingvaluescoded as“.a”or“.d”.Thisisconvenientbecauseitwillnotaffectcalculationsyoumightdousingthedata(forexampleifyoucalculateanaverage).However,many

datasetsuse999asamissingvariablecode,andthatmightbeproblematic.Wemightwanttorecodetheseas“.”inordertonothavethemaffectanycalculations

weplanondoingwiththedata.Thesyntaxforthiscommandis:

recodevarlist(oldvalue(s)=newvalue)[11]

Let’srecodetheheightandBMIvariablesfromtheCCHSdata,(forthesakeofillustration,sinceit’sreallynotnecessaryinthiscase):

The“destring”commandallowsyoutoconvertdatasavedinthestringformat(i.e.alphanumeric)intoanumericalformat.TheCCHSdatasetdoesnotcontainany

stringvariable.Inordertoseewhatastringvariablelookslike,wecanusetheconversecommand,“tostring”,tocreateastringvariable.Wewillthenconvertthat

variablebacktoanumericalformat.

variablebacktoanumericalformat. Astringvariableshowsupinredinthedataeditor:

Astringvariableshowsupinredinthedataeditor:

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AlthoughitmaylookthesameasthevariableCIH_2,Statacannotdoanycalculationsonthestringvariable(sinceitsformatistellingStatathatitismadeofletters

orothersymbols).Let’sdestringit:

orothersymbols).Let’sdestringit:

Noticetheuseoftheoptions“generate”and“replace”.Whenwecreatedthefakestringvariable,weused“generate”becausewewantedanewseparatevariable.

Now,whenwedestring,wearereplacingthestringvariablebyitsnumericalcounterpart.Howyouchoosetodothisinyourowndatasetdependsonhowyouplanto

usethevariables.Willyoustillhaveanyuseforthestringvariable?Ifsogenerateanewonewhenyoudestring.Doyoujustwantthatvariabletonotbeinstring

format?Thenreplaceitwiththenewone.

Here,wecanseethatourvariablestringisnowcompletelyidenticaltothevariableCIH_2:

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6/9/2015 CleaningdatainStata|data.library.utoronto.ca (Wecandropthatvariablenow) Backtotop Dealingwithoutliers

(Wecandropthatvariablenow)

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Dealingwithoutliers

Outliersdeservetheirownsectionbecausethereisoftenconfusionastowhatexactlyconstitutesanoutlier.AnoutlierisNOTanobservationwithanunusualbut

possiblevalueforavariable[12];rareeventsdooccur.Theoutliersyoushouldbeconcernedaboutaretheonesthatcomefromcodingerror.Howdoyoutellwhich

iswhich?Commonsensegoesalongwayhere.

First,lookatyourdatausingthedataeditor(browse).Outlierstendtojumpatyou.Ifyouhaveasmalldataset,youcanalsotabulateeachofyourvariables:

tabvarlist[13]

Tabulatingavariablewillgiveyoualistofallthepossiblevaluesthatvariabletakesinthedataset.Outlierswillbetheextremevalues.Lookattheorderof

magnitude.Arethesevaluesbelievable?

Ifthedatasetisverybig,however,itmaynotbepracticaltostareatallthevaluesavariablecantake.Infact,Statawillnottabulateiftherearetoomanydifferent

values.

Youcanlookatyourdatainascatterplot:

values. Youcanlookatyourdatainascatterplot:

IntheCCHSdataset,caseidistheindividualid,whilehwtghtmistheheightinmeters.Thegraphtellsustherearenooutliersinthisdataset:

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Anotherwaytolookforoutliersistosummarizetheobservationsforavariable,usingthedetailedoption:

Theresultwindowwillshowthemainpercentilesofthedistribution(includingthemedian–50%),thefirstfourmoments,aswellasthefoursmallestandfourlargest

observations:

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Clearly,therearenooutliers.Let’simagineforamomentthatthe99percentileoftheheightdistributionincludesanobservationwith5.2menteredastheheight.Isit

plausiblethattherereallywasa5.2mwomanrecordedinthisdataset?Lookattheorderofmagnitudebywhichthisobservationwoulddifferfromthesecondlargest.

It’salmost50standarddeviationsbigger

Whatshouldyoudowithsuchanobservation?Thereareanumberofsolutionsbutnoneisperfect:

Dropitfromyourdataset(“dropifhwtghtm>1.803”)

Usethe“if”qualifiertoexcludeitwhengeneratingstatisticsthatusetheheightvariable(“commandifhwtghtm<=1.803”)

Ignoreitiftheheightvariableisnotactuallythatimportantinyourresearchandtherestofthevariablesforthisobservationsarecodedjustfine

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Creatingnewvariables

Therearetwomaincommandsyouneedtoknowtogeneratenewvariables:“gen”isforthebasics,while“egen”allowsyoutogetprettyfancy.Youcancombine

thesewithqualifierssuchas“if”or“in”aswellasprefixsuchas“by”and“bysort”[14].

