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VERSION 4.3b Heat Transfer Module Model Library Manual

VERSION 4.3b

Heat Transfer Module

Model Library Manual

VERSION 4.3b Heat Transfer Module Model Library Manual

Heat Transfer Module Model Library Manual

© 1998–2013 COMSOL

Protected by U.S. Patents 7,519,518; 7,596,474; and 7,623,991. Patents pending.

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Version:

May 2013

COMSOL 4.3b

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Part number: CM020802

Solved with COMSOL Multiphysics 4.3b

Radiative Heat Transfer in a Utility Boiler

Introduction

In recent years, many studies have been conducted in the field of performance optimization of large power plant boilers. The main aims have been to extend the lifetime, increase the thermal efficiency, and reduce the pollutant emissions of the boilers. A good furnace design is the most important part in the energy conversion process in the boilers. A furnace is where the fuel is burnt and the chemical energy is converted into heat to be transferred into the water walls of steam boilers. The temperatures in fuel furnaces are high enough that the radiation becomes the most important mechanism in heat transfer. Due to complexity of the radiation mechanism and its dependence on the enclosure's geometry, there is no analytical solution except for very simple problems. This fact along with expensive experimental modeling leads researchers to develop numerical models for analyzing these enclosures. Three of the most attractive methods, as far as accuracy and computational requirement are concerned, are the discrete transfer, the discrete ordinates and the finite-volume methods.

Note: Solving this model requires approximately 22 GB of memory.

Model Definition

Of practical relevance is the radiative heat transfer in furnaces containing obstacles, such as protrusions and obstructions. In some applications, the thickness of the obstacles is very small as it occurs in utility boilers, where panels are often hanged in the radiation chamber.

In order to reduce the mesh (and then the computational cost), these obstructions are modeled as baffles (zero thickness). This study handles zero thickness obstacles containing an emitting-absorbing medium.

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A

three-dimensional enclosure resembling the combustion chamber of a utility boiler

is

modeled. The enclosure contains five baffles, as shown in Figure 1, which simulates

the panels of superheaters suspended at the top of the combustion chamber.

Figure 1: Utility Boiler with obstructions

In this example, the S8 discrete ordinate method was employed for predicting the heat flux on the side walls of enclosures and incident radiation distribution within the furnace. It results in a set of 80 discrete directions to represent radiative intensity transport.

The main assumption is using an existing uniform temperature and properties within the volume and surface zones, as proposed in Ref. 1. The temperature and emissivity

of the boundaries, including the surface of the baffles, are taken as 800 K and 0.65,

respectively, except at x = 10 m and for 22 z 30 m, where the temperature was set

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equal to 1200 K and a black-body surface is assumed. An emitting-absorbing medium is assumed, with the following distribution of temperature and absorption coefficient:

TABLE 1:

DISTRIBUTION OF TEMPERATURE AND ADSORPTION COEFFICIENT

COORDINATE [M]

ABSORPTION

TEMPERATURE [K]

COEFFICIENT[1/M]

z 5

0.20

1600

5 < z 10

0.25

2000

10

< z 20

0.20

1600

20

< z 30

0.18

1200

THERMAL ANALYSIS

The discrete-ordinates method (DOM) relies on the discrete representation of the directional dependence of the radiation intensity. The radiative transfer equation (RTE) is solved for a set of directions which span he total solid angle range of 4around a point in space.

The RTE for this type of configuration can be written as:

where

I s I T I s

=

b

+

s

------

4

4

0

I  

I is the radiative intensity at a given position s, following direction

T is the temperature

, , s are absorption, extinction, and scattering coefficients, respectively

I b Tis the blackbody radiative intensity

1a 1 0 and 0 . (’ is the cosine of the scattering angle).

The boundary intensities in the furnace walls are given physically by the effective emitted intensity plus reflected incident intensities into a respective direction.

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where

I bnd  =

d

w I b T+ ------ q out

for all such that n    0

w is the surface emissivity, which is in the range [0, 1]

d 1 w is the diffusive reflectivity

n is the outward normal vector

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q out is the heat flux striking the wall:

q out

=

n  I s

n

j

0

The above equations can be discretized in Cartesian coordinates for monochromatic or gray radiation as:

i

 I i =

s

4

I T I ------ I  

b

i

+

4

0

The Sn approximation of the RTE in the m direction can be expressed as:

i



I

i

=

I T

b

I

i

+

n

j = 1

------

4

s

w j I j j

  

i

For a discrete direction, i , the values of

cosines of i obeying the condition i,1 2 +

equation denotes the direction of incoming radiation contributing to the direction i .

i,1

,

i,2 2

i,2

, and

i,3

define the direction

+ i,3 2 1. The j index in the above

For a diffuse reflecting surface on a wall boundary, the boundary condition equation is transformed as:

I ibnd

=

w

I

b

T

+

------

d

n

j

0

w j I j

n

j

Results and Discussion

for all

i

such that n

i 0

Figure 2 and Figure 3 show the predicted incident radiation surface plots. The maximum incident radiation occurs at the level where the temperature and absorbing coefficient of the medium are the highest (that is, at the boiler’s burner level).

