Commission of the Eur opean Communities
technical steel research
i
JL
Properties and Ser vice Per for mance
STUDY ON DESIGN OF STEEL BUILDING
IN EARTHQUAKE ZONES
Report
EUR 12091 EN
Blowup from microfiche original
Commission of the European Communities
technical steel research
Properties and Service Performance
STUDY ON DESIGN OF STEEL BUILDING
IN EARTHQUAKE ZONES
EUROPEAN CONVENTION FOR CONSTRUCTIONAL STEELWORK
Avenue des Ombrages, 32/36
B1200 BRUSSELS
Contract No 7210.ZZ/437
(15.3.198415.9.1985)
FINAL REPORT
PA
DirectorateGeneral
Science, Research and Development
1989
: .c
CL'EUR 12091 EN
Published by the
COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES
DirectorateGeneral
Telecommunications, Information Industries and Innovation
L2920 Luxembourg
LEGAL NOTICE
Neither the Commission of the European Communities nor any person acting
on behalf of the Commission is responsible for the use which might be made of
the following information.
Catalogue number: CD  NA  12091ENC
ECSCEECEAEC, Brussels Luxembourg, 1989
STUDY ON DESIGN OF STEEL BUILDING IN EARTHQUAKE ZONES
SUMMARY
The present study is attempted to give a contribution to the knowledge of the
behaviour of steel structures in
seismic zones, and of enhancing
the
competitiveness of steel in the European and exported markets. It presents all
the available data and indicates which studies are necessary in the future in
order to push the possibilities of steel structures.
The presentation of the results is articulated in the following chapters:
Chapter 1, "INTRODUCTION", presents the general index and briefly describes
some researches on the behaviour of steel structures under severe conditions
promoted by ECSC.
Chapter 2, "SYNTHESIS OF SEISMIC DATA FOR STEEL BUILDINGS", collects
references on the subject together with a short comment on each paper. Before
each comment the name of the author, title of the work, year of publication and
number of pages of the paper are presented. These references are followed by
five key words which include in all cases the words: seismic design and steel
structures. The papers are collected in subchapters concerning the principal
aspects of the seismic behaviour of steel structures. Designers and researchers
will take profit of this list in order to easly find an up to date state of art
of the most interesting problems.
Chapter 3, "THE EXPERIMENTAL ASSESSEMENT OF SEISMIC STRENGTH AND DUCTILITY OF
STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS AND CONNECTIONS", mainly reflects the studies performed in
the last 3 years by the members of the ECCS Technical Committee 13 dealing with
Seismic Design of Steel Structures (at present Working Group 1.3 of T.C.I). The
ECCS recommended testing procedure for assessing the behaviour of structural
steel elements under cyclic loads is presented. In order to check the validity
of the ECCS recommendations and to win some basic information on the hysteretic
behaviour of steel bracing frames some studies were realized and the obtained
results are discussed. The behaviour of beamtocolumn connections and some
considerations on the b/t ratios are also presented.
Chapter 4, "THE ASSESSEMENT OF q FACTORS", propose a method for state the
behaviour factor of structures which can be modelled as systems with one degree
of freedom. Then, it is used to determine the behaviour factor q of some one
floor cantilevers. Numerical analysis have been performed on HEA series columns,
which were deflected both in the plane of maximum and minimum rigidity. The
obtained q factors are compared with those suggested by the Eurocode No 8
outlined that for this type of structures the value suggested is conservative.
Of course this item is the more important and useful to the designers, but
exthensive studies leave still to be performed in order to study in a meaninful
way the behaviour factors q to adopt in a reliable and economic design of steel
structures.
IV
ETUDE SUR LA CONCEPTION DES CONSTRUCTIONS EN ACIER
EN ZONE SISMIQUE
.RESUME
Cette tude est destine contribuer la connaissance du comportement des
constructions en acier en zone sismique et accrotre la comptitivit de
l'acier en Europe et l'exportation. Elle prsente toutes les donnes dis
ponibles et indique les tudes entreprendre pour mieux valoriser les ca
pacits des structures en acier.
La prsentation est dcoupe de la faon suivante :
Le chapitre 1, INTRODUCTION, prsente la table des rfrences et dcrit
brivement quelques recherches finances par la CECA sur l'tude du com
portement de structures en acier soumises des sollicitations svres.
Le chapitre 2, SYNTHESE DES DONNEES RELATIVES AUX CONSTRUCTIONS EN ACIER EN
ZONE SISMIQUE, rassemble des rfrences sur ce sujet, avec, pour chacune,
un bref commentaire. Chaque rfrence est dfinie par le nom de son auteur,
le titre du travail, l'anne de publication et le nombre de pages. De plus,
le contenu de ces rfrences est dfini par cinq mots cls, dont deux sont
toujours : conception parasismique, construction en acier. Les articles de
rfrence sont regroups en souschapitres relatifs aux principaux aspects
du comportement des structures en acier en zone sismique. Les projeteurs et
les chercheurs bnficient ainsi d'une liste de rfrences permettant de
trouver rapidement un tat de la question rcent sur les sujets les plus
intressants.
;
Le chapitre 3, EVALUATION EXPERIMENTALE DE LA RESISTANCE ET DE LA DUCTILITE
D'ELEMENTS DE STRUCTURE ET D'ASSEMBL AGES SOUS ACTION SISMIQUE, reprend
essentiellement les tudes et dveloppements accomplis au cours des trois
dernires annes par les membres du Comit Technique 13, actuellement re
baptis Groupe de Travail 1.3 "Construction en zone sismique" du Comit
Technique 1 de la C E . C M .
La procdure exprimentale d'tude du comportement d'lments structurels
en acier sous des actions cycliques dveloppe dans ce groupe est pr
sente. Certaines tudes effectues pour tester la validit de la procdure
CECM et dfinir des donnes fondamentales du comportement des contrevente
ments sous action alterne sont prsentes et les rsultats sont discuts.
On prsente galement des rsultats relatifs au comportement d'asemblages
poutrecolonne et des considrations sur l'influence des rapports b/t.
Le chapitre 4, EVALUATION DES FACTEURS q, contient une proposition de m
thode d'tablissement du facteur q de structures qui peuvent tre modli
ses comme des systmes un degr de libert. Cette mthode est utilise
pour dterminer le facteur de comportement structural q de portiques un
niveau dont les colonnes sont des profils HEA, sollicits dans leur plan
faible ou fort. Les valeurs de q ainsi obtenues sont compares aux valeurs
suggres dans 1'EUROCODE 8, dont on constate qu'elles sont toujours con
servatives. Ce rsultat est videmment important pour les auteurs de
projet, mais on constate aussi que des tudes exhaustives sont encore n
cessaires pour dfinir les facteurs q adopter dans un dimensionnement
la fois raliste et conomique des structures en acier en zone sismique.
V
.STUDIE  STAHLKONSTRUKTION IN ERDBEBENGEBIETEN
KURZFASSUNG
Die vorliegende Studie hatte das Ziel, zur Verbesserung der Kenntnisse ber
das Verhalten von Stahlkonstruktionen in Erdbebengebieten beizutragen und die
Wettbewerbsfhigkeit von Stahl auf dem Europischen und dem ExportMarkt zu
frdern. In' dem Studienbericht werden die bisher verfgbaren Informationen
und Daten zu diesem Thema vorgelegt und es wird auf weitere erforderliche
Untersuchungen hingewiesen, die die Mglichkeiten fr Stahlkonstruktionen verbessern wrden.
Die Ergebnisse der Untersuchungen werden in vier Kapitel vorgestellt :
Das Kapitel 1 "Einleitung" enthlt das Inhaltsverzeichnis und fasst die Ergebnisse einiger Forschungsvorhaben zusammen, die bisher zum Thema "Stahlkonstruktionen unter Extrembedingungen", von der EGKS gefrdert wurden.
Das Kapitel 2 "Zusammenfassung von Informationen und Daten zu Stahlbauten in
Erdbebengebieten" liefert einen Literaturberblick mit kurzer Kommentierung
jeder Verffentlichung, die mit Autorennamen, Titel, Erscheinungsjahr, Seitenzahl ausgewiesen wird. Die Literaturhinweise werden durch 5 Stichworte in Ergnzung zu "Erdbeben Entwurf" und "Stahlkonstruktionen" erweitert. Die Literaturzusammenstellung ist nach den fr das seismische Verhalten von Stahlkonstruktionen wesentlichen Gesichtspunkten in Unterkapitel gegliedert.
Anwender und Forscher knnen sich aufgrund der Zusammenstellung leicht ein Bild
vom derzeitigen Stand der Technik zu den wichtigsten Problemen machen.
Das Kapitel 3 "Experimenteller Nachweis der Festigkeit und Duktilitt von Bauteilen und Verbindungen unter seismischen Beanspruchungen" gibt hauptschlich
einen berblick ber die Untersuchungen, die in den letzten 3 Jahren von Mitgliedern des Technischen Kommitees 13 (Erdbebenbemessung von Stahlbauten) der
EKS (jetzt Arbeitsgruppe 1.3 der Technischen Kommission 1) durchgefhrt wurden.
Dabei wird die von der EKS empfohlene Versuchsdurchfhrung zur Bestimmung des
Verhaltens von Stahlbauteilen unter zyklischen Lasten vorgestellt. Die zum
Zwecke der berprfung dieser Empfehlungen und zur Bestimmung erster Grundinformationen zum hysteretischen Verhalten von Stahlverbnden durchgefhrten Untersuchungen werden beschrieben und die Ergebnisse diskutiert. Es werden auch
einige Resultate zum Verhalten von SttzenRiegelVerbindungen und Schlussfolgerungen fr die b/tVerhltnisse fr zyklische Belastung angegeben.
Im Kapitel 4 "Bestimmung von qFaktoren" wird eine Methode zur Bestimmung von
Verhaltensfaktoren q fr Systeme angegeben, die als Schwinger mit einem Freiheitsgrad abgebildet werden knnen. Die qFaktoren fr einige eingeschossige
Konstruktionen werden mit dieser Methode bestimmt. Fr HEA Profilsttzen werden
fr Biegung um die starke und schwache Achse numerische Ergebnisse fr q angegeben und mit den Angaben im Entwurf des Eurocode 8 verglichen. Die dort vorgeschlagenen qWerte erweisen sich als konservativ. Gerade dieses Thema ist natrlich fr den Entwurf besonders wichtig, es mssen aber noch weitere ausfhrliche
Untersuchungen durchgefhrt werden, um qWerte fr einen sicheren und Wirtschaft
liehen Entwurf von Stahlkonstruktionen zu ermitteln.
VII
ABSTRACT
This study is attempted to give a contribution to the knowledge of the
behaviour of steel structures in seismic zones. It presents all the available
data and indicates which studies are necessary in the future in order to push
the possibilities of steel structures. The study is divided into three main
parts. The first one, collects references on the subject together with a short
comment on each paper. The second concerns the assessement of strength and
ductility of steel members and connections under cyclic loads. In the last part
a method for state the behaviour factor q is proposed, and some results for
simple structures are presented.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; behaviour factor; ductility; cyclic
loads.
SOMMAIRE
Cette tude est destine contribuer la connaissance du comportement des
constructions en acier en zone sismique. Elle prsente toutes'les donnes
disponibles et indique quelles tudes sont ncessaires dans le futur pour
valoriser encore les capacits des structures en acier. L'tude est divise
en trois parties. La premire consiste en un recueil de rfrences avec,
pour chacune, un bref commentaire. La seconde concerne l'valuation 'de la
rsistance et de la ductilit des lments de structure en acier et de
leurs assemblages sous des actions cycliques.
Dans la dernire partie, on propose une mthode d'valuation du facteur q
de comportement structurel et on montre quelques exemples d'application de
cette mthode des structures simples.
Mots cls : construction mtallique, conception parasismique, facteur de
comportement structural, ductilit, action cyclique.
ZUSAMMENFASSUNG
Die Studie hat das Ziel, zur Verbesserung der Kenntnisse ber das Verhalten von
Stahlkonstruktionen in Erdbebengebieten beizutragen. Es werden alle verfgbaren
Informationen und Daten zu diesem Thema vorgelegt, und es wird auf weitere notwendige Untersuchungen hingewiesen, die die Mglichkeiten von Stahlkonstruktionen verbessern wrden.
Der Bericht ist in 3 Hauptteile gegliedert :
Der erste Teil gibt eine Literaturbersicht mit Kommentierung jeder Verffentlichung. Der zweite Teil betrifft die experimentelle Bestimmung der Festigkeit
und Duktilitt von Stahlbauteilen und Verbindungen unter zyklischer Last. Der
letzte Teil liefert eine Methode zur Bestimmung der Verhaltensfaktoren q sowie
einige numerische Ergebnisse fr einfache Tragwerke.
Stichworte : Stahlbauten, Erdbebenentwurf, Verhaltensfaktor, Duktilitt,
zyklische Belastung.
IX
G E N E R A L
INDEX
Page
CHAPTER 1  INTRODUCTION
CHAPTER 2  SYNTHESIS OF SEISMIC DATA FOR STEEL IN BUILDINGS
13
2 . 1  DAMAGES
19
2. 2  BEHAVIOUR OF COMPRESSION MEMBERS AND THEIR CONNECTIONS .. 20
2 . 3  CALCULATION METHODS
25
2 . 4  JOINTS
30
2 . 5  DESIGN CRITERIA
36
2 . 6  RECOMMENDATIONS
41
2 . 7  MULTISTORY BUILDINGS
45
2 . 8  LOWRISE BUILDINGS
49
2 . 9  FRAME BEHAVIOUR
52
2.10 BRACING BEHAVIOUR
62
2.11 ECCENTRIC BRACING BEHAVIOUR
70
2.12  INTERACTION BETWEEN FRAMES AND BRACINGS
74
2.13 STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS
78
CHAPTER 3  THE EXPERIMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF SEISMIC STRENGTH AND
DUCTILITY OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS AND CONNECTIONS
89
3 . 1  INTRODUCTION
92
3 . 2  THE ECCS RECOMMENDED TESTING PROCEDURE FOR ASSESSING THE
BEHAVIOUR OF STRUCTURAL STEEL ELEMENTS UNDER CYCLIC LOADS
3.2.1  INTRODUCTION
99
102
3.2.2  ASPECTS OF THE TESTING PROCEDURE FOR ASSESSING
THE BEHAVIOUR OF STRUCTURAL STEEL ELEMENTS
103
3.2.3  COMPLETE TESTING PROCEDURE
103
3.2.4  SHORT TESTING PROCEDURE
Ill
3.2.5  END OF TEST
112
3.2.6  COMBINATION OF LOADS
113
3.2.7  COMMENTARY ON POSSIBLE DEFINITIONS OF F
.
113
Page
3.3  TESTS FOLLOWING THE ECCS RECOMMENDATIONS
115
3.3.1  BEHAVIOUR OF BRACINGS
117
3.3.2  BEHAVIOUR OF BEAMTOCOLUMNS CONNECTIONS
124
3.4  VALIDITY OF THE ECCS RECOMMENDATIONS
130
3.5  CONSIDERATIONS ON b/t RATIOS
153
3.6 REFERENCES
159
CHAPTER 4  THE ASSESSMENT OF q FACTORS
163
4.1 INTRODUCTION
166
4.2 METHOD FOR STATE THE BEHAVIOUR FACTOR q
168
4.3  ONE FLOOR CANTILEVERS
171
4.4 FURTHER INVESTIGATIONS AND CODE APPROACH
180
4.5 REFERENCES
188
1
.CHAPTER
INTRODUCTION
l
3
PRODUCTION
Even if steel, thanks to its ductility, is the more appropriate material
to employ for construction in seismic areas, many national authorities and
many owners prefer nevertheless concrete structures in spite of their
heaviness.
The interest of designers on the specific problems of steel structures in
seismic areas is quite joung, that is about no more than 20 years. In that
period, a certain amount of experimental as well as theoretical investigations has been made. Most of these investigations have been sponsored by
the European Coal and Steel Community research programme in the field of the
utilization of steel structures in seismic regions, involving the recent
following contracts : 7210 SA 111/SA 305/SA 306/SA 202/ SA 403/ SB 403/
SA 407/ SA 814/ SA 401/ SA 109/ SA 606. Of particular interest for the behaviour of steel structures under severe conditions, are the ECSC researches
summarized at the end of this introduction.
Other investigations have been performed recently in the U.S. and in Japan.
t
All indicate a comparatively good behaviour of steel structures under seismic
action when compared to other materials.
In order to contribute to the promotion of steel construction, an
analysis and a synthesis of data were performed with the aim of improving
the methods for the design of steel structures in seismic zones, and of
enhancing the competitiveness of steel in the European and exports markets.
The data accumulated on ECSC research form a valuable complement to the
work that has been undertaken in the field of design codes and in particular of Eurocode 8, the European Code for Structures in Seismic Regions,
which is concerned with the design of concrete, masonry and steel constructions. Eurocode 8 project has enabled q factors to be specified which define
the capability of the a structural system to resist seismic loads in the
postelastic range and take into account the energy dissipation capacity of a
ductile response of the constructions.
The q factors specified for steel structures in the first draft of the
Eurocode are very conservative and, thus, not to the advantage of steel construction. This mainly due to the lack of knowledge on the performances of
steel structures subjected to cyclic loads.
The present study is first attempt to give a contribution to the knowlegde of
the behaviour of steel structures in seismic zones. It presents all the available data and indicates which studies are necessary in the future in order to
push the possibilities of steel structures.
The presentation of the results will be articulated in the following chapters :
Chapter 2 collects about references on the subject together with a short comment
on each paper. Designers and researchers will take profit of this list in order
to easily find an up to date state of art of the most interesting problems.
Chapter 3 concerns the assessment
of strength and ductility of steel
members and connections subjected to cyclic loads, lhe chapter mainly
reflects the studies performed in the last 3 years by the members of the
ECCS Technical Committee 13 dealing with Seismic Design of Steel Struck
tures (at present Working Group 1.3 of T.C.I.) .
The study of an experimental procedure, tests on bracings and local stability of compressed parts, and the assessment
of numerical models are foun
damental contributions to the knowledge of the behaviour of steel structures.
Chapter 4 deals with the assessment
of the q factor. A method is proposed
and some results for simple structures are presented. Of course this item
is the more important and useful to the designers, but extensive
leave still to be performed.
studies
It is our hope that in the next 23 years,
many numerical calibrations on typical steel structures will be carried on.
Thus, it will be possible to state correct, safe and economical values for
q factors in order to push the use of steel structures in european market.
At the end of this introduction it must be remembered that during the meeting
of Napoli (November 1984) the Technical Committee 13 gave the task of collecting the material of this report to Ing. Luis Manuel Calado de Oliviera Martins
under my responsability. For his competence and intelligence this work was
possible and to him I wish to present my most warm thanks.
This presentation is followed by the list of ECCS W3 1.3  Seismic Design
members. They will have, in the next future, the responsability and the task
to continue the studies on argument in order to give an always more important
role to steel structures in seismic zones.
ECSC
RESEARCHES REFERRED TO IN PAGE 1
INFLUENCE OF STRESSSTRAIN
DIAGRAM CHARACTERISTICS ON THE REDISTRIBUTION
OF
BENDING MDMENTS AFTER PLASTIC HINGES HAVE BEEN FORMED, by A. Bernard, M. Darin.
The purpose
of the research is to examine how far the new concepts of
the
plastic design of the frameworks can be applied to highstrength steels, which
have usually a higher yield strength Re to tensile strength Rm ratio than mild
steel and to determine the influence of stressstrain diagram characteristics on
the redistribution capacity of bending stresses at plastic hinges.
The research covers four steel types with Rm/Re ratios between 1.10 and
1.53
and a yield plateau between 5.4 and 21.9 times the yield strain.
The
laboratory
tests concern overall
buckling, local buckling, lateral
buckling and the structural ductility up to the collapse of HE 120 B and IPE 140
rolled
sections. The
tests
are on continuous beams
and
on
frames. The
quantitative effects of the main parameters describing the stressstrain diagram
are also studied by computer simulation of laboratory tests.
It appears
that the design with standards based only on yield stress gives
ample security to plastic collapse for all the Rm/Re ratios taken into account.
The plastic design concepts can be applied as well.
Of course the widening of permissible Rm/Re ratios and of plastic
for plastic design are
of
direct interest
elongation
for earthquake resistant design,
because its concepts are so close to those of plastic design.
OVERALL AND LOCAL BUCKLING
OF THINWALLED HOLLOW FOR AXIAL LOADING, by
Rondai, M. Braham, J. P. Grimault and OVERALL AND LOCAL BUCKLING OF
J.
THINWALLED
HOLLOW FOR EXCENTRIC LOADING, by J. P. Grimault, A. Plunder, J. Rondai.
The aim of the first research is to study the interaction between local plate
buckling and overall buckling of centrically loaded thinwalled tubular members.
The study is limited to coldformed members with rectangular hollow sections.
7
In a first part, the test results are described. Nine different sections have
been selected. The experimental program is
concerned with stub column test and
long column tests. It also contains measurements
stresses
in the
profile
and
in the
on yield
original
stress, residual
plate, and
geometrical
imperfections.
In a
second part, the results obtained
calculation are compared
developed and it gives
frem several
with tests results. A
existing methods
of
of calculation
is
new method
good results. A preliminary
study shows that this
last
method could be extended to the case of beamcolumns.
The
second research is aimed to investigate
plate buckling
and overall
buckling
the interaction between
of eccentrically
compressed
local
thinwalled
tubular members. It is restricted to coldformed members with rectangular hollow
cross sections.
The first part of
the report is devoted
to experimental results that are
drawn from tests on two types of sections: the first one is hot finished
the second one is cold finished.
whilst
The experimental program is concerned with
i)
stub column tests, ii) long column tests in combined compression and bending and
iii) beam tests in pure bending. Measurements of yield stress, residual stresses
and geometrical imperfections of the profiles are reported.
In the
second
part
of the
report, a
beamcolumns with thinwalled rectangular
design method
is
suggested
hollow cross sections. The
for
procedure
allows for a complete continuity between columns and beamcolumns, thickwalled
and thinwalled profiles. Theoretical and experimental results are shown in good
agreement with respect to the semiprobabilistic concept adopted by the European
Convention for Constructional Steelwork.
HYBRID BEAMS  VOIDABILITY,
STATIC AND FATIGUE BEHAVIOUR, by W. Chapeau, R.
Maguoi, A. Piron, A. Plumier.
Several specific problems
of hybrid
girders are analyzed
in this report.
Tests results are presented together with references on state of knowledges
in
the studied fields. The shopwork problems, mainly those of high strength
welding are dealt
with in the
first part of
the report. As
steel
regards the cold
craking phenomenon, the short transverse properties and the residual
ductility
of the heat affected zone. The second part deals with the statical behaviour of
hybrid girders: it contains a short study of pure bending, which was interrupted
by an accident; the causes of the accident are explained; a study on the problem
of lateral buckling and web crippling under concentrated
loads is then given;,
the second part ends with a thorough study of shear buckling of unstiffened
stiffened girders. The third part contains
and
a study of the fatigue behaviour of
stiffned hybrid girders.
The report
steels in some
concludes to an interest of
hybrid girders and high
strength
specific fields of bridges and structures; that interest will
bring practical use only for high strength steels with a good weldability and
carbon percentage less than 0.1%, in countries where the up to date
computation
methods for web buckling are allowed by national standards.
COMPOSITE HYBRID BEAMS, by A. Bruls, A. Piron, Bo, Caparro, Augusti, Buti.
This research
has allowed to define the conditions in which cased beams of
high strength steel can be made. The realization of three prestressed beams and
one
cased beam
not prestressed
and
their
static
tests
have proved
the
reliability of the calculation of the method proposed, and the usefulness of the
prestressing
in respect to cracking
prestressing, the
hybrid
beams
and
stiffness.
behave elastically
In addition, due to
in
the normal
service
conditions.
The
comparison between
the experimental
results
and
the theoretical
calculations based on the creep coefficients of the European Recommendations has
show the need
of using quite
interpret, with
structure.
sophisticated
calculation criteria
an acceptable approximation, the real
so as to
behaviour
of
the
The fatigue test has shown a good performance of the prestressed structure in
comparison with a steel
homogeneous beam having
equal resistance, even
though
forecasts made at theoretical level proved a little too optimistic.
The experimental research also include bonding tests like the "beamtest" on
smooth steel samples and on steel samples treated with adhesives. Whilst on
smooth samples
the
adhesives showed
joint proved
an excesive
to be perfect, the
slipping gradient
in the
samples treated
the
with
long run. This would
suggest not to rely on such a bonding method.
RIGID FRAME CONNECTIONS TO
NCRETE FILLED TUBULAR STEEL COLUMNS, by
P.
Ansourian.
Rigid frame
connections between I beams of
normal and wide flange section,
and square steel tubes were examined experimentally in tests of nine
units. Both welded and high strength
structural
friction bolted joints were examined. The
axial load on the columns varied from 0.15 to 0.75 of their squash load. Failure
in the connection occurred in three of the units. The deformation of the
column
were analyzed in a second order elastoplastic numerical analysis including
effects of the axial
the
load and the bending moment distribution existing in the
tests. Where failure occurred in the column, agreement
in column deformation
between theory and expriment was excellent, while the calculated collapse
loads
were always conservative. Premature weld failure occurred in connections to
the
front face of the
the
tube. The best connections were these which transmitted
beam tension flange force to the back of the filled tube.
Though considering only monotonicai ly increased loading, the report
contains
a lot of valuable test data on several types of joints, a theoretical method for
computation of load displacement curve and indications on the best type of rigid
joints. The report is thus a
fundamental
basis for
behaviour of these kinds of joint under cyclic loading.
test on
computation
of
10
BEAMCDLUMN CONNECTIONS BASED ON THE
USE OF STUDS, by R. Maquoi, X. Naveau,
J. Rondai.
Stud
shear
connectors are widely used
as
connectors between
concrete in composite construction. The aim of
examine the feasibility of a
beams and columns by means of
steel and
the present research
is to
similar technique for framing connections between
treaded connectors, specially for hollow
section
columns, for which connections set problems.
In the experimental part of the research, several sections and stud diameters
are investigated and the following tests are performed:
 determination of the welding parameters for the threaded connectors;
 tensile and shear tests on welded studs and on simple connection models;
 tests on beamcolumn assemblages with a
square hollow section for the
column
and an IPE section for the beam. For these tests, end plates are welded on the
IPE section or the
assemblage uses angles connecting
either the beam web or
beam flanges to the wall of the column. In any case, only threaded
connectors
are used.
On base of
experimental results, a
design method is
suggested, which appears
quite similar to that used for bolted connections.
Though tests are performed under monotonicaily increased loading, the
displacement curve
various types of
recorded
joints and
gives
is a
information on
good basis
the relative
load
rigidity of
for research work under
cyclic
loading.
EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON RESISTANCE AND DUCTILITY OF STRUCTURAL CONNECTIONS,
by L. Sanpaolesi, L. Biolzi, S. Caramelli, R. Tacchi.
The research presents a serie of tests on bracings and beamtocolumns joints
subjected to cyclic loads. Different types of bolted connections were examined
in order to study the plastic behaviour of subassemblages.
It was demonstrated that only a full resistance bolted joints may be assumed
as effective in bracing connections.
11
EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS ON RESISTANCE AND DUCTILITY OF CORRUGATED SHEET PANELS,
by L. Sanpaolesi, L. Biolzi, R. Tacchi.
The research considers the possibility of taking into account the facades
to
seismic resistance of the buildings.
Some tests
on corrugated
sheet panel
subjected to
inplane shear
cyclic
forces vere performed.
Unfortunately, the local instability of the sheet panels cause poor resourses
of ductility of such structural arrangements.
Prof. Dr. Ing. Giulio Bailio
12
EOCS WG 1.3  Seismic Design members
Prof. Dr. Ing. F. M. Mazzolarli
(Chairman)
Prof. J. M. Aribert
Prof. Dr. Ing. Giulio Bailio
Mr. R. Pepin
Dr. Ing. A. Plumier
Dipl.Ing. ETH R. Sagesser
CH
Prof. Dr. Ing. G. Sedlacek
Mr. K. Tohmsen
DK
Mr. H. D. Walker
GB
Prof. Dr. Ing. A. Giuffre
Prof. B. Kao
Prof. Dr. Ing. A. Lamas
Dr. F. Nahler
Prof. Dr. T. Naka
Mr. R. Siirila
SF
Prof. C. Thomas
GB
Dr. D. Tordoff
GB
13
C H A P T E R
2
SYNTHESIS OF SEISMIC DATA FOR STEEL IN BUILDINGS
15
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
GENERALITIES
16
2. 1  DAMAGES
19
2. 2  BEHAVIOUR OF COMPRESSION MEMBERS AND THEIR CONNECTIONS
20
2 . 3  CALCULATION METHODS
25
2 . 4  JOINTS
30
2 . 5  DESIGN CRITERIA
36
2 . 6  RECOMMENDATIONS
41
2 . 7  MULTISTORY BUILDINGS
45
2 . 8  LOWRISE BUILDINGS
49
2 . 9  FRAME BEHAVIOUR
52
2.10 BRACING BEHAVIOUR
62
2.11 ECCENTRIC BRACING BEHAVIOUR
70
2.12  INTERACTION BETWEEN FRAMES AND BRACINGS
2.13 STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS
74
78
16
GENERALITIES
A brief canment to each paper dealing with seismic design of steel structures
is presented. Before each comment the name of the author, title of the work,
year of publication and number of pages of the paper are presented. These
references are followed by five key words which include in all cases the main
subjects of the report: seismic design and steel structures.
