VERSION 4.3b
Heat Transfer Module
Model Library Manual
Heat Transfer Module Model Library Manual
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Version:
May 2013
COMSOL 4.3b
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Part number: CM020802
Solved with COMSOL Multiphysics 4.3b
Radiative Heat Transfer in a Utility Boiler
Introduction
In recent years, many studies have been conducted in the field of performance optimization of large power plant boilers. The main aims have been to extend the lifetime, increase the thermal efficiency, and reduce the pollutant emissions of the boilers. A good furnace design is the most important part in the energy conversion process in the boilers. A furnace is where the fuel is burnt and the chemical energy is converted into heat to be transferred into the water walls of steam boilers. The temperatures in fuel furnaces are high enough that the radiation becomes the most important mechanism in heat transfer. Due to complexity of the radiation mechanism and its dependence on the enclosure's geometry, there is no analytical solution except for very simple problems. This fact along with expensive experimental modeling leads researchers to develop numerical models for analyzing these enclosures. Three of the most attractive methods, as far as accuracy and computational requirement are concerned, are the discrete transfer, the discrete ordinates and the finitevolume methods.
Note: Solving this model requires approximately 22 GB of memory.
Model Definition
Of practical relevance is the radiative heat transfer in furnaces containing obstacles, such as protrusions and obstructions. In some applications, the thickness of the obstacles is very small as it occurs in utility boilers, where panels are often hanged in the radiation chamber.
In order to reduce the mesh (and then the computational cost), these obstructions are modeled as baffles (zero thickness). This study handles zero thickness obstacles containing an emittingabsorbing medium.
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A 
threedimensional enclosure resembling the combustion chamber of a utility boiler 
is 
modeled. The enclosure contains five baffles, as shown in Figure 1, which simulates 
the panels of superheaters suspended at the top of the combustion chamber.
Figure 1: Utility Boiler with obstructions
In this example, the S8 discrete ordinate method was employed for predicting the heat flux on the side walls of enclosures and incident radiation distribution within the furnace. It results in a set of 80 discrete directions to represent radiative intensity transport.
The main assumption is using an existing uniform temperature and properties within the volume and surface zones, as proposed in Ref. 1. The temperature and emissivity
of the boundaries, including the surface of the baffles, are taken as 800 K and 0.65,
respectively, except at x = 10 m and for 22 z 30 m, where the temperature was set
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equal to 1200 K and a blackbody surface is assumed. An emittingabsorbing medium is assumed, with the following distribution of temperature and absorption coefficient:
TABLE 1:
DISTRIBUTION OF TEMPERATURE AND ADSORPTION COEFFICIENT
COORDINATE [M] 
ABSORPTION 
TEMPERATURE [K] 

COEFFICIENT[1/M] 

z 5 
0.20 
1600 

5 < z 10 
0.25 
2000 

10 
< z 20 
0.20 
1600 
20 
< z 30 
0.18 
1200 
THERMAL ANALYSIS
The discreteordinates method (DOM) relies on the discrete representation of the directional dependence of the radiation intensity. The radiative transfer equation (RTE) is solved for a set of directions which span he total solid angle range of 4 around a point in space.
The RTE for this type of configuration can be written as:
where
I s I T – I s
=
b
+
^{} s

4
4
0
I
• I is the radiative intensity at a given position s, following direction
• T is the temperature
• , , _{s} are absorption, extinction, and scattering coefficients, respectively
• I _{b} T is the blackbody radiative intensity
• 1a _{1} _{0} and _{0} . (’ is the cosine of the scattering angle).
The boundary intensities in the furnace walls are given physically by the effective emitted intensity plus reflected incident intensities into a respective direction.
©2013
where
I _{b}_{n}_{d} =
^{}
d
_{w} I _{b} T +  _{q} _{o}_{u}_{t}
for all such that n 0
• _{w} is the surface emissivity, which is in the range [0, 1]
• _{d} 1 _{w} is the diffusive reflectivity
• n is the outward normal vector
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• q _{o}_{u}_{t} is the heat flux striking the wall:
^{q} out
=
n I s
n
j
0
The above equations can be discretized in Cartesian coordinates for monochromatic or gray radiation as:
^{} i
^{I} i =
^{}
s
4
I T I  I
b
–
i
+
4
0
The Sn approximation of the RTE in the m direction can be expressed as:
^{}
i
I
i
=
I T
b
–
I
i
+
n
j = 1
^{}