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Solved with COMSOL Multiphysics 4.3b Figure 2: Incident radiation. Figure 3: Incident radiation on the front

Figure 2: Incident radiation.

with COMSOL Multiphysics 4.3b Figure 2: Incident radiation. Figure 3: Incident radiation on the front of

Figure 3: Incident radiation on the front of the boiler (W/m 2 ).

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Predicted outgoing heat flux is shown on and in good agreement with published data (Ref. 1).

on and in good agreement with published data ( Ref. 1 ). Figure 4: Outgoing heat

Figure 4: Outgoing heat flux on walls of the boiler (W/m 2 )

Reference

1. P.J. Coelho, J.M. Goncalves, and M.G. Carvalho, “Modelling of Radiative Heat Transfer in Enclosures with Obstacles,” International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 41, no. 4–5, pp. 745–756, 1998.

Model Library path: Heat_Transfer_Module/Thermal_Radiation/boiler

Modeling Instructions

MODEL WIZARD

1 Go to the Model Wizard window.

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2 Click Next.

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3 In the Add physics tree, select Heat Transfer>Radiation>Radiation in Participating Media (rpm).

4 Click Add Selected.

By default, the Discrete ordinates method setting is S4, which corresponds to 24 discrete angular directions. To obtain the maximum resolution of 80 directions, select S8 from the list. Note, however, that this requires approximately 20 GB of memory.

5 Click Next.

6 Find the Studies subsection. In the tree, select Preset Studies>Stationary.

7 Click Finish.

GLOBAL DEFINITIONS

Parameters

1 In the Model Builder window, right-click Global Definitions and choose Parameters.

2 In the Parameters settings window, locate the Parameters section.

3 In the table, enter the following settings:

Name

Expression

Description

Thot

1200[K]

Temperature, hot surface zone

Tlow

800[K]

Temperature, cool surfaces

em

0.65

Emissivity, cool surfaces

scattC

0[1/m]

Scattering coefficient

Piecewise 1

1 Right-click Global Definitions and choose Functions>Piecewise.

2 In the Piecewise settings window, locate the Function Name section.

3 In the Function name edit field, type T.

4 Locate the Definition section. In the Argument edit field, type z.

5 Find the Intervals subsection. In the table, enter the following settings:

Start

End

Function

0

5

1600

5

10

2000

10

20

1600

20

30

1200

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6 Locate the Units section. In the Arguments edit field, type m.

7 In the Function edit field, type K.

Piecewise 2

1 Right-click Global Definitions and choose Functions>Piecewise.

2 In the Piecewise settings window, locate the Function Name section.

3 In the Function name edit field, type absC.

4 Locate the Definition section. In the Argument edit field, type z.

5 Find the Intervals subsection. In the table, enter the following settings:

Start

End

Function

0

5

0.20

5

10

0.25

10

20

0.20

20

30

0.18

6 Locate the Units section. In the Arguments edit field, type m.

7 In the Function edit field, type 1/m.

GEOMETRY 1

Work Plane 1

1 In the Model Builder window, under Model 1 right-click Geometry 1 and choose Work

Plane.

2 In the Work Plane settings window, locate the Plane Definition section.

3 From the Plane list, choose xz-plane.

Bézier Polygon 1

1 In the Model Builder window, under Model 1>Geometry 1>Work Plane 1 right-click Plane Geometry and choose Bézier Polygon.

2 In the Bézier Polygon settings window, locate the Polygon Segments section.

3 Find the Added segments subsection. Click the Add Linear button.

4 Find the Control points subsection. In row 1, set yw to 4.

5 In row 2, set yw to 30.

6 Find the Added segments subsection. Click the Add Linear button.

7 Find the Control points subsection. In row 2, set xw to 10.

8 Find the Added segments subsection. Click the Add Linear button.

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9 Find the Control points subsection. In row 2, set yw to 22.