The papers are collected in subchapters concerning the principal aspects of
the seismic behaviour of steel structures.
The list of the key words used is:
acceleration
B
beams
beamcolumns
behaviour factor
bolts
braces
buckling
building construction
calculation methods
collapse
columns
compression members
connections
damages
damping
design criteria
design rules
detailing
drift
ductility
17 
earthquakes
eccentric braces
fasteners
fatigue
foundations
fracture
frames
frequency
friction
H
highrise buildings
histeretic behaviour
impact
joints
loads
lowrise buildings
M
multystorey buildings
offshore structures
panels
planning
?/V<*
18
R
recommendations
repairing
rolling systems
seismic design
shear
slip
spectrum
stability
steel structures
structural safety
structural systems
subassemblages
typology
torsion
tovrs
U
uplift
V
vessels
vibration
W
warping
welding
19
2.1  DAMAGES
BERTERO, V., BRESLER, B., SELNA, L., CHOPRA, A. and KORETSKY, A. (1973) DESIGN
IMPLICATIONS OF DAMAGES OBSERVED IN THE OLIVE VIEW MEDICAL CENTER
BUILDINGS. Proc. of the V World Conf. on Earthquake Engineering, Rome,
page 5165. *1*
This article examines the possible causes and design implications of the
observed damages in the Olive View Medical Center produced by the San
Fernando earthquake. The buildings under study are of reinforced
concrete. Special attention is given on the aspects involved in the
seismic design, ground motion, material characteristics and structural
features of individual buildings. Some recommendations with a view to
minimize earthquake damage are also presented.
KEY WORDS: steel
detailing.
structures; seismic
design; damages;
ductility;
BUBNOV, S. (1972) DAMAGE EVALUATION. Proc. of the Int. Conf. on Planning and
Design of Tall Buildings, ASCEIABSE, Lehigh University, Bethlehem,
Pennsylvania, vol. lb, page 247253. *2*
This state of art is concerned with the problem of planning and design
of structures in seismic regions. Four topics are examined: the first
one regards the preearthquake preparation; the second is concerned to
the performance of buildings
during earthquakes, specially
tall
buildings; the third topic is related to the inspections after the
earthquake. Finally, the fourth is related to the teaching taked out
from damages caused by the earthquake.
KEY WORDS: steel
planning.
structures; seismic
design; damages;
ductility;
PINKHAM, C.W. (1972) EVALUATION OF THE EARTHQUAKE DAMAGE. Proc. of the Int.
Conf. on Planning and Design of Tall Buildings, ASCEIABSE, Lehigh
University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, vol. lb, page 229245. *3*
The aim of this paper is the evaluation of the damage in buildings
caused by earthquakes. The damage occasioned specially in reinforced
concrete tall buildings by two levels (high and weak intensity) of the
earthquake motions are described. Some photos are presented to accompany
the description. The errors and
mistakes namely of design and
construction, which have been in the origin of those damages are
examined. Some design recommendations and general rules of construction
are suggested.
KEY WORDS: steel
detailing.
structures; seismic design; damages;
ductility;
TANAKA, A., MORITA, K. and YAMANOUCHI, H. ( ? ) DAMAGE OF BRACED STEEL FRAMES
DUE TO THE 1978 MIYAGIKENOKI EARTHQUAKE. ( ? ),.page 4956. *4*
In this paper are described the results of a research study carried out
on damage of several braced steel frames due to the 1978 MiyagikenOki
earthquake. Among the reasons for the large damage examined in the
structures are pointed out: inadequate detailing of the joints;
insufficient strength of the connections; misevaluation of the lateral
resistance of the frames and unbalanced arrangement of braces. To
accompany the description, seme photos are presented.
KEY WORDS: steel
connections.
structures;
seismic
design;
damages;
braces;
20
2.2  BEHAVIOUR OF COMPRESSION MEMBERS AND THEIR CONNECTIONS
FISHER, J. and GURNEY, T. (1972) HIGHCYCLIC FATIGUE OF CONNECTIONS AND DETAILS.
Proc. of the Int. Conf. on Planning and Design of Tall Buildings,
ASCEIABSE, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, vol. lb, page
757769. *1*
This general paper deals with the major factors that influence the
fatigue strength of members and their connections subjected to cyclic
loads, and suggests how they should be considered in design. In
particular, the detail of the joints and their initial flaw conditions
are examined, as well as the crack propagation and the residual
stresses. Furthermore, brief comments ' about design conditions that
provide high cycle strength are presented.
KEY WORDS:
fracture.
steel
structures; seismic design; fatigue; connections;
JAIN, A. and GOEL, S. (1979) CYCLIC END MOMENTS AND BUCKLING IN STEEL MEMBERS.
Proc. of the 2nd U. S. Nat. Conf. on Earthquake Engineering, EERI,
Standford University, page 413422. *2*
A hysteresis model for steel members which accounts the interaction
between axial load and bending moment is presented. Reduction in the
axial compression load after the first cycle and the residual elongation
is considered. Neverthless, to take account of these effects it is
necessary to do experimental tests to calibrate the model. Finally, some
comments are presented about the use of the model in the prediction of
the dynamic behaviour of braced frames.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic
behaviour; compression members.
design; buckling; hysteretic
KATO, B. and LU, LEWU (1972) INSTABILITY EFFECTS UNDER DYNAMIC AND REPEATED
LOAD. Proc. of the Int. Conf. on Planning and Design of Tall Buildings,
ASCEIABSE, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, vol. lb, page
463481. *3*
The paper presents and discusses some instability problems of columns
and frames subjected to dynamic and cyclic loadings. The influence of
the dynamic axial loads due to earthquake on the stability of the
columns is described. For members and cantilever beamcolumns subjected
to axial loads and cyclic bending moments, a technique is developed for
the construction of the loaddeflection curve, which is based on the
monotonie load curve. This technique is also applied to frames under
cyclic deflections. Emphasis is placed on the aspects that are important
in earthquakeresistant design of building frames.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; stability; columns; frames.
21
KRAWINKLER, H., BERTERO, V. and POPOV, E. (1975) SHEAR BEHAVIOR OF STEEL FRAME
JOINTS. ASCE Journal of the Structural Division, STll, page 23172336.
*4*
This paper presents the results of a series of experiments investigating
the strength, stiffness, ductility, and hysteretic shear behaviour of
beamcolumn joints in frames with strong columns weak girders subjected
to s'evere lateral loading. Mathematical models of joint behaviour and
design recommendations derived f rem these experimental investigations
and from analytical studies are presented. Only joints of beamtocolumn
subassemblages made of standard rolled sections subjected to strong axis
bending are investigated.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; joints; ductility; shear.
POPOV, E. (1972) LOWCYCLE FATIGUE OF NNECTIONS AND DETAILS. Proc. of the Int.
Conf. on Planning and Design on Tall Buildings, ASCEIABSE, Lehigh
University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, vol. lb, page 741755. *5*
The article examines the results of experimentation carried out on steel
members and connections subjected to lowcycle fatigue. In particular,
the good correlation with the results obtained with cantilevers of small
size and full size is pointed out. An empirical expression for the
energy dissipation is proposed. The mode of failure of specimens
submited to lowcycle fatigue is analogous to the highcycle one,
allowing to conclude that design recommendations for highcycle fatigue
are also applicable to lowcycle fatigue.
KEY WORDS:
fracture.
steel
structures; seismic design; fatigue; connections;
POPOV, E. and PINKNEY, R. (1971) CYCLIC YIELD REVERSAL IN STEEL BUILDING
CONNECTIONS. AISC The Engineering Journal, July, page 6779. *6*
Described herein are tests of 24 connection specimens subjected to
various cyclic, quasistatic loading sequencies. Five different basic
connection types are investigated. In three of these, the beam is
connected to the flange of the column. In the remaining two, the beam is
connected indirectly to the web of the column. All of the connection
details are chosen on the basis of their practibility and their
widespread use. In addition to the behaviour and the manner of failure
of the beams and their connections to the columns, the hysteretic
response of the beams under repeated and reversed loadings received
particular attention.
KEY WORDS:
columns.
steel structures; seismic design; 'connections; ductility;
POPOV, E., BERTERO, V. and KRAWINKLER, H. (1973) MOMENTRESISTING
STEEL
SUBASSEMBLAGES UNDER SEISMIC LOADINGS. Proc. of the V World Conf. on
Earthquake Engineering, Rome, page 14811490. *7*
The paper summarizes the results of an experimental research regarding
the hysteretic behaviour of structural systems and their components
under cyclic loads. The subassemblages are idealized by two horizontal
beams attached to a vertical column. The Pdelta effect and the
behaviour of plastic hinges in columns under cyclic loads are also
discussed.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; subassemblages; hysteretic
behaviour; connections.
22
TAKANASHI, K. (1973) INELASTIC LATERAL BUCKLING OF STEEL BEAMS SUBJECTED TO
REPEATED AND REVERSED LOADINGS.
Proc. of the V World Conf. on
Earthquake Engineering, Rome, page 795798. *8*
This general paper is concerned with the problem of the interaction in
steel beams between lateral buckling and cyclic loads. The results of
the experimental investigation carred out on rolled Hshaped sections
under repeated and reversed loading at constant deflection amplitudes
are summarized.
KEY WORDS: steel
behaviour; beams.
structures; seismic
design; buckling; hysteretic
VANN, W., THOMPSON, L., WHALLEY, L. and OZIER, L. (1973) CYCLIC BEHAVIOR OF
ROLLED STEEL MEMBERS. Proc. of the V World Conf. on Earthquake
Engineering, Rome, page 11871193. *9*
The scope of this experimental work is to analyse some aspects of the
behaviour and failure characteristics of rolled steel members subjected
to cyclic loadings. Three diffrents cases have been examined: unbraced
beam, braced beam and unbraced beamcolumn. Emphasis is placed on the
effects of crosssectional dimensions, span length, and intermediate
lateral bracing.
KEY WORDS: steel
behaviour; beams.
structures; seismic design; buckling; hysteretic
YAMADA, M., SAKAE, K., TADOKORO, T. and SHIRAKAWA, K. (1970/1971) . ELASTOPLASTISCHE BIEGEFORMANDERUNGEN VON STAHLSTUTZEN MIT IQUERSCHNITT, Teil
I and Teil II, Der Stahlbau, n.12/1970, n.3/1971, n.5/1971. *10*
In order to analyse the elastoplastic bending deformation of wide
flange steel columns subjected to constant axial compression load, the
cross sectional form of the wide flange profile is modelled by several
assumption and a bilinear stressstrain relationship with a strain
hardening coefficient is assumed. With these assumptions the bending
momentaxial force interaction curves and bending momentcurvature
relationships are derived for the wide flange cross section. The
alternately repeated elastoplastic cyclic bending of wide flange steel
beamcolumns subjected to constant axial compression load is also
studied. Finally, the results are compared with the experimental tests.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; beamcolumns; hysteretic
behaviour; stability.
23
TANABASHI, R., YOKOO, Y., WAKABAYASHI, M., NAKAMURA, T. and KUNIEDA, M. (1971)
DEFORMATION HISTORY DEPENDENT INELASTIC STABILITY OF COLUMNS SUBJECTED
TO COMBINED ALTERNATING LOADING. Colloque International RILEM, Buenos
Aires, page 275295. *11*
In this paper the behaviour of short columns of a hysteretic strain
hardening material is studied, under a constant axial compressive load
and repeated
constant
displacements amplitude
at midspan. An
experimental investigation, with a large description of the testing
machine, and a theoretical study are done. Some curves and conclusions
are presented where is pointed out that a regular variation process of
the initial hysteresis loops toward more oblong loops with greater
elastic regions and with portions of the same negative slope can be
observed. This negative slope is consequence of the Pdelta effects,
while the increasing of the elastic regions is justified by the
constitutive law of the material.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; columns;
behaviour; stability.
hysteretic
TAKANASHI, K., TANIGUCHI, H. and TANAKA, H. (1980) INELASTIC RESPONSE OF
HSHAPED COLUMNS TO TWO DIMENSIONAL EARTHQUAKE MOTIONS. Bull. ERS, n.13,
Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, page 1527. *12*
The work deals with the study of Hshaped steel columns subjected to two
components of earthquake ground motions. Two analysis are performed: a
theoretical and an experimental one. The model used in the theoretical
analysis is a single column
built into the rigid floors. The
experimental analysis is based on the biaxial bending theory of the
beamcolumn. In both analysis is assumed that the principal axis of the
Hshaped column section are initially parallel to the two components of
the earthquake. Some figures of displacements and restoring forces
obtained from the experimental tests are shown.
KEY WORDS: steel
stability.
structures; seismic design; columns; earthquakes;
FAELLA, C. and RAMASCO, R. (1981) DUTTILIT" TRASLAZIONALE DELLE COLONNE IN
ACCIAIO. Giornate C.T.A., Palermo, page 285301. *13*
A finite element model for the elasticplastic analysis of beamcolumns
subjected to constante axial compressive load and variable shear force
is proposed. The beamcolumn is modelled by a bar subdivided in several
elements and the section is divided in a finite number of strips. Both
extremities of the bar are connected by elastoplastic springs. The
material is considered to be elastoplastic and the strain hardening may
be taken into account. To avoid local instability, limitation of the
maximum deformation is performed. Some examples to show the influence of
some parameters on the shear forcedisplacement curve are presented.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; columns;
compression members.
ductility;
24
CALADO, L. (1985) SIMULAO NUMERICA DO COMPORTAMENTO SISMICO DE ESTRUTURAS
METLICAS CONTRAVENTADAS. Dissertation submitted of the requirements for
the degree of Master of Science in the Technical University of Lisbon,
January, 82 pages. *14*
The work deals with a finite element able to describe the behaviour of
cyclic axially loaded members taking into account the geometrical and
physical nonlinear effects. Its formulation is developed and the results
obtained with this model are compared with experimental studies allowing
to check the model. A numerical study is then developed to investigate
the influence of some parameters which affect the bearing capacity of
compressed members. The work also shows how the element can be used to
simulate the braces in order to predict the seismic behaviour of plane
braced pinend structures, and the evaluation of the behaviour factor of
this type of structures.
KEY WORDS: steel structures;
compression members.
seismic
design;
stability;
braces;
Toma, S. and Chen, W. (1982) INELASTIC CYCLIC ANALYSIS OF PINENDED TUBES. ASCE
Journal of the Structural Division, ST10, page 22782294. *15*
An analytical study of the inelastic cyclic loaddeflection behaviour
and loadshortening behaviour of axially loaded steel tubular bracing
members subjected to cyclic loading is presented. Expressions are first
derived for the moment and axial strain expressed explicitly in terms of
curvature and thrust for tubular sections with geometric imperfections
and residual stresses. For the case of reversed loading, several
approximations
of
the
momentthrustcurvature
curves
and
momentthrustaxial strain curves are made. Using these relations,
cyclic solutions of pinended columns subjected to one cycle of axial
loading are obtained and compared with some available experimental
tests.
KEY WORDS: steel structures;
compression members.
seismic
design; stability;
braces;
Fukumoto, Y. and Kusarna, H. (1985) LOCAL INSTABILITY TESTS OF PLATE ELEMENTS
UNDER CYCLIC UNIAXIAL LOADING. Journal of Structural Engineering,
vol.111 , No 5, page 10511066. *16*
An experimental study of the inelastic cyclic loaddeformation behaviour
of welded builtup square boxsection short columns subjected to cyclic
axial loading is presented. A total of 10 test specimens were fabricated
. from mild and M g h strength steels, having plate elements with the
widththichness ratios of 40, 60 and 80 for mild steel, and 40 and 60
for high strength steel. Furthermore, monotonicaily increased loading
tests were carried out for comparison with deformation behaviour of
cyclic loading tests. This
paper emphasizes the development
of
alternating local instability of plate elements associated with cyclic
loading sequences.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic
compression members.
design; stability;
columns;
25
2.3  CALCULATION METHODS
ARIBERT, J. and EDJTEMAI, N. (1981) PRISE EN COMETE DE DUCTILITE" DANS LA
RESPONSE SPECTRALE A UN SEISME. Construction Mtallique, n.4, page 323.
This work shows the basic concepts which allow to take into account the
ductility of the structure in the spectral response of one earthquake. A
review on the elastic response spectra and the influence of the
ductility in the earthquake strength of the structure is presented. The
concept of elastic response spectra is afterwards generalized to the
elastoplastic response
spectra. Two
criteria to
consider
the
correiativeness between the elastic and elastoplastic response spectra
are analyzed. A numerical model to obtain the elastoplastic spectra is
presented. In the
end an
approximative method
to obtain
the
elastoplastic response spectra from the elastic response spectra is
suggested.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; ductility;
calculation methods.
spectrum;
BEA, R. (1979) EARTHQUAKE AND WAVE DESIGN CRITERIA FOR OFFSHORE PLATFORMS. ASCE
Journal of the Structural Division, ST2, page 401419. *2*
In this work a process for development of earthquake design criteria for
offshore platforms is presented. The process considers: 1) Projected
environmental conditions; 2) Platform system characteristics;
3)
Environmental loadings and
forces on the
platform systems;
4)
Uncertainties in projected
environmental conditions, forces, and
platform response; 5) Platform system performance, particulary inelastic
behaviour during extreme overload conditions; 6) Reliability quantified
as the ability of the platform system to perform satisfactorily in the
full range of projected environmental conditions; 7) Decisions on what
constitues acceptable performance and reliability.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; offshore structures;
calculation methods; planning.
FIESENHEISER, E. and RONAN, J. (1976) RAPID SELECTION OF BEAMCOLUMNS FOR WIND
OR EARTHQUAKE EFFECTS. AISC Engineering Journal, n.4, page 97102. *3*
This technical paper present four design charts to expedite selection of
beamcolumns subjected to axial force and bending moment about the
Xaxis. Those charts are based on the AISC formulas (Specification
Section 1.6  Combined stresses). The charts are elaborated for two
possibilities of the yield stress (36 and 50 Ksi) and for two
possibilities of the end conditions of the members (restrained Cm=0.85
and unrestrained Cm=l. 00 ). To understand how to use the charts some
examples are givenKEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; calculation methods;
beamcolumns; loads.
26
FLEISCHER, W. (1974) SIMPLIFIED SEISMIC DRIFT ANALYSIS OF
FRAMES. AISC Engineering Journal, n.3, page 5364. *4*
HIGHRISE
STEEL
This paper presents a simplified method to obtain drift statements for
high rise steel frames under the application of seismic loads. The
equations of this method are developed for two cases: planar rigid and
planar braced frames. The method is demonstrated step by step by an
example of a typical drift analysis in a planar rigid highrise steel
bent, including a description of the procedure for both rigid and braced
frames. In the last section, the development of the method and the
derivations of the working equations are explained.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; drift; highrise buildings;
calculation methods.
KAR, A. (1979) SEISMIC SUPPORT: SPEEDY DETERMINATION OF FREQUENCY. ASCE Journal
of the Structural Division, ST7, page 12891306. *5*
In this paper, formulas for expedite determination of the natural
frequency of the most commons steel braced structures used as support
for subsystems are presented. All the structures are assumed as systems
of a single degree of freedom. The formulas and recommendations allow
the determination of the transverse and longitudinal natural frequencies
for the structures showed in the figures, and are valid for pin or rigid
connection between horizontal and vertical members. Finally, an example
of application is presented to demonstrate the use of the formulas.
KEY WORDS: steel
methods; frames.
structures; seismic design;
frequency;
calculation
MONTGOMERY, C. and HALL, W. (1979) SEISMIC DESIGN OF LOWRISE STEEL BUILDINGS
ASCE Journal of the Structural Division, ST10, page 19171933. *6*
This paper presents some methods and recommendations for
design
procedures of lowrise steel buildings. The paper begins with a brief
description of the building system for purposes of illustration. The
second portion of the paper contains a review of the behaviour of
lowrise steel buildings when subjected to seismic ground motion. With a
view to a practical procedure two methods of analysis are refered:
response spectra and modal method. These two methods are compared with
the time history analysis. In the concluding sections of the paper,
recommended design procedures are presented and certain suggested
guidelines for improved practice are examined.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; frames; lowrise buildings;
calculation methods.
SMILOWITZ, R. and NEWMARK, N. (1979) DESIGN SISMIC ACCELERATION IN BUILDINGS
ASCE Journal of the Structural Division, ST12, page 24872496. *7*
In this paper, is suggested an expedite procedure for determining design
story shears and overturning moments distributions over the.heigth of a
structure to resist the effects of strong ground motions. Four factors
are taken into account: 1) The mode of the deformation of the structure;
2) The percentage of structural setback; 3) The fundamental frequency of
the structure; and 4) The interaction soilstructure. Some tables and
design charts are given to calculate these distributions.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; calculation methods;
frequency; acceleration.
27 
IGARASHI, S., INOUE, K., ASANO, M. and OGAWA, K. (1973) RESTORING FORCE
CHARACTERISTICS OF STEEL DIAGONAL BRACINGS. Proc. of the V World Conf.
on Earthquake Engineering, Rome, page 21622171. *8*
In this work is studied the loaddeformation relationship and the
dynamic response characteristics of steel Xbracing structures under
earthquake ground motions. An axial loaddeformation relationship of the
bracing members is suggested and employed to calculate the dynamic
response of a Xbraced structure with one degreeoffreedom. The
influence of the slenderness ratio on the dynamic response of Xbraced
structures is also analysed.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic
hysteretic behaviour.
design; columns;
TEAL, E. (1978) SEISMIC DRIFT CONTROL AND BUILDING
Journal, n.2, page 3038. *9*
PERIODS. AISC
stability;
Engineering
General parameters of seismic drift control and building periods are
discussed in this paper. It begins with a description of the forces
formulas used in the drift control and proposed by the 1976 Uniform
Building Code (UBC). That
description is followed from
several
considerations and figures
showing the most important
factores
influence. It is explained how should be applied in design all the
considerations done. A design example is presented, to a better
understanding of the drift control and how to use the UBC.
KEY WORDS: steel
structures; seismic
calculation methods.
design; drift;
frequency;
VASQUES, J., POPOV, E. and BERTERO, V. (1973) EARTHQUAKE ANALYSIS OF STEEL
FRAMES WITH NONRIGID JOINTS. Proc. of the V World Conf. on Earthquake
Engineering, Rome, page 17521755. *10*
In this paper, a model of the nonrigidity of the panel zone existing in
the joints of a frame is present. The formulation is based on two
assumptions: 1) The single component of a panel zone distortion is a
shear deformation, and 2) The constitutive relationship is a bilinear
model. It is also explained how the model can be assembled into the
structure's stiffness matrix considering the deformable joint. Some
results of the application of the model to a structure subjected to
earthquakes are included.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; ductility; joints; frames.
BALLIO, G. and MAZZOLANI, F.
(1980) I
COLLEGAMENTI
NELLE
STRUTTURE
SISMORESISTENTI DI ACCIAIO. Ed. Italsider, Quaderno Tecnico n.ll, 47
pages. *11*
The objective of this monography is to present some practical and
theoretical elements on the seismic design of steel structures and their
connections. In order to achieve this objective, the work is divided In
three parts: (1) In the first chapter, basic principles on limit states,
structural steel systems and the behaviour of their connections are
presented. (2) The second chapter, deals with the design of the
connections referring particulary its ductility. (3) In the last
chapter, some elucidatory examples are shown.
KEY WORDS: steel
ductility.
structures;
seismic design;
joints;
detailing;
28
CASCIATT, F., FARAVELLI, L. and ZANON, P. (1978) CRITERI DI COMBINAZIONE DEI
CARICHI ACCIDENTALI DI STRUTTURE METALLICHE IN ZONA SISMICA. Costruzioni
Metalliche, n.3, 8 pages. *12*
A new criterion for combination of accidental loads considering its
variability in time is proposed. The paper begins with a brief review of
the existing methods seting off that in all methods the loads are
described as a continuous process in time. A new formulation on a
probabilistic way of the structural safety which takes account the
variability of the accidental loads in time, and describe the loads as a
filtered Poisson processes is developed. That methodology is applied on
the design of an industrial steel structure to a better understand of
the proposed formulation.
KEY WORDS: steel
collapse; loads.
structures;
FUJIWARA, T. (1978) AN APPROACH
MEMBERS. Proc. of the 5th
825832. *13*
seismic design; structural
safety;
TO THE ASEISMIC DESIGN OF THE STRUCTURAL
Japan Earthquake Engineering Symoosium, page
The work deals with dynamic response analysis of plane and space frame
structures. A brief description of the method to use on the nonlinear
earthquake response analyses is briefly mentioned. A study of the
behaviour of plane frame, braced frame and space frame structures with
local restoring force characteristics in the elastoplastic joints
subjected to ground motion is shown. In the last section, a method of
design of structural members based on the distribution of the shear
force is proposed.
KEY WORDS: steel structures;
calculation methods.
seismic
design; frames;
ductility;
FUJIWARA, T. (1979) EARTHQUAKE RESPONSE OF FRAME STRUCTURES HAVING ASEISMIC
ELEMENTS. Trans, of the Achitectural Institute of Japan, n.285,
November, page 101108 and n.286, December, page 6574. *14*
A method of earthquake response analysis of braced frame structures is
proposed. An analytical formulation of the hysterectic characteristics
of the brace with elastoplastic joints is presented. The equation of
motion of a braced frame using the method previously exposed are
established and applied to a structure to predict the earthquake
response. The results are later compared with the elastic response, and
some conclusions are appointed.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic
methods; hysteretic behaviour.
design; braces;
calculation
29FUJIWARA, T. (1980) SEISMIC BEHAVIOR OF INELASTIC MEMBERS OF BRACED FRAME
STRUCTURE. Proc. of the 7th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering,
Istanbul, Turkey, page 241248. *15*
A formulation of the seismic behaviour of inelastic members of braced
frame structures is presented in this work. An analytical representation
of the brace which takes account of (1) the relation between the bending
moment and the rotation of the member with axial force and (2)
elastoplastic joints is exposed. In the last section, is compared the
elastoplastic dynamic response of braced frame using the method
previously exposed with a structure without braced members.
KEY WORDS: steel structures;
behaviour; ductility.
seismic
design; braces;
hysteretic
KATO, B. and AKIYAMA, H. (1982) SEISMIC DESIGN OF STEEL BUILDINGS. ASCE ' Journal
of the Structural Division, ST8, page 17091721. *16*
An approach for the ultimate limit state' design of steel buildings
againts the credible severest earthquake is presented on the basis of
energy concept. The safety of the structure is judged by comparing
structure's energy dissipating capacity with earthquake input energy to
the structure. A general safety criterion is first developed for a
simple elastoplastic sheartype system, and then a procedure is
analyzed in detail to relate the strength and deformation capacity of
steel members to those of the dynamically equivalent elastoplastic
system.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; braces; structural
ductility.
safety;
KATO, B. and AKIYAMA, H. (1981) DUCTILITY OF MEMBERS AND FRAMES SUBJECTED TO
BUCKLING. Presented at the May, 1981 International Convention and
Exhibition, ASCE, held at, New York, N.Y. (Preprint 81100), 14 pages.
*17*
Criteria to evaluate the eventual good behaviour of steel structures and
their members subjected to strong ground motion are presented. Firstly,
the momentrotation relationships which take account of the buckling of
structural members based on test results are developed. The tests are
performed on members subjected to bending moment with and without axial
compression load. An analytical model of moment frames is developed and
related with the momentrotation relationship of the members. In the
last section, the ductility ratio of the frame is evaluated and related
with the ductility ratio of the members.
KEY WORDS: steel
frames.
structures; seismic
design; ductility; buckling;
ARIBERT, J. and BROZZETTI, J. (1984) COMPORTEMENT ET CONCEPTS DE DIMENSIONNEMENT
DES CONSTRUCTIONS METALLIQUES EN ZONE SISMIQUE. Construction Mtallique,
n.l, page 523. *18*
The purpose of this work is to present some practical and theoretical
elements on the behaviour and seismic design of steel structures and
their connections. In order to achieve this objective, the work is
divided in three parts. In the first part, special attention is paid to
the strengh, stability and hysteretic behaviour of steel members. The
second part deals with the nonlinear dynamic methods of structures. In
the last part, some numerical values to use in the checking of the limit
states according to the C E . C M . are presented.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; ductility;
calculation methods.
stability;
30
2.4  JOINTS
KATO, B. and McGUIRE, W. (1973) ANALYSIS OF TSTUB FLANGETOCOLUMN CONNECTIONS.
ASCE Journal of the Structural Division, ST5, page 865888. *1*
An analytic and experimental study on the behaviour of high strength
bolted connections is presented. Four cases are considered:
(1)
Separation does not occur before ultimate strength of the member is
reached; (2) Separation occurs in range from yield strength to ultimate
strength of the member; (3) Separation occurs in range from elastic
limit to yield strength of the member; (4) Separation occurs before the
member reaches it elastic limit. The test results are compared with the
theoretical ones, and a design method using the theoretical formulas is
suggested.
KEY WORDS:
fasteners.
steel
structures;
seismic
MICALI, A. (1981) OYSTER  ROLLING ANTISEISMIC
Porli, Italy, 6 pages. *2*
design;
joints;
ductility;
SYSTEM. Aldo Micali, 47100
This technical report presents a rolling antiseismic system to absorb
horizontal displacement derive from the ground motion. This mechanical
gear is composed by two concavous elements inserted by a sphere whose
diameter is lightly higher in relation to the total heigth of the two
concavous elements. It is possible to superpose two of these systems in
order to absorb
great horizontal displacements.