4
s
^{w} j ^{I} j ^{}^{} j
i
For a discrete direction, _{i} , the values of
cosines of _{i} obeying the condition _{i}_{,}_{1} ^{2} +
equation denotes the direction of incoming radiation contributing to the direction _{i} .
^{}
i,1
,
i,2 ^{2}
i,2
, and
i,3
define the direction
+ _{i}_{,}_{3} ^{2} 1. The j index in the above
For a diffuse reflecting surface on a wall boundary, the boundary condition equation is transformed as:
^{I} i bnd
=
w
I
b
T
+

d
n
j
0
^{w} j ^{I} j
n
^{}
j
Results and Discussion
for all
i
such that n
i 0
Figure 2 and Figure 3 show the predicted incident radiation surface plots. The maximum incident radiation occurs at the level where the temperature and absorbing coefficient of the medium are the highest (that is, at the boiler’s burner level).
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Figure 2: Incident radiation.
Figure 3: Incident radiation on the front of the boiler (W/m ^{2} ).
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Predicted outgoing heat flux is shown on and in good agreement with published data (Ref. 1).
Figure 4: Outgoing heat flux on walls of the boiler (W/m ^{2} )
Reference
1. P.J. Coelho, J.M. Goncalves, and M.G. Carvalho, “Modelling of Radiative Heat Transfer in Enclosures with Obstacles,” International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 41, no. 4–5, pp. 745–756, 1998.
Model Library path: Heat_Transfer_Module/Thermal_Radiation/boiler
Modeling Instructions
MODEL WIZARD
1 Go to the Model Wizard window.
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2 Click Next.
RADIATIVE
HEAT
TRANSFER
IN
A
UTILITY
BOILER
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3 In the Add physics tree, select Heat Transfer>Radiation>Radiation in Participating Media (rpm).
4 Click Add Selected.
By default, the Discrete ordinates method setting is S4, which corresponds to 24 discrete angular directions. To obtain the maximum resolution of 80 directions, select S8 from the list. Note, however, that this requires approximately 20 GB of memory.
5 Click Next.
6 Find the Studies subsection. In the tree, select Preset Studies>Stationary.
7 Click Finish.
GLOBAL DEFINITIONS
Parameters
1 In the Model Builder window, rightclick Global Definitions and choose Parameters.
2 In the Parameters settings window, locate the Parameters section.
3 In the table, enter the following settings:
Name 
Expression 
Description 
Thot 
1200[K] 
Temperature, hot surface zone 
Tlow 
800[K] 
Temperature, cool surfaces 
em 
0.65 
Emissivity, cool surfaces 
scattC 
0[1/m] 
Scattering coefficient 
Piecewise 1
1 Rightclick Global Definitions and choose Functions>Piecewise.
2 In the Piecewise settings window, locate the Function Name section.
3 In the Function name edit field, type T.
4 Locate the Definition section. In the Argument edit field, type z.
5 Find the Intervals subsection. In the table, enter the following settings:
Start 
End 
Function 
0 
5 
1600 
5 
10 
2000 
10 
20 
1600 
20 
30 
1200 
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6 Locate the Units section. In the Arguments edit field, type m.
7 In the Function edit field, type K.
Piecewise 2
1 Rightclick Global Definitions and choose Functions>Piecewise.
2 In the Piecewise settings window, locate the Function Name section.
3 In the Function name edit field, type absC.
4 Locate the Definition section. In the Argument edit field, type z.
5 Find the Intervals subsection. In the table, enter the following settings:
Start 
End 
Function 
0 
5 
0.20 
5 
10 
0.25 
10 
20 
0.20 
20 
30 
0.18 
6 Locate the Units section. In the Arguments edit field, type m.
7 In the Function edit field, type 1/m.
GEOMETRY 1
Work Plane 1
1 In the Model Builder window, under Model 1 rightclick Geometry 1 and choose Work
Plane.
2 In the Work Plane settings window, locate the Plane Definition section.
3 From the Plane list, choose xzplane.
Bézier Polygon 1
1 In the Model Builder window, under Model 1>Geometry 1>Work Plane 1 rightclick Plane Geometry and choose Bézier Polygon.
2 In the Bézier Polygon settings window, locate the Polygon Segments section.
3 Find the Added segments subsection. Click the Add Linear button.
4 Find the Control points subsection. In row 1, set yw to 4.
5 In row 2, set yw to 30.
6 Find the Added segments subsection. Click the Add Linear button.
7 Find the Control points subsection. In row 2, set xw to 10.
8 Find the Added segments subsection. Click the Add Linear button.
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9 Find the Control points subsection. In row 2, set yw to 22.
10 Find the Added segments subsection. Click the Add Linear button.
11 Find the Control points subsection. In row 2, set xw to 8.
12 In row 2, set yw to 20.
13 Find the Added segments subsection. Click the Add Linear button.
14 Find the Control points subsection. In row 2, set xw to 10.
15 In row 2, set yw to 18.
16 Find the Added segments subsection. Click the Add Linear button.
17 Find the Control points subsection. In row 2, set yw to 4.
18 Find the Added segments subsection. Click the Add Linear button.
19 Find the Control points subsection. In row 2, set xw to 6.
20 In row 2, set yw to 0.
21 Find the Added segments subsection. Click the Add Linear button.
22 Find the Control points subsection. In row 2, set xw to 4.
23 Find the Added segments subsection. Click the Add Linear button.
24 Find the Control points subsection. Click the Close Curve button.
Rectangle 1
1 Rightclick Plane Geometry and choose Rectangle.
2 In the Rectangle settings window, locate the Size section.
3 In the Width edit field, type 4.
4 In the Height edit field, type 10.
5 Locate the Position section. In the yw edit field, type 20.
Extrude 1
1 In the Model Builder window, rightclick Geometry 1 and choose Extrude.
2 In the Extrude settings window, locate the Distances from Plane section.
3 In the table, enter the following settings:
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Distances (m)
2
4
6
8
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Distances (m)
10
12
MATERIALS
Add a material to specify the absorption and scattering coefficients inside the boiler.
Material 1
1 In the Model Builder window, under Model 1 rightclick Materials and choose Material.
2 Rightclick Material 1 and choose Rename.
3 Go to the Rename Material dialog box and type Chamber in the New name edit field.
4 Click OK.
5 In the Material settings window, locate the Material Contents section.
6 In the table, enter the following settings:
Property 
Name 
Value 
Absorption coefficient 
kappaR 
absC(z) 
Scattering coefficient 
sigmaS 
scattC 