10 Find the Added segments subsection. Click the Add Linear button.

11 Find the Control points subsection. In row 2, set xw to 8.

12 In row 2, set yw to 20.

13 Find the Added segments subsection. Click the Add Linear button.

14 Find the Control points subsection. In row 2, set xw to 10.

15 In row 2, set yw to 18.

16 Find the Added segments subsection. Click the Add Linear button.

17 Find the Control points subsection. In row 2, set yw to 4.

18 Find the Added segments subsection. Click the Add Linear button.

19 Find the Control points subsection. In row 2, set xw to 6.

20 In row 2, set yw to 0.

21 Find the Added segments subsection. Click the Add Linear button.

22 Find the Control points subsection. In row 2, set xw to 4.

23 Find the Added segments subsection. Click the Add Linear button.

24 Find the Control points subsection. Click the Close Curve button.

Rectangle 1

1 Right-click Plane Geometry and choose Rectangle.

2 In the Rectangle settings window, locate the Size section.

3 In the Width edit field, type 4.

4 In the Height edit field, type 10.

5 Locate the Position section. In the yw edit field, type 20.

Extrude 1

1 In the Model Builder window, right-click Geometry 1 and choose Extrude.

2 In the Extrude settings window, locate the Distances from Plane section.

3 In the table, enter the following settings:

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Distances (m)

2

4

6

8

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Distances (m)

10

12

MATERIALS

Add a material to specify the absorption and scattering coefficients inside the boiler.

Material 1

1 In the Model Builder window, under Model 1 right-click Materials and choose Material.

2 Right-click Material 1 and choose Rename.

3 Go to the Rename Material dialog box and type Chamber in the New name edit field.

4 Click OK.

5 In the Material settings window, locate the Material Contents section.

6 In the table, enter the following settings:

Property

Name

Value

Absorption coefficient

kappaR

absC(z)

Scattering coefficient

sigmaS

scattC

Analogously, specify the emissivity of the boiler walls using a material.

Material 2

1 In the Model Builder window, right-click Materials and choose Material.

2 Right-click Material 2 and choose Rename.

3 Go to the Rename Material dialog box and type Walls in the New name edit field.

4 Click OK.

5 In the Material settings window, locate the Geometric Entity Selection section.

6 From the Geometric entity level list, choose Boundary.

7 From the Selection list, choose All boundaries.

8 Locate the Material Contents section. In the table, enter the following settings:

Property

Name

Value

Surface emissivity

epsilon_rad

em

RADIATION IN PARTICIPATING MEDIA

1 In the Radiation in Participating Media settings window, locate the Participating Media

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2 From the P index list, choose 1.

Radiation in Participating Media 1

1 In the Model Builder window, under Model 1>Radiation in Participating Media click Radiation in Participating Media 1.

2 In the Radiation in Participating Media settings window, locate the Model Inputs

section.

3 In the T edit field, type T(z).

Opaque Surface 1

1 In the Model Builder window, under Model 1>Radiation in Participating Media

right-click Opaque Surface 1 and choose Rename.

2 Go to the Rename Opaque Surface dialog box and type Low Temp in the New name edit field.

3 Click OK.

4 In the Opaque Surface settings window, locate the Model Inputs section.

5 In the T edit field, type Tlow.

Opaque Surface 2

1 In the Model Builder window, right-click Radiation in Participating Media and choose Opaque Surface.

2 Right-click Opaque Surface 2 and choose Rename.

3 Go to the Rename Opaque Surface dialog box and type Hot Temp in the New name edit field.

4 Click OK.

5 In the Opaque Surface settings window, locate the Model Inputs section.

6 In the T edit field, type Thot.

7 Locate the Wall Settings section. From the Wall type list, choose Black wall.

8 Select Boundaries 82, 84, 86, 88, 90, and 92 only.

MESH

1

Mapped 1

1 In the Model Builder window, under Model 1 right-click Mesh 1 and choose More

Operations>Mapped.

2 Select Boundary 5 only.

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Free Quad 1

1 In the Model Builder window, right-click Mesh 1 and choose More Operations>Free Quad.

2 Select Boundary 2 only.

3 Right-click Mesh 1 and choose Swept.

Size

1 In the Model Builder window, under Model 1>Mesh 1 click Size.

2 In the Size settings window, locate the Element Size section.

3 From the Predefined list, choose Extra fine.

4 In the Model Builder window, right-click Mesh 1 and choose Build All.

STUDY 1

1 In the Model Builder window, right-click Study 1 and choose Compute.

The default plot groups show the Incident Radiation slice plot and the Net Radiative Heat Flux surface plot.

Follow instructions below to replace the slice plot for Incident Radiation by a contour plot.