To follow
the
explanation some figures are shown.
KEY WORDS: steel
detailing.
structures; seismic design;
joints; rolling systems;
POPOV, E. and PINKNEY, R. (1971) CYCLIC YIELD REVERSAL IN STEEL BUILDING
CONNECTIONS. AISC The Engineering Journal, July, page 6679. *4*
Described herein are tests of 24 connection specimens subjected to
various cyclic, quasistatic loading sequencies. Five different basic
connection types are investigated. In three of these, the beam is
connected to the flange of the column. In the remaining two, the beam is
connected indirectly to the web of the column. All of the connection
details are chosen on the basis of their practibility and their
widespread use. In additon to the behaviour and the manner of failure of
the beams and their connections to the columns, the hysterectic response
of the beams under repeated and reversed loadings received particular
attention.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; joints; ductility; columns.
ROEDER, C. and HAWKINS, N. (1981) CONNECTIONS BETWEEN STEEL FRAMES AND
WALLS. AISC The Engineering Journal, n.l, page 2229. *5*
CONCRETE
This work describes an analytical and experimental study on the
behaviour of the connections between steel frames and concrete walls.
This connection combine a steel plate, which is embedded into the
concrete with headed metal studs, with a typical steel frame connection
between the plate and the beam. A brief analyses of the deflection of
mixed structures for some connection conditions is presented. A design
procedure to obtain strength,
stiffeness and ductility for
the
connections is suggested. In the concluding sections, the results of a
series of experiments are decribed and compared with the design
procedure.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; frames; bolts; connections.
31
RULIANG WANG, L. and CARRLE, G. (1978) END RESTRAINTS ON STEEL JOIST FLOOR
VIBRATIONS. AISC The Engineering Journal, n.2, page 5458. *6*
This general article deals with the vibration of steel joist floors
presents a method of controlling the floor vibrations. Some concepts
the vibration of floors are exposed and it is suggested that varying
rotational end restraints of the floor it is possible to control
vibration. In the last part, some figures are presented, showing
influence of the end restraints on the frequency, static deflection
amplitude of the floor.
KEY WORDS:
frequency.
and
on
the
the
the
and
steel structures; seismic design; connections; vibration;
ZANON, P. (1979) RESISTENZA E DUTTILIT" DI ANGOLARI TESI BULLONATI. Costruzioni
Metalliche, n.4, 19 pages. *7*
Described herein are the results of an experimental research program
regarding the collapse behaviour of some typical joints for tensioned
bars formed by angles. The study is carried out on sixtynine elements
to see the influence of some parameters: connection geometry; type of
connection  welded or bolted; number of bolts; class of bolts; joint
ductility. A great number of photos of mechanism of collapse and
loaddisplacement curves are shown for several connections. Some
comments regarding the experimental research are done in the end.
KEY WORDS: steel
ductility.
structures;
seismic design; detailing;
joints;
KRAWINKLER, H. and POPOV, E. (1982) SEISMIC BEHAVIOR OF MOMENT CONNECTIONS AND
JOINTS. ASCE Journal of the Sructural Division, ST2, page 373391. *8*
The behaviour of moment connections and beamcolumn joints in moment
resisting steel frames subjected to severe earthquakes is studied. The
cyclic inelastic
deformation capacities
of different
types
of
connections are discussed and design recommendations are presented. A
conceptual approach to the prediction of the low cyclic fatigue life of
welded connections under random loading is outlined, utilizing concepts
of elasticplastic
fracture mechanics. The shear
behaviour
of
beamcolumn joints subjected to large cyclic beam moment reversals is
summarized. Based on experimental
evidence and in a
simplified
mathematical model for shear strength, a method for the shear design of
joints is suggested.
KEY WORDS: steel structures;
behaviour; fatigue.
seismic design;
joints;
hysteretic
KATO, B. (1982) BEAM TO COLUMN CONNECTION RESEARCH IN JAPAN. ASCE, Journal of
the Sructural Division, ST2, page 343360. *9*
The study of the behaviour on the beamtocolumn connection is analysed.
Special attention is given to the behaviour of joint panels. For some
beam to column connection types is suggested design formulas. Based on
an experimental research a semiempirical momentshear deformation
relationship for the panel zone is proposed. The influence of the shear
deformation and local buckling of joint panels on frame behaviour is
commented and formulas for the local strength of diaphragm to column
joints are suggested.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; frames; connections; shear.
32
NISSFOLK, B. (1979) FATIGUE STRENGTH OF JOINTS IN SHEET METAL PANELS. 2. Screwed
and Riveted Connections, Swedish
Council for Building
Research,
Stockholm, Sweden, Document D15: 1979, 196 pages. *10*
This report is part of a research program regarding the structural use
of sheet metal panels. The work begins with an analyses of the fatigue
phencmenom and the crack propagation. The results of experimental
studies on the strength of sheet metal structures and their connections
under different static and fatigue loading conditions are presented. The
performance requirements for fasteners
in sheet panels is
also
investigated. The great number of photos, tables and curves concerning
the tests performed provides data for design of sheet metal structures.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; fatigue; panels; fasteners.
STRNAD, M. (1981) FATIGUE STRENGTH OF SCREWED FASTENINGS IN THIN
SHEET
COMPONENTS. The Structural Engineer, vol. 59B, No. 3, September, page
3340. *11*
The paper is concerned with the analysis of the behaviour of screwed
fastenings subjected to repeated loading that can lead to fatigue and
also provide data on which some practical calculations can be based. It
begins with an analyses of the influence of the time variation of
loading in the fatigue strength of fastenings. For the elastoplastic
design strength of fastenings is suggested two ways of the determination
of the design load. Some experimental results to a better understanding
of the behaviour of the fastenings subjected to cyclic loadings are
presented, outlined that in the limite state design of
screwed
fastenings the elastoplastic behaviour must not be ignored.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; fatigue; joints; fasteners.
KLEE, S. and SEEGER, T. (1973) SCHWINGFF^IGKEITSUNTERSUCHUNGEN AN PROFILBLECHBEFESTIGUNGEN MIT SETZBOLZEN. Der Stahlbau n. 10, page 309318. *12*
The resistance of corrugated steel sheet fastenings with drive pins
under longitudinal, transverse
static
and
cyclic
loading
is
investigated. For longitudinal loading of 5 10E3 cycles, the fatigue
strength, characterized mostly by sheet failure, are 35% to 60% of the
static strength depending on the steet thickness. For transverse loading
of 5 10E4 cycles the fatigue strength characterized here by pin failure,
is about 30% of the static strength. In addition, fatigue strength
values are determined under combined transverse and
longitudinal
loading.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; fatigue; joints; fasteners.
STRNAD, M. ( ? ) FATIGUE STRENGTH OF SCREWED FASTENINGS. Proceeding of IABSE
Colloquium on Fatigue of Steel and Concrete Structures, page 683690.
*13*
This state of art is concerned with the problem of the behaviour of
screwed fastenings subjected to cyclic loadings that can lead to
fatigue. A brief summary concerned with the past experimental research
and a description on the response of a fastening subjected to cyclic
loading and the parameters that influences the fatigue strength are
presented. Based on statical
evaluation of experimental
results
emperical design formulas for fatigue strength of screwed fastenings are
suggested.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; fatigue; joints; fasteners.
33 
MARSH, C. and PALL, A. ( ? ) FRICTION DEVICES TO CONTROL SEISMIC RESPONSE.
Interna Report, Concordia University, Montreal, page 809818. *14*
This report presents a technique for kinetic energy dissipation in
structures based on friction joints, during strong earthquakes. Some
systems for concrete and steel structures are suggested. The idea of
these systems is to reduce the earthquake damages in buildings by using
friction joints which acts as fuses. The explanation is followed by some
figures.
KEY WORDS: steel
detailing.
structures; seismic
design;
joints;
friction;
PALL, A. , MARSH, C. and FAZIO, P. (1980) FRICTION JOINTS FOR SEISMIC CONTROL OF
LARGE PANEL STRUCTURES. PCI Journal, vol. 25, n. 6, page 3861. *15*
A technique for energy dissipation in concrete panel structures based in
friction joints during strong earthquakes is suggested in this paper.
The behaviour of these joints and selection of its location is
explained. Some results of experimental tests realized on diffrents
joints are shown. In order to investigate the influence of these joints
on the seismic response of panel structures a simple idealization of
these joints are suggested, and some seismic analyses with parametric
study are performed for the optimization of seismic response.
KEY WORDS: steel
detailing.
structures; seismic
design;
joints;
friction;
TAKANASHI, K., TANAKA, H. and TANAGUCHI ( ? ) INFLUENCE OF SLIPPING AT HIGH
STRENGTH BOLT CONNECTIONS ON DYNAMIC BEHAVIOUR OF FRAMES. Report of the
Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, 19 pages. *16*
In this work the influence of slipping at high strength bolt connections
on seismic response of frames is investigated. Some repeated and
reversed load tests on high strength bolt connections are performed in
order to establish the analitical loaddeformation relationship of the
connection. A numerical model of bolted connections is suggested and a
mathematical formulation of the dynamic behaviour of frames with these
connections is developed. The analitical results using the previous
formulation are compared with experimental tests carried on steel frames
and are used for discussion of the slip on the seismic response of
frames.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; frames; slip; bolts.
BALLIO, G. and
MAZZOLANI, F.M.
(1980) I COLLEGAMENTI NELLE
STRUTTURE
SISMORESISTENTI DI ACCIAIO. Ed. Italsider, Quaderno Tecnico n.ll, 47
pages. *17*
The objective of this moncgraphy is to present some practical and
theoretical elements on the seismic design of steel structures and their
connections. In order to achieve this objective, the work is divided in
three parts: (1) In the first chapter, basic principles on limit states,
structural steel systems and the behaviour of their connections are
presented. (2) The second chapter, deals with the design of the
connections referring particulary its ductility. (3) In the last
chapter, seme elucidatory examples are shown.
KEY WORDS: steel
ductility.
structures;
seismic design;
joints;
detailing,
34
RENTSCHLER, G., CHEN, W. and DRISCOLL, G. (1980) TESTS OF BEAMTOCOLUMN WEB
MOMENT CONNECTIONS. ASCE Journal of the Structural Division, ST5, page
10051022. *18*
Described herein are the results of a series of four fullscale beam to
column moment resisting web connection assemblages under static loading.
Each assemblage consists of an 5.50m long column and a beam approximativ
1.50m long connected at midheight of the column. Four different
geometries of welding and bolting the beam to the column are tested.
These connections
simulate building
connections with
the beam
transmitting shear and moment to the column and the column being acted
upon by an axial load. Special attention is paid to the strength,
stiffness and ductility of those connections.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; connections; detailing,
ductility.
CHEN, W. and PATEL, K. (1981) STATIC BEHAVIOR OF BEAMTOCOLUMN
MOMENT
CONNECTIONS. ASCE Journal of the Structural Division, ST9, page
18151838. *19*
Described herein are tests of 12 fullsize symmetricallyloaded moment
resisting beamtocolumn
connections, subjected
to
monotonicaily
increasing static loading to failure. All specimens are designed
incorporating all possible limiting cases in practical connection
design. The discussion of the tests is diveded into four parts: 1) Fully
welded connections; 2) Flange welded, web bolted connections; 3) Flange
welded connections with various means
of carrying a shear;
4)
Fullybolted connections. The results show the general behaviour of
moment connections and peculiar change in behaviour when the connection
detailings are changed from fully welded to bolted and to fully bolted.
KEY WORDS:
ductility.
steel structures; seismic design; connections; detailing,
RENTSCHLER, G., CHEN, W. and DRISCOLL, G. (1982) BEAMTOCOLUMN WEB CONNECTION
details. ASCE Journal of the Structural Division, ST2, page 393409.
*20*
The results of eight simulated tests on web connection details are
presented. In the simulations, pairs of steel plates are welded to
column sections using different attachment ' details. These plates
represent the tension and compression flanges of the beam attached to
the column. The pair of flange plates are loaded by tension and
compression forces to simulate the bending moment of a beam acting upon
the column. Observations are made of stresses and deformations as well
as phenomena that prevented
the connections from obtaining
the
theoretical maximum_load level.
KEY WORDS:
ductility.
steel structures; seismic design; connections; detailing;
35
BERTERO, V., POPOV, E. and KRAWINKLER, H. (1972) BEAMCOLUMN SUBASSEMBLAGES.
UNDER REPEATED LOADING. ASCE Journal of the Structural Division, ST5,
page 11371159. *21*
An experimental study on the behaviour of two types of structural steel
halfscale subassemblages of a multistory unbraced frame subjected to
simulated gravity and cyclic seismic loads is presented in this paper.
The two types of specimens are typical of an upper story and a lower
story of a building. One of the simulated seismic loading patterns
applied to the specimens is of the low cyclic fatigue type with
progressively increasing displacement amplitudes. The other is of the
incremental displacement type. The lateral loads are applied in a
quasistatic manner. Special attention is given to the behaviour of the
column panel zone and the 2nd order effects.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; subassemblages; hysteretic
behaviour; ductility.
MONCARZ, P. and GERSTLE, K. (1981) STEEL FRAMES WITH NONLINEAR CONNECTIONS. ASCE
Journal of the Structural Division, ST8, page 14271441. *24*
In this paper is outlined a method of analysis which accounts for
nonlinear connection behaviour and
variable load histories. The
analytical approach is briefly described and applyed to some frames to
document the consequences of approximations on the prediction of sway,
force distribution among girders and columns, deflection stability, and
response to load histories. Finally, some conclusions based on the
numerical evidence are presented.
KEY WORDS: steel structures;
behaviour; connections.
seismic design; frames;
hysteretic
BOUWMAN, L. (1982) BOLTED CONNECTIONS DYNAMICALLY LOADED IN TENSION.
Journal of the Structural Division, ST9, page 21172129. *28*
ASCE
A report of fatigue tests on tensile loaded bolted connections is
presented. The object of these dynamic tests is to determine the fatigue
strength of the connections for various locations of the contact
pressures, various preloads and bolts distances. Some typical examples
of structural connections design are presented, being outlined that, by
a judiciously selection of the location of the contact faces, in
connections with bolts loaded dynamically in tension, a good structural
design can be obtained.
KEY WORDS: steel
connections.
structures; seismic
BUTLER, L., PAL, S.
and KULAK, G.
CONNECTIONS. ASCE Journal of
9891005. *29*
design;
bolts;
fatigue;
(1972) ECCENTRICALLY LOADED
WELDED
the Structural Division, ST5, page
\x
The behaviour of eccentrically loaded welded connections is investigated
in this paper. With this purpose a theoretical method is developed for
predicting the ultimate loads of eccentrically loaded fillet welded
connections. The method is based upon the load deformation response of
elemental fillet welded. The method takes into account the variation in
fillet weld strength with respect to the direction of the applied load.
An experimental program is done and the results are compared with the
predicted by the analytical method.
KEY WORDS: steel
connections.
structures; seismic design; welding;
ductility;
36
2.5  DESIGN CRITERIA
ARNOLD, C. (1979) CONFIGURATION AND SEISMIC DESIGN: A GENERAL REVIEW. Proc. of
the II U.S. National Conference on Earthquake Engineering, EERI,
Standford University, page 2236. *1*
The relationship between building configuration (size and shape) and
seimic design is explained in this paper. After a short analysis of the
Uniforme Building Code (USA), which gives some rational rules for
building configurations, it identifies some configuration problems
namely: general building form; size; nature and location of resisting
elements. It is possible to conclude that the final configuration choice
is the result of a decision process which involves architects and
structural engineers in a way to reach a good configuration and a safe
building.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; planning; typology; design
criteria.
BERG, V. and HANSON, R. (1973) ENGINEERING LESSONS TAUGHT BY EARTHQUAKES. Proc.
of the V World Conference on Earthquake Enguneering, Rome, page 8293.
*2*
This general article describes the results of a research study carried
on earthquake damages of some reinforced concrete structures. The errors
and mistakes which have been in the origin of those damages are
examined. Some photos are shown to accompany the description. Evaluation
of damages caused by earthquakes gives us the opportunity to check the
assumptions made in the planning and design of structures.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; planning; damages; design
criteria.
FUJIMOTO, M. and NAKA, T. ( ? ) EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES CONCERNING STEEL
STRUCTURES, THEIR ELEMENTS AND THEIR CONNECTIONS. ( ? ) , page 4765.
*3*
This state of art presents some mechanical characteristics of steel
structures, their elements and their connections under cyclic loadings
obtained through experimental investigation. The topics considered are:
(1) Materials; (2) Local buckling of plate elements; (3) Compression
members; (4) Beam and columns; (5) Mechanical fasteners and welding; (6)
Connections; (7) Unbraced frames; (8) Braced frames. Based on these
topics, is suggested a summary for a symposium discussion.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic
hysteretic behaviour.
design; connections; frames;
37
FUJIMOTO, M. (1970) DESIGN ESSENTIALS IN EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT BUILDINGS.
Architectural Institute of Japan, Tokyo, page 91114. *4*
The 5th chapter of the book "Design essentials in earthquake resistant
buildings" is dedicated to the steel structures. This chapter is divided
in three parts. In the first part, "General", some considerations on
steel structures and mechanical characteristics of the steel are
presented. The second part, "Structural design", deals with
the
structural typology and the use of the diferents types of steel members,
hot rolled steel shapes and steel pipes. The last part "Structural
precautions", examines the seismic design of steel members and their
connections, bolted and welded.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic
criteria; detailing.
design; connections;
design
GIANGRECO, E. (1971) TENDANCES ACTUELLES DANS LE CALCUL ANTISISMIQUE DES
CONSTRUCTIONS METALLIQUES. Construction Mtallique, n.3, pagell21. *5*
The fundamental criteria for planning of steel multistory buildings in
seismic zones are examined in this work. The dynamic response based on
the response spectra is reviewed. The estimation of the seismic
coefficient and the parameters that influence its value, such as:
seismici ty zone; type of soil foundation; dynamic behaviour of the
structure; masses distribution along the heigth of the building is
consedered. The influence of the braces on the spacial earthquake
response of multistory buildings of diferents shapes is analysed and
some remarks on seismic design of industrial buildings are outlined.
KEY WORDS: steel
braces.
structures; seismic design; frames; design
criteria;
GIANGRECO, E. (1969) ORIENTAMENTI SULLA PROGETTAZIONE DI COSTRUZIONI IN ACCIAIO
IN ZONA SISMICA. Costruzioni tetaniche, n. 5, 7 pages. *6*
The fundamental criteria for planning of steel multistory buildings in
seismic zones are examined in this note. Special attention is given on
the estimation of the seismic coefficient and the parameters that
influence its value, such as: seismici ty zone; type of soil foundation;
dynamic behaviour of the structure; masses distribution along the heigth
of the building. The influence of the braces on the earthquake response
of multistory buildings is also considered through the analysis of an
example of a frame structure with and without braces.
KEY WORDS: steel
braces.
structures; seismic design; frames; design criteria;
KATO, B. and AKIYAMA, H. (1982) SEISMIC DESIGN OF STEEL BUILDINGS. ASCE
of the Structural Division, ST8, page 17091721. *7*
Journal
An approach for the ultimate limite state design of steel buildings
againts the credible severest earthquake is presented on the basis of
energy concept. The safety of the structure is judged by comparing
structure's energy dissipating capacity with earthquake input energy to
the structure. A general safety criterion is first developed for a
simple elastoplastic sheartype system, and then a procedure is
analyzed in detail to relate the strength and deformationcapacity of
steel members to those of the dynamically equivalent elastoplastic
system.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; braces; structural
ductility.
safety;
38
RAMASCO, R. (1979) PROBLEMI DI INGEGNERIA SISMICA. Palermo, Corso sulle
strutture in acciaio; Le strutture in acciaio nella edilizia, ACAI,
CESIA, CTA, AprileGiugno, 40 pages. *8*
In this note, the dynamic analyses fundaments of steel structures are
reviewed. The dynamic equations of a system with one degree of freedom
are deduced for a later generalization to systems with many degrees of
freedom. To predict the natural frequences of structures, the Holzer's
method is deduced. In the seismic design, a simplified method to
estimate the forces acting on multistory frames is presented. The
concluding sections have some references on stiff elements and braces.
KEY WORDS: steel
methods; braces.
structures; seismic
TEAL, J. (1975) SEISMIC DRIFT CONTROL
page 5667. *9*
design;
frames;
calculation
CRITERIA. AISC Engineering Journal, n.2,
In this work, the seismic drift control is analyzed. It is defined as
the product of two variables: building flexibility and seismic force. As
the seismic force is not known, it is suggested to define the drift by
one index, "Dynamic Flexibility Index", in order to compare the
performance of different buildings. Tables giving the values of this
index for buildings of different types, height and occupancy are
presented allowing a vision of the practical limits of the index. In
appendix, it is given a vocabulary of some terms used in seismic design.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; drift; structural
design criteria.
safety;
PLUMIER, A. (1981) ELEMENTS DE CONCEPTION DES STRUCTURES EN ACIER EN ZONE
SISMIQUE. Note Technique
NT20, Septembre, Centre de
Recherches
Scientifiques et Techniques de l'Industrie des Fabrications Mtalliques,
Bruxelles, 52 pages. *10*
The fundamental principles concerning with the planning and seismic
design of steel structures and their connections are exposed in this
technical report. The work is divided in four chapters. In the first
chapter, a brief review of seismic action, behaviour of structures and
seismic design methods is presented. The second chapter deals with the
fundamental rules of planning of earthquake resistent buildings. In the
third chapter seme design recommendations regarding with connections,
instability, type of steel and braced frames are suggested. In the last
chapter, are exposed a few remarks relating to the behaviour of bridges
and its seismic detailing. In annex, a design example of the type
"Static Equivalence Force" using the New Zealand Code is examined.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; planning; design criteria;
connections.
39
BALLIO, G. (1980) CONSIDERAZIONI SUL PROGETTO DI STRUTTURE INACCIAIO IN
SISMICA. Costruzioni Metalliche, n.2, page 6167. *11*
ZONA
The article examines some problems regarding seismic design of steel
structures and their connections. The study of the structural safety
based on limite states approach is presented. The behaviour
of
structural members is analyzed in particular the influence of the
slenderness and local instability on the ductility of the struts. The
performance of the connections (bolted and welded) is also investigated,
specially its ductility. Some criteria for evaluation and control of
ductility of struts and their connections are presented. A numerical
example of simple bracing truss is solved to a better understand of the
concepts presented.
KEY WORDS: steel structurs; seismic design; ductility; design criteria;
connections.
DECLERCK, R. and HISETTE, J. (1978) L'INDUSTRIE DE LA CONSTRUCTION EN JAPON.
C.S.T.C.  Revue, n.4, Decembre, page 815. *12*
This general paper presents an economical study on the building
construction in Japan. The topics examined are: The Japanese building
companies; The wages and the social loads; The professional organic
structures in the building constructions; The research in the building
sector; The building dockyard. In the last topic are presented seme data
on the planning, safety and building technic of a new town  Ashiyahama.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic
planning; structural safety.
design; building
construction;
ENGLEBERT, J. (1978) TENDANCE DE L'INDUSTRIALISATION DU BATIMENT EN JAPON.
C.S.T.C.  Revue, n.4, Decembre, page 3544. *13*
In this paper, it is concisely presented two governamental operations
realized in Japan in 1970 and 1976 with a view to find new building
formulas in the face of the increase of the costs of the lands and the
constructions. The two operations were called "PilotHouse" (1970) and
"Housing 55" (1976). For the two operations are succintly described the
winner projects (the preconized systems and the materials used (steel,
concrete and wood)).
Some photos are
shown to accompany
this
description, and some conclusions on these two governamental operations
are exposed.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic
planning; design criteria.
design; building
construction;
POPOV, E. and BLACK, R. (1981) STEEL STRUTS UNDER SEVERE CYCLIC LOADINGS. ASCE
Journal of the Structural Division, ST9, page 18571881. *14*
The results of cyclic experiments on 24 struts of different steel shapes
of sizes employed in practice are reported in this paper. The geometries
of some of the specimens are so selected that they alsosimulate some
frequently used sections of larger members. The reported hysteric loops
provide a wide range of data on the inelastic behaviour of struts under
severe reversing loads. An approach for predicting analytically the
deteriorating capacity of struts under extreme load reversals is
suggested. Sane practical implications resulting from this work are
summarized at the end of the paper.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic
stability; columns.
design; hysteretic behaviour;
40
COMO, M. and IANNI, G. (1981) DUTTILIT" E CALCOLO ALLO STATO LIMITE DELLE
STRUCTTURE ANTISISMICHE. Universit" degli Studi di Napoli, Quaderni di
Teoria e Tecnica delle Strutture n.487, 12 pages. *15*
A seismic design methodology for structures with control of ductility is
suggested in this work. It is based on a optimum condition of ductility,
that is: the collapse mechanism should be the global type; the ductility
of the structure should not be excessively high in order to give rise to
an economical seismic design; the local safety of the sections should be
compatible with
the verifications
by admissible
stresses. The
theoretical bases are developed, allowing to estimate the elastoplastic
dissipation capacity of the structure during a strong earthquake.
Special emphasis is given to reinforced concrete structures and in final
part a illustrative example using the proposed methodology is presented.
KEY WORDS: steel structures;
calculation methods.
seismic
design; ductility;
frames;
COMO, M. and IANNI, G. (1981) RESISTENZA E DUTTILIT" NECESSARIE
ALLE
COSTRUZIONI PER L'ASSORBIMENTO DEI TERREMOTI DISTRUTTIVI. Industria
Italiana delle Costruzioni, n.120, 7 pages. *17*
Through the observation of the difference of level between the Italian
Seismic Code spectrum and the acceleration spectra of some recent
italian strong earthquakes is suggested a method based on the ultimate
kinetic energy that the structure can absorve, to evaluate the ductility
and strength demand of structures to resist to strong earthquakes. A
simplified scheme of the energy dissipation is assumed and the equations
for the ultimate kinetic energy are deduced. The concept of "aseismic
toughness" is introduced. To evaluate the seismic ductility requirements
are presented seme curves of the "aseismic toughness". The paper ends
with a proposal of an improvement of the Italian Seismic Code.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; ductility; frames; design
criteria.
SANTORELLI, S. (1976) LA COSTRUZIONE DI TERREMOTI ARTIFICIALI: LO SPETTRO DI
PROGETTO. Universit" degli Studi di Napoli, Quaderni di Teoria e
Tecnica delle Strutture n.400, 8 pages. *18*
In this work, it is suggested a method to define a more suitable
spectrum of project related to the structure and based on the available
data of real earthquakes. Seme contents on the principal parameters
which influence the earthquake intensity are presented. To evaluate the
maximum ground acceleration in the building zone, some formulas and
curves are given, being function of the magnitude and the epicentrum
distance selected for the building zone. The paper ends with an
illustrative example showing how can these values be used with a dynamic
analyses of the structure to evaluate the spectrum of project.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic
calculation methods.
design; spectrum; earthquakes;
41 
2.6  RECOMMEM)ATIONS
ALONGI, C. (1981) SINTESI DELLA NORMATIVA INTERNAZIONALE PER QUANTO CONCERNE IL
COEFICIENTE DI STRUTTURA.
Istituto di Scienza
e Tecnica
delle
Costruzioni, Politecnico di Milano, Technical Report n. 1/81, 36 pages.
In this research are compared the values of the behavior factor ( q )
considered in some international codes. The codes considered are:
Algeria, Argentine, Canada, Chile, China, Cuba, France, Japan, Mexico,
New Zealand, Peru, Portugal, Rumania, Turkey, U.S.A., U.R.S.S.. In the
end, a summarizing table for different structural types and for the
codes considered is presented together with some remarks.
KEY WORDS: steel
structures; seismic
ductility; recommendations.
design; behaviour
factor;
CECM  ECCS (1971) CONCEPTION ET CALCUL DES BATIMENTS A ETAGES DANS LES ZONES
SISMIQUES. Recommandations de la C E . C M . , CECMXIII711F, Construction
Mtallique, n.3, page 5057. *2*
Design rules and recommendations of structures in seismic regions are
presented herein. In the first part, design concepts and safety
verifications are presented together with discussion of the choice of
the braces and foundations to use in the structure. The seismic loads,
specially the horizontal forces are examined in the second part, as well
as the influence of the building shape in the torsional behaviour of the
structure. In the concluding sections a few remarks on ductility are
presented.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; recommendations; torsion;
structural safety.
GAVARINI, C
(1980) AGGIORNAMENTO DELLA NORMATIVA ANTISSMICA.
Consiglio
Nazionale delle Ricerche, Progetto Finalizzato Geodinamica, Convegno
Annuale, Roma, 6/8.5.80, 10 pages. *3*
The purpose of this general work is to bring uptodate the italian
rules for design of structures in seismic . regions. A summary on
technical rules since 1909 until 1980 are presented in the first part.
The philosophy of the actual technical rules (1975) is examided and
commented. In the last section, seme research future lines in this field
are drawn.
