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OCEAN UNIVERSITY OF CHINA

SCHOOL OF LAW AND POLITICAL SCIENCE

US ENERGY LAW, REGULATION AND THE ENVIRONMENT


FINAL PAPER

PRESENT STATUS AND FUTURE PROSPECT OF RENEWABLE


ENERGY POLICY IN BANGLADESH
SUBMITTED BY: MD. MOSTAFA SHAMSUZZAMAN
REG. NO :W11141211001

SUBMITTED TO: PROFESSOR JEREMY FIRESTONE

TABLE OF CONTENT

1. Background
2. Introduction
3. Renewable energy in Bangladesh
3.1. Biomass energy
a) Biogas
b) Bio-fuel
3.2. Solar energy
a) Concentrating solar power (CSP) technology
b) Grid-connected solar PV system
c) Solar home system (SHS)
3.3.

Wind energy

3.4.

Small scale hydro power energy

4. Renewable policy of Bangladesh


5. Renewable policy of USA
6. Comparison between Bangladesh and USA
7. Conclusion & Recommendation
8. Bibliography

Background
Government of Bangladesh has taken a systematic approach towards renewable energy
development. In line with the Government approach Bangladesh Power Development
Board formed the Directorate of Renewable Energy and Research & Development in 2010.
Since the very beginning of establishment the directorate is dedicated to keep a sign for the
enhancement of Renewable Energy use in power sector. There is a good scope for solar,
wind, biomass, and micro/mini hydro power generation in Bangladesh. Bangladesh power
development board (BPDB) has taken systematic steps for developing renewable energy
projects as well as implement and promote energy efficiency measures for the last few
years to achieve the target of the Renewable Energy Policy 2008.1

Introduction
Energy is the building block of modern civilization and prerequisite for sustainable
development. Global primary energy consumption is increasing with the pace of population
growth and rapid urbanization.2 The primary energy sources include fossil fuels oil, natural
gas and coal. Until 2020, it is estimated that fossil fuels will dominate 90% of the total
primary energy supply, if no breakthrough innovation would likely to occur.3 In the last
couple of decades, fossil fuel consumption increased dramatically. Primary energy
consumption was 8146 million tons of oil equivalents (Mtoe) in 1991, and reached 12,274.6
Mtoe in 2011.4 It is projected that from year 2011 to 2030, global primary energy
consumption will increase by 36% with an annual growth of 1.6%, in which fossil fuel will
1

Bangladesh Power Development Board, website: http://www.bpdb.gov.bd/


Md. Tasbirul Islam et al. Current energy scenario and future prospect of renewable energy
in Bangladesh Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 39 (2014) PP.10741088
3
Pilavachi P. Mini-and micro-gas turbines for combined heat and power. Appl Therm Eng 2002; 22:200314.
4
BP.
Statistical
review
of
world
energy
2012.
British
Petroleum;
2012.
http://www.bp.com/assets/bp_internet/globalbp/globalbp_uk_english/reports_and_
publications/statistical_energy_review_2011/STAGING/local_assets/pdf/statistical_review_of_world_energy_f
ull_report_2012.pdf.
2

dominate 88% of the total energy supply.5 At current production rate, proven oil and natural
gas will last for 54.2 years and 63.6 years, respectively.6 Explicit consumption of fossil fuels
also gives rise to greenhouse gases (GHGs) concentration to the atmosphere. Global CO2
emission was 19,074.5 million tons in 1981, which increased to 34,032.7 million tons in
20117 and global CO2 emission will rise by 85% from year 2000 to 2030.8 Renewable
energy sources such as solar, biomass, wind and hydropower are now considered, as
sustainable alternative mitigating climate change. At present, renewable energy accounts
for 11% of the total energy supply, and by 2070, the share will be 60%.9 Like others, energy
supply largely depends on fossil fuels in Bangladesh. Power crisis has become a crucial
issue for the past few years as power generation is largely dominated by indigenous natural
gas, which is now showing depleting trajectory.1011 In 2012, total electricity generation was
35,118 million kilowatt hour (kWh) out of which 27,795 million kWh was generated from 151
billion cubic feet (BCF) of natural gas.12 At peak season during summer, the country
experiences severe power crisis with an average 1500 megawatt (MW) net deficit.13 More
than 80% of the population resides at rural areas, and only 20% has interrupted access to
grid connected electricity.1415 In this duel folded power crisis scenario, renewable energy
5

BP. Energy outlook 2030. British Petroleum; 2013.