RESULTS

Incident Radiation (rpm)

1 In the Model Builder window, expand the Results>Incident Radiation (rpm) node.

2 Right-click Slice 1.1 and choose Delete.

Click Yes to confirm.

3 Right-click Incident Radiation (rpm) and choose Contour.

4 In the Contour settings window, locate the Levels section.

5 From the Entry method list, choose Levels.

6 In the Levels edit field, type range(0e5,1e5,21e5).

7 Locate the Coloring and Style section. From the Contour type list, choose Filled.

8 Click to expand the Quality section. From the Smoothing list, choose None.

9 Click the Plot button.

Rescale the zoom to get results shown in Figure 2.

10 Click the Zoom Extents button on the Graphics toolbar.

Switch the yz perspective to display results from Figure 3.

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11 Click the Go to YZ View button on the Graphics toolbar.

Net Radiative Heat Flux (rpm)

Now, replace the Net Radiative Heat Flux by the Outgoing Radiative Heat Flux in the second graph.

1 In the Model Builder window, under Results right-click Net Radiative Heat Flux (rpm)

and choose Rename.

2 Go to the Rename 3D Plot Group dialog box and type Outgoing Radiative Heat Flux (rpm) in the New name edit field.

3 Click OK.

Outgoing Radiative Heat Flux (rpm)

1 In the Model Builder window, expand the Outgoing Radiative Heat Flux (rpm) node.

2 Right-click Surface 1.1 and choose Delete.

Click Yes to confirm.

3 Right-click Outgoing Radiative Heat Flux (rpm) and choose Contour.

4 In the Contour settings window, click Replace Expression in the upper-right corner of

the Expression section. From the menu, choose Radiation in Participating Media>Boundary fluxes>Outgoing radiative heat flux (rpm.qout).

5 Locate the Coloring and Style section. From the Contour type list, choose Filled.

6 Locate the Quality section. From the Smoothing list, choose None.

Go to Default 3D View to obtain Figure 4.

7 Click the Go to Default 3D View button on the Graphics toolbar.

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Heat Generation in a Disc Brake

Introduction

This example models the heat generation and dissipation in a disc brake of an ordinary car during panic braking and the following release period. As the brakes slow the car, they transform kinetic energy into thermal energy, resulting in intense heating of the brake discs. If the discs overheat, the brake pads stop working and, in a worst-case scenario, can melt. Braking power starts to fade already at temperatures above 600 K.

In the model, the car (1800 kg) initially travels at 25 m/s (90 km/h) when the driver brakes hard for 2 s, causing the vehicle’s eight brake pads to slow the car down at a rate of 10 m/s 2 . The wheels are assumed not to skid against the road surface. After this period of time, the driver releases the brake and the car travels at 5 m/s for an additional 8 s without any braking. The questions to analyze with the model are:

How hot do the brake discs and pads become during the braking stage?

How much do they cool down during the subsequent rest?

Model Definition

Model the brake disc as a 3D solid with shape and dimensions as in Figure 1. The disc has a radius of 0.14 m and a thickness of 0.013 m.

disc has a radius of 0.14 m and a thickness of 0.013 m. Figure 1: Model

Figure 1: Model geometry, including disc and pad.

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Neglecting drag and other losses outside the brakes, the brakes’ retardation power is given by the negative of the time derivative of the car’s kinetic energy:

P

=

d

d t

2

mv

-----------

2

dv

== – mv ------

dt

mR 2 t

Here m is the car’s mass, v denotes its speed, R equals the wheel radius (0.25 m), is the angular velocity, and is the angular acceleration. The acceleration is constant in this case, so (t) 0 t.

By definition, the retardation power equals the negative of the work per unit time done by the friction forces on the discs at the interfaces between the pads and the discs for the eight brakes. You can calculate this work as eight times an integral over the contact surface of a single brake pad. The friction force per unit area, f f , is approximately constant over the surface and is directed opposite the disc velocity vector, v d v d e , where e denotes a unit vector in the azimuthal (angular) direction and the magnitude of v d at the distance r from the center equals v d (r, t)(t)r. Thus, writing f d f f e gives the following result for the retardation power:

P

=

8



f f dA

v

d

=

8f f tt



rdA

You can approximate the last integral with the pad’s area, A (0.0035 m 2 ), multiplied by the distance from the center of the disc to the pad’s center of mass, r m (0.1143 m).

Combining the two expressions for P gives the following result for the magnitude of the friction force, f f :

f f

= mR ----------------- 2 8r m A

(Note that is negative during retardation.)