Forexample,sayyouwanttocreateavariablethattellsyouwhetherthewomeninthedatasethavealive­inpartner.Whilethereisnosure­firewaytoestablishthat,

wewillapproximateitbyassumingthatwomenwhoindicatedtheirmaritalstatusasmarriedorcommon­lawactuallylivewiththeirspouseorcommon­lawpartner:

Thefirstlinecreatesthevariable“livein”andassignsitavalueof1ifthevalueofthemaritalstatusvariable(dhhgms)iseither1(married)or2(common­law).The

secondlinereplacesthemissingvaluecodeby0,makingthe“livein”variablebinary.

Now,let’ssayyouwouldliketocreateacategoricalvariablethattellsyou,byagegroup,ifawomanisbeloworaboveaverageintermsofbodymassindex(BMI).

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Thefirstlineofcommandcreatesavariable(meanbmi)whichtakesonauniquevalueforeachagegroup,theaverageBMIforthatagegroup.Theprefix“bysort”is

acombinationof“by”and“sort”;youcouldequivalentlybreakitintotwocommands:

sortDHHGAGE

byDHHGAGE:egenmeanbmi=mean(HWTGBMI)

The“sort”partofthecommandorganizestheobservationaccordingtothevariableDHHGAGE,fromsmallesttolargest,asteprequiredbeforedoinganyaction“by”

thevariable.It’susuallyeasiertojustuse“bysort”.

Thesecondandthirdlines(startingwith“gen”)createabinaryvariablewhichequals0ifanobservationhasaBMIlowerthantheaverageforheragegroup,and1if

herBMIisaboveheragegroupaverage.

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Movingvariables

Nowthatyouhavecreatedthesenewvariables,itwouldbenicetomakesurethattherulesbywhichyougeneratedthemwascorrect.Ideally,youwouldliketolook

atlivein(thenewvariablebasedonmaritalstatus)anddhhgms(themaritalstatusvariable).However,it’shardtocomparetwovariablesunlesstheyaresideby

side.Youcanusethe“order”commandtomoveavariable(i.e.moveacolumnofyourdataset).

Whenyoucreateavariable,bydefaultitbecomesthelastcolumnofyourdataset.Youcanmoveitnexttoanothervariableinstead:

Nowifwelookatourdataset,wecanseecomparethenewvariabletotheoldandmakesurethatwecodeditproperly:

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Similarly,sinceourtwonewvariablespertainingtoBMIarenowthelastcolumns,let’smovetheoriginalBMIvariabletotheendofthedataset:

Itnoweasytoglanceatournewvariables:

Itnoweasytoglanceatournewvariables:

Itnoweasytoglanceatournewvariables: http://data.library.utoronto.ca/cleaning­data­stata 13/16

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Doyounoticetheproblemonline8?Thevariablebmicatshouldnotbecoded1iftheoriginalBMIvariableiscodedasamissingvalue.Wecanfixthiswithaquick

replace:

replacebmicat=.ifhwtgbmi==.d

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Labellingvariables

Wheneveryoucreateanewvariable,itisagoodideatolabelit.Why?Havingyourvariableslabeledmakesiteasyforyouoranyoneelseusingyourdatasetto quicklyseewhateachvariablerepresents.Youshouldthinkofyourworkassomethingthatpeopleshouldbeabletoreproduce.Labelingyourvariablesisasmall

taskthatmakesitmucheasierforotherstouseyourdata[15].

Thesyntaxforlabelingvariablesisasfollow:

labelvariablevarnamelabel”.

Inourpreviousexample,thecommandwouldlooklikethis:

label ”. Inourpreviousexample,thecommandwouldlooklikethis: Notethatyoucanabbreviatethiscommandtolabvar: Backtotop

Notethatyoucanabbreviatethiscommandtolabvar:

Notethatyoucanabbreviatethiscommandtolabvar: Backtotop Renamingvariables

Backtotop

Renamingvariables

Youmayfindthatyouworkfasterifyourvariableshavenamesthatyourecognizeatfirstglance.Inmostcasesthisisbynomeansanecessarytaskincleaning

data,butifyouusedatafromanothercountry,forexample,youmayfindthatthevariablenamesareinaforeignlanguage,makingitveryhardtoremember.The

syntaxisaseasyascanbe:

renameoldnamenewname

syntaxisaseasyascanbe: rename oldnamenewname Let’sseethefinaldo­file

Let’sseethefinaldo­file

Yourdo­filemaybeslightlydifferentfromthisbutitshouldresultinthesamefinaldataset:

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Let’stryrunningitinonegotoseeifitworks.DonothighlightanycommandandclickonExecute(Do).NotethatwheneverStataencountersthecommand“browse”

adataeditorwillpopuponyourscreen.HavealookatyourdatathenclosethedataeditorinorderforStatatocontinuerunningthedo­file.