KEY WORDS: steel structures;
recommendations; design rules.
seismic design; structural
safety;
42
GRECO, C. (1972) ORIENTAMENTI NELLA MODERNA NORMATIVA SISMICA. Seminario di
Ingegneria Sismica, Instituto Universitario Statale di Architettura di
Reggio Calabria, 22/24.6.72, 47 pages. *4*
In this paper, remarks on some international codes for structures in
seismic zones as well as their seismic behaviour are presented. The
topics examined are: 1) Hypotesis on seismic behaviour of structures; 2)
Seismic response; 3) Fundamental parameters in the seismic response; 4)
Seismic intensity; 5) Response of structures with multy degree of
freedom; 6) The elastoplastic behaviour and the ductility factor; 7)
The threedimensional behaviour of framed structures; 8) Generalities on
seismic international codes; 9) Discussion of some seismic international
codes; 10) Dicussion of the draft for the new italian seismic code.
KEY WORDS: steel structures;
recommendations ; design rules.
seismic
design; structural
safety;
GIANGRECO, E. ( ? ) SPECIFICATIONS ON MULTISTORY BUILDINGS AND IN PARTICULAR ON
STEEL STRUCTURES IN SEISMIC. ( ? ) , page 625635. *5*
It is briefly reported on the works of the Commission XIII of the
Convention of European Constructional Steelwork Associations concerning
the recommendations for designing steel structures in seismic area. The
results of a study on the dynamic behaviour of plane and space framed
structures are also shown. Finally, some simplified formulae obtained
through a large numerical investigation are suggested.
KEY WORDS: steel
recommendations.
structures;
seismic design; vibration;
frames;
WATABE, M., ISHIYAMA, Y. and FUKUTA, T. (1983) EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT REGULATIONS
FOR BUILDING STRUCTURES IN JAPAN. Original of this document is Building
Standard Law in Japan, page 493501. *6*
The purpose of these general article is to present some topics of the
Japanese recommendations for buildings in seismic zone. The topics are
refered with the design procedure and the lateral seismic shear. For the
first topic, remarks on eccentricity, stiffness and ultimate lateral
shear strengh are presented. In the second one, lateral seismic shear
above the ground level, lateral seismic shear of appendages and of the
basement are considered.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; shear; recommendations;
calculation methods.
MINISTERO DEI LAVORI PUBBLICI (1980) NORME TECNICHE PER LE COSTRUZIONI IN
SISMICHE, Roma, 30 Guigno 1980, 43 pages. *7*
ZONE
These italian rules contain specific design information concerning
structures in seismic zones. The chapters are: 1) General principles and
design methods; 2) Seismic action; 3) Load combinations; 4) Structure
performance; 5) Soil foundation performance; 6) Design rules; 7) Design
criteria; 8) Structural analysis; 9) Safety verification. To a better
understanding of the rules some comments are presented.
KEY WORDS: steel structures;
recommendations; design rules.
seismic design; structural
safety;
43
MINISTERO DEI LAVORI PUBBLICI (1981) NORMATIVA PER LE RIPARAZIONI ED IL
RAFFORZAMENTO DEGLI DANNEGGIATI DAL SISMA NELLE REGIONI BASILICATA,
CAMPANIA E PUGLIA. Supplemento ordinario alla "Gazzeta Ufficiale" n.
198, Roma, 21 Luglio, 10 pages. *8*
The purpose of these recommendations is to provide the rules necessary
for buildings strengthening and their repairing due to earthquake
damages. The rules are applicable to concrete structures, steel
structures and masonry structures. Design procedures and construction
techniques for strengthening
and repairing
these buildings
are
described.
KEY WORDS: steel
recommendations.
structures; seismic
design; damages;
repairing;
MINISTERO DEI LAVORI PUBBLICI, PRESIDENZA DEL CONSIGLIO SUPERIORE, SERVIZIO
TECNICO CENTRALE (1981) ISTRUZIONI PER L'APPLICAZIONE DELLA NORMATIVA
TECNICA PER LA RIPARAZIONE ED IL RAFFORZAMENTO DEGLI EDIFICI DANNEGGIATI
DAL SISMA. Legge 14.5.1981 N.219, art.10, 68 pages. *9*
The purpose of these recommendations is to clarify the rules given in
the "Supplemento ordinario alla "Gazzeta Ufficiale" n. 198, Roma, 21
Luglio" (Ni *8*) on the strengthening and repairing of buildings due to
earthquake damages. General
design procedures
and
construction
techniques specialy for masonry structures are presented. In appendix,
some numerical examples concerning the verification of the structural
safety are presented.
KEY WORDS: steel
recommendations.
structures; seismic
TEAL, E. (1975) SEISMIC DESIGN PRACTICE FOR
Journal, n.4, page 101151. *10*
design; damages;
repairing;
STEEL BUILDINGS. AISC
Engineering
The work provides a treatment on seismic theory and design, particulary
as it applies to structural steel. Much of the theory is condensed into
simple terms more readily applied to the typical problems faced by busy
design engineers. Specific seismic code provisions are discussed, to aid
in their interpretation. The work is divided in six sections: 1) Seismic
design Terminology (Part 1); 2) Basis for 1974 SEAOC Seismic Code; 3)
Seismic design of a 7story office building; 4) Building code variations
from the 1974 SEAOC Seismic Code; 5) Seismic design Terminology (Part
2); 6) Drift control analysis for steel moment frames; Appendix: SEAOC
Code.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic
calculation methods.
design; drift; design rules;
44
ZSUTTY, T. and SHAH, H. (1979) FINAL DRAFT OF SEISMIC RESISTANT DESIGN RULES FOR
BUILDING STRUCTURES. The John A. Blume Eathquake Engineering Center,
Department of Civil Engineering, Stanford University, August, 63 pages.
*12*
These Algerian provisions are applicable to all building structures.
They are, however, not directly applicable to important nonbuilding
structures such as bridges, dams, pipelines or electrical distribution
equipment. These recommendations are expressed in terms of two levels of
ground shaking: 1) Maximum capable ground shaking; 2) Maximum probable
ground shaking. They are divided in four chapters: 1) Generalities; 2)
General Principles; 3) Design Rules; 4) Structures with Different
Materials, (alike with Nl *15*)
KEY
WORDS: steel
structures;
recommendations; structural safety.
seismic
design;
design
rules;
ZSUTTY, T. and SHAH, H. (1978) A COMMENTARY FOR THE RECOMMENDED DESIGN PROCEDURE
FOR ALGERIA. The John A. Blume Eathquake Engineering Center, Department
of Civil Engineering, Stanford University, June, 176 pages. *13*
This interesting rational explanation on seismic theory and design is
divided in ten chapters: 1) Introduction; 2) Introduction to the
Proposed Seismic Design Procedure; 3) Design Philosophy and Acceptable
Risk; 4) Development of
the Dynamic Amplification Factor
Shape
Statistics; 5) The Effective Structural Response Spectrum; 6) Types and
Behaviour of Lateral Force Resisting Systems; 7) Reliability of Design
Objectives; 8) Construction of Design Spectra, Design Procedure and
Calibration of Strength Design Load Levels; 9) Examples on the Use of
the Proposed Method; 10) Conclusion.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; recommendations;, design
rules; structural safety.
CONSIGLIO NAZIONALE DELLE RICERCHE, GRUPPO NAZIONALE DIFESA TERREMOTI
RELAZIONE INTRODUTTIVA, Roma, 26.11.81, 10 pages. *14*
(1981)
In this report, it is presented the purposes of the "Gruppo Nazionale
per la Difesa dai Terremoti" (GNDT) established by the italian law n.874
of 22/12/80. The purposes are to address, to coordinate, to promote and
to develop the study and earthquake operations for the earthquake
protection, and to give technique and science advices to the Ministries
and Local Entities.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; recommendations; damages;
structural safety.
REGLES PARASISMIQUES ALGERIENNES (1981), Republique Algrienne Dmocratique et
Populaire, Ministere de l'Habitat et de l'Urbanisme, Juillet, 86 pages.
*15*
These Algerian
recommendations are
applicable to
all
building
structures. They are, however, not directly applicable to important
nonbuilding structures such as bridges, dams, pipelines or electrical
distribution equipment. These design rules are expressed in terms of two
levels of ground shaking: 1) Maximum capable ground shaking; 2) Maximum
probable ground shaking. They are divided in four chapters:
1)
Generalities; 2) General Principles; 3) Design Rules; 4)
Design
Procedures for Braces, (alike with Nl *12*)
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; design rules; structural
safety; recommendations.
45 
2.7  MULTISTORY BUILDINGS
EDISHERASHVILI, N. and SHAISHMELASHVILI, V. (1973) EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF
DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF MULTYSTOREY STEEL FRAME BUILDING LARGESCALE
MODELS WITH DIFFERENT VERTICAL BRACINGS. Proc. of the V World Conf. on
Earthquake Engineering, Rome, page 299303. *1*
Herein are presented results of experimental studies of large scale
models (1/6 of natural size) of steel carcass buildings with frame and
frame bracing systems. The carcass models are tested for: free, forced
(resonance) vibrations and static very intensive horizontal loads
permitting to cause destruction
of model constructions.
Special
attention is paid to variation of vibration frequencies and to the
damping decrement of models when plastic deformations are developed in
them.
KEY WORDS: steel
structures; seismic
multystorey buildings.
design;
braces;
frames;
FLEISCHER, W. (1974) SIMPLIFIED SEISMIC DRIFT ANALYSIS OF HIGHRISE
FRAMES. AISC Engineering Journal, n.3, page 5364. *2*
STEEL
This paper presents a simplified method to obtain drift statements for
highrise steel frames under the application of seismic loads. The
equations of this method are developed for two cases: planar rigid and
planar braced frames. The method is demonstrated step by step by an
example of a typical drift analysis in a planar rigid high rise steel
bent, including a description of the procedure for both rigid and braced
frames. In the end, the development of the method and the derivations of
the working equations are explained.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; drift; highrise buildings;
calculation methods.
GIANGRECO, E. ( ? ) SPECIFICATIONS ON MULTISTORY BUILDINGS AND IN PARTICULAR 'ON
STEEL STRUCTURES IN SEISMIC. ( ? ) , page 625635. *3*
It is briefly reported on the works of the Commission XIII of the
Convention of European Constructional Steelwork Associations concerning
the recommendations for designing steel structures in seismic area. The
results of a study on the dynamic behavior of plane and space framed
structures are also shown. Finally, some simplified formulae obtained
through a large numerical investigation are suggested.
KEY WORDS: steel
recommendations.
structures;
seismic design; vibration;
frames;
46 GOEL, S. and HANSON, R. (1973) SEISMIC BEHAVIOR OF MULTISTORY BRACED STEEL
FRAMES. Proc. of the V World Conf. on Earthquake Engineering, Reme, page
29342943. *4*
This paper presents and discusses the results of a numerical study on
the influence of the method of design and different arrangements of the
bracing members (fully braced, bottom story open, alternate stories open
and completely unbraced) in the seismic response of multistory steel
frames. The dynamic response is computed by assuming an elastoplastic
type hysteresis behaviour in tension only for the diagonal bracing
members, in bending for the girders, and the 2nd order effects for the
columns. In the end, some curves for different response parameters are
shown.
KEY WORDS: steel
braces; ductility.
structures; seismic
design; calculation methods;
KONNO, T. and KIMURA, E. (1973) EARHQUAKE EFFECTES ON STEEL TOWER STRUCTURES
ATOP BUILDINGS. Proc. of the V World Conf. on Earthquake Engineering,
Rome, page 184194. *5*
This article presents the results of the full scale measurements and
earthquake response analysis carried out on some steel towers for
microwave antennes in Japan, as well as the results of vibration tests
performed by using steel tower and building models. It is outlined that
the steel tower atop building may be affected by the vibrational
characteristics of the building and consequently generate high seismic
forces at the time of a strong earthquake since the damping of tower is
very small. Finally, some remarks on the seismic forces acting on the
steel towers are presented.
KEY WORDS: steel structures;
multystorey buildings.
seismic
design; towers;
vibration;
LORD, J. (1972) INELASTIC DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF TALL BUILDINGS. Proc. of the Int.
Conf. on Planning and Design of Tall Buildings, ASCEIABSE, Lehigh
University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, vol. lb, page 291297. *6*
In this general article, it is presented some energy and drift
considerations involved in determining the inelastic dynamic behaviour
of tall buildings. The energy considerations are related with the
stability of the structure and the distribution of energy dissipation
during an earthquake event, while drift considerations are refered to
the drift control and the inelastic drift predictions.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; multystorey buildings;
stability; drift.
SANDHU, B. (1974) DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF MULTISTORY BUILDINGS. AISC Engineering
Journal, n.3, page 6772. *7*
Some simplified methods for determining natural periods in first, second
and third modes of vibrations of multistory buildings are presented in
this paper. The simplified methods are developed using the concept of an
elastic wave equation in solid uniforme bars. For the horizontal
deflection of the building, it is taken into account the contribution of
the shear deformation, flexural deformation and the deformation due to
joint rotations. Some remarks on the influence of the foundation
rotation and translation in the use of the formulas are presented. The
paper ends with an illustrative example for a six story shear building.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; design rules; vibration;
multystorey buildings.
47 
TEAL, E. (1975) SEISMIC DESIGN PRACTICE FOR
Journal, n.4, page 101151. *8*
STEEL BUILDINGS. AISC
Engineering
The work provides a treatment on seismic theory and design, particulary
as it applies to structural steel. Much of the theory is condensed into
simple terms more readily applied to the typical problems faced by busy
design engineers. Specific seismic code provisions are discussed, to aid
in their interpretation. The work is divided in six sections: 1) Seismic
design terminology (Part 1); 2) Basis for 1974 SEAOC Seismic Code; 3)
Seismic design of a 7story office building; 4) Building code variations
from the 1974 SEAOC Seismic Code; 5) Seismic design terminology (Part
2); 6) Drift control analysis for steel moment frames; Appendix: SEAOC
Code.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; drift; design rules;
calculation methods.
YAMADA, M. (1972) EFFECT OF CYCLIC LOADING ON BUILDINGS. Proc. of the Int. Conf.
on Planning and Design of Tall Buildings, ASCEIABSE, Lehigh University,
Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, vol. II, page 725739. *9*
In this article are presented some recommendations that provide fatigue
and fracture criteria for cyclic loading. These recommendations are
refered to: 1) Loading related to fatigue and fracture of tall steel
buildings; 2) Low cyclic fatigue characteristics of structural steels;
3) Low cycle fatigue fracture limits of structural members as the
evaluation basis or design criteria for aseismic capacity.
KEY TORDS: steel structures; seismic design; fatigue; fracture; design
criteria.
MUTO, K. and NAGATA, M. (1981) CALCUL ANTISISMIQUE D'UN IMMEUBLE DE
HAUTER. Construction Mtallique, n.3, page 6374. *10*
GRANDE
This work presents the results of. an analytic seismic study of a
multistory building. Due to the unusual plan design (in V ) , as well as
the thickness of their structural elements, the analysis performed had
in attention the stresses and the strains due to the tridimensional
effect under the seismic loads. The seismic study is made with support
of a tridimensional frame analysis program using the feed back method.
It is succintly described the building, the principles employed in the
seismic design and the formulation used in the program. Finally some
curves and tables describing the behaviour of the building are shown.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; design criteria; vibration;
multystorey buildings.
D'ANURIA, P. and RAMASCO, R. (1980) L'ECCENTRICIT"" CONVENZIONALE DELLE AZIONI
SISMICHE ORIZZONTALI NEGLI EDIFICI MULTIPIANO DISSIMMETRICI. Universit*
degli Studi di Napoli, Quaderno di Teoria e Tecnica delle Strutture
n.471, 13 pages. *11*
This paper presents a methodology of how to find the conventional
eccentricity of the horizontal seismic forces used in the seismic design
of multistorey dissymetryc buildings. The method has been developped
first considering a two degrees of freedom model which does not take
into account th
effects of
not in
phase seismic
horizontal
acceleration. The results obtained have been verified by examining some
multistorey buildings.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; design rules; calculation
methods; multystorey buildings.
48
PAPIA, M., ZINGONE, G. and RUSSO, G. (1981) UN CRITERIO DI CALCOLO ALLO STATO
LIMITE ULTIMO DEI SISTEMI INTELAIATI IN ACCIAIO IN ZONA SISMICA.
Giornate Italiane della Costruzione in Acciaio, Palermo, page 485498.
*12*
This article shows a limite state design procedure for braces of steel
structures in seismic zone as a function of the ductility demand of the
structure in relation to a preestablished safety coefficient when
subjected to strong ground motion. Some simplified hypotheses on the
earthquake simulation are established in order to obtain formulas of
easy use. The formulation is based on energy criteria, and it is
possible to consider two distributions of the seismic loads: uniforme
and triangular. The paper ends with an illustrative example of the use
of those formulas.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic
methods; multystorey buildings.
design; ductility;
calculation
MEROVICH, A., NICOLETTI, J. and HARTLE, E. (1982) ECCENTRIC BRACING IN TALL
BUILDINGS. ASCE Journal of the Structural Division, ST9, page 20662080.
*13*
The paper describes how an eccentric bracing scheme may be used to
satisfy the requirements for both drift control and ductility in the
design of highrise structure located in a zone of high seismic expose.
This structural system is used in the design of the 4 Embarcadero Center
Building situated in downtown San Francisco. A brief description of the
site and the building is done, as well as the static and dynamic
analyses performed. Special attention is paid to the ductility of. beams
and columns.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; highrise buildings;
eccentric braces; drift.
49
2.8  LOWRISE BUILDINGS
CLOUGH, R., REA, D., TANG, D. and WATABE, M. (1973) EARTHQUAKE SIMULATOR TEST OF
A THREE STORY STEEL FRAME STRUCTURE. Proc. of the V World Conf. on
Earthquake Engineering, Rome, page 308311. *1*
This paper shows the results of experimental tests conducted on a three
story steel frame structure using a square shaking table. In this
structure, the panel zones are left understrength so that yielding would
occur first in the panel zone. The intensity of the table motions are
increased progressively until a peak acceleration of 0.5 g to cause
yielding in the panel zones. The results described could be used in
analytical studies to determine the accurancy of the computer programs
for predicting the behaviour of steel frames under large vibrations
enough to cause inelastic behaviour.
KEY WORDS: steel
buildings; frames.
structures; seismic design; ductility;
lowrise
MONTGOMERY, C. and HALL, W. (1979) SEISMIC DESIGN OF LOWRISE STEEL BUILDINGS.
ASCE Journal of the Structural Division, ST10, page 19171933. *2*
This paper presents some methods and recommendations for
design
procedures of lowrise steel buildings. The paper begins with a brief
description of the building system for purposes of illustration. The
second part of the paper contains a review of the behaviour of lowrise
steel buildings when subjected to seismic ground motion. With a view to
a practical procedure two methods of analysis are refered: response
spectra and modal method. These two methods are compared with the time
history analysis. In the concluding sections of the paper, recommended
design procedures are presented and certain suggested guidelines for
improved practice aire examined.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; frames; lowrise buildings;
calculation methods.
TAKANASHI, K., UDAGAWA, K. and TAKANA, H. (1982) PSEUDO DYNAMIC TESTS ON A
2STORY STEEL FRAME BY COMPUTER LOAD TEST APPARATUS HYBRID SYSTEM. Proc.
of the VII World Conf. on Earthquake Engineering, Athens, 8 pages. *3*
This work presents a nonlinear earthquake response analysis method by
the computer load test apparatus hybrid system, where the response
calculations are carried out on the basis of real restoring force
characteristics. The procedure of the hybrid system is explained and
applied in the nonlinear response analysis of a two story steel frame.
The results are compared with the "pure" computer analysis.
KEY WORDS: steel
buildings; frames.
structures; seismic
design; ductility;
lowrise
50
GRECO, C. and RAMASCO, R. (1972) LA RISPOSTA SISMICA DI STRUTTURE INTELAIATE
PIANE DI FORMA QUALSIASI. Giornale del Genio Civile, n.4,5,6, 13 pages.
*4*
A method of seismic design for plane framed structures of any shape
which takes account the horizontal and vertical ground motions is
suggested in this article. The analytical formulation is shown and the
method is applied to some structural samples of industrial buildings.
Some significant aspects of the seismic behaviour are emphasized namely
the influence of the vertical acceleration and the roof inclination. The
conclusions presented are interesting and useful for a correct planning.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; acceleration; lowrise
buildings; calculation methods.
CONTALDO, M., RAMASCO, R. and SANTORELLI, S. (1977) UN'INDAGINE TEORICA
SULL'INFLUENZA DELLA CONTEMPORANEIT' DEI MOTI SISMICI ORIZZONTALI E
VERTICALI NELLA RISPOSTA DELLE STRUTTURE. Giornale del Genio Civile,
n.7,8,9, 22 pages. *5*
The paper presents an analytical study on the influence of the
interation between horizontal and vertical acceleration on the seismic
behaviour of steel structures. A simple model of two degrees of freedom
consisting of a mass elastically restrained by two springs, one
horizontal and the other inclined, is developed. A numerical research
using the model for seme inclinations of the spring and some relations
between the vertical and horizontal periods is realized. Afterwards the
model is applied to seme structural typologies in order to obtain some
coefficients which allow to predict the displacement and the efforts in
those typologies.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic
buildings; calculation methods.
design; acceleration; lowrise
KANETA, K., KOHZU, I. and MIYAKAWA, H. (1982) LOW CYCLE FATIGUE DAMAGE OF WEAK
BEAM TYPE STEEL STRUCTURE DUE TO EARTHQUAKE. Proc. of the VII European
Conf. on Earthquake Engineering, Athens, page 323332. *6*
The low cycle fatigue damage at the beam of one bay, one story steel
frames due to both horizontal and vertical ground acceleration, as well
as gravity load, is investigated in this work. The structural frame
model employed in this study is restricted to a situation in which the
flexural stiffness of the beam is infinite and the axial forces at the
columns are ignored. The frame has lumped masses placed at the top of
the columns and at midspan of the beam. Some results showing the
behaviour of the frame and seme conclusions drawn out from these results
are presented in the end.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic
buildings; fatigue.
design; acceleration; lowrise
51
JORUKOVSKI, D. and MAMUCEVSKI, D. (1982) MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF A SINGLE BAY
STEEL FRAME STRUCTURE USING PARAMETRE SYSTEM IDENTIFICATION AND SHAKING
TABLE EXPERIMENTS. Proc. of the VII European Conf. on Earthquake
Engineering, Athens, page 333339. *7*
In this general paper is suggested a technique for the definition of a
mathematical model of a prefabricated steel frame structure using
parametre system identification and shaking table experiments. The
mathematical model has two degrees of freedom with two lumped masses and
the loaddisplacement relationship is defined by the RambergOsgood
model. According to the authors the use of this technique offers a
considerably more realistic solutions which is phisically closer to the
dynamic solution and in the present case was used to define the viscous
damping coefficient value.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; lowrise buildings; frames;
damping.
PETRINI, V., SETTI, P. and ZANDONINI, R. (1982) INELASTIC BEHAVIOUR OF STEEL
FRAMES SUBJECTED TO STRONG EARTHQUAKES. Proc. of the VTI European Conf.
on Earthquake Engineering, Athens, page 347356. *8*
This paper presents a numerical technique for the elastoplastic dynamic
analysis of steel columns permitted to sway. Constant axial loads are
considered, while the lateral loads and the ground acceleration can vary
with time according to any law. This approach takes into account the
real bending moment thrust curvature relationship for the given cross
section, allowing for structural imperfection. The nonlinear effects of
the vertical load due to the lateral displacements and the initial
deflected configuration are also considered. Some results are presented
and discussed with reference columns of ligth industrial buildings.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic
columns; stability.
design;
lowrise
buildings;
SETTI, P. and ZANDONINI, R. (1980) CONSIDERAZIONI SUL COMPORTAMENTO SISMICO DEI
TELAI MONOPIANO IN ACCIAIO A COPERTURA NON SPINGENTE. Ingegneria Sismica
in Italia, C.I.S.M., Udine, page 313324..*9*
The seismic behaviour of ligth industrial buildings is discussed in this
work. It begins with an analysis of the Italian Code of steel structures
in a way to select the cases to study. To investigate the elastoplastic
response of those frames a numerical model of one degree of freedom is
presented. This model is applied in the analysis of different frames
subjected to Tolmezzo and El Centro earthquakes, being the results
compared with the elastic analysis based on the response spectrum. Some
conclusions drawn out from these results are presented in the end.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic
columns; stability.
design;
lowrise
buildings;
52
2.9  FRAME BEHAVIOUR
CARPENTER, L. and LU, LEWU (1973) REVERSED AND REPEATED LOAD TESTS OF
SCALE STEEL FRAMES. AISI Bulletin n.24 April 1973, 38 pages. *1*
FULL
In this bulletin is described the tests done in full sized single bay
steel frames subjected to constant gravity loads on the beams and
columns and cycles of reversed and repeated displacements. Some
particular problems are investigated, namely: the effect of the local
buckling of the beam in the single story frame; the behaviour of the
columns in the inelastic range and of th beam to
beamcolumn
connections; the effect of the localization of the plastic hinges in the
behaviour of a two story frame. The bulletin describes the design of the
steel frames, the technique developed to test those frames, the
experimental behaviour of the frames and the observations drawn out from
the experimental results.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; hysteretic behaviour;
connections; frames.
FLEISCHER, W. (1974) SIMPLIFIED SEISMIC DRIFT ANALYSIS OF
FRAMES. AISC Engineering Journal, n.3, page 5364. *2*
HIGHRISE
STEEL
This paper presents a simplified method to obtain drift statements for
highrise steel frames under the application of seismic loads. The
equations of this method are developed for two cases: planar rigid and
planar braced frames. The method is demonstrated step by step by an
example of a typical drift analysis in a planar rigid high rise steel
bent, including a description of the procedure for both rigid and braced
frames. In the last section, the development of the method and the
derivations of the working equations are explained.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; drift; highrise buildings;
calculation methods.
GRECO, C. and RAMASCO, R. (1972) LA RISPOSTA SISMICA DI STRUTTURE INTELAIATE
PIANE DI FORMA QUALSIASI. Giornale del Genio Civile, n.4,5,6, 13 pages.
*3*
A method of seismic design for plane framed structures of any shape
which takes account the horizontal and vertical ground motions is
suggested in this article. The analytical formulation is shown and the
method is applied to some structural samples of industrial buildings.
Some significant aspects of the seismic behaviour are emphasized namely
the influence of the vertical acceleration and the roof inclination. The
conclusions presented are interesting and useful for a correct planning.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; acceleration;
buildings; calculation methods.
lowrise
53HUCKELBRIDGE, A. and CLOUGH, R. (1978) SEISMIC RESPONSE OF UPLIFTING BUILDING
FRAME. ASCE Journal of the Structural Division, ST8, page 12111229. *4*
This work shows the results of an experimental and analytical research
program on seismic response of uplifting building frames. In the
experimental tests a onethird scale model of a nine story steel moment
frame prototype with special detail of the footing to allow column
uplift on the shaking table is used. In the nonlinear analytical
procedure it is employed bilinear elastic foundation elements with zero
tensile capacity in the upward direction to accurate behaviour during
uplift motion of the frame. The results of the two analyses are compared
for two cases: fixed and uplift foundation. In the end, a discussion of
the results obtained are presented with some conclusions.
KEY WORDS:
foundations.
steel
structures; seismic
design;
frames;
uplift;
KATO, B. , AKIYAMA, H., SUZUKI, H. and FUKAZAWA, Y. (1973) DYNAMIC COLLAPSE TESTS
OF STEEL STRUCTURAL MODELDS. Proc. of the V World Conf. on Earthquake
Engineering, Rome, page 14571460. *5*
This general article presents the results of an experimental study on
the dynamic behaviour and strength of beamcolumns with Hshaped cross
section. The beamcolumns are fixed at both ends and are tested on a
shaking table which can generate simulated earthquake motions. The
results of the experimental tests are compared with those of the
numerical analysis which take into account the strainhardening of the
steel and the 2nd order effects.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic
hysteretic behaviour.
design; columns;
stability;
KATO, B. and LU, LEWU (1972) INSTABILITY EFFECTS UNDER DYNAMIC AND REPEATED
LOADS. Proc. of the Int. Conf. on Planning and Design of Tall Buildings,
ASCEIABSE, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, vol. lb, page
463481. *6*
The paper presents and discusses some instability problems of columns
and frames subjected to dynamic and cyclic loadings. The influence of
the dynamic axial loads due to earthquake on the stability of the
columns are described. For members and cantilever beamcolumns subjected
to axial loads and cyclic bending moments a technique is developed for
the construction of the loaddeflection curve, which is based on the
monotonie load diagram. This technique is also applied to frames under
cyclic deflections. Emphasis is placed on the aspects that are important
in earthquakeresistant design of building frames.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; stability; columns; frames.
KOSTEM, C. and HECKMAN, D. (1979) EARTHQUAKE RESPONSE OF THREE DIMENSIONAL STEEL
FRAMES STIFFENED BY OPEN TUBULAR CONCRETE SHEAR WALLS. Proc. of the 2nd
U. S. Nat. Conf. on Earthquake Engineering, EERI, Standford University,
page 969977. *7*
This work shows the results of a numerical study on the dynamic
behaviour of frameshear wall systems. An open tubular concrete shear
wall (Ushaped) extending through the height of the building is
considered. Special attention is paid to the effect of the changes in
the dimensions (length and thickness) of the open tubular concrete shear
wall in the fundamental frequencies of this structural system.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; multystorey buildings;
shear; frequency.