Under the previously stated idealization that retardation is due entirely to friction in the brakes, the heat power generated per unit contact area at time t and the distance r from the center becomes

qrt 

=

f

f

v

d

rt

= –

mR

----------------- r   + t

2

8r

m A

0

The disc and pad dissipate the heat produced at the boundary between the brake pad and the disc by convection and radiation. This example models the rotation as convection in the disc. The local disc velocity vector is

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v d = t( y ,)x

The model also includes heat conduction in the disc and the pad through the transient heat transfer equation

T

C p ------- +  kTQ C

t

=

P

u T

where k represents the thermal conductivity (W/(m·K)), C

capacity (J/(kg·K)), and Q is the heating power per unit volume (W/m 3 ), which in this case is set to zero.

p

is the specific heat

At the boundary between the disc and the pad, the brake produces heat according to the expression for q given earlier. The heat dissipation from the disc and pad surfaces to the surrounding air is described by both convection and radiation

q diss

=

h T

T

ref

  T

4

T

4

ref

In this equation, h equals the convective film coefficient (W/(m 2 ·K)), is the material’s emissivity, and is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant (5.67·10 8 W/(m 2 ·K 4 )).

To calculate the convective film coefficient as a function of the vehicle speed, v, use the following formula (Ref. 1):

h

=

------------------ 0.037k Re

l

0.8

Pr

0.33

lv

= ------------------ ----------

0.037k

l

0.8

0.33

C

-----------

k

p

Here l is the disc’s diameter. The material properties—the thermal conductivity, k, the density, , the viscosity, , and the specific heat capacity, C p —are those for air.

Table 1 summarizes the thermal properties, which come from (Ref. 1). You calculate the density of air at a reference temperature of 300 K using the ideal gas law.

TABLE 1:

MATERIAL PROPERTIES

 

PROPERTY

DISC

PAD

AIR

(kg/m 3 )

7870

2000

1.170

C

p (J/(kg·K))

449

935

1100

k

(W/(m·K))

82

8.7

0.026

0.28

0.8

-

(Pa·s)

-

-

1.8·10 -5

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Results and Discussion

The surface temperatures of the disc and the pad vary with both time and position. At the contact surface between the pad and the disc the temperature increases when the brake is engaged and then decreases again as the brake is released. You can best see these results in COMSOL Multiphysics by generating an animation. Figure 2 displays the surface temperatures just before the end of the braking. A “hot spot” is visible at the contact between the brake pad and disc, just at the pad’s edge—this is where the temperature could become critical during braking. The figure also shows the temperature decreasing along the rotational trace after the pad. During the rest, the temperature becomes significantly lower and more uniform in the disc and the pad.

lower and more uniform in the disc and the pad. Figure 2: Surface temperature of the

Figure 2: Surface temperature of the brake disc and pad just before releasing the brake (t = 1.8 s).

To investigate the position of the hot spot and the time of the temperature maximum, it is helpful to plot temperature versus time along the line from the center to the pad’s edge depicted in Figure 3. The result is displayed in Figure 4. You can see that the maximum temperature is approximately 415 K. The hot spot is positioned close to the radially outer edge of the pad. The highest temperature occurs approximately 1 s after engaging the brake.

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Solved with COMSOL Multiphysics 4.3b Figure 3: The radial line probed in the temperature vs. time

Figure 3: The radial line probed in the temperature vs. time plot in Figure 4.

t r (m)
t
r (m)

Figure 4: Temperature profile along the line indicated in Figure 3 at the disc surface (z = 0.013 m) as a function of time.

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HEAT

GENERATION

IN A DISC BRAKE

Solved with COMSOL Multiphysics 4.3b

To investigate how much of the generated heat is dissipated to the air, study the surface integrals of the produced heat and the dissipated heat. These integrals give the total heat flux (J/s) for heat production, Q prod , and heat dissipation, Q diss , as functions of time for the brake disc. The time integrals of these two quantities, W prod and W diss , give the total heat (J) produced and dissipated, respectively, in the brake disc. Figure 5 shows a plot of the total produced heat and dissipated heat versus time. You can see that 8 s after disengagement the brake has dissipated only a fraction of the produced heat. The plot indicates that the resting time must be extended significantly to dissipate all the generated heat.

extended significantly to dissipate all the generated heat. Figure 5: Comparison of total heat produced (solid

Figure 5: Comparison of total heat produced (solid line) and dissipated (dashed).

The results of this model can help engineers investigate how much abuse, in terms of specific braking sequences, a certain brake-disc design can tolerate before overheating. It is also possible to vary the parameters affecting the heat dissipation and investigate their influence.