Let’salsotakethetimetoopenourlogstoseewhatitlookslikeandhowitcouldbeuseful.

Finallylet’slookatourfinaldatasetsandmakesureitcontainsalltherightvariables,intherightformat.

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Afewlastwords

Thisconcludesourworkshopbutit’sonlythebeginningforyou.Learningtousestatisticalsoftwareinvolvesalotoftrialanderror,angrygoogling,anddesperately

tryingtofindsomeonewhoknowshowtowritealoop…ListedbelowareafewexcellentresourcestofurtheryourworkingknowledgeofStata:

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[1]Thereisanassumptionherethatyoualreadyhaveadataset.Ifyoudonotandyouneedassistanceassemblingdata,pleasevisitthedatalibrary(THIS

COMMENTNEEDSTOREFERENCETHEGUIDEONHOWTODOWNLOADADATASETFROMSDA)

[2]Youcanuseothertexteditorstocreateandmanagedo­files.Forexample,Smultronisanopen­sourcesoftwarethatworkswellwithStata.

[3]Youcanseethesizeofadatasetbyright­clickingonit,thenselecting“properties”.

[4]Youshouldcreateafolderinaneasytorememberlocation(desktopworkswell)foryourStatawork.Thencheckitspropertiesbyright­clickingonit,andcopythe

location.That’syourpath.

[5]“,replace”isoptionalherebutratherusefulifyouwanttokeepjustonelogperdo­file.Ifyoudon’thavethe“,replace”command,youwillneedtomodifythename

ofthelogeverytimeyourunthedo­file.

[6]However,ifado­fileisinterruptedbecauseofanerrorandalogisopen,youwillneedtocloseitbeforerunningthesamedo­fileagain,becauseoneofthefirst

commandofthedofileistostartalog,whichwillresultinanerrormessageunlessthepreviouslogisclosed.Simplytypethecommand“logclose”inthecommand

window,orhighlightitandexecutefromyourdo­file.

[7]Notetousersofthisguide:thiscommandwouldtypicallybelocatedtowardstheendofthedo­file.Ihavecreatedascreenshotherewithanewdo­fileonlyto

showonecommandalone.Alltheexamplesinthisguidethatsimilarlyuseanewdofilewithonlyonecommandweredonethatwaytosavespace.Thegoalofthis

workshopistolearntocreateacleaningdofile,inwhichcommandsarelistedoneaftertheother.Itrustthatuserscanunderstandthecommandswellenoughby

theendoftheworkshoptoassemblethemintheorderthatislogicalforthepurposeoftheirowntask.

[8]TheexamplesinthisguidewerecreatedusingacustomizedsubsetoftheCanadiancommunityhealthsurvey(CCHS),annualcomponent,2007­2008,available

throughtheDataLiberationInitiative(DLI)anddownloadedusingSDA@CHASS.

[9]SeetheStatahelpfilesonexpressionsandoperators:type“helpexp”and“helpoperator”inthecommandscreen.

[10]Thereisnoruleofthumbatplayhere;Isimplypickedalistofvariablesthatcontainedlittleusefulinformation.Sometimes,thefactthatonlyasmallnumberof

observationscontaininformationISinformative,inandofitself.Donotdropvariablesthattellyousomethingimportant.

[11]Notethatyoucanalsousethiscommandtomakegroups.TheCCHSdatasetalreadyhasagebyagegroupbutifyouhadavariableforactualage,youcould

generateanagegroupvariableusingrecode.SeetheStatahelpsheet(helprecode)formoreoptions.

[12]Admittedly,theseareindeedoutliers,justnotthetypewewanttodoanythingabout.Leavethosealone.“Dealing”withtrueeventsinanywayislikelytodo

moreharmthangoodasyouwouldtruncateyourdataset,potentiallycreatingbiasinyouranalysislater.

[13]Youreplace“varlist”withthelistofthevariablesyouwanttabulated,asinthedropexample.

[14]Allofthesecommands,qualifiersandprefixeshaveStatahelpfiles.Havealookatthemforamorein­depthpresentation.

[15]Knowinghowtolabelvariablescanalsobeusefulifthedatawasnotprovidedtoyouwithadictionaryfile;youcanthenusethequestionnairetobuildlabelsfor

allyourvariablesofinterest,justasadictionaryfilewoulddo.

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