Analogously, specify the emissivity of the boiler walls using a material.
Material 2
1 In the Model Builder window, rightclick Materials and choose Material.
2 Rightclick Material 2 and choose Rename.
3 Go to the Rename Material dialog box and type Walls in the New name edit field.
4 Click OK.
5 In the Material settings window, locate the Geometric Entity Selection section.
6 From the Geometric entity level list, choose Boundary.
7 From the Selection list, choose All boundaries.
8 Locate the Material Contents section. In the table, enter the following settings:
Property 
Name 
Value 
Surface emissivity 
epsilon_rad 
em 
RADIATION IN PARTICIPATING MEDIA
1 In the Radiation in Participating Media settings window, locate the Participating Media
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Settings section.
RADIATIVE
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2 From the P _{i}_{n}_{d}_{e}_{x} list, choose 1.
Radiation in Participating Media 1
1 In the Model Builder window, under Model 1>Radiation in Participating Media click Radiation in Participating Media 1.
2 In the Radiation in Participating Media settings window, locate the Model Inputs
section.
3 In the T edit field, type T(z).
Opaque Surface 1
1 In the Model Builder window, under Model 1>Radiation in Participating Media
rightclick Opaque Surface 1 and choose Rename.
2 Go to the Rename Opaque Surface dialog box and type Low Temp in the New name edit field.
3 Click OK.
4 In the Opaque Surface settings window, locate the Model Inputs section.
5 In the T edit field, type Tlow.
Opaque Surface 2
1 In the Model Builder window, rightclick Radiation in Participating Media and choose Opaque Surface.
2 Rightclick Opaque Surface 2 and choose Rename.
3 Go to the Rename Opaque Surface dialog box and type Hot Temp in the New name edit field.
4 Click OK.
5 In the Opaque Surface settings window, locate the Model Inputs section.
6 In the T edit field, type Thot.
7 Locate the Wall Settings section. From the Wall type list, choose Black wall.
8 Select Boundaries 82, 84, 86, 88, 90, and 92 only.
MESH
1
Mapped 1
1 In the Model Builder window, under Model 1 rightclick Mesh 1 and choose More
Operations>Mapped.
2 Select Boundary 5 only.
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Free Quad 1
1 In the Model Builder window, rightclick Mesh 1 and choose More Operations>Free Quad.
2 Select Boundary 2 only.
3 Rightclick Mesh 1 and choose Swept.
Size
1 In the Model Builder window, under Model 1>Mesh 1 click Size.
2 In the Size settings window, locate the Element Size section.
3 From the Predefined list, choose Extra fine.
4 In the Model Builder window, rightclick Mesh 1 and choose Build All.
STUDY 1
1 In the Model Builder window, rightclick Study 1 and choose Compute.
The default plot groups show the Incident Radiation slice plot and the Net Radiative Heat Flux surface plot.
Follow instructions below to replace the slice plot for Incident Radiation by a contour plot.
RESULTS
Incident Radiation (rpm)
1 In the Model Builder window, expand the Results>Incident Radiation (rpm) node.
2 Rightclick Slice 1.1 and choose Delete.
Click Yes to confirm.
3 Rightclick Incident Radiation (rpm) and choose Contour.
4 In the Contour settings window, locate the Levels section.
5 From the Entry method list, choose Levels.
6 In the Levels edit field, type range(0e5,1e5,21e5).
7 Locate the Coloring and Style section. From the Contour type list, choose Filled.
8 Click to expand the Quality section. From the Smoothing list, choose None.
9 Click the Plot button.
Rescale the zoom to get results shown in Figure 2.
10 Click the Zoom Extents button on the Graphics toolbar.
Switch the yz perspective to display results from Figure 3.
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11 Click the Go to YZ View button on the Graphics toolbar.
Net Radiative Heat Flux (rpm)
Now, replace the Net Radiative Heat Flux by the Outgoing Radiative Heat Flux in the second graph.
1 In the Model Builder window, under Results rightclick Net Radiative Heat Flux (rpm)
and choose Rename.
2 Go to the Rename 3D Plot Group dialog box and type Outgoing Radiative Heat _{F}_{l}_{u}_{x} _{(}_{r}_{p}_{m}_{)} in the New name edit field.
3 Click OK.
Outgoing Radiative Heat Flux (rpm)
1 In the Model Builder window, expand the Outgoing Radiative Heat Flux (rpm) node.
2 Rightclick Surface 1.1 and choose Delete.
Click Yes to confirm.
3 Rightclick Outgoing Radiative Heat Flux (rpm) and choose Contour.
4 In the Contour settings window, click Replace Expression in the upperright corner of
_{t}_{h}_{e} Expression section. From the menu, choose Radiation in Participating Media>Boundary fluxes>Outgoing radiative heat flux (rpm.qout).
5 Locate the Coloring and Style section. From the Contour type list, choose Filled.
6 Locate the Quality section. From the Smoothing list, choose None.
Go to Default 3D View to obtain Figure 4.
7 Click the Go to Default 3D View button on the Graphics toolbar.
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Heat Generation in a Disc Brake
Introduction
This example models the heat generation and dissipation in a disc brake of an ordinary car during panic braking and the following release period. As the brakes slow the car, they transform kinetic energy into thermal energy, resulting in intense heating of the brake discs. If the discs overheat, the brake pads stop working and, in a worstcase scenario, can melt. Braking power starts to fade already at temperatures above 600 K.
In the model, the car (1800 kg) initially travels at 25 m/s (90 km/h) when the driver brakes hard for 2 s, causing the vehicle’s eight brake pads to slow the car down at a rate of 10 m/s ^{2} . The wheels are assumed not to skid against the road surface. After this period of time, the driver releases the brake and the car travels at 5 m/s for an additional 8 s without any braking. The questions to analyze with the model are:
• How hot do the brake discs and pads become during the braking stage?
• How much do they cool down during the subsequent rest?
Model Definition
Model the brake disc as a 3D solid with shape and dimensions as in Figure 1. The disc has a radius of 0.14 m and a thickness of 0.013 m.
Figure 1: Model geometry, including disc and pad.
©2013
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HEAT
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IN A DISC BRAKE
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Neglecting drag and other losses outside the brakes, the brakes’ retardation power is given by the negative of the time derivative of the car’s kinetic energy:
P
=
–
d
d t
2
mv