Reference

1. J.M. Coulson and J.F. Richardson, Chemical Engineering, vol. 1, eq. 9.88; material properties from appendix A2.

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HEAT

GENERATION

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©2013 COMSOL

Solved with COMSOL Multiphysics 4.3b

Model Library path: Heat_Transfer_Module/ Thermal_Contact_and_Friction/brake_disc

Modeling Instructions

MODEL WIZARD

1 Go to the Model Wizard window.

2 Click Next.

3 In the Add physics tree, select Heat Transfer>Heat Transfer in Solids (ht).

4 Click Next.

5 Find the Studies subsection. In the tree, select Preset Studies>Time Dependent.

6 Click Finish.

GLOBAL DEFINITIONS

Parameters

1 In the Model Builder window, right-click Global Definitions and choose Parameters.

Define the global parameters by loading the corresponding text file provided.

2 In the Parameters settings window, locate the Parameters section.

3 Click Load from File.

4 Browse to the model’s Model Library folder and double-click the file

brake_disc_parameters.txt.

GEOMETRY 1

Cylinder 1

1 In the Model Builder window, under Model 1 right-click Geometry 1 and choose

Cylinder.

2 In the Cylinder settings window, locate the Size and Shape section.

3 In the Radius edit field, type 0.14.

4 In the Height edit field, type 0.013.

5 Click the Build Selected button.

©2013

COMSOL

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GENERATION

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Cylinder 2

1 In the Model Builder window, right-click Geometry 1 and choose Cylinder.

2 In the Cylinder settings window, locate the Size and Shape section.

3 In the Radius edit field, type 0.08.

4 In the Height edit field, type 0.01.

5 Locate the Position section. In the z edit field, type 0.013.

6 Click the Build Selected button.

Work Plane 1

1 Right-click Geometry 1 and choose Work Plane.

2 In the Work Plane settings window, locate the Plane Definition section.

3 In the z-coordinate edit field, type 0.013.

4 Click the Show Work Plane button.

Bézier Polygon 1

1 In the Model Builder window, under Model 1>Geometry 1>Work Plane 1 right-click Plane Geometry and choose Bézier Polygon.

2 In the Bézier Polygon settings window, locate the Polygon Segments section.

3 Find the Added segments subsection. Click the Add Cubic button.

4 Find the Control points subsection. In row 1, set yw to 0.135.

5 In row 2, set xw to 0.02.

6 In row 2, set yw to 0.135.

7 In row 3, set xw to 0.05.

8 In row 3, set yw to 0.13.

9 In row 4, set xw to 0.04.

10 In row 4, set yw to 0.105.

11 Find the Added segments subsection. Click the Add Cubic button.

12 Find the Control points subsection. In row 2, set xw to 0.03.

13 In row 2, set yw to 0.08.

14 In row 3, set xw to 0.035.

15 In row 3, set yw to 0.09.

16 In row 4, set xw to 0.

17 In row 4, set yw to 0.09.

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GENERATION

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©2013 COMSOL

Solved with COMSOL Multiphysics 4.3b

18 Find the Added segments subsection. Click the Add Cubic button.

19 Find the Control points subsection. In row 2, set xw to -0.035.

20 In row 2, set yw to 0.09.

21 In row 3, set xw to -0.03.

22 In row 3, set yw to 0.08.

23 In row 4, set xw to -0.04.

24 In row 4, set yw to 0.105.

25 Find the Added segments subsection. Click the Add Cubic button.

26 Find the Control points subsection. In row 2, set xw to -0.05.

27 In row 2, set yw to 0.13.

28 In row 3, set xw to -0.02.

29 In row 3, set yw to 0.135.

30 Click the Close Curve button.

To complete the pad cross section, you must make the top-left and top-right corners sharper. Do so by changing the weights of the Bézier curves.

31 Find the Added segments subsection. In the Added segments list, select Segment 1

(cubic).

32 Find the Weights subsection. In the 3 edit field, type 2.5.

33 Find the Added segments subsection. In the Added segments list, select Segment 4

(cubic).

34 Find the Weights subsection. In the 2 edit field, type 2.5.

35 Click the Build Selected button.

Extrude 1

1 In the Model Builder window, under Model 1>Geometry 1 right-click Work Plane 1 and

choose Extrude.

2 In the Extrude settings window, locate the Distances from Plane section.

3 In the table, enter the following settings:

Distances (m)

0.0065

4 Click the Build Selected button.

The model geometry is now complete.

©2013

COMSOL

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HEAT

GENERATION

IN A DISC BRAKE

Solved with COMSOL Multiphysics 4.3b

Next, define some selections of certain boundaries. You will use them when defining the settings for model couplings, boundary conditions, and so on.