54
OKADA, H., TAKEDA, T., YOSHIOKA, K., OMOTE, Y. and NAKAGAWA, K. (1973)
EXPERIMENTAL AND RESEARCH ON THE RESPONSE OF STEEL MODEL STRUCTURES
SUBJECTED TO IMPACT HORIZONTAL LOADING AND TO SIMULATED EARTHQUAKES.
Proc. of the V World Conf. on Earthquake Engineering, Rome, page
27212730. *8*
The behaviour of steel frames under impulsive loading and earthquake
motions are reported in this article. It is divided in two parts. In the
first part, experimental results of onebay onestoried steel portal
frames (four specimens) under impact loading at their base with the use
of a shock table are reported and compared with the elastoplastic
analysis. In the second part, experimental results of a twobay
threestoried portal frame under simulated earthquake motion using a
vibration table are presented together with the theoretical analysis.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; impact; vibration; frames.
POPOV, E. (1980) SEISMIC BEHAVIOUR OF STRUCTURAL SUBASSEMBLAGES, ASCE Journal of
the Structural Division, ST7, page 14511470. *9*
In this paper, some types of hysteretic loops which can be observed in
inelastic experiments with structural members and systems under cyclic
loads are presented. Attention is directed to structural steel and
reinforced concrete members and subassemblages. The distinction among
the various ductility factors are emphasized. The relationship between
the response spectrum approach and conventional code design procedure is
also examined. This paper may serve as an aid for evaluating the
numerous hysteretic loops which are becoming
available in
the
literature.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; hysteretic behaviour;
ductility;.subassemblages.
RAMASCO, R. and SANTORELLI, S. (1973) LA SCHEMATIZZAZIONE SHEARTYPE NELLA
RISPOSTA SISMICA DI OSSATURE INTELAIATE PIANE. Estratto dal Giornale del
Genio Civile, fase. 9,10,11,12, 10 pages. *10*
This paper suggests a process for the definition of shear type frames
equivalent to plane frameworks and concerning the evaluation of the
horizontal forces caused by seismic phenomena. Some remarks on the shear
type frame are presented and a numerical investigation for some frames
of different heigth using the shear type frame and the dynamic analysis
is realized. The comparing of the two methods shows a good degree of
approximation of the shear type frame for the first three modes of
vibration. Some comments on the use of the shear type frame in the
seismic design are presented in the last part.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; shear; calculation methods;
frames.
55
RAMASCO, R. and SANTORELLI, S. (1974) L'INFLUENZA DELLO SMORZAMENTO E DEL
COMPORTAMENTO ELASTOPLASTICO SULLA
RISPOSTA SISMICA DI
OSSATURE
INTELAIATE PIANE. Estratto dal Giornale del Genio Civile, fase.
10,11,12, 14 pages. *11*
The influence of the damping in the seismic behaviour of steel plane
frames is studied in this article. A brief review of the definition of
ductility is presented in the beginning. Based on a shear type frame, it
is developed a formulation to evaluate the damping matrix and a
numerical research to examine the influence of the damping on the
different natural modes in frames of different height using the
precedent formulation is done. In the end, it is presented some
observations drawn out from the numerical investigation.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; damping; ductility; frames.
TAKANASHI, K., UDAGAWA, K. and TAKANA, H. (1978) EARTHQUAKE RESPONSE ANALYSIS OF
STEEL FRAMES BY COMPUTERACTUATOR ONLINE SYSTEM. V Japan Earthquake
Engineering Symposium, page 13211328. *12*
In this paper is analyzed the nonlinear response of one and two story
steel frames, using the instantaneous restoring forces obtained from the
structural experiment and controlled by computer which is running
simultaneously for the response calculation (computer actuator online
system). Two methods of numerical integration of the equation of motion
using the secant stiffness at a
step of the specimen or
the
instantaneous restoring force of the specimen in structural experiment
are explained and applied in the nonlinear response of sane frames.
Some results and concluding remarks are also presented.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic
behaviour; frames.
design; ductility; hysteretic
TAKANASHI, K. and TANIGUCHI, H. (1982) PSEUDODYNAMIC ON FRAMES INCLUDING HIGH
STRENGTH BOLTED CONNECTIONS. Proc. of the VII European Conf. on
Earthquake Engineering, Athens, 4 pages. *13*
To study the influence of slippage in high strength bolted connections,
a numerical model for the momentrotation relationship in the beam is
proposed in this paper. This model consists of a bilinear type
hysteresis loop which describes the behaviour before slippage and a slip
type hysteresis loop which describes the behaviour after slippage. The
dynamic response of some frames using this model are compared with
experimental results and some conclusions are presented.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; hysteretic behaviour; slip;
connections.
TANABASHI, R., KANETA, K. and ISHIKA, T. (1973) ON THE RIGIDITY AND DUCTILITY OF
STEEL BRACING ASSEMBLAGE. Proc. of the V World Conf. on Earthquake
Engineering, Rome, page 834840. *14*
This paper shows the results of the experiment on the strength and
ductility of the Ybraced frames carried out by using column testing
machine. Static tests are performed on five models of Ybraced frames
and compared with the Kbraced frames. A table describing the size,
properties of the crosssections
of the members and
mechanical
properties of the material is presented, as well as the curves obtained
in the experimental tests.
KEY WORDS: steel
connections.
structures;
seismic
design; ductility;
braces;
56
TANG, D. and CLOUGH, R. (1979) SHAKING TABLE EARTHQUAKE RESPONSE OF STEEL FRAME.
ASCE Journal of the Structural Division, STI, page 221243. *15*
This paper presents the results of an experimental and analytical
investigation on the seismic behaviour of a large scale steel structure.
The test structure consists of two identical 5.30m high three story
frames having a bay width of 3.70m and to excite the structure a shaking
table motion is used. After a brief comment of the planning of the test
structure and test program, the most significant results are examined.
The description of suitable analytical models for computing the seismic
behaviour of the structure, the effects of various model parameters and
the experimental results are presented in the last part.
KEY WORDS: steel
connections.
structures;
seismic design; ductility;
frames;
UCHIDA, N., AOYAGI, T., KAWAMURA, M. and NAKAGAWA, K. (1973) VIBRATION TEST OF
STEEL FRAME HAVING PRECAST CONCRETE PANELS. Proc. of the V World Conf.
on Earthquake Engineering, Rome, page 11671176. *16*
In this work are reported the tests conducted in a twostorey, twobay
steel frame model having fullsize precast concrete panels in order to
obtain seme basic data on the effects of precast concrete panels on the
vibration characteristics of the highrise buildings, and the behaviour
of the panel fastening system. The tests conducted are: 1) Forced
vibration test; 2) Free vibration test; 3) Dynamic load test. Special
attention is paid to the modes of deflection of precast concrete panels
and slabs.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; panels; vibration; frames.
VASQUES, J., POPOV, E. and BERTERO, V. (1973) EARTHQUAKE ANALYSIS OF STEEL
FRAMES WITH NONRIGID JOINTS. Proc. of the V World Conf. on Earthquake
Engineering, Rome, page 17521755. *17*
In this paper, a model of the nonrigidity of the panel zone existing in
the joints of a frame is presented. The formulation is based on two
assumptions: 1) The single component of a panel zone distortion is a
shear deformation, and 2) The constitutive relationship is a bilinear
model. It is also explained how the model can be assembled into the
structure's stiffness matrix considering the deformable joint. Some
results of the application of the model to a structure subjected to an
earthquake are included.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; ductility; joints; frames.
WAKABAYASHI, M., NONAKA, T. and MATSUI, C. (1969) AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE
HORIZONTAL RESTORING FORCES IN STEEL FRAMES UNDER LARGE VERTICAL LOADS.
Proc. of the TV World Conf. on Earthquake Engineering, Santiago, vol.1,
page 177193. *18*
Herein are presented the results of an experimental study on the
behaviour of single bay, one and two storyed rectangular frames and
"cruciform" frames with wide flange sections under constant vertical
load on the columns and varying horizontal force. A theoretical analysis
is made to study the elastoplastic behaviour of those frames and
compared with the experimental results. Some curves of the horizontal
forcedisplacement relationship are shown being outlined a redution in
the restoring force due to the unstable effect of the vertical loads.
KEY WORDS:
frames.
steel
structures; seismic design; ductility; stability;
57 
WAKABAYHASHI, M. (1972) FRAMES UNDER STRONG IMPULSIVE, WIND OR SEISMIC LOADING.
Proc. of the Int. Conf. on Planning and Design of Tall Buildings,
ASCEIABSE, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, vol. lb, page
343363. *19*
This state of art presents some mechanical characteristics of steel
structures, their elements and connections under strong impulsive, wind
or seismic loading. The topics are: fundamental characteristics of
frames;
relationship
between
load
characteristics
and
frame
characteristics; ductility of members and connections; braced and
unbraced frames; hysteretic characteristics and low cycle fatigue of
steel members and their connections; hysteretic characteristics of
braced and unbraced frames; progressive plastic deformation. In the end
a large reference list and number of figures are presented.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; stability; hysteretic
behaviour; braces.
WAKABAYASHI, M., NONAKA, T., MINAMI, K. and SHIBATA, M. (1971) EXPERIMENTAL
STUDIES ON THE LARGE PLASTIC DEFORMATION OF FRAMES DUE TO HORIZONTAL
IMPACT. Bulletin of the Disaster Prevention Research Institute, Kyoto
University, vol.20, Part 4, n. 181, March, page 245266. *20*
The main objective of this paper is to measure the load and acceleration
magnitudes, as well as the total impulse and the velocity change in
frames due to horizontal impact. In the experimental tests, two cases
are considered: 1) The portal frame speciments are subjected to impact
loads in their columns tops, and 2) The portal frames are subjected to a
large acceleration for a short duration at the column bases. The. applied
load and the inicial velocity are measured by the barium titane ceramics
accelerometer and load cell. A theoretical analysis is done in order to
evaluate the final plastic deflection of the frame being the results
compared with the experimental tests.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; stability; frames; impact.
WAKABAYASHI, M., NONAKA, T. and MORINO, S. (1969) AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE
INELASTIC BEHAVIOR OF STEEL FRAMES WITH A RECTANGULAR CROSSSECTION
SUBJECTED TO VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL LOADING. Bulletin of the Disaster
Prevention Research Institute, Kyoto University, vol.18, Part 3, n. 145,
February, page 6582. *21*
This paper presents the experimental results of a study on the inelastic
behaviour of single bay threestoried frames using 1/30 scale models
with rectangular crosssections. A constant vertical load is applied
symmetrically on the top of the upper columns and a varying horizontal
force is applied in a quasistatic manner at top floor level. Some
experimental results are compared with the theoretical analysis. In the
discussion of the results, the following points are considered: 1)
Deformed shape of specimens; 2) Horizontal forcedisplacement relation;
3) The effect of the vertical load; 4) The effect of the dimensions and
material; 5) The maximum horizontal force; ductility factor.
KEY WORDS: steel
frames.
structures; seismic
design; stability; ductility;
58
WAKABAYASHI, M., NONAKA, T. and MATSUI, C. (1967) AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE
INELASTIC BEHAVIOR OF STEEL FRAMES SUBJECTED TO VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL
LOADING. Bulletin of the Disaster Prevention Research Institute, Kyoto
University, vol.17, Part 1, n. 119, July, page 2748. *22*
Herein are presented the experimental results of a study on the
inelastic behaviour of single bay, one and twostoried frames using 1/4
scale models with wide flange sections. Vertical loads are applied
constantly on the columns and a varying horizontal force is applied at
top floor level. Special attention is paid to the effects to the axial
forces existing in the columns on the behaviour of unbraced frames. The
theoretical analysis is also done in order to determine the restoring
force characteristics, or the horizontal forcedisplacement relation
being the results compared with the experimental tests.
KEY WORDS: steel
frames.
structures; seismic
design;
stability; ductility;
WAKABAYASHI, M., MATSUI, C , MINAMI, K. and METANI, I. (1973) INELASTIC BEHAVIOR
OF STEEL FRAMES SUBJECTED
TO CONSTANT VERTICAL AND
ALTERNATING
HORIZONTAL LOADS. Proc. of the V World Conf. on Earthquake Engineering,
Rome, page 11941197. *23*
This general article presents the experimental results of a study on the
inelastic behaviour of both braced and unbraced frames under constant
vertical and alternating horizontal loading using four full scale
models. The behaviour under monotonie loading is also presented for
comparison with that under alternating loading. A theoretical analysis
is made to study the hysteretic behaviour of both braced and unbraced
frames tested, being later on the results compared with the experimental
tests. At last, seme theoretical and experimental hysteretic curves are
shown.
KEY WORDS: steel structures;
hysteretic behaviour.
seismic
design;
stability;
braces;
SETTI, P. and ZANDONINI, R. (1980) CONSIDERAZIONI SUL COMPORTAMENTO SISMICO DEI
TELAI MONOPIANO IN ACCIAIO A COPERTURA NON SPINGENTE. Ingegneria Sismica
in Italia, C.I.S.M., Udine, page 313324. *24*
The seismic behaviour of ligth industrial buildings is discussed in this
work. It begins with an analysis of the Italian Code of steel structures
in a way to select the cases to study. To investigate the elastoplastic
response of those frames a numerical model of one degree of freedom is
presented. This model is applied in the analysis of different frames
subjected to Tolmezzo and El Centro earthquakes, being the results
compared with the elastic analysis based on the response spectrum. Some
conclusions drawn out from these results are presented in the end.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic
columns; stability.
design;
lowrise
buildings;
59 
PETRINI, V., SETTI, P. and ZNDONINI, R. (1982) INELASTIC BEHAVIOUR OF STEEL
FRAMES SUBJECTED TO STRONG EARTHQUAKES. Proc. of the VII European Conf.
on Earthquake Engineering, Athens, page 347356. *25*
This paper presents a numerical technique for the elastoplastic dynamic
analysis of steel columns permitted to sway. Constant axial loads are
considered, while the lateral loads and the ground acceleration can vary
with time according to any law. This approach takes into account the
real bending moment thrust curvature relationship for the given cross
section, allowing for structural imperfection. The nonlinear effects of
the vertical load due to the lateral displacements and the initial
deflected configuration are also considered. Some results are presented
and discussed with reference columns of ligth industrial buildings.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic
columns; stability.
design;
lowrise
buildings;
UDAGAWA, K., TAKANASHI, K. and KATO, B. (1984) EFFECTS OF DISPLACEMENT RATES ON
THE BEHAVIOR OF STEEL BEAMS AND COMPOSITE BEAMS. Proc. of the VIII World
Conf. on Earthquake Engineering, San Francisco, 8 pages. *26*
This paper deals with quasistatic and dynamic tests of steel beams and
fully composite beams with steel deck subjected to monotonie and cyclic
loadings, and investigates how the difference of displacement rates
affects: 1) Maximum moment capacity; 2) Elastic stiffness and stiffness
under unloading in plastic range and 3) Deformation capacity and shape
of hysteresis loop. A viscous damping in an elastic range of steel beams
is evaluated and the increase in moment capacities due to a viscous
damping is examined.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic
damping; ductility.
design; hysteretic behaviour;
TANIGUCHI, H. and TAKANASHI, K. (1984) INELASTIC RESPONSE BEHAVIOR OF HSHAPED
STEEL COLUMN TO BIDIRECTIONAL EARTHQUAKE MOTION. Proc. of the VIII
World Conf. on Earthquake Engineering, San Francisco, 8 pages. *27*
This paper presents the response behaviour of steel Hshaped columns to
two horizontal components of recorded earthquake motions analyzed by a
hybrid system of a digital computer and a loading test system. Two
numerical methods
are presented:
one
uses a
trilinear
type
stressstrain relationship and the other is an extention of Ziegler's
kinematic hardening rule with a bilinear type sheardisplacement
relationship. The results computed by these numerical models are
compared with the experimental tests.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic
hysteretic behaviour.
design; columns;
stability;
60
RAMASCO, R. (1971) LA RISPOSTA SISMICA DELLE STRUTTURE INTELAIATE PIANE IN CAMPO
ELASTOPLASTICO. Giornale del Genio Civile, Luglio, fase. 7, page
547567. *28*
The main objective of this paper is to examine the seismic behaviour of
framed structures in elastoplastic range. In order to achive this
objective a program of automatic calculation is developed and its
formulation is presented. The program is quite general both for
materials, concrete and steel, and for the shape of the framework on the
hypotesis of rectangular frame. Some numerical applications on steel
framed structures and concrete framed structures are shown in order to
study some phenomena, such as the damping and the Pdelta effect due to
vertical loads on the elastoplastic behaviour.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; stability; frames; damping.
0N0, T. (1982) DEFORMATION CAPACITY AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH OF COLD FORMED STEEL
MEMBERS AND FRAMES. Proc. of the VTI European Conf. on Earthquake
Engineering, Athens, page 315322. *29*
This article shows the experimental results on deformation capacity and
ultimate strength of cold formed steel members and frames. Two testing
programs are performed: one is the bending test of beams in order to
understand the plastic deformation capacity of cold formed steel members
and, the other is the lateral loading test of the moment frames and
braced frames in order to explain the inelastic behaviour and the
deformation capacity. In the momentrotation curves of the beams special
attention is paid on the influence of the slenderness ratios of members.
Tables describing the dimension of test beams, test frames and material
properties are presented, as well as some experimental curves.
KEY WORDS: steel
buckling.
structures;
seismic design; stability;
frames;
Mcniven, H. and Matzen, V. (1978) A MATHEMATICAL MODEL TO PREDICT THE INELASTIC
RESPONSE OF A STEEL FRAME: FORMULATION OF THE MODEL. Earthequake
Engineering and Structural Dynamics, vol.6, page 189202. *30*
The purpose of this research is to use data from experiments to
formulate a mathematical model that will predict the nonlinear response
of a singlestorey steel frame to an earthquake input. The process used
in this formulation is system identification. The form of the model is a
secondorder nonlinear differential equation with linear
viscous
damping and RambergOsgood type hysteresis. The damping coefficient and
the three parameters in the hysteretic model are to be established. An
integral weighted mean squared error function is used to evaluate the
"goodness of fit" between the model's response and the structure's
response when both are subjected to the same exitation.
KEY WORDS: steel
structural safety.
structures;
seismic design; stability;
frames;
61
Mcniven, H. and Matzen, V. (1978) A MATHEMATICAL MODEL TO PREDICT THE INELASTIC
RESPONSE OF A STEEL FRAME: ESTABLISHMENT OF PARAMETERS FROM SHAKING
TABLE EXPERIMENTS. Earthequake Engineering and Structural Dynamics,
vol.6, page 203219. *31*
The purpose of this research is to use data from experiments to
formulate a mathematical model that will predict the nonlinear response
of a singlestorey steel frame to an earthquake input. The process used
in this formulation is system identification. In experiments performed
on a shaking table, the frame was subjected to two earthquake motions at
several intensities. In each case the frame underwent severe inelastic
deformation. A computer program which incorporates the concepts of
system identification makes use of the recorded data to establish four
parameters in a nonlinear mathematical model. When different amounts of
data are used in the program, parameter sets are established which give
the best model response for that amount of test data.
KEY WORDS: steel
structural safety.
structures;
seismic
design; stability;
frames;
Popov, E. and Bertero, V. (1980) SEISMIC ANALYSIS OF SOME STEEL BUILDING FRAMES.
ASCE Journal of the Engineering Mechanics Division, vol.106, EMI, page
7592. *32*
Assurance of ductile behaviour under inelastic load reversals occurring
during severe seismic disturbances is basic for earthquakeresistant
design of structural frames. The principal features encountered in the
analysis of this behaviour for three major types of steel building
frames are considered in this paper. The widely used momentresisting
framing is considered first. This is followed by an examination of
conventionally braced frames. Lastly, a novel bracing system in which
the diagonal braces are made eccentric with respect to the beamcolumn
joint are considered.
KEY WORDS: steel
subassemblages.
structures; seismic design;
frame; eccentric braces;
62
2.10  BRACING BEHAVIOUR
ANDERSON, J. (1975) SEISMIC BEHAVIOR OF KBRACED FRAMING SYSTEMS. ASCE Journal
of the Structural Division, ST10, page 21472159. *1*
The purpose of this work is to evaluate the inelastic seismic response
of three Kbrace framing systems to strong earthquake motions. The
framing systems considered in this work are ten stories high with three
equal bays. In all cases, the primary Kbracing is located in the center
bay with the bracing members oriented so as to form a vee. The seismic
response of those frames is determined by a numerical analysis which is
briefly described. The comparison of the seismic response of the three
systems is evaluate in terms of the following parameters: 1) Absolute
maximum lateral displacement; 2) Maximum relative displacement; 3)
Ductility requirement; 4) Hysteretic behaviour; 5) Time history.
KEY WORDS: steel structures;
behaviour; ductility.
seismic
design; braces;
hysteretic
EDISHERASHVTLI, N. and SHAISHMELASHVILI, V. (1973) EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF
DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF MULTYSTOREY STEEL FRAME BUILDING LARGESCALE
MODELS WITH DIFFERENT VERTICAL BRACINGS. Proc. of the V World Conf. on
Earthquake Engineering, Rome, page 299303. *2*
Herein are presented results of experimental studies of large scale
models (1/6 of natural size) of steel carcass building with frame and
frame bracing systems. The carcass models are tested for: free, ' forced
(resonance) vibrations and static very intensive horizontal loads
permitting to cause destruction
of model constructions.
Special
attention is paid to variation of vibration frequencies and to the
damping decrement of models when plastic deformations are developed in
them.
KEY WORDS:
steel
structures; seismic
multystorey buildings.
design;
braces;
frames;
GOEL, S. and HANSON, R. (1973) SEISMIC BEHAVIOR OF MULTISTORY BRACED STEEL
FRAMES. Proc. of the V World Conf. on Earthquake Engineering, Rome, page
29342943. *3*
This paper presents and discusses the results of a numerical study on
the influence of the method of design and different arrangements of the
bracing members (fully braced, bottom story open, alternate stories open
and completely unbraced) in the seismic response of multistory steel
frames. The dynamic response is computed by assuming an elastoplastic
type hysteretic behaviour in tension only for the diagonal bracing
members, in bending for the girders, and the 2nd order effects for the
"columns. In the end, some curves for different response parameters are
shown.
KEY WORDS: steel
braces; ductility.
structures; seismic design; calculation methods;
63 HUCKELBRIDGE, A. and CLOUGH, R. (1978) SEISMIC RESPONSE OF UPLIFTING BUILDING
FRAME. ASCE Journal of the Structural Division, ST8, page 12111229. *4*
This work shows the results of an experimental and analytical research
program on seismic response of uplifting building frames. In the
experimental tests a onethird scale model of a nine story steel moment
frame prototype with special detail of the footing to allow column
uplift on the shaking table was used. In the nonlinear analytical
procedure it was employed bilinear elastic foundation elements with zero
tensile capacity in the upward direction to accurate behaviour during
uplift motion of the frame. The results of the two analyses are compared
for two cases: fixed and uplift foundation. In the end, a discussion of
the results obtained are presented with some conclusions.
KEY WORDS:
foundations.
steel
structures; seismic
design;
frames;
uplift;
JAIN, A. and GOEL, S. (1980) SEISMIC RESPONSE OF ECCENTRICALLY BRACED FRAMES.
ASCE Journal of the Structural Division, ST4, page 843859. *5*
The purpose of this paper is to define the situation in which a bracing
member
can
be
treated
as
rigidconnected
nonbuckling
type,
rigidconnected buckling type, or pinconnected buckling type so that an
appropriate hysteretic model can be used in the seismic analysis of
eccentrically braced frames. The seismic response of three eccentrically
braced frames with different member proportions are also compared so as
to study the merits of different design philosophies used to proportion
the frame members.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; eccentric braces; buckling;
frames.
MURAKAMI, M., TAMURA, R., TANAKA, Y., OAMI, K., OSAWA, Y. and UMEMURA, H. (1973)
EARTHQUAKE RESISTANTE OF A STEEL FRAME APARTMENT HOUSE WITH . PRECAST
CONCRETE PANEL. Proc. of the V World Conf. on Earthquake Engineering,
Rome, page 26882697. *6*
The dynamic behaviour of a steel frame apartment house with precast
concrete wall panels and its surrounding soil during actual earthquakes
is investigated in this work. Sixteen sets of the electromagnetic
seismometers are installed to measure the earthquake acceleration
records under, around and inside the building. With those records if is
possible to establish an appropriate dynamic model for the soilbuilding
system to study the dynamic behaviour of this kind of building under
severe earthquake exitations. Seme results and concluding remarks are
presented in the end.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; multystorey buildings;
vibration; frames.
MAISON, B. and POPOV, E. (1980) CYCLIC RESPONSE PREDICTION FOR BRACED STEEL
FRAMES. ASCE Journal of the Structural Division, ST7, page 14011416.
*7*
In this paper, some experimental results on the behaviour of halfscale
K braced building frames subjected to severe cyclic loading are
reviewed. This is followed by a presentation of the experimentally
determined hysteretic behaviour for the individual braces used in the
test frames. An improved procedure for a computer simulation of brace
behaviour is then described. Using this formulation, the overall
inelastic cyclic response of one of the test frames is compared with the
predicted results. The agreement between the experimental and analytical
results are good.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; braces; frames; hysteretic
behaviour.
64
POPOV, E. (1980) SEISMIC BEHAVIOR OF STRUCTUAL SUBASSEMBLAGES. ASCE Journal
the Structural Division, ST7, page 14511470. *8*
of
In this paper seme types of hysteretic loops which can be observed in
inelastic experiments with structural members and systems under cyclic
loads are presented. Attention is directed to structural steel and
reinforced concrete members and subassemblages. The distinction among
the various ductility factors are emphasized. The relationship between
the response spectrum approach and conventional code design procedure is
also examined. This paper may serve as an aid for evaluating the
numerous hysteretic loops which are becoming
available in
the
literature.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; hysteretic behaviour;
ductility; subassemblages.
WAKABAYASHI, M. and TSUJI, B. (1967) EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON THE BEHAVIOR
OF FRAMES WITH AND WITHOUT BRACING UNDER HORIZONTAL LOADING. Bulletin of
the Disaster Prevention Research Institute, Kyoto University, vol.16,
Part 2, n. 112, January, page 8194. *9*
The experimental results on the behaviour of steel frames with and
without bracing under horizontal loading are shown in this paper. The
test speciments are moment frames and one span two storied frames. The
experiments are conducted for the moment frames under monotonous
horizontal and also under repeated loading, and for the one span two
storied frames under repeated horizontal loading. Special attention is
paid on the influence of the local or lateral buckling of the frame and
to the buckling and postbuckling behaviour of the compressive bracing
on the restoring force characteristics of the whole frame. In appendix,
it is given a method for calculating the axial forcedisplacement
relationship of the compression bracing.
KEY WORDS: steel
structures; seismic
hysteretic behaviour.
design; buckling;
braces;
WAKABAYASHI, M., MATSUI, C , MINAMI, K. and MITANI, I. (1974) INELASTIC BEHAVIOR
OF FULLSCALE STEEL FRAMES WITH AND WITHOUT BRACINGS. Bulletin of the
Disaster Prevention Research Institute, Kyoto University, vol.24, Part
1, n. 216, March, page 123. *10*
Inelastic behaviour of unbraced and braced steel frames subjected to a
monotonie and alternatingly repeated horizontal load are experimentally
investigated on approximately fullscale, onebay, onestory models of
mild steel Hsections. Eigth frames are tested; four braced and four
unbraced. Four of them
are horizontally loaded with their columns
simultaneously subjected to constant vertical load. The other four
frames are loaded only
horizontally. A theoretical analysis of
elasticplastic behaviour of those frames are realyzed and compared with
the test results. Some tables describing the properties of frames
members and loading conditions of test frames are presented as well as
the experimental loaddisplacement relationships.
KEY WORDS: steel structures;
hysteretic behaviour.
seismic design; stability;
braces;
65 
WAKABAYASHI, M. (1970) THE BEHAVIOR OF STEEL FRAMES WITH DIAGONAL BRACINGS UNDER
REAPEATED LOADING. Japan  U.S. Seminar on Earthquake Engineering with
Emphasis on the Safety of School Buildings, September 2126, Sendai, 31
pages. *11*
This state of art is mainly concerned with the behaviour of bracing
members used in steel structures. Some topics are examined, namely: 1)
School buildings and steel structures in Japan; 2) The damages of steel
structures due to the 1968 Tokachi Offing earthquake; 3) Current
situation of diagonal bracing used in steel structures; 4) Previous
studies
on
braced
frames;
5)
Pretensioning
and
hysteretic
characteristics of steel bar bracings; 6) Buckling and hysteretic
characteristics of compressed bracings; 7) Experimental study on the
behaviour of steel frames with diagonal bracings. In the end, some
figures and curves are presented.
KEY WORDS: steel structures;
behaviour; stability.
seismic
design; braces;
hysteretic
BALLIO, G. , GOBETTI, A. and ZANON, P. (1979) SIMULATION OF DYNAMIC BEHAVIOUR OF
PIN JOINTED STRUCTURES WITH A NON SYMMETRICAL CONSTITUTIVE LAW.
Simulation of Sistem '79, NorthHolland Publishing Company, page
509516. *12*
The seismic response of pin jointed structures is analyzed in this
paper. The investigation is performed for a typical steel frame, i.g. a
bracing system of industrial building. The model used for the non
symmetrical constitutive law of compressed and tensioned bars is
described and applied in a stepbystep algoritm to evaluate the dynamic
behaviour of pin jointed structures. A numerical example is presented
showing the possibilities of the proposed method. Some considerations on
the ductility requested by the dynamic loads to this kind of structures
are presented.