2
dv
== – mv 
dt
– mR ^{2} t
Here m is the car’s mass, v denotes its speed, R equals the wheel radius (0.25 m), is the angular velocity, and is the angular acceleration. The acceleration is constant in this case, so (t) _{0} t.
By definition, the retardation power equals the negative of the work per unit time done by the friction forces on the discs at the interfaces between the pads and the discs for the eight brakes. You can calculate this work as eight times an integral over the contact surface of a single brake pad. The friction force per unit area, f _{f} , is approximately constant over the surface and is directed opposite the disc velocity vector, v _{d} v _{d} e _{} , where e _{} denotes a unit vector in the azimuthal (angular) direction and the magnitude of v _{d} at the distance r from the center equals v _{d} (r, t)(t)r. Thus, writing f _{d} f _{f} e _{} gives the following result for the retardation power:
P
=
– 8
^{f} _{f} dA
^{v}
d
=
8f _{f} tt
rdA
You can approximate the last integral with the pad’s area, A (0.0035 m ^{2} ), multiplied by the distance from the center of the disc to the pad’s center of mass, r _{m} (0.1143 m).
Combining the two expressions for P gives the following result for the magnitude of the friction force, f _{f} :
^{f} f
_{=} _{–} mR  ^{2} 8r _{m} A
(Note that is negative during retardation.)
Under the previously stated idealization that retardation is due entirely to friction in the brakes, the heat power generated per unit contact area at time t and the distance r from the center becomes
qrt
=
–
^{f}
f
v
d
r t
= –
mR
 r + t
2
8r
m ^{A}
0
The disc and pad dissipate the heat produced at the boundary between the brake pad and the disc by convection and radiation. This example models the rotation as convection in the disc. The local disc velocity vector is
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v _{d} = t ( – y ,)x
The model also includes heat conduction in the disc and the pad through the transient heat transfer equation
T
C _{p}  + – kT Q C
t
=
–
P
u T
where k represents the thermal conductivity (W/(m·K)), C
capacity (J/(kg·K)), and Q is the heating power per unit volume (W/m ^{3} ), which in this case is set to zero.
p
is the specific heat
At the boundary between the disc and the pad, the brake produces heat according to the expression for q given earlier. The heat dissipation from the disc and pad surfaces to the surrounding air is described by both convection and radiation
^{q} diss
=
– h T
–
T
ref
T
–
4
–
T
4
ref
In this equation, h equals the convective film coefficient (W/(m ^{2} ·K)), is the material’s emissivity, and is the StefanBoltzmann constant (5.67·10 ^{}^{8} W/(m ^{2} ·K ^{4} )).
To calculate the convective film coefficient as a function of the vehicle speed, v, use the following formula (Ref. 1):
h
=
 0.037k Re
l
0.8
Pr
0.33
lv
=  
0.037k
l
_{} 0.8
0.33
C