DEFINITIONS

Explicit 1

1 In the Model Builder window, under Model 1 right-click Definitions and choose

Selections>Explicit.

2 Right-click Explicit 1 and choose Rename.

3 Go to the Rename Explicit dialog box and type Disc faces in the New name edit field.

4 Click OK.

5 In the Explicit settings window, locate the Input Entities section.

6 From the Geometric entity level list, choose Boundary.

7 Select Boundaries 1, 2, 4–6, 8, 13–15, and 18 only.

Explicit 2

1 In the Model Builder window, right-click Definitions and choose Selections>Explicit.

2 Right-click Explicit 2 and choose Rename.

3 Go to the Rename Explicit dialog box and type Pad faces in the New name edit field.

4 Click OK.

5 In the Explicit settings window, locate the Input Entities section.

6 From the Geometric entity level list, choose Boundary.

7 Select Boundaries 9, 10, 12, 16, and 17 only.

Explicit 3

1 In the Model Builder window, right-click Definitions and choose Selections>Explicit.

2 Right-click Explicit 3 and choose Rename.

3 Go to the Rename Explicit dialog box and type Contact surface in the New name edit field.

4 Click OK.

5 In the Explicit settings window, locate the Input Entities section.

6 From the Geometric entity level list, choose Boundary.

To select the contact surface boundary, it is convenient to temporarily switch to wireframe rendering.

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7 Click the Wireframe Rendering button on the Graphics toolbar.

8 Select Boundary 11 only.

To select this boundary, you typically need to click twice before right-clicking; the first click highlights the pad's top surface.

9 Click the Wireframe Rendering button on the Graphics toolbar.

Integration 1

1 In the Model Builder window, right-click Definitions and choose Model

Couplings>Integration.

2 In the Integration settings window, locate the Source Selection section.

3 From the Geometric entity level list, choose Boundary.

4 Select Boundary 11 only.

Integration 2

1 Right-click Definitions and choose Model Couplings>Integration.

2 In the Integration settings window, locate the Source Selection section.

3 From the Geometric entity level list, choose Boundary.

4 From the Selection list, choose Disc faces.

Integration 3

1 Right-click Definitions and choose Model Couplings>Integration.

2 In the Integration settings window, locate the Source Selection section.

3 From the Geometric entity level list, choose Boundary.

4 From the Selection list, choose Pad faces.

Define a step function for use in variables.

Step 1

1 Right-click Definitions and choose Functions>Step.

2 In the Step settings window, click to expand the Smoothing section.

3 In the Size of transition zone edit field, type 2*0.01.

©2013

COMSOL

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GENERATION

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4 Click the Plot button.

with COMSOL Multiphysics 4.3b 4 Click the Plot button. Define some variables by loading the corresponding

Define some variables by loading the corresponding text file provided.

Variables 1

1 Right-click Definitions and choose Variables.

2 In the Variables settings window, locate the Variables section.

3 Click Load from File.

4 Browse to the model’s Model Library folder and double-click the file

brake_disc_variables.txt.

In the table, add variables for the produced heating power and dissipated heating power defined in terms of these variables and the integration operators you defined previously:

5 In the table, enter the following settings:

Name

Expression

Description

Q_prod

intop1(q_prod)

Produced heating power

Q_diss

intop2(-q_d_disc)+intop3(

Total dissipated heating power

-q_d_pad)

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©2013 COMSOL

Solved with COMSOL Multiphysics 4.3b

MATERIALS

Material 1

1 In the Model Builder window, under Model 1 right-click Materials and choose Material.

2 In the Material settings window, locate the Material Contents section.

3 In the table, enter the following settings:

Property

Name

Value

Thermal conductivity

k

k_disc

Density

rho

rho_disc

Heat capacity at constant pressure

Cp

C_disc

Material 2

1 In the Model Builder window, right-click Materials and choose Material.

2 Select Domain 3 only.

3 In the Material settings window, locate the Material Contents section.

4 In the table, enter the following settings:

Property

Name

Value

Thermal conductivity

k

k_pad

Density

rho

rho_pad

Heat capacity at constant pressure

Cp

C_pad

HEAT TRANSFER IN SOLIDS

Heat Transfer in Solids 1

In the Model Builder window, expand the Model 1>Heat Transfer in Solids node.