KEY WORDS: steel structures;
behaviour; braces.
seismic
design; ductility; hysteretic
BALLIO, G., GOBETTI, A. and ZANON, P. (1979) RESISTENZA E DUTTILIT" DI STRUTTURE
RETICOLARI DI CONTROVENTO. Atti del Convegno 1978 Consiglio Nazionale
delle Ricerche, Progetto Finalizzato "Geodinamica", Roma, Gennaio, page
291305. *13*
In this general work, it is presented some experimental and numerical
results concerning the behaviour of steel structures, their elements and
connections in seismic zones. Special attention is given to the braces,
namely the influence of its slenderness and the type of end connection
in the strength and ductility of those members. In the end some
experimental and theoretical curves are shown.
KEY WORDS: steel structures;
behaviour; braces.
seismic
design; ductility; hysteretic
66
BALLIO, G., CAMPANINI, G., GOBETTI, A. and ZANON, P. (1980) CONDIZIONI DI
COLLASSO DI STRUTTURE METALLICHE RETICOLARI DI CONTROVENTO SOGGETTE AD
AZIONI SISMICHE. Ingegneria Sismica in Italia, C.I.S.M., Udine, page
275287. *14*
The dynamic behaviour of braced structures is the argument of this
paper. The correlation between the applied load and the longitudinal
displacement for compressed bars, varying according with the slenderness
of the bar is briefly described and idealized constitutive laws for
compressed and tensioned bars are suggested. The results of a numerical
approach on the behaviour of a bracing structure during an earthquake
are presented and used to find the relation between design seismic
coefficient and collapse acceleration by amplifying the adopted input.
KEY WORDS: steel
braces.
structures; seismic
design; ductility; collapse;
BALLIO, G., GOBETTI, A. and ZANON, P. (1979) ANALYTICAL COMPUTATIONS OF DYNAMIC
BEHAVIOUR OF PIN JOINTED STRUCTURES. Proc. of the Int. Conf. on
Environmental Forces on Engineering Structures, London, July, 14 pages.
*15*
The seismic behaviour of bracings built up with angles profiles is
investigated in this work. For this purpose, an experimental and
numerical analysis in order to measure the ductility of tensioned and
compressioned members with bolted and welded connections have been
performed as well as a numerical approach for simulation with a computer
the behaviour of
bracing structures during
an earthquake. The
constitutive laws used in the model for the compressed and tensioned
bars is briefly described and applied in a stepbystep algoritm to
evaluate the dynamic behaviour of a pin jointed structure. A numerical
example is shown as well as some considerations on the ductility
requested to this kind of structures.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; ductility;
behaviour; braces.
hysteretic
HIGGINBOTHAM, A. and HANSON, R. (1976) AXIAL HYSTERETIC BEHAVIOR OF STRUCTURAL
MEMBERS. ASCE Journal of the Structural Division, ST7, page 13651380.
*16*
This paper presents a procedure for modeling axiallyloaded members
under large inelastic cyclic deflections. Two analytical solutions for
pinended members are formulated. Both solutions employ the plastic
hinge concept, including axial force effects, to account for plastic
rotation. The solutions differ in accounting for axial displacement due
to lateral deflection of the members. The first solution uses the exact
expression for curvature whereas the second solution assumes the
internal bending moment to vary linearly along the member. The results
obtained with these procedures are compared with the experimental ones.
KEY WORDS: steel structures;
hysteretic behaviour.
seismic
design; braces;
stability;
67 
SAMPAOLESI, L. , BIOLZI, L. and TACCHI, R. ( ? ) SUL COMPORTAMEOTXD DI STRUTTURE
DI CONTROVENTO RETICOLARI IN ACCIAIO SOTTO AZIONI SISMICHE. ( ? ) , 32
pages. *17*
The report presents the results of a research program dealing with the
analysis of the behaviour of steel braced structures subjected to
alternate loading conditions. In the experimental tests a natural scale
models of a frame with one and two braces are utilized. Experiments are
performed by using a test apparatus able to impress cyclic displacements
slowly variable in time. A numerical model for predicting the behaviour
of the braces is presented and applied in an algoritm to evaluate the
behaviour of braced structures. Some considerations on the ductility
requested by these structures and its hysterectic behaviour
are
presented in the end.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic
behaviour; braces.
design; ductility;
hysteretic
CALADO, L. (1985) SIMULAO NUMERICA DO COMPORTAMENTO SISMICO DE ESTRUTURAS
METLICAS CONTRAVENTADAS. Dissertation submitted of the requirements for
the degree of Master of Science in the Technical University of Lisbon,
January, 82 pages. *18*
The work deals with a finite element able to describe the behaviour of
cyclic axially loaded members taking into account the geometrical and
physical nonlinear effects. Its formulation is developed and the results
obtained with this model are compared with experimental studies allowing
to check the model. A numerical study is then developed to investigate
the influence of some parameters which affect the bearing capacity of
compressed members. The work also shows how the element can be 'used to
simulate the braces in order to predict the seismic behaviour of plane
braced pinend structures, and the evaluation of the behaviour factor of
this type of structures.
KEY WORDS: steel structures;
compression members.
seismic
design; stability;
braces;
TAYEM, A. and GOEL, S. (1984) CYCLIC BEHAVIOR OF ANGLE XBRACING. ASCE
Structures '84 Congress, San Francisco, October, 1/3.10.84, 22 pages.
*19*
Five full scale Xbracing specimens are tested under quasistatic cyclic
loading with a view to explore their response and then ultimately to
synthesize a composite hysteresis model for the two Xmembers. The main
parameters of the study are: 1) Mode of buckling; 2) Interaction between
the two members; 3) Slenderness ratio and 4) Widththickness ratios. The
general cyclic behaviour, behaviour of compression diagonal, local
buckling and hysteresis loops of the tested specimens are presented in
this work.
KEY WORDS: steel structures;
behaviour; stability.
seismic
design; braces;
hysteretic
68
GHANAAT, Y. (1980) STUDY OF XBRACED STEEL FRAME STRUCTURES UNDER EARTHQUAKE
SIMULATION. Report No. UCB/EERC 80/80, Earthquake Engineering Research
Center, University of California, Berkeley, April, 226 pages. *20*
This report presents experimental results on the seismic performance of
a model threestory building frame, both unbraced and with three
different wind bracing systems and correlates these results with
analytical predictions. Considerable compression buckling and tension
yielding of the diagonal bracing members are observed in the tests, but
the bracing provided significant reductions in the lateral displacements
when compared with the unbraced frame response. Analytical techniques
employing three different hysteresis models to represent the three types
of bracing systems are shown to predict the response of braced frames
with good accurancy.
KEY WORDS: steel structures;
behaviour; stability.
seismic design; braces;
hysteretic
Kahn, L. and Hanson, R. (1976) INELASTIC CYCLES OF AXIALLY LOADED STEEL MEMBERS.
ASCE Journal of the Structural Division, ST5, page 947959. *21*
The object of this investigation was to experimentally determine the
hysteretic characteristics of axially loaded steel members subjected to
alternating tension and compression. Sixteen steel bars of various
lengths were tested under both static and quasidynamic loads, the
principal result was the determination of axial loaddeflection curves
for members subjected to cycles of postbuckling deflections and high
tension loads. The results of these are particularly applicable to the
seismic design of bracing members where large cyclic deflections may not
lead to collapse of the entire structure.
KEY WORDS: steel structures;
behaviour; stability.
seismic
design; braces;
hysteretic
Jain, A., Goel, S. and Hanson, R. (1978) INELASTIC RESPONSE OF RESTRAINED STEEL
TUBES. ASCE Journal of the Structural Division, ST6, page 897910. *22*
The purpose of this experimental investigation was to determine the
hysteresis behaviour of axially loaded steel bracing members with
rotational end restraint provided by connections and to study the
influence of connection flexural strength, stiffness and change of
member length on the hysteresis behaviour. The .experimental results are
compared with theoretical results obtained by other authors.
KEY WORDS: steel structures;
behaviour; stability.
seismic design; braces;
hysteretic
69
Popov, E., Zayas, V. and Mahin, S. (1979) CYCLIC INELASTIC BUCKLING OF THIN
TUBULAR COLUMNS. ASCE Journal of the Structural Division, STll, page
22612277. *23*
In this paper, experimental results from tests on six tubular columns
subjected to severe cyclic loading are considered. The onesixth scale
specimens were so chose so that their diametertothickness ratios and
fixities are representative of
members encountered in practice.
Experimentally obtained hysteretic loops
for axial force
versus
elongation, as well as versus the maximum lateral deflection are
presented and
interpreted.
Suggestions for
analytic
(computer)
representation of the hysteretic loops are also given. The paper
concludes with an examination of possible approaches for analyzing
braced offshore towers and recommendations for additional research.
KEY WORDS: steel structures;
behaviour; stability.
seismic
design; braces;
hysteretic
Toyama, K. (1983) SEISMIC BEHAVIOUR OF STEEL BENTBRACING SYSTEMS. Kajima
Institute of Construction Technology Report No 41, 47 pages. *24*
In this paper, in order to improve the aseismic characteristics of
braced frames, a special bracing called "bentbracing" having stable
restoring force characteristics is applied to the braced frame, and the
effects is studied both experimentally and analytically. Bentbracing
has the initial deflection provided at the center of bracing by
previously bending the section. The skeleton curve of bentbracing and
the practical evaluation method of the hysteresis model are also
presented.
KEY WORDS: steel structures;
behaviour; stability.
seismic
design; braces;
hysteretic
70
2.11  ECCENTRIC BRACING BEHAVIOUR
ANDERSON, J. (1975) SEISMIC BEHAVIOR OF KBRACED FRAMING SYSTEMS. ASCE Journal
of the Structural Division, ST10, page 21472159. *1*
The purpose of this work is to evaluate the inelastic seismic response
of three Kbrace framing systems to strong earthquake motions. The
framing systems considered in this work are ten stories high with three
equal bays. In all cases, the primary Kbracing is located in the center
bay with the bracing members oriented so as to form a vee. The seismic
response of those frames are determined by a numerical analysis which is
briefly described. The comparison of the seismic response of the three
systems is evaluated in terms of the following parameters: 1) Absolute
maximum lateral displacement; 2) Maximum relative displacement; 3)
Ductility requirement; 4) Hysteretic behaviour; 5) Time history.
KEY WORDS: steel structures;
behaviour; ductility.
seismic design; braces;
hysteretic
HUCKELBRIDGE, A. and CLOUGH, R. (1978) SEISMIC RESPONSE OF UPLIFTING BUILDING
FRAME. ASCE Journal of the Structural Division, ST8, page 12111229. *2*
This work shows the results of an experimental and analytical research
program on seismic response of uplifting building frames. In the
experimental tests a onethird scale model of a nine story steel moment
frame prototype with special detail of the footing to allow column
uplift on the shaking table was used. In the nonlinear analytical
procedure it was employed bilinear elastic foundation elements with zero
tensile capacity in the upward direction to accurate behaviour during
uplift motion of the frame. The results of the two analyses are
confronted for two cases: fixed and uplift foundation. In the end a
discussion of the results obtained are presented with some conclusions.
KEY WORDS:
foundations.
steel
structures; seismic
design;
frames;
uplift;
JAIN, A. and GOEL, S. (1980) SEISMIC RESPONSE OF ECCENTRICALLY BRACED FRAMES.
ASCE Journal of the Structural Division, ST4, page 843859. *3*
The purpose of this paper is to define the situation in which a bracing
member
can
be
treated
as
rigidconnected
nonbuckling
type,
rigidconnected buckling type, or pinconnected buckling type so that an
appropriate hysteresis model can be used in the seismic analysis of
eccentrically braced frames. The seismic response of three eccentrically
braced frames with different member proportions are also compared so as
to study the merits of different design philosophies used to proportion
the frame members.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; frames; buckling; eccentric
braces.
71
POPOV, E. (1980) SEISMIC BEHAVIOR OF STRUCTURAL SUBASSEMBLAGES, ASCE Journal
the Structural Division, ST7, page 14511470. *4*
of
In this paper some types of hysteretic loops which can be observed in
inelastic experiments with structural members and systems under cyclic
loads are presents. Attention is directed to structural steel and
reinforced concrete members and subassemblages. The distinction among
the" various ductility factors are emphasized. The relationship between
the response spectrum approach and conventional code design procedure is
also examined. This paper may serve as an aid for evaluating the
numerous hysteretic loops
which are becoming
available in
the
literature.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; hysteretic behaviour;
ductility; subassemblages.
POPOV, E. (1980) AN UPDATE ON ECCENTRIC
Journal, n.3, page 7071. *5*
SEISMIC BRACING. AISC
Engineering
This general paper presents some considerations on the seismic design of
diagonal braced frame systems with eccentric connections, with special
attention on the design of the shear link, i.e., the beam element
between the face of the column and the brace. The paper ends with some
remarks on the buckling of the web and the flanges in the shear link as
well as the future investigation to do in this type of eccentric braces.
KEY WORDS: steel
eccentric braces.
structures; seismic
design; connections; buckling;
POPOV, E. and ROEDER, C. (1978) DESIGN OF ECCENTRICALLY BRACED STEEL FRAME. AISC
Engineering Journal, n.3, page 7781. *6*
In this paper it is summarized the design requirements for diagonal
braced frame systems with eccentric connections. According to the
authors, for these type of frames, a'good design is achieved if plastic
hinges form at both ends of the eccentric beam element shortly after
shear yielding. Therefore, the eccentricity and plastic moment capacity
must be carefully balanced to assure the proper yield mechanism. Based
in these considerations a design example is solved.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; connections; ductility;
eccentric braces.
Some authors (1979) Discussion on "ECCENTRICALLY BRACED STEEL FRAMES FOR
EARTHQUAKES" by W. Roeder and E. Popov, ASCE Journal of the Structural
Division: ST2, page 462463; ST3, page 687689; STll, page 24712472.
*7*
In these discussions, some points have been analized, namely: the
comparison between the dynamic responses of the concentrically and
eccentrically braced structures; the relative savings in weight of steel
for braced structures, and the extent of damage and cost of repair of
the alternate bracing systems. In the STll the authors reply to the
questions and the discussion is closed.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; connections; ductility;
eccentric braces.
72
LIBBY, J. (1981) ECCENTRICALLY BRACED FRAMES CONSTRUCTION  A CASE HISTORY. AISC
Engineering Journal, n.4, page 149153. *8*
The principal purpose of this paper is to describe why eccentrically
braced frames were selected for the San Diego Bank of America building.
Some topics are analized, namely: 1) General requirements of the client;
2) Detail of the tower structure; 3) Rationale for using eccentrically
braced frames; 4) Structural details of the lateral load resisting
system; 5) Summary of quantities and cost. The paper ends with some
concluding remarks on the eccentrically braced frames.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; connections; ductility;
eccentric braces.
OSTRIKOV, G. and MAKSIMOV, Y. (1982) NEW CONSTRUCTIVE FORMS OF STEEL
RESISTANT FRAMES. Proc. of the VII European Conf. on
Engineering, Athens, page 341346. *9*
EARTHQUAKE
Earthquake
This general paper presents a design solution and experimental studies
data for energy absorbing capacity and durability of main beams with
corrugated webs as well as of ringtype, tubetype and beamtype energy
absorbers used in braced frames structures. Dynamic tests for a thirty
storeyed spatial framed structure model with ring type energy absorbed
are refered and economic efficiency of application of
suggested
solutions in earthquake resistent engineering are discussed.
KEY WORDS:
braces.
steel structures; seismic design; connections; ductility;
POPOV, E. and MALLEY, J. (1983) ECCENTRICALLY BRACED FRAMES. ASCE Manual on
BeamtoColumn Building Connections. January, Draft of the Chapter 11 of
the upcoming ASCE Manual on BeamtoColumn Building Connections under
preparation. (To be published), 59 pages. *10*
This report is divided in five parts. In the first, "Introduction",
general remarks on the analysis and characteristics of eccentrically
braced frames as well as the classification of active links are
presented. The second, "Experimental results on link behavior", is
concerned with the experimental setup for studying links and the
principal test conclusions. The third, "Design and detailing of active
link connections", provides guidance for connection design and details
in eccentrically braced frames. In the fourth, "Nonseismic application
of eccentric bracing", are refered other possibles application for
eccentric braces. The report ends with the projected research on
eccentrically breed frames.
KEY WORDS: steel structures;
eccentric braces.
seismic
design; connections; frames;
POPOV, E. (1982) SEISMIC STEEL FRAMING SYSTEMS FOR
Engineering Journal, n.3, page 141149. *11*
TALL BUILDINGS. AISC
This state of the art reviews the advantages and disadvantages of three
framing systems: 1) Moment resisting frames; 2) Concentrically braced
frames and, 3) Eccentrically braced frames. The choice of a particular
framing system and its functional requirements are discussed. According
to the author, in some applications eccentric bracing may be the most
economical, being given for this system some design guidelines.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; multystorey buildings;
frames; braces.
73
HJELMSTAD, K. and POPOV, E. (1983) SEISMIC BEHAVIOR OF ACTIVE BEAM LINKS IN
ECCENTRICALLY BRACED FRAMES. Report No. UCB/EERC  83/15, Earthquake
Engineering Research Center, University of California, 169 pages. *12*
This report has two parts. In the first part, the results of an
experimental study of the behaviour of active links are presented. The
study includes fifteen tests on full sized active links, which are
performed to determine the general response characteristics of this type
of element, especially as regards the buckling and postbuckling
behaviour. The second part of the report concerns the elastoplastic
analysis of eccentrically braced frames, with emphasis on accurately
modeling the active link elements. For this purpose two analytical
models are developed. An appendix dealing with the effects of warping
restraint in thin walled beams is presented.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; connections; hysteretic
behaviour; eccentric braces.
HJELMSTAD, K. and POPOV, E. (1984) CHARACTERISTICS OF ECCENTRICALLY BRACED
FRAMES. ASCE Journal of the Structural Engineering, vol. 110, n.2,
February, page 340353. *13*
In this paper, some of the fundamental characteristics of the elastic
and inelastic behaviour of eccentrically braced frames are examined by
studying some simple examples. The behaviour of the segment of the beam
(active link) in which is dissipated large amounts of input energy of a
severe seismic event is briefly analysed, followed by some remarks on
detailing this connection. The results provide a qualitative assessment
of the behaviour of the eccentrically braced frames for use in
seismically active regions.
KEY WORDS: steel
eccentric braces.
structures; seismic
design; connections; frames;
MALLEY, J. and POPOV, E. (1984) SHEAR LINKS IN ECCENTRICALLY BRACED FRAMES. ASCE
Journal of the Structural Engineering, vol. 110, n.9, September, page
22752295. *14*
The results of an experimental investigation of the effects of inelastic
loading history, connection details, and web stiffener details on active
link behaviour are presented. The test results are evaluated using
energy dissipation as the basic parameter. A design procedure for active
links which yield primarily in shear is outlined. This procedure
includes recommendations on structural configuration, member sizes, link
connection details, and web stiffener details. Suggested connection and
stiffener details are illustrated.
KEY WORDS: steel
eccentic braces.
structures; seismic
design; connections;
shear;
74
2.12  INTERACTION BETWEEN FRAMES AND BRACINGS
CLOUGH, E. and GHANAAT, Y. (1979) SEISMIC BEHAVIOR OF DIAGONAL STEEL WIND
BRACING. Proc. of the 2nd U. S. Nat. Conf. on Earthquake Engineering,
EERI, Standford University, page 313322. *1*
The purpose of this paper is to give experimental data on the seismic
performance of a building frame with diagonal wind bracing, and to
correlate these results with computer analyses. The test structure is a
threestory steel building frame, and the motions are applied by a
shaking table. Two test series with different bracings (rod bracing and
welded pipe X bracing) are performed. The experimental results are
compared with an analytical model giving a satisfactory correlation.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; braces; frames; ductility.
MAZZOLANI, F. and FAELLA, C. (1977) ANALYSIS OF HIGH STRENGTH STEEL BARS UNDER
REPEATED AXIAL LOADING. Universit" degli Studi di Napoli, Quaderni di
Teoria e Tecnica delle Strutture n.430, 6 pages. *2*
In this general paper, the analysis of preand postbuckling behaviour
of high strength steel bars under reapeated axial loading process is
investigated by means of an incremental simulation method. The material
is interpreted through an elastic strain hardening bilinear relationship
which considers the Bauschinger effect. Some numerical results are
shown, allowing to derive informations about the influence of various
parameters on the load carrying capacity.
KEY WORDS: steel
buckling.
structures;
seismic design; braces;
stability;
MAZZOLANI, F. and FAELLA, C. (1974) INFLUENZA DELL'EFFETTO BAUSCHINGER SUL
COMPORTAMENTO DI ASTE METALLICHE SOTTO CICLI DI ELONGAZIONI. Estratto
dalla rivista "La Ricerca", MaggioAgosto, page 5979. *3*
In this paper, the analysis of preand postbuckling behaviour of steel
bars with Bauschinger effect under reapeated axial deformation is
investigated by means of an incremental simulation method. The
Bauschinger effect is interpreted through the three classical models:
ideal, semideal and isotropical hardening. Some numerical results are
shown, allowing to derive informations about the influence of various
parameters particulary the increase of the lowering of the load carrying
capacity in postbuckling range, strictly depending upon the assumed
Bauschinger effect model.
i
KEY WORDS: steel
buckling.
structures;
seismic design; braces;
stability;
75
IGARASHI, S., INOUE, K., ASANO, M. and OGAWA, K. (1973) RESTORING FORCE
CHARACTERISTICS OF STEEL DIAGONAL BRACINGS. V World Conf. on Earthquake
Engineering, Rome, page 21622171. *4*
This work studies the loaddeformation relationship and the dynamic
response characteristics of the steel Xbracing structures
under
earthquake ground motions. An axial loaddeformation relationship of the
bracing member is suggested and employed to calculate the dynamic
response of a Xbraced structure with one degreeoffreedom. The
influence of the slenderness ratios on the dynamic response of Xbraced
structures is also analysed.
KEY WORDS: steel structures;
hysteretic behaviour.
seismic
design; braces;
stability;
MAISON, B. and POPOV, E. (1980) CYCLIC RESPONSE PREDICTION FOR BRACED STEEL
FRAMES. ASCE Journal of the Structural Division, ST7, page 14011416.
*5*
In this paper, some experimental results on the behaviour of halfscale
K braced building frames subjected to severe cyclic loading are
reviewed. This is followed by a presentation of the experimentally
determined hysteretic behaviour for the individual braces used in the
test frames. An improved procedure for a computer simulation of brace
behaviour is then described. Using this formulation, the overall
inelastic cyclic response of one of the test frames is compared with the
predicted results. The agreement between the experimental and analytical
results are good.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; braces; frames; hysteretic
behaviour.
POPOV, E. (1979) INELASTIC BEHAVIOR OF STEEL BRACES UNDER CYCLIC LOADING. Proc.
of the 2nd U. S. Nat. Conf. on Earthquake Engineering, EERI, Standford
University, page 923932. *6*
The paper presents and discusses the results of some experiments on
cyclically loaded members into the inelastic range. The speciments are
selected from standard structural steel shapes. Some speciments have
pinned ends and others are fixed at one end and pinned at the other. The
experiments are performed by slowly applying cyclic axial displacements.
Some experimental results are shown, allowing to derive informations
about the parameters that reduce the initial buckling capacity of the
strut.
KEY WORDS: steel structures;
hysteretic behaviour.
seismic
design; braces;
stability;
76
SHIBATA, M., NAKAMURA, T., YOSHIDA, N., MORINO, S., NONAKA, T. and WAKABAYASHI,
M. (1973) ELASTOPLASTIC BEHAVIOR OF STEEL BRACES UNDER REPEATED AXIAL
LOADING. Proc. of the V World Conf. on Earthquake Engineering, Rome,
page 845848. *7*
This state of the art
presents and discusses seme results
of
experimental and theoretical studies on the elastoplastic behaviour of
steel braces under repeated loading. The hysteretic behaviour of braces
is briefly commented to a better understand of its contribution to the
strength and rigidity of steel framed structures during the earthquakes.
KEY WORDS: steel structures;
hysteretic behaviour.
seismic
design; braces;
stability;
WAKABAYASHY, M., NAKAMURA, T. and YOSHIDA, N. (1977) EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON THE
ELASTICPLASTIC BEHAVIOR OF BRACED FRAMES UNDER REPEATED HORIZONTAL
LOADING. Bulletin of the Disaster Prevention Research Institute, Kyoto
University, vol.27, Part 3, n. 251, September, page 121154. *8*
An experimental
study is
conducted
to obtain
the
hysteretic
characteristics of the brace itself in a braced frame under repeated
loading. Braces with an Hshaped cross section are tested in a single or
a double bracing system. The effects of the slenderness ratio, the
buckling plane and the local buckling are investigated. The fundamental
properties of a
brace for
the formulation
of the
hysteretic
characteristics under repeated loading are extracted.
KEY WORDS: steel structures;
hysteretic behaviour.
seismic
design; braces;
stability;
WAKABAYASHY, M., NAKAMURA, T., SHIBATA, M., YOSHIDA, N. and MASUDA, H. (1977)
HYSTERETIC BEHAVIOR OF STEEL BRACES SUBJECTED TO HORIZONTAL LOAD DUE TO
EARTHQUAKES. Proc. of the VI World Conf. on Earthquake Engineering, New
Delhi, India, vol.3, page 31883194. *9*
This general paper discusses the elastoplastic hysteretic behaviour of
steel braces. In the first part, the experimental and theoretical
investigations by the authors, on the braces are briefly introduced. In
the second part, idealized postbuckling curve and hysteresis loops of
the brace members are formulated and proposed for the design use, based
on the parametric analysis of the experimental and theoretical results.
KEY WORDS: steel structures;
hysteretic behaviour.
seismic
design; braces;
stability;
77
WAKABAYASHY, M., NAKAMURA, T. and YOSHIDA, N. (1980) EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON THE
ELASTICPLASTIC BEHAVIOR OF BRACED FRAMES UNDER REPEATED HORIZONTAL
LOADING. Bulletin of the Disaster Prevention Research Institute, Kyoto
University, vol.29, Part 4, n. 266, March, page 143164. *10*
Experimental studies are conducted to investigate the
hysteretic
behaviour of one storyone bay braced steel frames whose braces are made
of builtup Hshapes and whose columns and beams are made of rolled
Hshapes. Hysteretic behaviour and change of load carrying capacity of
each component member of a frame, i.e., braces, columns and beams under
repeated horizontal load are examined individually, as well as the
hysteretic behaviour of a braced frame as a whole. Interaction behaviour
between the braces built in a frame and the components of the
surrounding frame is also discussed.
KEY WORDS: steel structures;
hysteretic behaviour.
seismic
design; braces;
stability;
TAKANASHI, K. and OHI, K. (1984) SHAKING TABLE TESTS ON 3STORY BRACED AND
UNBRACED STEEL FRAMES. Proc. of the VIII World Conf. on Earthquake
Engineering, San Francisco, 8 pages. *11*
A series of shaking table tests are performed on threestory moment
resistant steel frames and braced steel frames. Two sets of moment
resistant frames, each one is designed to have a different story shear
strength, are subjected to earthquake acceleration records to examine
the response shear forces and the damage concentration. Braced frames
with Xtype braces are also subjected to the acceleration records. The
results of response displacements and story shear forces are used to
verify the analytical procedure where the inelastic behaviour of the
structural elements are presumed.
KEY WORDS: steel
behaviour; frames.
structures;
seismic
design; braces;
hysteretic
78
2.13  STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS
ANDERSON, J. (1975) SEISMIC BEHAVIOUR OF KBRACED FRAMING SYSTEMS. ASCE Journal
of the Structural Division, STlO, page 21472159. *1*
The purpose of this work is to evaluate the inelastic seismic response
of three Kbrace framing systems to strong earthquake motions. The
framing systems considered in this work, are ten stories high with three
equal bays. In all cases, the primary Kbracing is located in the center
bay with the bracing members oriented so as to form a vee. The seismic
response of those frames is determined by a numerical analysis which is
briefly described. The comparison of the seismic response of the three
systems is evaluated in terms of the following parameters: 1) Absolute
maximum lateral displacement; 2) Maximum relative displacement; 3)
Ductility requirement; 4) Hysteretic behaviour; 5) Time history.
KEY WORDS: steel structures;
behaviour; ductility.
seismic design; braces;
hysteretic
BEA, R. (1979) EARTHQUAKE AND WAVE DESIGN CRITERIA FOR OFFSHORE PLATFORMS. ASCE
Journal of the Structural Division, ST2, page 401419. *2*
In this work, a process for development of earthquake design criteria
for offshore platforms is presented. The process considers: 1) Projected
environmental conditions; 2)
Platform system characteristics;
3)
Environmental loadings and
forces on the
platform systems; 4)
Uncertainties in projected
environmental conditions, forces, and
platform response; 5) Platform system performance, particulary inelastic
behaviuor during extreme overload conditions; 6) Reliability quantified
as the ability of the platform system to perform satisfactorily in the
full range of projected environmental conditions; 7) Decisions on what
constitutes acceptable performance and reliability.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic
calculation methods; planning.
design; offshore structures;
BEA, R., AUDIBERT, J. and AKKY, M. (1979) EARTHQUAKE RESPONSE OF OFFSHORE
PLATFORMS. ASCE Journal of the Structural Division, ST2, page 377400.