k
p
Here l is the disc’s diameter. The material properties—the thermal conductivity, k, the density, , the viscosity, , and the specific heat capacity, C _{p} —are those for air.
Table 1 summarizes the thermal properties, which come from (Ref. 1). You calculate the density of air at a reference temperature of 300 K using the ideal gas law.
TABLE 1: MATERIAL PROPERTIES 

PROPERTY 
DISC 
PAD 
AIR 

(kg/m ^{3} ) 
7870 
2000 
1.170 

C 
_{p} (J/(kg·K)) 
449 
935 
1100 
k 
(W/(m·K)) 
82 
8.7 
0.026 

0.28 
0.8 
 

(Pa·s) 
 
 
1.8·10 ^{}^{5} 
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Results and Discussion
The surface temperatures of the disc and the pad vary with both time and position. At the contact surface between the pad and the disc the temperature increases when the brake is engaged and then decreases again as the brake is released. You can best see these results in COMSOL Multiphysics by generating an animation. Figure 2 displays the surface temperatures just before the end of the braking. A “hot spot” is visible at the contact between the brake pad and disc, just at the pad’s edge—this is where the temperature could become critical during braking. The figure also shows the temperature decreasing along the rotational trace after the pad. During the rest, the temperature becomes significantly lower and more uniform in the disc and the pad.
Figure 2: Surface temperature of the brake disc and pad just before releasing the brake (t = 1.8 s).
To investigate the position of the hot spot and the time of the temperature maximum, it is helpful to plot temperature versus time along the line from the center to the pad’s edge depicted in Figure 3. The result is displayed in Figure 4. You can see that the maximum temperature is approximately 415 K. The hot spot is positioned close to the radially outer edge of the pad. The highest temperature occurs approximately 1 s after engaging the brake.
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Figure 3: The radial line probed in the temperature vs. time plot in Figure 4.
Figure 4: Temperature profile along the line indicated in Figure 3 at the disc surface (z = 0.013 m) as a function of time.
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To investigate how much of the generated heat is dissipated to the air, study the surface integrals of the produced heat and the dissipated heat. These integrals give the total heat flux (J/s) for heat production, Q _{p}_{r}_{o}_{d} , and heat dissipation, Q _{d}_{i}_{s}_{s} , as functions of time for the brake disc. The time integrals of these two quantities, W _{p}_{r}_{o}_{d} and W _{d}_{i}_{s}_{s} , give the total heat (J) produced and dissipated, respectively, in the brake disc. Figure 5 shows a plot of the total produced heat and dissipated heat versus time. You can see that 8 s after disengagement the brake has dissipated only a fraction of the produced heat. The plot indicates that the resting time must be extended significantly to dissipate all the generated heat.
Figure 5: Comparison of total heat produced (solid line) and dissipated (dashed).
The results of this model can help engineers investigate how much abuse, in terms of specific braking sequences, a certain brakedisc design can tolerate before overheating. It is also possible to vary the parameters affecting the heat dissipation and investigate their influence.
Reference
1. J.M. Coulson and J.F. Richardson, Chemical Engineering, vol. 1, eq. 9.88; material properties from appendix A2.
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Model Library path: Heat_Transfer_Module/ Thermal_Contact_and_Friction/brake_disc
Modeling Instructions
MODEL WIZARD
1 Go to the Model Wizard window.
2 Click Next.
3 In the Add physics tree, select Heat Transfer>Heat Transfer in Solids (ht).
4 Click Next.
5 Find the Studies subsection. In the tree, select Preset Studies>Time Dependent.
6 Click Finish.
GLOBAL DEFINITIONS
Parameters
1 In the Model Builder window, rightclick Global Definitions and choose Parameters.
Define the global parameters by loading the corresponding text file provided.
2 In the Parameters settings window, locate the Parameters section.
3 Click Load from File.
4 Browse to the model’s Model Library folder and doubleclick the file
brake_disc_parameters.txt.
GEOMETRY 1
Cylinder 1
1 In the Model Builder window, under Model 1 rightclick Geometry 1 and choose
Cylinder.
2 In the Cylinder settings window, locate the Size and Shape section.
3 In the Radius edit field, type 0.14.
4 In the Height edit field, type 0.013.
5 Click the Build Selected button.
©2013
COMSOL
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GENERATION
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Solved with COMSOL Multiphysics 4.3b
Cylinder 2
1 In the Model Builder window, rightclick Geometry 1 and choose Cylinder.
2 In the Cylinder settings window, locate the Size and Shape section.
3 In the Radius edit field, type 0.08.
4 In the Height edit field, type 0.01.
5 Locate the Position section. In the z edit field, type 0.013.
6 Click the Build Selected button.
Work Plane 1
1 Rightclick Geometry 1 and choose Work Plane.
2 In the Work Plane settings window, locate the Plane Definition section.
3 In the zcoordinate edit field, type 0.013.