Translational Motion 1

1 Right-click Heat Transfer in Solids 1 and choose Translational Motion.

2 Select Domains 1 and 2 only.

3 In the Translational Motion settings window, locate the Translational Motion section.

4 In the u trans table, enter the following settings:

©2013

-y*omega x x*omega y 0 z COMSOL
-y*omega
x
x*omega
y
0
z
COMSOL

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HEAT

GENERATION

IN A DISC BRAKE

Solved with COMSOL Multiphysics 4.3b

Symmetry 1

1 In the Model Builder window, right-click Heat Transfer in Solids and choose Symmetry.

2 Select Boundary 3 only.

Heat Flux 1

1 Right-click Heat Transfer in Solids and choose Heat Flux.

2 In the Heat Flux settings window, locate the Boundary Selection section.

3 From the Selection list, choose Disc faces.

4 Locate the Heat Flux section. Click the Inward heat flux button.

5 In the h edit field, type h_air.

6 In the T ext edit field, type T_air.

Heat Flux 2

1 Right-click Heat Transfer in Solids and choose Heat Flux.

2 In the Heat Flux settings window, locate the Boundary Selection section.

3 From the Selection list, choose Pad faces.

4 Locate the Heat Flux section. Click the Inward heat flux button.

5 In the h edit field, type h_air.

6 In the T ext edit field, type T_air.

Boundary Heat Source 1

1 Right-click Heat Transfer in Solids and choose Boundary Heat Source.

2 In the Boundary Heat Source settings window, locate the Boundary Selection section.

3 From the Selection list, choose Contact surface.

4 Locate the Boundary Heat Source section. In the Q b edit field, type q_prod.

Initial Values 1

1 In the Model Builder window, under Model 1>Heat Transfer in Solids click Initial Values

1.

2 In the Initial Values settings window, locate the Initial Values section.

3 In the T edit field, type T_air.

Surface-to-Ambient Radiation 1

1 In the Model Builder window, right-click Heat Transfer in Solids and choose

Surface-to-Ambient Radiation.

2 In the Surface-to-Ambient Radiation settings window, locate the Boundary Selection

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GENERATION

IN

A

DISC

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©2013 COMSOL

Solved with COMSOL Multiphysics 4.3b

3 From the Selection list, choose Disc faces.

4 Locate the Surface-to-Ambient Radiation section. From the list, choose User defined.

In the associated edit field, type e_disc.

5 In the T amb edit field, type T_air.

Surface-to-Ambient Radiation 2

1 Right-click Heat Transfer in Solids and choose Surface-to-Ambient Radiation.

2 In the Surface-to-Ambient Radiation settings window, locate the Boundary Selection

section.

3 From the Selection list, choose Pad faces.

4 Locate the Surface-to-Ambient Radiation section. From the list, choose User defined.

In the associated edit field, type e_pad.

5 In the T amb edit field, type T_air.

To compute the heat produced and the heat dissipated, integrate the corresponding heating-power variables, Q_prod and Q_diss, over time. For this purpose, define two ODEs using a Global Equations node.

6 In the Model Builder window’s toolbar, click the Show button and select Advanced

Physics Options in the menu.

Global Equations 1

1 Right-click Heat Transfer in Solids and choose Global>Global Equations.

2 In the Global Equations settings window, locate the Global Equations section.

3 In the table, enter the following settings:

Name

f(u,ut,utt,t)

Initial value

Initial value

Description

(u_0)

(u_t0)

W_prod

W_prodt-Q_prod

0

0

Produced heat

W_diss

W_disst-Q_diss

0

0

Dissipated heat

Here, W_prodt (W_disst) is COMSOL Multiphysics syntax for the time derivative of W_prod (W_diss). The table thus defines the two uncoupled initial value problems

·

W

prod/disst

=

Q

prod/diss

t

W prod/diss 0 = 0

To obtain the first-order ODEs, take the time derivative of the integrals

©2013

COMSOL

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GENERATION

IN A DISC BRAKE

Solved with COMSOL Multiphysics 4.3b

t

0

The initial values follow from setting t0.

W prod/diss t

=

MESH

1

Free Triangular 1

Q prod/diss t ' dt '

1 In the Model Builder window, under Model 1 right-click Mesh 1 and choose More

Operations>Free Triangular.

2 Click the Transparency button on the Graphics toolbar.

3 Select Boundaries 4, 7, and 11 only.

4 Click the Transparency button on the Graphics toolbar again to return to the original state.

Size

1 In the Model Builder window, under Model 1>Mesh 1 click Size.

2 In the Size settings window, locate the Element Size section.

3 From the Predefined list, choose Extra fine.

Swept 1

In the Model Builder window, right-click Mesh 1 and choose Swept.

Distribution 1

1 In the Model Builder window, under Model 1>Mesh 1