*3*
The purpose of this article is to give a better understanding of the key
aspects and factors that may determine the response and performance of
one class of offshore platforms, i.e., steel, tubular membered,
trussframed structures supported by tubular piles and conductors,
during intense ground motions. In appendix, a long reference list is
given in order to built a more complete understanding of the behaviour
of these stuctures.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic
calculation methods; structural systems.
design; offshore structures;
79
BERTERO, V., BRESLER, B., SELNA, L., CHOPRA, A. and KORETSKY, A. (1973) DESIGN
IMPLICATIONS OF DAMAGES OBSERVED IN THE OLIVE VIEW MEDICAL CENTER
BUILDINGS. Proc. of the V World Conf. on Earthquake Engineering, Rome,
page 5165. *4*
This article examines the possible causes and design implications of the
observed damages in the Olive View Medical Center produced by the San
Fernando erathquake. The buildings under study are of reinforced
concrete. Special attention is given on the aspects involved in the
seismic design, ground motion, material characteristics and structural
features of individual buildings. Some recommendations with a view to
minimize earthquake damage are presented.
KEY WORDS: steel
detailing.
structures; seismic
design; damages;
ductility;
BLUME, J. (1972) ANALYSIS OF DYNAMIC EARTHQUAKE RESPONSE. Proc. of the Int.
Conf. on Planning and Design of Tall Buildings, ASCEIABSE, Lehigh
University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, vol. lb, page 191211. *5*
This state of the art, is concerned with the dynamic response of tall
buildings under earthquake ground motions. It is divided in twelve
parts: 1) Introduction; 2) Types of tall buildings; 3) Behaviour of tall
buildings; 4) Idealized linear systems; 5) Idealized inelastic systems;
6) Analysis; 7) The reserve energy technique; 8) Vertical motions; 9)
Probabilistic analysis; 10) Equipment and appendages; 11) Long periods
of vibrations; 12) Need for future research and development.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic
multystorey buildings; planning.
design; structural
systems;
CARPENTER, L. and LU, LEWU (1973) REVERSED AND REPEATED LOAD TESTS OF FULL
SCALE STEEL FRAMES. AISI Bulletin n.24, April, 38 pages. *6*
In this bulletin is described the tests done in full sized single bay
steel frames subjected to constant gravity loads on the beams and
columns and cycles of reversed and repeated displacements.
Some
particular problems are investigated, namely: the effect of the local
buckling of the beam in the single story frame; the behaviour of the
columns in the inelastic range and of the beam to
beamcolumn
connections; the effect of the localization of the plastic hinges in the
behaviour of a two story frame. The bulletin describes the design of the
steel frames, the technique developed to test those frames, the
experimental behaviour of the frames and the observations drawn out from
the experimental results.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic
connections ; frames.
design; hysteretic behaviour;
80
CLOUGH, R. , REA, D., TANG, D. and WATABE, M. (1973) EARTHQUAKE SIMULATOR TEST OF
A THREE STORY STEEL FRAME STRUCTURE. Proc. of the V World Conf. on
Earthquake Engineering, Rome, page 308311. *7*
This paper shows the results of experimental tests conducted on a three
story steel frame structure using a square shaking table. In this
structure, the panel zones are left understrength so that yielding would
occur first in the panel zone. The intensity of the table motions are
increased progressively until a peak acceleration of 0.5 g to cause
yielding in the panel zones. The results described could be used in
analytical studies to determine the accurancy of the computer programs
for predicting the behaviour of steel frames under large vibrations
enough to cause inelastic behaviour.
KEY WORDS: steel
buildings; frames.
structures; seismic design; ductility;
lowrise
CHENG, F. and OSTER, K. (1976) ULTIMATE INSTABILITY OF EARTHQUAKE STRUCTURES.
ASCE Journal of the Structural Division, ST5, page 961972. *8*
An analytical technique for dynamic instability analysis of structural
systems subjected to time dependent axial force, lateral force or ground
motions is suggested. The general formulation is presented and applied
in two numerical examples. Special attention is paid to the effects of
2nd order, outlined that the vertical force may not always be critical
to dynamic response and can actually cause certain structures to have
smaller deflections than that of the associated systems
without
consideration of these effects.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic
hysteretic behaviour; stability.
design;
structural
systems;
CLOUGH, R., NIWA, A. and CLOUGH, D. (1979) EXPERIMENTAL SEISMIC STUDY OF
CYLINDRICAL TANKS. ASCE Journal of the Structural Division, STI2, page
25652590. *9*
In this work, it is summarized the most significant results of an
experimental investigation on the earthquake response behaviour of
flexible cylindrical liquidstorage tanks. The test procedures are
described, followed by a short summary of the observations made in
testing the 3.70m x 1.80m tank. The results obtained with the 2.40m x
4.60m tank are considered more thoroughly, including the principal
findings of a statictest program carried out with this speciment.
Finally, comparisons are made between the experimental observations and
quantities predicted by standard design procedures, and conclusions are
drawn concerning the adequacy of these design methods.
KEY WORDS: steel
systems; vessels.
structures; seismic design; stability;
structural
81
EDISHERASHVTLI, N. and SHAISHMELASHVILI, V. (1973) EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF
DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF MULTYSTOREY STEEL FRAME BUILDING LARGESCALE
MODELS WITH DIFFERENT VERTICAL BRACINGS. Proc. of the V World Conf. on
Earthquake Engineering, Rome, page 299303. *10*
Herein are presented results of experimental studies of large scale
models (1/6 of natural size) of steel carcass buildings with frame and
frame bracing systems. The carcass models are tested for: free, forced
(resonance) vibrations and static very intensive horizontal loads
permitting to cause destruction
of model constructions.
Special
attention is paid to variation of vibration frequencies and to the
damping decrement of models when plastic deformations are developed in
them.
KEY WORDS:
steel
structures; seismic
multystorey buildings.
design;
braces;
frames;
FARDIS, M., CORNELL, C. and MEYER, J. (1979) ACCIDENT AND SEISMIC CONTAINMENT
RELIABILITY. ASCE Journal of the Structural Division, STI, page 6783.
*11*
An integrated reliability study of a containment vessel of a nuclear
power plant is presented. The study focuses'on events and features of
the behaviour that may prohibit the fulfillment of the containment
safety role.
It is
shown how
the probabilistically
described
safetysignificant damage that is caused by accidents or earthquakes can
be coupled with a probablistic description of these events to yield
reliability estimates for the entire plant lifetime. The superposition
of the effects of those events when they act simultaneously or
separately is also analysed.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; structural safety; damages;
vessels.
GOEL, S. and HANSON, R. (1973)
SEISMIC BEHAVIOR OF MULTISTORY BRACED STEEL
FRAMES. Proc. of the V World Conf. on Earthquake Engineering, Rome, page
29342943. *12*
This paper presents and discusses the results of a numerical study on
the influence of the method of design and different arrangements of the
bracing members (fully braced, bottom story open, alternate stories open
and completely unbraced) in the seismic response of multistory steel
frames. The dynamic response is computed by assuming an elastoplastic
type hysteresis behaviour in tension only for the diagonal bracing
members, in bending for the girders, and the 2nd order effects for the
columns. In the end, some curves for different response parameters are
shown.
KEY WORDS: steel
braces; ductility.
structures; seismic
design; calculation methods;
82
HUCKELBRIDGE, A. and CLOUGH, R. (1978) SEISMIC RESPONSE OF UPLIFTING BUILDING
FRAME. ASCE Journal of the Structural Division, ST8, page 12111229 *13*
This work shows the results of an experimental and analytical research
program on seismic response of uplifting building frames. In the
experimental tests a onethird scale model of a nine story steel moment
frame prototype with special detail of the footing to allow column
uplift on the shaking table was used. In the nonlinear analytical
procedure it was employed bilinear elastic foundation elements with zero
tensile capacity in the upward direction to accurate behaviour during
uplift motion of the frame. The results of the two analyses are compared
for two cases: fixed and uplift foundation. In the end, a discussion of
the results obtained are presented with some conclusions.
KEY WORDS:
foundations.
steel
structures; seismic
design;
frames;
uplift;
JAIN, A. and GOEL, S. (1980) SEISMIC RESPONSE OF ECCENTRICALLY BRACED FRAMES.
ASCE Journal of the Structural Division, ST4, page 843859. *14*
The purpose of this paper is to define the situation in which a bracing
member
can
be
treated
as
rigidconnected
nonbuckling
type,
rigidconnected buckling type, or pinconnected buckling type so that an
appropriate hysteresis model can be used in the seismic analysis of
eccentrically braced frames. The seismic response of three eccentrically
braced frames with different member proportions are also compared so as
to study the merits of different design philosophies used to proportion
the frame members.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; frames; buckling; eccentric
braces.
KATO, B., AKIYAMA, H., SUZUKI, H. and FUKAZAWA, Y. (1973) DYNAMIC COLLAPSE TESTS
OF STEEL STRUCTURAL MODELS. Proc. of the V World Conf. on Earthquake
Engineering, Rome, page 14571460. *15*
This general article presents the results of a experimental study on the
dynamic behaviour and strength of beamcolumns with Hshaped cross
section. The beamcolumns are fixed at both ends and are tested on a
shaking table which can generate simulated earthquake motions. The
results of the experimental tests are compared with those of the
numerical analysis which take into account the strainhardening of the
steel and the 2nd order effects.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic
hysteretic behaviour.
design; columns;
stability;
KHAN, A., LEE, P., MEHTA, D. and WANG, G. (1978) ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF SEISMIC
CATAGORY I THIN SHEET STRUCTURES. ENGINEERING DESIGN FOR EARTHQUAKE
ENVIRONMENTS, I Mech E CONFERENCE PUBLICATIONS 197812, London, page
111118. *16*
The design criteria for seismic Category I thin sheet structures and
restraints in nuclear power plants is presented in this paper.
Structural design considerations, loads, load combinations, design
allowables and analytical methods for design and analysis of such
structures and its restraints are also presented. The analytical methods
presented include procedures for analysis of this thin structures due to
internal negative pressure, seismic and gravity loads.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; structural safety; vessels;
design criteria.
83KONNO, T. and KIMURA, E. (1973) EARTHQUAKE EFFECTS ON STEEL TOWER STRUCTURES
ATOP BUILDINGS. Proc. of the V World Conf. on Earthquake Engineering,
Rone, page 184194. *17*
This article presents the results of the full scale measurements and
earthquake response analysis carried out on some steel towers for
microwave antennes in Japan, as well as the results of vibration tests
performed by using steel tower and building models. It is outlined that
the steel tower atop building may be affected by the vibrational
characteristics of the building and consequently generate high seismic
forces at the time of a strong earthquake since the damping of tower is
very small. Finally, some remarks on the seismic forces acting on the
steel towers are presented.
KEY WORDS: steel structures;
multystorey buildings.
seismic
design; towers;
vibration;
KOSTEM, C. and HECKMAN, D. (1979) EARTHQUAKE RESPONSE OF THREE DIMENSIONAL STEEL
FRAMES STIFFENED BY OPEN TUBULAR CONCRETE SHEAR WALLS. Proc. of the 2nd
U. S. Nat. Conf. on Earthquake Engineering, EERI, Standford University,
page 969977. *18*
This work shows the results of a numerical study on the dynamic
behaviour of frameshear wall systems. An open tubular concrete shear
wall (Ushaped) extending through the height of the building is
considered. Special attention is paid to the effect of the changes in
the dimentions (length and thickness) of the open tubular concrete shear
wall in the fundamental frequencies of this structural system.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; multystorey buildings;
shear; frequency.
LORD, J. (1972) INELASTIC DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF TALL BUILDINGS. Proc. of the Int.
Conf. on Planning and Design of Tall Buildings, ASCEIABSE, Lehigh
University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, vol. lb, page 291297. *19*
In this general article, it is 'presented seme energy and drift
considerations involved in determining the inelastic dynamic behaviour
of tall buildings. The energy considerations are related with the
stability of the structure and the distribution of energy dissipation
during an earthquake event, while drift considerations are refered to
the drift control and the inelastic drift predictions.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; multystorey buildings;
stability; drift.
MURAKAMI, M., TAMURA, R., TANAKA, Y., GAMI, K., OSAWA, Y. and UMEMURA, H. (1973)
EARTHQUAKE RESISTANCE OF A STEEL FRAME APARTMENT HOUSE WITH PRECAST
CONCRETE PANEL. Proc. of the V World Conf. on Earthquake Engineering,
Rome, page 26882697. *20*
The dynamic behaviour of a steel frame apartment house with precast
concrete wall panels and its surrounding soil during actual earthquakes
is investigated in this work. Sixteen sets of the electromagnetic
seismometers are installed to measure the earthquake acceleration
records under, around and inside the building. With those records it is
possible to establish an appropriate dynamic model for the soilbuilding
system to study the dynamic behaviour of this kind of building under
severe earthquake exitations. Seme results and concluding remarks are
presented in the end.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; multystorey buildings;
vibration; frames.
84
OKADA, H., TAKEDA, T., YOSHIOKA, K., OMOTE, Y. and NAKAGAWA, K. (1973)
EXPERIMENTAL AND RESEARCH ON THE RESPONSE OF STEEL MODEL STRUCTURES
SUBJECTED TO IMPACT HORIZONTAL LOADING AND TO SIMULATED EARTHQUAKES.
Proc. of the V World Conf. on Earthquake Engineering, Rome, page
27212730. *21*
The behaviour of steel frames under impulsive loading and earthquake
motions are reported in this article. It is divided in two parts: in the
first part, experimental results of onebay onestoried steel portal
frames (four speciments) under impact loading at their base with the use
of a shock table are reported and compared with the elastoplastic
analysis. In the second part, experimental results of a twobay
threestoried portal frame under simulated earthquake motion using a
vibration table are presented together with the theoretical analysis.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; impact; vibration; frames.
OSAWA, Y. (1972) OBSERVATION OF STRUCTURAL BEHAVIOR. Proc. of the Int. Conf. on
Planning and Design of Tall Buildings, ASCEIABSE, Lehigh University,
Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, vol. lb, page 213227. *22*
This state of the art summarizes briefly the available methods to
observe or to check the
(1) rigidity, strength and
hysteresis
characteristics of structures and structural components against lateral
forces and (2) the natural periods and damping characteristics of
buildings. The items are: 1) Static laboratory studies; 2) Dynamic
laboratory studies; 3) Static field studies; 4) Dynamic field studies.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; calculation methods;
structural systems; earthquakes.
POPOV, E. (1980) SEISMIC BEHAVIOR OF STRUCTURAL SUBASSEMBLAGES, ASCE Journal
the Structural Division, ST7, page 14511470. *23*
of
In this paper, some types of hysteretic loops which can be observed in
inelastic experiments with structural members and systems under cyclic
loads are presented. Attention is directed to structural steel and
reinforced concrete members and subassemblages. The distinction among
the various ductility factors are emphasized. The relationship between
the response spectrum approach and conventional code design procedure is
also examined. This paper may serve as an aid for evaluating the
numerous hysteretic loops
which are becoming
available in the
literature.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; hysteretic behaviour;
ductility; subassemblages.
TANG,D. and CLOUGH, R. (1979) SHAKING TABLE EARTHQUAKE RESPONSE OF STEEL FRAME.
ASCE Journal of the Structural Division, STI, page 221243. *24*
This paper presents the results of an experimental and analytical
investigation on the seismic behaviour of a large scale steel structure.
The test structure consists of two identical 5.30m high three story
frames having a bay width of 3.70m and to excite the structure a shaking
table motion is used. After a brief account of the planning of the test
structure and test program the most significant results are examined.
The description of suitable analytical models for computing the seismic
behaviour of the structure, the effects of various model parameters and
the experimental results are presented in the last part.
KEY WORDS: steel structures;
connections.
seismic design; ductility;
frames;
85
TANSIRIKONGKOL, V. and PECKNOLD, D. (1979) EQUIVALENT LINEAR SDF RESPONSE TO
EARTHQUAKES. ASCE Journal of the Structural Division, STI2, page
25292545. *25*
This paper presents seme remarks on the available numerical information
on the accuracy of the equivalent linear approach for earthquake
response of histeretic single degreeoffreedom (SDF) systems. The
qualitative behaviour of bilinear SDF systems is presented together with
the equivalent linear system. Expressions for linear stiffness and
damping in terms of maximum earthquake response are developed. Some
numerical results, in order to investigate the influence of some
parameters (earthquake imput, system yield level, elastic natural
frequency, bilinear hardening and viscous damping) on the accurancy of
response prediction, are presented and discussed in the end.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic
methods; structural systems.
design; earthquakes; calculation
UCHIDA, N., AOYAGI, T., KAWAMURA, M. and NAKAGAWA, K. (1973) VIBRATION TEST OF
STEEL FRAME HAVING PRECAST CONCRETE PANELS. Proc. of the V World Conf.
on Earthquake Engineering, Rome, page 11671176. *26*
In this work are reported the tests conducted in a twostorey, twobay
steel frame model having fullsize precast concrete panels in order to
obtaining some basic data on the effects of precast concrete panels on
the vibration characteristics of the highrise building, and
the
behaviour of the panel fastening system. The tests conducted are: 1)
Forced vibration test; 2) Free vibration test; 3) Dynamic load test.
Special attention is paid to the modes of deflection of precast 'concrete
panels and slabs.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; panels; vibration; frames.
WERNER, S., LEE, L., WONG, H. and TRIFUNAC, M. (1979) STRUCTURAL RESPONSE TO
TRAVELING SEISMIC WAVES. ASCE Journal of the Structural Division, STI2,
page 25472563. *27*
The influence of the traveling seismic waves in the earthquake response
of structures is analysed in this paper. It consists of two main part:
The first part briefly summarizes a new methodology for analyzing the
threedimensional dynamic response of soilstructure systems subjected
to traveling seismic waves. The second, and principal part of the paper,
describes an example application of the methodology to a singlespan
bridge subjected to incident plane SHwaves. The purpose of this
application is to demonstrate basic phenomena associated with the
threedimensional vibrations induced in bridgetype structures
by
traveling seismic waves.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; earthquakes; vibration;
structural systems.
86
WAKABAYASHI, M. (1973) STUDIES ON DAMPING AND ENERGY ABSORPTION OF STRUCTURES.
IABSE, Symposium on Resistance and Ultimate Deformability of Structures
Acted on by Well Defined Repeated Loads, Lisboa, page 2746. *28*
The significance of damping and energy absorption of structures and
structural elements under earthquake exitation is first described, as
veil as the details of these phenomena in relation to the equivalent
viscous damping coefficient. Some mathematical models representing the
hysteretic behaviour of materials, members, connections and frames are
shown. Finally, seme important problems are indicated for the symposium
discussions.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic
damping; connections.
design; hysteretic behaviour;
WAKABAYASHI, M. (1977) BEHAVIOR OF SYSTEMS. Proc. of the VI World Conf. on
Earthquake Engineering, New Delhi, India, January, vol.1, page 6575.
*29*
This paper discusses the general performances of some structural systems
under earthquake events. The systems discussed are: 1) Reinforced and
prestressed concrete systems; 2) Steel systems; 3) Mixed steel and
concrete systems; 4) Masonry systems. The general performances of these
systems are refered to its hysteretic behaviour, energy dissipation
capacity and ductility. Some design problems with referring to the
research work done in the past are also presented.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; hysteretic behaviour;
structural systems; ductility.
YAMADA, M. (1972) EFFECT OF CYCLIC LOADING ON BUILDINGS. Proc. of the Int. Conf.
on Planning and Design of Tall Buildings, ASCEIABSE, Lehigh University,
Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, vol. II, page 725739. *30*
In this article are presented seme recomendations that provide fatigue
and fracture criteria for cyclic loading. These recommendations are
refered to: 1) Loading related to fatigue and fracture of tall steel
buildings; 2) Low cycle fatigue characteristics of structural steels; 3)
Low cycle fatigue fracture limits of structural members as
the
evaluation basis or design criteria for aseismic capacity.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; fatigue; fracture; design
criteria.
87 
MAZZOLAMI, F. and RAMASCO, R. (1971) STATICA DEI SISTEMI INTELAIATI SPAZIALI CON
IRRIGIDIMENTI DI FORMA QUALSIASI. Estratto dal Giornale del Genio
Civile, fase. 3, Marzo, page 196217. *32*
The analysis of space structures for tall buildings under later forces
is emphasized in this paper. A general calculation method based on
matrix algebra for space structures with frames and walls variously
shaped under lateral forces is presented. This procedure is developed
through two stages: the first studies the behaviour of each single plane
structure; the second one calculates the whole space structure. The
torsional behaviour of walls with thin open crosssection is also
examined taking into account the warping effect. Finally, seme numerical
applications of this procedure are shown.
KEY WORDS: steel structures;
multystorey buildings.
seismic
design;
torsion;
frames;
MAZZOLNI, F. and RAMASCO, R. (1973) BEHAVIOR OF STRUCTURES UNDER LOADS CAUSING
TORSION by Jacobus Wynhoven and Peter Adams (July, 1972), (Discussion),
ASCE Journal of the Structural Division, ST8, page 17881791. *33*
The behaviour of multistory framed structures under loads causing
torsion is briefly discussed in this article. It is outlined that the
correct analysis of the ultimate load carrying capacity of multistory
structures with reinforced concrete channel walls must take warping
effect into account especially when the ultimate load produces large
torsional rotations of floors.
KEY WORDS: steel
structures; seismic
multystorey buildings.
design; torsion;
warping;
89
C H A P T E R
THE EXPERIMENTAL ASSESSEMENT OF SEISMIC STRENGTH AND DUCTILITY
OF
STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS AND CONNECTIONS
91
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
3.1 INTRODUCTION
92
3.2  THE ECCS RECOMMENDED TESTING PROCEDURE FOR ASSESSING THE
BEHAVIOUR OF STRUCTURAL STEEL ELEMENTS UNDER SYCLIC LOADS ...
99
3.2.1  INTRODUCTION
102
3.2.2  ASPECTS OF THE TESTING PROCEDURE FOR ASSESSING
THE BEHAVIOUR OF STRUCTURAL STEEL ELEMENTS
103
3.2.3  COMPLETE TESTING PROCEDURE
103
3.2.4  SHORT TESTING PROCEDURE
Ill
3.2.5  END OF TEST
112
3.2.6  COMBINATION OF LOADS
113
3.2.7  COMMENTARY ON POSSIBLE DEFINITIONS OF Fy
113
3.3  TESTS FOLLOWING THE ECCS RECOMMENDATIONS
115
3.3.1  BEHAVIOUR OF BRACINGS
11.7
3.3.2  BEHAVIOUR OF BEAMTOCOLUMNS CONNECTIONS
124
3.4  VALIDITY OF THE ECCS RECOMMENDATIONS
130
3.5  CONSIDERATIONS ON b/t RATIOS
153
3.6 REFERENCES
159
92
3.1  INTRODUCTION
Everyone
agrees
on
the necessity
to
define
interpretation of tests, l, 2, 3, but up
unique
procedure and
till now insufficient work has
been done in this field.
The main reason for this, is the amount of difficult questions that arise on
many aspects of the problem: definition of the investigation method to predict
the seismic behaviour of
a structure; definition of
the loading conditions
to
apply on a structural element or even a complete structure, in order to simulate
the earthquake
event; definition
of the main parameters
to characterize
the
structural behaviour.
The task in an experimental investigation are first to model as accurately as
possible the physical domain of
the problem and then to
excite the model in a
meaningful way. For this purpose, various methods of investigation have been or
are used to predict the seismic behaviour of a structure 141. Among them, it is
possible to consider:
a) The use of the shaking tables to simulate earthquakes for to test
structures
or moderatescale model of these
structures. This certainly comes closer to
actual reality, but requires a
sophisticated equipment which implies high
capital and running costs.
b) The use
of a
static equipment
5, 6, 7 to
impress a
slowlyvarying
alternate loading to the structure or moderatescale model. The capital
93
involved
is
lesser
than
the previous
one, but
the
testing
procedure
nevertheless involves high running costs.
c) The application of
a quasistatic
cyclic loading
8, 9, 10, ll to
individual members or structural subassemblages to collect information in the
most critical zones
extremely costly
different
of the
equipment
solutions
structure. This procedure
and it
regarding
does not
is particulary suitable
a
particular
necessitate
for
structural
comparing
member
or
12, 13, l4, 15 to define
the
subassemblage.
d) The use of
suitable numerical models
structure. It is certainly the most
inexpensive, but has the risk of
giving
unrealistic results.
e) The interaction between the actual
structure and
the numerical
"pseudodynamic" 16,
testing of a member or
analysis. This
17, is still
even a part of
interesting approach
under
investigation and
known
the
a
as
small
quantities of results available are insufficient to its appreciation.
Summing everything up, it seems
inpress cyclic loadings
part of
the
that the use of a testing apparatus able
(or displacements) slowly
structure provides
an attractive
in time to
way and
test an
avoid
to
isolate
thecnical
and
economical difficulties.
Some types of loading conditions have been or are used in practice. Beside of
the monotonicaily increasing load of the static test, loads can, for instance be
1X81 :
94
 cyclic with no force reversal;
 cyclic with force reversal, but no deformation reversal;
 cyclic with partial deformations reversals;
 cyclic with full deformation reversals;
 random cyclic;
 shakedown.
As
the real loading
history in future earthquakes
is unknown, the
loading
history to be used in tests should not be linked with that "imput" aspect of the
problem, but
rather
in a way
to make
behaviour best visible. Defining
the peculiarities of
an appropriate
link between
the
structural
the
structural
response to a test and to a peculiar earthquake is another problem.
Displacement increase should be preferred to load increase, for the following
practical reasons:
The
resistance of
a structural
element may
decrease after a few cycles
because of cracking or instability. Load increase is then surely inappropriate,
because the test cannot be controlled and may bring a sudden and complete break
on the tension side while the compression side would still be interesting
(or
reverse). This interest canes from the fact that the element is only a part of
the structure and its
own fall of resistance
in tension (or compression) does
not necessarily means an important fall in resistance for the whole structure.
The way to
impose the cyclic
displacements to the
defined. Displacements can be increased at each
structure must also be
cycle or after a set of
with equal maximum displacement. Tests performed on concrete elements
to either three or ten load
cycles
subjected
reversals at each displacement level indicate that
95 
increasing the
number of
reversals above
three does not alter
the response
substantially l9. So, as suggested by Higashi 19 the number of cycles at
an
equal displacement should not be less then three, but need not, in general, more
then three.
From the above considerations, it is reasonable to expect that the test could
have the following characteristics:
 impose displacements and measure loads;
 three or more complete cycles at each considered displacement level;
 cycles with full or partial reversal.
To interpret the tests, it is advantageous the use of some parameters able to
characterize
the
structural
behaviour
of
substructures
or
even
complete
structures.
Popov 1201
suggests the
use of
the "displacement
ductility factor" as
parameter able to provide an index for overall behaviour of a structure, i.e. of
a structure's ability to safety
deform inelastically beyond the elastic range.
This displacement ductility factor,u
, is the ratio of the ultimate or maximum
o
horizontal deflection
deflection 6
6m
of a
structure at
selected story, to the
at the same point at the yield, i.e. :
(1
>
h " TT
In this definition of ductility as a parameter to be deduced from tests, the
debate is mainly on the definition of the 5
and
6m
96
Popov
1201 suggests that we
can call
6y
the beginning of
significant
deviation from linearly elastic behaviour of the forcedisplacement relationship
of the whole
system to define
defining the value of
6,
6y
. Still another
, consists of finding
possible approach
the intersection
of
for
the
asymptotes to the elastic and plastic ranges.
For the definition of the maximum horizontal deflection
in on the origin to be considered: the original
intersection between the "" axis and the
, the debate
origin of displacement or
the
"F  6" curve in a particular cycle.
(Figure 3.1)
Figure 3.1
97
In this case, we could
expect two definitions of ductility factors: one
associated with the total excursion of displacement for one half cycle, and
other
the
6" associated with the part of the excursion of displacement included in
the positive part of the "F  6 " diagram.
These definitions are not
energy content
consider the
of
the
fully satisfactory because they partly ignore
earthquake
two diagrams
of the
resistance problem.
Figure
3.2, they
If
for
give the
the
instance, we
same ductility
factor, though the energy absorbed in the (a) cycle is roughly a half of the (b)
one.
~7
/Vi,
a)
b)
Figure 3.2
"
/ntycle
98
So, it will be advantageous
to define another parameter
able to take into
account the area involved by one cycle or a group of cycles.
The stability of a structure is directly connected with the strength capacity
of their
stiffening
hysteretic loop
elements. An
in which
for a
decreasing resistance. The
unstable
increasing in
stability of
assured if all stiffening elements are
part of the hysteretic
can offer a
of a
is characterized
the displacement
a structure must
by
correspond
certainly cannot be
running altogether on such a decreasing
loop. However, when combined
really available
account. A definition
element
resistance, of which
parameter able
with stable elements they
it is
interesting to take
to characterize
the resistance or
rigidity of the structure or substructure will be also important.