4 Click the Show Work Plane button.
Bézier Polygon 1
1 In the Model Builder window, under Model 1>Geometry 1>Work Plane 1 rightclick Plane Geometry and choose Bézier Polygon.
2 In the Bézier Polygon settings window, locate the Polygon Segments section.
3 Find the Added segments subsection. Click the Add Cubic button.
4 Find the Control points subsection. In row 1, set yw to 0.135.
5 In row 2, set xw to 0.02.
6 In row 2, set yw to 0.135.
7 In row 3, set xw to 0.05.
8 In row 3, set yw to 0.13.
9 In row 4, set xw to 0.04.
10 In row 4, set yw to 0.105.
11 Find the Added segments subsection. Click the Add Cubic button.
12 Find the Control points subsection. In row 2, set xw to 0.03.
13 In row 2, set yw to 0.08.
14 In row 3, set xw to 0.035.
15 In row 3, set yw to 0.09.
16 In row 4, set xw to 0.
17 In row 4, set yw to 0.09.
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©2013 COMSOL
Solved with COMSOL Multiphysics 4.3b
18 Find the Added segments subsection. Click the Add Cubic button.
19 Find the Control points subsection. In row 2, set xw to 0.035.
20 In row 2, set yw to 0.09.
21 In row 3, set xw to 0.03.
22 In row 3, set yw to 0.08.
23 In row 4, set xw to 0.04.
24 In row 4, set yw to 0.105.
25 Find the Added segments subsection. Click the Add Cubic button.
26 Find the Control points subsection. In row 2, set xw to 0.05.
27 In row 2, set yw to 0.13.
28 In row 3, set xw to 0.02.
29 In row 3, set yw to 0.135.
30 Click the Close Curve button.
To complete the pad cross section, you must make the topleft and topright corners sharper. Do so by changing the weights of the Bézier curves.
31 Find the Added segments subsection. In the Added segments list, select Segment 1
(cubic).
32 Find the Weights subsection. In the 3 edit field, type 2.5.
33 Find the Added segments subsection. In the Added segments list, select Segment 4
(cubic).
34 Find the Weights subsection. In the 2 edit field, type 2.5.
35 Click the Build Selected button.
Extrude 1
1 In the Model Builder window, under Model 1>Geometry 1 rightclick Work Plane 1 and
choose Extrude.
2 In the Extrude settings window, locate the Distances from Plane section.
3 In the table, enter the following settings:
Distances (m)
0.0065
4 Click the Build Selected button.
The model geometry is now complete.
©2013
COMSOL
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Next, define some selections of certain boundaries. You will use them when defining the settings for model couplings, boundary conditions, and so on.
DEFINITIONS
Explicit 1
1 In the Model Builder window, under Model 1 rightclick Definitions and choose
Selections>Explicit.
2 Rightclick Explicit 1 and choose Rename.
3 Go to the Rename Explicit dialog box and type Disc faces in the New name edit field.
4 Click OK.
5 In the Explicit settings window, locate the Input Entities section.
6 From the Geometric entity level list, choose Boundary.
7 Select Boundaries 1, 2, 4–6, 8, 13–15, and 18 only.
Explicit 2
1 In the Model Builder window, rightclick Definitions and choose Selections>Explicit.
2 Rightclick Explicit 2 and choose Rename.
3 Go to the Rename Explicit dialog box and type Pad faces in the New name edit field.
4 Click OK.
5 In the Explicit settings window, locate the Input Entities section.
6 From the Geometric entity level list, choose Boundary.
7 Select Boundaries 9, 10, 12, 16, and 17 only.
Explicit 3
1 In the Model Builder window, rightclick Definitions and choose Selections>Explicit.
2 Rightclick Explicit 3 and choose Rename.
3 Go to the Rename Explicit dialog box and type Contact surface in the New name edit field.
4 Click OK.
5 In the Explicit settings window, locate the Input Entities section.
6 From the Geometric entity level list, choose Boundary.
To select the contact surface boundary, it is convenient to temporarily switch to wireframe rendering.
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©2013 COMSOL
Solved with COMSOL Multiphysics 4.3b
7 Click the Wireframe Rendering button on the Graphics toolbar.
8 Select Boundary 11 only.
To select this boundary, you typically need to click twice before rightclicking; the first click highlights the pad's top surface.
9 Click the Wireframe Rendering button on the Graphics toolbar.
Integration 1
1 In the Model Builder window, rightclick Definitions and choose Model
Couplings>Integration.
2 In the Integration settings window, locate the Source Selection section.
3 From the Geometric entity level list, choose Boundary.
4 Select Boundary 11 only.
Integration 2
1 Rightclick Definitions and choose Model Couplings>Integration.
2 In the Integration settings window, locate the Source Selection section.
3 From the Geometric entity level list, choose Boundary.
4 From the Selection list, choose Disc faces.
Integration 3
1 Rightclick Definitions and choose Model Couplings>Integration.
2 In the Integration settings window, locate the Source Selection section.
3 From the Geometric entity level list, choose Boundary.
4 From the Selection list, choose Pad faces.
Define a step function for use in variables.
Step 1
1 Rightclick Definitions and choose Functions>Step.
2 In the Step settings window, click to expand the Smoothing section.
3 In the Size of transition zone edit field, type 2*0.01.
©2013
COMSOL
11

