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# Aim: The time period of a simple pendulum

## Apparatus and Materials Required:

1.Clamp stand;
2.A split cork
3.Heavy metallic spherical bob with a hook
4.A long, fine, strong cotton thread/string
5.Stop watch
6.Metre scale
7.Graph paper
8.Pencil
9.eraser

Principle:
The simple pendulum executes simple harmonic motion (SHM)
as the acceleration of the pendulum bob is directly proportional
to its displacement from the mean position and is always
directed towards it.
The time period (T) of the simple pendulum for oscillation of
small amplitude is given by the relation
The simple pendulum executes
T = 2 L/g

## Where l is the length of pendulum, and g is the acceleration due

to gravity at the place of experiment. The above equation can be
written as:
T2 = 4 L/g
T2 = (4 /g)L

T2 L
4 /g is constant

where,

Procedure:

## Figure: Functional Diagram

1. Place the clamp stand on the table. Tie the hook, attached to
the pendulum bob, to one end of the string of about 150 cm
in length. Pass the other end of the string through two halfpieces of a split cork.
2. Clamp the split cork firmly in the clamp stand such that the
line of separation of the two piece of the cork is at right
angles to the line OA along which the pendulum oscillates.
Mark, with a piece of chalk or ink, on the edge of the table
a vertical line parallel to and just behind the vertical thread
OA, the position of the bob at rest. Take care that the bob
hands vertically (about 2 cm above the floor) beyond the
edge of the table so that it is free to oscillate.
3. Measure the effective length of simple pendulum.

## 4. Displace the bob to one side, not more than 10 degree

angular displacement, from the vertical position OA and
then release it gently.
5. Keep the pendulum oscillating for some time. After
completion of a few oscillations, start the stop-watch as the
thread attached to the pendulum bob just crosses its mean
position. Count it as zero oscillation.
6. Keep on counting oscillations everytime the bob crosses the
mean position OA. Stop the stop-watch at the count of 20
oscillations. Repeat this observation 3 times by noting the
time for same number of oscillation. Take the mean of these
readings. Compute the time for one oscillation i.e., the time
period T (=t/n) of the pendulum.
7. Change the length of the pendulum by about 10 cm. Repeat
the step 6 again for finding the time (t) for 20 oscillations
and find the mean time period. Take 4 more observations
for different length of pendulum and find mean time period
in each case.
8. Record observation in the tabular form.

Observation
Radius of the bob (r) = 1.3 cm
Length of the hook (e) = 1 cm
Least count on the metre scale = 0.1 mm = 1 cm
Least count of the stop watch = 1s
OBSERVATION TABLE
Sl.
No
.

1.

2.

3.

Length
of the

Effective
length,
L= l+r+e

Time for 20
oscillations,
t(s)

t1 = s
t2 = s
t3 = s
t1 = s
t2 = s
t3 = s
t1 = s
t2 = s
t3 = s

## Mean t, Time period

t=
for one
(t1+t2+t3)/3 oscillations
T=(t/20) sec

T2

Precautions

SOURCES OF ERROR

Bibliography
Mohanty, Aurobindo. Physics Teacher, VKV
ITA
Book(s):
Physics Laboratory Manual for class IX
Websites:
http://www.scribd.com/doc/133212536/ClassXI-Physics-Lab-Manual#scribd
fizik-ruslawati.blogspot.in/2013/01/simplependulum-experiment.html

Acknowledgement
It would be my utmost pleasure to express my sincere thanks to
My Physics Teacher Mr. Aurobindo Mohanty in providing a
helping hand in this project. His valuable guidance, support and
supervision all through this project are responsible for attaining
its present form.
I would also like to thank my parents and friends for the
assistance, without them finishing this project within the limited
time would have not been possible.

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Table of content

PAGE No.

Vivekananda Kendra
Vidyalaya, Itanagar
PHYSICS PROJECT
Aim of the Experiment: The
time period of a simple
pendulum remain constant for a
particular length of the string.
Verify it.
Submitted by:
Diya Choudhury
Class: XI-Science
Roll no.: 09

Calculation

L-T2 Graph