http://www.bp.com/liveassets/bp_internet/globalbp/globalbp_uk_english/reports_and_publications/statistical_
ener y_review_2011/STAGING/local_assets/pdf/BP_World_Energy_Outlook_booklet_2013.pdf.
6
BP. Statistical review of world energy 2012. British Petroleum; 2012.
http://www.bp.com/assets/bp_internet/globalbp/globalbp_uk_english/reports_and_publications/statistical_ene
rgy_review_2011/STAGING/local_assets/pdf/statistical_review_of_world_energy_full_report_2012.pdf.
7
ibid
8
Meyer I, Leimbach M, Jaeger C. International passenger transport and climate change: A sector analysis in
car demand and associated CO2 emissions from 2000 to 2050. Energy Policy 2007; 35:633245.
9
Hossain AK, Badr O. Prospects of renewable energy utilisation for electricity generation in Bangladesh.
Renew Sustain Energy Rev 2007; 11:161749.
10
Kabir MH, Endlicher W, Jgermeyr J. Calculation of bright roof-tops for solar PV applications in Dhaka
Megacity, Bangladesh. Renew Energy 2010; 35:17604.
11
Rofiqul Islam M, Rabiul Islam M, Rafiqul Alam Beg M. Renewable energy resources and technologies
practice in Bangladesh. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 2008; 12:299343.
12
MoF. Bangladesh Economic Review 2012. Energy and Power: Ministry of Finance, Government of
Bangladesh; 2012. http://www.mof.gov.bd/en/budget/13_14/ber/en/chapter-10_en.pdf.
13
Ahamad M, Tanin F. Next power generation-mix for Bangladesh: outlook and policy priorities. Energy Policy
2013;60:27283.
14
Islam AKM, Islam M, Rahman T. Effective renewable energy activities in Bangladesh. Renew Energy
2006;31:67788.
15
Mozumder P, Marathe A. Causality relationship between electricityconsumption and GDP in Bangladesh.
Energy Policy 2007;35:395402.

could provide viable alternative mitigating present shortage and ensuring long range energy
planning. In recent times global investment on renewable energy has increased over 17%.16
In 2011, US$257 billion was invested. World's top oil importer China, invested $51 billion on
renewable technologies in 2011, which was higher than Germany, United States, India and
Italy.17 Developing countries are also showing similar pattern of development in the energy
sector.18 Like other developing countries, Bangladesh is also blessed with ample renewable
energy sources such as biomass, solar, wind and small hydropower. Thus, it is imperative
to utilize renewable energy sources as an alternative to depleting energy sources which
could lead to sustainable solution to present energy crisis and future national energy
security. Moreover, effective and efficient use of renewable energy can mitigate CO2
emission from conventional fuel energy mix in grid connection.19 Therefore, this study
attempts to address current energy scenario & prospects of Bangladesh and illustrates a
comprehensive review on explored renewable energy sources for its effective utilization
both in urban and rural areas of Bangladesh.

16

Erakhrumen AA. Growing pertinence of bioenergy in formal/informal global energy schemes: Necessity for
optimising awareness strategies and increased investments in renewable energy technologies. Renew
Sustain Energy Rev2014;31:30511.
17
REN21. Renewables 2012 global status report. REN21; 2012.
http://www.map.ren21.net/GSR/GSR2012.pdf.
18
Cato MS, Arthur L, Keenoy T, Smith R. Entrepreneurial energy: associative entrepreneurship in the
renewable energy sector in Wales. Int J Entrep BehavRes 2008;14:31329.
19
Nandi SK, Ghosh HR. A windPV-battery hybrid power system at Sitakunda in Bangladesh. Energy Policy
2009;37:365964.

Bibliography
Md. Tasbirul Islam, S.A. Shahir, T.M. Iftakhar Uddin, A.Z.A Saifullah (2014) Current energy
scenario and future prospect of renewable energy in Bangladesh Renewable and
Sustainable Energy Reviews 39, PP.10741088.
Md. Saydur Rahman Sohag Kumar Saha, Md. Rakib Hasan Khan, Ummay Habiba &
Sheikh Mobinul Hossen Chowdhury, (2013) Present Situation of Renewable Energy in
Bangladesh: Renewable Energy Resources Existing in Bangladesh Global Journals Inc.
(US) Volume 13 Issue 5 Version 1.0, pp.1-8.
Ferdous Ahmed, Abul Quasem Al Amin, M. Hasanuzzaman, R. Saidur, (2013) Alternative
energy resources in Bangladesh and future prospect Renewable and Sustainable Energy
Reviews 25, pp. 698707.
Md. Alam Hossain Mondal, Manfred Denich, (2010) Assessment of renewable energy
resources potential for electricity generation in Bangladesh Renewable and Sustainable
Energy Reviews 14, pp. 24012413.
Shamsuddin Ahmed, Md Tasbirul Islam, Mohd Aminul Karim, Nissar Mohammad Karim,
(2014) Exploitation of renewable energy for sustainable development and overcoming
power crisis in Bangladesh Renewable Energy 72, pp. 223-235.