HEAT
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4 Click the Plot button.
Define some variables by loading the corresponding text file provided.
Variables 1
1 Rightclick Definitions and choose Variables.
2 In the Variables settings window, locate the Variables section.
3 Click Load from File.
4 Browse to the model’s Model Library folder and doubleclick the file
brake_disc_variables.txt.
In the table, add variables for the produced heating power and dissipated heating power defined in terms of these variables and the integration operators you defined previously:
5 In the table, enter the following settings:
Name 
Expression 
Description 
Q_prod 
intop1(q_prod) 
Produced heating power 
Q_diss 
intop2(q_d_disc)+intop3( 
Total dissipated heating power 
q_d_pad) 
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MATERIALS
Material 1
1 In the Model Builder window, under Model 1 rightclick Materials and choose Material.
2 In the Material settings window, locate the Material Contents section.
3 In the table, enter the following settings:
Property 
Name 
Value 
Thermal conductivity 
k 
k_disc 
Density 
rho 
rho_disc 
Heat capacity at constant pressure 
Cp 
C_disc 
Material 2
1 In the Model Builder window, rightclick Materials and choose Material.
2 Select Domain 3 only.
3 In the Material settings window, locate the Material Contents section.
4 In the table, enter the following settings:
Property 
Name 
Value 
Thermal conductivity 
k 
k_pad 
Density 
rho 
rho_pad 
Heat capacity at constant pressure 
Cp 
C_pad 
HEAT TRANSFER IN SOLIDS
Heat Transfer in Solids 1
In the Model Builder window, expand the Model 1>Heat Transfer in Solids node.
Translational Motion 1
1 Rightclick Heat Transfer in Solids 1 and choose Translational Motion.
2 Select Domains 1 and 2 only.
3 In the Translational Motion settings window, locate the Translational Motion section.
4 In the u _{t}_{r}_{a}_{n}_{s} table, enter the following settings:
©2013
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IN A DISC BRAKE
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Symmetry 1
1 In the Model Builder window, rightclick Heat Transfer in Solids and choose Symmetry.
2 Select Boundary 3 only.
Heat Flux 1
1 Rightclick Heat Transfer in Solids and choose Heat Flux.
2 In the Heat Flux settings window, locate the Boundary Selection section.
3 From the Selection list, choose Disc faces.
4 Locate the Heat Flux section. Click the Inward heat flux button.
5 In the h edit field, type h_air.
6 In the T _{e}_{x}_{t} edit field, type T_air.
Heat Flux 2
1 Rightclick Heat Transfer in Solids and choose Heat Flux.
2 In the Heat Flux settings window, locate the Boundary Selection section.
3 From the Selection list, choose Pad faces.
4 Locate the Heat Flux section. Click the Inward heat flux button.
5 In the h edit field, type h_air.
6 In the T _{e}_{x}_{t} edit field, type T_air.
Boundary Heat Source 1
1 Rightclick Heat Transfer in Solids and choose Boundary Heat Source.
2 In the Boundary Heat Source settings window, locate the Boundary Selection section.
3 From the Selection list, choose Contact surface.
4 Locate the Boundary Heat Source section. In the Q _{b} edit field, type q_prod.
Initial Values 1
1 In the Model Builder window, under Model 1>Heat Transfer in Solids click Initial Values
1.
2 In the Initial Values settings window, locate the Initial Values section.
3 In the T edit field, type T_air.
SurfacetoAmbient Radiation 1
1 In the Model Builder window, rightclick Heat Transfer in Solids and choose
SurfacetoAmbient Radiation.
2 In the SurfacetoAmbient Radiation settings window, locate the Boundary Selection
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3 From the Selection list, choose Disc faces.
4 Locate the SurfacetoAmbient Radiation section. From the list, choose User defined.
In the associated edit field, type e_disc.
5 In the T _{a}_{m}_{b} edit field, type T_air.
SurfacetoAmbient Radiation 2
1 Rightclick Heat Transfer in Solids and choose SurfacetoAmbient Radiation.
2 In the SurfacetoAmbient Radiation settings window, locate the Boundary Selection
section.
3 From the Selection list, choose Pad faces.
4 Locate the SurfacetoAmbient Radiation section. From the list, choose User defined.
In the associated edit field, type e_pad.
5 In the T _{a}_{m}_{b} edit field, type T_air.
To compute the heat produced and the heat dissipated, integrate the corresponding heatingpower variables, Q_prod and Q_diss, over time. For this purpose, define two ODEs using a Global Equations node.
6 In the Model Builder window’s toolbar, click the Show button and select Advanced
Physics Options _{i}_{n} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{m}_{e}_{n}_{u}_{.}
Global Equations 1
1 Rightclick Heat Transfer in Solids and choose Global>Global Equations.
2 In the Global Equations settings window, locate the Global Equations section.
3 In the table, enter the following settings:
Name 
f(u,ut,utt,t) 
Initial value 
Initial value 
Description 
(u_0) 
(u_t0) 

W_prod 
W_prodtQ_prod 
0 
0 
Produced heat 
W_diss 
W_disstQ_diss 
0 
0 
Dissipated heat 
Here, W_prodt (W_disst) is COMSOL Multiphysics syntax for the time derivative of W_prod (W_diss). The table thus defines the two uncoupled initial value problems
·
W
prod/disst
=
Q
prod/diss
t
^{W} prod/diss ^{}^{0}^{} ^{=} ^{0}
To obtain the firstorder ODEs, take the time derivative of the integrals
©2013
COMSOL
15

HEAT
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t
0
The initial values follow from setting t0.
^{W} prod/diss ^{}^{t}^{}
=
MESH
1
Free Triangular 1
^{Q} prod/diss ^{}^{t} ^{'} ^{}^{d}^{t} ^{'}
1 In the Model Builder window, under Model 1 rightclick Mesh 1 and choose More
Operations>Free Triangular.
2 Click the Transparency button on the Graphics toolbar.
3 Select Boundaries 4, 7, and 11 only.
4 Click the Transparency button on the Graphics toolbar again to return to the original state.
Size
1 In the Model Builder window, under Model 1>Mesh 1 click Size.
2 In the Size settings window, locate the Element Size section.
3 From the Predefined list, choose Extra fine.
Swept 1
In the Model Builder window, rightclick Mesh 1 and choose Swept.
Distribution 1
1 In the Model Builder window, under Model 1>Mesh 1
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