From the analysis
developed hereabove, we
parameters to characterize the
structural behaviour may be
ductility, energy absortion and strength
even the complete structure.
could expect
that the main
able to define the
capacity of the structural element or
99 
3.2  THE ECCS RECOMMENDED TESTING
PROCEDURE FOR
ASSESSING THE BEHAVIOUR
OF
STRUCTURAL STEEL ELEMENTS UNDER CYCLIC LOADS
Preliminary remark
In the following definitions, the word load or force is to be taken in
general meaning. It may be a classical
tensile force load. It may be a
bending
moment, if bending is the normal work of the structural element. It also may
shear. Accordingly the word displacement is
to be taken as an elongation
be
for
tensile force, rotation X for bending moment, rotation y for shear.
Symbols
A.
: area of the positive force range half cycle in the
loaddisplacement
diagram.
A.
: same, negative.
: force.
F.
: positive force corresponding to displacement e. in cycle i.
F.
: same, negative.
: yield load in positive force range.
: same, negative.
100
: absolute value of the displacement.
v^
: absolute value of the maximum positive displacement in the i
v.
: same, negative.
: absolute value of the displacement defined as F + /tga
: same, negative.
Av.
: absolute value
range in the i
of the maximum displacement
in the positive
force
cycle.
Av.
: same, negative.
: index of the number of achieved cycles in a test.
tga .
: slope of
the tangent to the (F  v) curve when F
negative to positive at the i
tga .
: same, reversed in sign.
tga
: slope of the
cycle.
changes
from
cycle.
tangent at the origin of the (F  v)
curve, when
increases in positive side.
tga
: same, negative.
: general symbol for partial ductility, see next line.
^oi
M .
P a r t i a l ductility at the i
: same, negative.
cycle for the positive displacements.
101 
\i .
: full ductility, a t t h e i
cycle for t h e positive displacements.
a ."
: full ductility, a t t h e i
cycle for t h e negative displacements.
: resistance ratio, a t t h e i
cycle, f o r t h e positive force range.
: resistance ratio, at the i
cycle, for the negative force range.
E(H )
: relative resistance function.
_*
e
iu .) : resistance drop ratio on the F positive side at the i
cycle.
(u .) : same, negative.
e ( )
o
: resistance drop function,
: rigidity ratio on the positive side of force at the i
: same, negative.
f(u )
' o
: relative rigidity function.
ii.
: full ductility ratio on the positive side of force at the i
(/.
: same, negative.
ib (ii )
"o
: full ductility function.
n .
: absorbed energy ratio o n t h e positive side o f force a t t h e i
r\.
: same, negative.
r ( J. )
: relative absorbed energy function.
cycle.
cycle.
cycle.
102
3.2.1  INTRODUCTION
The
following testing procedure is intended
as a reference, to produce an
adequate and, as much as possible, an unified way to carry out tests in order to
characterize the structural behaviour of structural components, substructures or
even complete structures.
The necessity of
unquestionable, because
testing
the real
procedure and of
cyclic behaviour
having
test results
of structural
is
element may
differ by far from the ideal reference of the perfect elastoplastic behaviour.
Testing may be necessary in order to prove the adequacy of a substructure or
a structural detail to
fulfill the demande of
local ductility as specified
by
seismic recommendations.
The testing procedure explained here consists in defining the way to apply on
J
a structural element to be tested the part of the testing action corresponding
to seismic action.
The testing procedure should
in particular help to verify the common design
relation between a pseudostatic horizontal
force and 'a specified ductility or
displacement given by Codes and Recommendations, such as, for instance the ECCS
Recommendations for Steel Structures in Seismic Zones.
The procedure has been
element in that peculiar
chosen to set
context. The
forward the
characteristics of
complete definition
the
of the test also
103
requires datas on the
combination of seismic and
not seismic loads. Paragraph
3.2.6 is devoted to that aspect of the definition of the testing procedure.
3.2.2.  ASPECTS OF
THE TESTING
PROCEDURE FOR
ASSESSING THE
BEHAVIOUR
OF
STRUCTURAL STEEL ELEMENTS
The testing
procedure may
displacement increase tests
include
or obviate them.
preliminary
classical
monotonie
In the first case, it is called
complete testing procedure (Paragraph 3.2.3). In the opposite case, it is called
short testing procedure (Paragraph
3.2.4).
The possibilities
for restricted
reversal tests are mentioned at paragraph 3.2.6.
The procedure can be applied to plane 3 dimensional tests. The possibility of
having various law for
increasing various forces in various directions is not
considered in this reference procedure.
3.2.3  COMPLETE TESTING PROCEDURE
Introductory remark
Each of the three following tests, will be performed on a different specimen.
3.2.3.1  First test
The first test performed on the structural element is a classical
displacement increase test.
monotonie
104
The increases are on the tension range defined as positive. From the recorded
Fv curve, the
conventional limit of
elastic range F
and the
corresponding
displacement v + may be deduced as follows (Figure 3.3)
Figure 3.3
 evaluate the tangent at the
origine of
the Fv
curve; it gives a
modulus E. = tga ;
^
y
 locate the tangent that has a slope of E. /10;
 the intersection of the two tangents defines the level of F
 v
is the displacement corresponding tothat intersection.
tangent
105
The above definition is
of F
nay be
used, if
the general definition of F
properly justified
commentary on possible definitions of F
. Any other
by design or testing
definition
context.
is given at paragraph 3.2.7.
3.3.3.2  Second test
The
second test also is a
but it is performed
classical monotonie displacement increase test,
on the compression (negative) range. The procedure is
same as in the first test. F
Y
and v
the
are deduced.
Y
3.2.3.3  Third test
The third test is a cyclic test with increase of displacement, which has the
following characteristics:
 one cycle in the v
/4, v
/4 interval;
 one cycle in the 2v / 4 , 2v
/4 interval;
 one cycle in the 3v / 4 , 3v /4 interval;
 one cycle in the v
,v
 three cycles in the 2v
interval;
, 2v
 three cycles in the (2 + 2n) v
interval;
, (2 + 2n) v
interval (n = 1,2,...).
More cycles or more intervals may be use if necessary.
3.2.3.4  Parameters of interpretation for one cycle
The absolute values of
the following quantities are deduced from the
diagram after each cycle (Figure 3.4) in the range of v > v .
Fv
106
Figure 3.4
 the extremes of displacement v.
and v. ;
 the values
and F.
of
displacement v.
the
force F.
corresponding
to
the extremes of
and v. ;
 the extremes of displacement in the positive and negative range of the applied
forces, v.
and AV. ;
 the tangent modulus
corresponding to the change of the
load, tg a . and tg a . ;
sign of the
applied
107
the areas A.
and A.
of the positive and negative half cycles (Figure 3.5)
Figure 3.5
The
following quantities, considered as
computed :
characterizing paramaters are then
108
Partial Ductility* :
iio i. = v. l / ' vy
ur o i. = v.
/v
l ' y
Comment  this parameter represents the ratio between the absolute value of the
maximum positive (or negative) displacement in the i
cycle, and the
absolute value
of the
displacement defined
as F /tg
(or
F /tg Q
). So much high is this ratio, so much greater is the
structure^capacity to absorb large deformations out the elastic range.
Full Ductility :
r
= Av.
/ v
.
"i
= Av.
/ v
l ' y
Comment  this parameter represents the ratio between the absolute value of the
maximum displacement in the positive force range (or negative) in the
i
cycle, and the absolute value of the displacement in elastic range
defined as F /tg a
(or F /tga
). So much high is this ratio, so
much greater is the structure capacity to absorb large deformations
out the elastic range.
Full Ductility ratios :
i>.
= Av.
/ (v. + (v.~  v ~) )
<
." = Av." / (v." + (v.+  v + ) )
Tl
i
i '
i
i
y
Comment  this parameter represents the ratio between the absolute value of the
maximum displacement in the positive force range (or negative) in the
i
cycle, and the global displacement that one would have in a
perfect elastoplastic behaviour. It is a measure of the deterioration
of the cycle. So much high is this ratio, so much greater is the
deterioration of the structure due for instance: loss of stiffness,
slip, etc.
Resistance ratios :
e.
i
= F.
/ F
l ' y
e." = F." / F ~
i
Comment  this parameter represents the ratio.between the force corresponding to
the maximum displacement in the i
cycle, and the yield force that
one would have in a perfect elastoplastic behaviour. Depending on the
definition of the yield force, this ratio could give values >1 .
109
Rigidity ratios :
= tg a.
Si"
= tga
/ tg a
i~ /
tgQ
y~
Comment  this parameter is the ratio between the rigidity of the structure in
" the i
cycle, and the initial rigidity. A little value of this ratio
( 1 ) indicates a large loss of rigidity of the structure. This can
be caused by instability phenomena, Bauschinger effect exhibited by
the steel subjected to inelastic load reversals or the residual
curvature during previous cycles.
Absorbed Energy ratios :
"
n.
'i
tl .
'i
= A . /(v. + v.  v
v ) * F
i
i
i
y
y
y
= A.
i
/ (v. + v.
i
i
 v
y
 v
y
)* F
y
Comment  this parameter represents the ratio between the energy absorbed by the
structure in a real cycle, and the energy absorbed in perfect
elastoplastic behaviour with the same maximum displacements.
Comment  all these parameters are defined as the ratio between the value find
in the cyclic testing procedure and,that one that would have in a
reference test to which is assumed a perfect elastoplastic behaviour.
The behaviour of the real structure is so much better as its behaviour
is near of the perfect elastoplastic behaviour, that is, values of
these parameters near 1. A little value of these parameters ( 1 )
can be assumed as an index of the end of the test, because in this
case one have a great loss of resistance, rigidity or energy
dissipation.
3.2.3.5  Specific parameters for a group of 3 cycles of equal displacement
The behaviour of tested
cycles
of
equal
piece is characterized after each group of
displacement
by
the
following parameters. The
three
partial
ductility \i . , where i is the index of the last cycle of the group, being taken
as variabile, the parameters are:
110
 ij ( \ . ) , m i n i m u m v a l u e o f
t h e t h r e e i .
evalueted i n
the group of
three
the three e.
evalueted in
the group of three
cycles
 ( M ) , minimum value of
cycles
 (U . ) , minimum value of
the three .
evalueted in
the group of
three
cycles
 r\ ( i ) , averege value of the three TI . evalueted in the group of three
cycles
+*
+
 e (U. ) = F.
/ F . J , defined as the resistance drop ratio of the group of
three cycles in the range of positive forces.
Similary, IJ (\LQ ) , e (Q ) , (l1^") ' are
three ii .
, e.
(\i . ) =
of
the
and . evalueted in the group of three cycles.
1 (i . ) is the averege of the
the ndnimum value
F.
r\ .
of the group.
/ F ._ is the resistance drop ratio of the group of
three
cycles in the range of negative forces.
3.2.3.6  Parameters of interpretation for the whole test
The partial
ductility \i
being taken
as
the variable, the
test is
characterized by the following functions, which are continuous functions defined
on the basis of a limited number of values established in 3.2.3.5.
 Full ductility function f ( \i ).
 R e l a t i v e r e s i s t a n c e function e ( u ),
 R e l a t i v e r i g i d i t y f u n c t i o n (i ) .
 R e l a t i v e a b s o r b e d e n e r g y f u n c t i o n T(Ji. ),
111
Resistance drop function e (i ).
The number of cycles n up to end of test must also be given.
3.2.4  SHORT TESTING PROCEDURE
In that case, the first and second
are not executed. The third
test of the complete testing
test is executed alone, but F
,F
,v
procedure
+
and
are not known at the beginning of the test, so that the procedure is as follows:
 The test should be performed with
ensure that at
step of displacement sufficiently small
last four levels
of displacement are reached before v
to
and
v .
Y
 The tangent moduli at
the origin tg a
and
tga
are evaluated from
the
the intersection of the
two
first cycle curve.
 As in the complete procedure, F
tangent lines or any
other
is defined by
justified definition.
tangent is evaluated at the origin
(slope tg a
tangent to the envelope curve of the cycles with a
In the first
case, one
); the other one is the
0.1 tga
curve
(Figure
3.6).
Again, v
is the displacement corresponding to the intersect.
 Similar definition are used on the negative side for F ~ and v
y
 As soon as
these F
,F
, v
and
are defined, the testing
procedure
becomes the same as in 3.2.3.3.
 The parameters
3.2.3.6.
of interpretation
are the
same as
in 3.2.3.4, 3.2.3.5 and
112
Figure 3.6
3.2.5  END OF TEST
The test may be stopped at any level of displacement decided with regard
a specific code or research requirements.
to
113
3.2.6  COMBINATION OF LOADS
The principles uses
in tests for
combined loads are those of the design
codes. In general, they are as follows:
 the seismic action should be considered
as an accident situation; hence, the
values assigned to variable actions of long duration should be "most probable
values", while other short duration actions
(such as wind forces) should
not
be considered.
 the combination of
seismic action with
reversal in sign may bring
long duration actions which have no
unsymmetrical demand on
structural elements. In
this case test may be performed with a partial reversal of displacement. This
partial reversal can be of various forms and must be properly justified.
3.2.7  COMMENTARY OF POSSIBLE DEFINITIONS OF Fy
There are many possible
definitions of a conventional limit of the elastic
range F . Let us mention, amongst others:
a) The value
corresponding
to
first yield
somewhere in the tested
piece
Figure 3.7 a;
b) The maximum reached load, Figure 3.7 b;
c) The value corresponding to
which would have been
a deformation is a
obtained in a purely
certain time the deformation
elastic behaviour. Figure 3.7
gives an example with two times the elastic deformation.
d) Figure 3.7 d recalls the definition recommended in the present document.
e) In some cases, F
could be a reference load deduced for computation.
114
Figure 3.7
Each definition offers sane advantages and disadvantages.
Definition a) ignores the post elastic resources.
Definition b) are interesting in the buckling context, but may correspond
to
exagerated deformation in flexural behaviour of beams or joints. On the contrary
the definition c) applies well to beams or joints but not to buckling problems.
The
ECCS
recommended
definition (Figure
3.7d)
applies
in all cases.
Definition e) corresponds to the case where design resistances would have been
defined previously to any test.
115
3.3  TESTS FOLLOWING THE ECCS RECOMMENDATIONS
In order to obtain some experimental
components
or
substructures, and
data on the
to
check
the
behaviour of
validy
of
structural
the
ECCS
recommendations, it was designed and developed  4  in the Structural Engineering
Department of the
Politecnico di Milano a
testing apparatus
able to
impress
cyclic displacements slowly in time to structural components or subassemblages.
The
general view
of
the equipment
is shown
schematically represented in Figures 3.8 and 3.9.
Photo 3.1
in the photo
1 and
it
is
116
Figure 3.8
*fc*H
im
i
!!
!'
f^^
I
' 1
.li
.ltt ' ' ' ' _' ! ' i ; * J *
1
Figure 3.9
117 
Its main components are:
 A foundation composed of reinforced concrete slab which is part of the testing
apparatus available in the Laboratory of the Structural Engineering Department
of the Politecnico di Milano.
 A supporting
girder
with longitudinal
dimension
6.57
m which
acts
as
mounting of specimens and axialloading system that are bolted on.
 A counterframe composed of
one column and two truss systems inclined at
60
toward each other.
 A power
jackscrew which displays
a 100 KN capacity, a
300 mm
stoke and
1.7cm/mim of feed rate.
 A axialloading system able
to impress axial deformations
to beam to
column
connections.
 A lateral bracings system to prevent specimens lateral displacements.
Throughout
a cyclic
test, the
load
applied to
the
specimen
and
the
displacement are measured continouosly.
3.3.1  BEHAVIOUR OF BRACINGS
The most
important result from
cyclic experiments with
frames subjected
to cyclic
horizontal displacements
which relate the
applied horizontal force
is the
frames or
hysteretic
F at the top of the
braced
curve
frame, to the
118
horizontal displacement v in the same point. Some examples of hysteretic
curves
for single and double braced frames with braces of different crosssection
slenderness ratio are shown in Figure 3.10 to 3.13.
300
200
~r
7
"T"
5
5
400
Figure 3.10
and
119
400 
3Z 80
X = 114
 500
Figure 3.11
120
Figure 3.12
121
Figure 3.13
122
From these hysteretic curves some indications can be appointed.
When a brace
buckles, during the
compression cannot be
subsequente cycles the
reached. Two main
same capacity
in
the decrease
in
causes contribute to
strength capacity of the braced frames during the inelastic loadings. These are
the Bauschinger
effect, exhibited
reversals, and the effect due to
from plastic
decrease is
hinge
by
subjected to
inelastic
load
the residual curvature of the brace resulting
rotation during
less pronounced
the steel
due
previous
cycles. In double
the combined
action of
behaviour of the compression member and the yielding
the
braces
postbuckling
behaviour of the tension
member. Photo 3.2 and 3.3 show an example of local buckling occured in a
braced frame.
Photo 3.2
this
double
123
Photo 3.3
The
deterioration
slenderness ratio
great values of
of
the critical
buckling
force
is related
to
the
X of the brace. The hysteretic curves for braced franes with
the slenderness ratios
their compressive strengths
slenderness ratio of
exhibit a more rapid deterioration
than those with small values of
the braces
appears to
be
the
the
single most
parameter in determining the hysteretic behaviour of braced frames.
in
The
important
124
According to Popov experiments 10, 1111 , 1201 the crosssectional shape of
the braces
affects also
the
observed in some braces with
hysteretic behaviour
of
braced frames. He has
singly symmetric sections (tee and
lateraltorsional buckling. This was
due
to geometric
doubleangles)
proportions
of
the
crosssection which cause buckling in the direction perpendicular to their axis
of symmetry. In such cases, flexural and lateraltorsional buckling take place
simmultaneously causing a lower critical load
pure flexural
buckling. This
performance of the
tends
to
than that which would develop
contribute
tees and doubleangles in
to
the
in
somewhat poorer
comparison with
tubes and wide
flanges.
3.3.2  BEHAVIOUR OF BEAMTQCOLUMNS CONNECTIONS
Joints of steel structures in current design are usually assumed to behave as
simple hinged
or
full
fixed.
In the case of
elastic
design, it
is not
unrealistic to make these simplified assumptions for the following reasons:
a) The resulting
analytical
models lead to
reasonable results
in terms of
reliability;
b) In several cases these models do correspond to the actual behaviour.
On the contrary, when analyzing
structures, it is necessary to take
of the
joints undergoing
the postelastic and
cyclic behaviour of
into account the complex constitutive
cyclic loading
together with
the way
laws
in which the
energy is dissipated both under monotonie or cyclic loading.
In some cases it is important to introduce the actual restraint conditions of
joints even if the analysis is limited to the elastic range. This is the case of
125
steel structures in which the
realistic model of
importance of the PA
the restraint
fixity factors which
conditions of
take into account
effects calls for a
bars by means of
the increased
more
appropriate
deformability
of
the
structure.
Actual restraint conditions
by a complex
behaviour both
rotation relationships
of joints in steel structures are
under monotonie
being generally
and cyclic
characterized
loadings, the moment
non linear with different
degrees
of
deterioration as far as the number of cycles increase.
The typologies of beamtocolumn joints in framed structures can be
with respect
to
monotonie test
three types
of
identifying three
behaviour which
can be characterized
categories with increasing
(Figure 3.14):
ir*r
1 1 1 1.
.
t
V
Figure 3.14
examined
*t
i ' i
ii
' V
lowering
by
degree
126
st
1
Category: comprises welded joints with stiffners in the column web.
2
Category: comprises endplate joints with or without stiffners.
rd
3
Category: comprises shear bolt joints.
All
types of
connections
can be
included in the three above mentioned
categories.
In order to have a
homogeneous comparison, it is necessary to refer to
full
strength joints which provide an .ultimate moment at least equal to the one of
the crosssection of the connected member.
The lowering degree is therefore represented by a reduction of stiffness from
one category to the next one.
It should be noted that the first category is characterized by a quite rigid
behaviour. The lowering degree is only due to the nodal panel deformation caused
by the highly
concentrated forces, which can cause
local buckling phenomena.
This deterioration is dependent upon the stiffness and reaches its maximum when
the column web is unstiffened.
In the
one
second category the degrading phenomena characteristic of the
(nodal panel
deformation of
the
flexibility) are
column
increased
flange and
by
the
effects of
first
flexural
the end plate in addition to axial
deformation of bolts, depending upon the tightening force.
In the third category,
in addition
to the previous degrading phenomena,
slipping of bolts arises due to bolthole clearance.
From the cyclic behaviour
point of view the joint constitutive
can be stable if it exhibits the same behaviour of
relationship
the monotonie test even if
the number of cycles increases. On the other hand, the behaviour can be unstable
when its stiffness decreases with number of cycles.
127
Under cyclic loading, the three categories of connections are
characterized
by three typical behaviours (Figure 3.15):
Figure 3.15
a) The joints of the first category exhibit a stable behaviour characterized
by
hysteresis loops having the same area inside the curve which remains constant
with increasing number of cycles.
b) The joints of the second category, instead, exhibit an unstable behaviour due
to permanent deformations
effect of the
in holes
and bolts, thus reducing the
stiffning
tightening force. Therefore, for constante amplitude
cyclic
loading, we observe hysteresis loops with increasing deformations up to
the
complete collapse. The slope of the hysteresis curves characterizing
the
stiffness of the i
cycle is continuously decreasing.
c) The joints of the third category exhibit un unstable behaviour
characterized
by slipping of bolts. This phenomenon significantly modifies the shape of the
curve by reducing the dissipated energy for the same values of deformations. '
128
Main causes
of the
increasing
deterioration have
to be ascribed
to the
permanent deformations of holes and shanks.
Cases b) and c) lead to collapse due to deterioration of stiffness (lowcycle
fatigue).
Testing
results on actual joints under repeated loading conditions
confirm
the above described behaviours.
The
first example
(Figure 3.16).
This
is related
to a beamtocolumn stiffned
joint exhibits
almost a
stable
welded
joint
behaviour with
small
deterioration of stiffness, so that it can be considered of the first category
defined above.
Figure 3.16
129 
The second
example is related to an end plate beamtocolumn joint without
stiffners subjected to cyclic opposite constant loads (Figure 3.17).
T M
Figure 3.17
This joint exhibits
a deterioration of
slippage phenomena. This behaviour can be
category described above.
stiffness together with
therefore ascribed
to
increasing
the
third
130
3.4  VALIDITY OF THE ECCS RECOMyENDATIONS
The good correlation
between experimental and numerical analysis induce the
evaluation of the main parameters used
elements. At this point, it
to define the
is necessary to
behaviour of
control if
structural
these parameters
are
really able.to describe the behaviour of structural elements under cyclic loads.
This control consists in examine if these parameters are characteristics of
the
tested elements and not dependent of the applied loading history.
The comparison between
and energy
the adymensional parameters of resistence, ductility
dissipation may
allow
a control
of
the
truthfulness
of
these
parameters.
As the
experiments are performed using
component, some numerical
as control parameter a
simulation analogous
to the tests
displacement
are realized, in
which the cycles of loading are characterized by different values of the maximum
component of
the displacement. In this way
experimental procedure
are divided
the
effects related
from these characteristics of
with
the
the tested
elements.
In the numerical analysis
eigth simulations are performed for each element;
the maximum displacement (v. + v. ) of each simulation is the same of that used
in experiments. The simulation
are organized in
order to evidence
all
the
possible behaviours of the element. Their main characteristic are the following:
1 test  After executing some cycles in elastic range, elastoplastic cycles are
performed using an
experimental tests.
increment two time greater than that used in the
131 
2 test  Similar to the previous
one, but the
increase of displacement
starts
with a different initial displacement.
3 test  Similar to the both previous, but without cycles in elastic range.
4 test .It has cycles in elastic range, but the increment of the
displacement
is a half of that using in the experimental tests.
5 test  Similar to the previous one, but without cycles in elastic range.
In
these
five tests
positive and
negative
displacements have
the
same
absolute value (v.  + v.  ) .
6 test  It has
symmetrical
cycles
in
elastic range; over
this
range the
displacement increases only in negative field.
7 test  Similar to the previous one, but with increment of displacement only in
positive field.
8 test  It is a
random cyclic test; the only limitation
maximum excursion of the displacement (v.
is related with
the
+ v.~) which must be equal
or lesser than that reached in the experimental test.
For each simulation
the
forcedisplacement diagram
diagrammatically shown in Figures 3.18 to 3.21.
is plotted.
In Tables I to IV the
This
is
sequence
of cycles employed in the numerical analysis are given. The Figures 3.22 to 3.25
represent the diagrams related to the following parameters:
 resistance ratio in positive range
 resistance ratio in negative range
 Ductility ratio in positive range
 Ductility ratio in negative range
 Absorbed energy ratio in positive range
132
 Absorbed energy ratio in negative range
 Total accumulated energy
These
diagrams show the
ratio between the
numerical simulation and those that one could
elastoplastic behaviour;
parameters and in
in
ordinate are
parameters evaluated during
the
find in an ideal element with
an
represented
abscissa the sum of positive and
the value
of
those
negative displacement
for
each cycles.
Each diagram presents the rielaboration of the eigth simulations executed for
each element; in this way, it is possible to
certify that the parameters
have
similar values for different history displacements; that allows to conclude that
they are really
characteristics of the tested elements and not linked to the
history displacements.
In particular the differences between the single simulation that one can find
in seme diagrams regarding the resistance ratio, are due to the fact that using
as control
parameter
strictly influenced
displacement
by the
component, the
resistance
ratios
imposed displacements. Ductility ratios
are
generally
show a good agreement between the different tests; the values exhibited by
absorbed energy ratios near the maximum dispacement are generally equals.
the
133
2L 80x8 one b r a c e
Figure 3.18 a
134
Figure 3.18 b
135
Table I
2 L 80x8 one brace
Cycle
Exp.
5.0
5.0
5 0
5 0
12 .0
5 0
5 0 12 .0
5.0
5.0
15.0
15.0
6.0
6.0
8 0
8 0
20 .0
8 0
8 0 20 .0
7.5
7.5
17.5
20.0
17.5 15.0
15.0
15.0
20.0 20.0
15.0
15.0
20.0
20.0
15.0
30.0
25 0
35 .0 15.0
20.0
20 0
20.0 25 0 20 0 35 0 15.0
25.0
25.0
35 0
30 0
40 0 30 0
17.5
17.5
25.0
25.0
30.0
35 .0 35 .0
35.0 35 0 40 0
20.0
20.0
27.5
60.0
15.0
20.0
27.5 15.0 60.0 40.0
30.0
40.0
22.5
22.5
30.0
30.0
25.0
25.0
32.5
32.5
27.5
27.5
35.0
35.0
12 0
12.5
15 0
30 .0
15 0 12 0 30 0 12.5
7.0
7.0
30.0
15.0
8.0
8.0
7.0
10.0
25.0
15.0
22.5
40.0
15.0
20.0
22.5 15.0 40.0 30.0
10
30.0. 37.5
30.0 37.5
11
32.5
32.5
12
35.0
35.0
13
37.5
37.5
Exp.
Experimental patterns
1,2... 8
numerical tests
Assumed maximum displacements [ mm ] for each Cycle
50.0
15.0
15.0
15.0
50.0 45.0
45.0
30.0
136
2C 80 one
brace
Figure 3.19 a
137
Figure 3.19 b
138
Table II
2 C 80 one brace
Cycle
Exp.
20.0
10.0
8 0
8 0
20.0
15.0
10. 0
10 0
5 .0 15 .0
5 0 15 .0
7.5
7.5
17.5
17.5
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
7.0
10.0
25 .0 10.0
9 0
9 0 25 .0 10.0
20.0
20.0
15.0
20.0
15.0
20.0
10.0
10.0
22.5
20.0
15 0
20 0
35 .0 12.5
20.0 15 0 20 0 35 .0 12.5 22.5
15.0
30.0
25.0
20.0
20.0
30.0
25.0
25.0
25 0
30 0
40 0
15.0
25 0 30 0 40 .0 15.0
25.0
25.0
15.0
40.0
35.0
20.0
10.0
50.0
30.0
30.0
35 0
35 0
27.5
15.0
27.5 50.0
45.0
20.0
50.0
20.0
35.0
45 0
45 .0
35.0 45 0 45 0
20.0
20.0
30.0
30.0
15.0
60.0
55.0
20.0
35.0
40.0
40.0
47.0
22.5
32.5
22.5 32.5
20.0
70.0
65.0
25.0
25.0 65.0
45.0
45.0
25.0
35.0
25.0 35.0
45.0
50.0
37.5
27.5
37.5
27.5
45 .0 17.5
40 0
40 0 45 .0 17.5
10
30.0
30.0
40.0
40.0
11
32.5
32.5
42.5
42.5
12
35.0
35.0
45.0
45.0
13
37.5
37.5
14
40.0
40.0
15
42.5
42.5
16
45.0
45.0
139
2L 50x6 two braces
Figure 3.20 a
140
Figure 3.20 b
141 
Table III
2 L 50x6 two braces
Cycle
Exp.
5.0
5.0
10.0
10.0
1
5 0
5 0
5 .0
15 .0
5 0 15 .0
4
7.5
7.5
5
15.0
15.0
10.0
10.0
7.0
7.0
10.0 17.5
15.0
20.0
10.0 17.5 10.0 15.0
20.0
15 0
15.0
20 0
25 0
35 .0
15.0 20 0 25 0 35 .0
12.5 20.0
15.0
12.5 20.0 20.0
30.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
20.0
30 0
30 0
20.0 30 0 30 0
15.0 22.5
15.0
15.0 22.5 30.0
35.0
15.0
40.0
15.0
25.0
25.0
17.5 25.0
15.0
40.0
17.5 25.0 40.0 15.0
20.0
40.0
30.0
30.0
20.0 27.5
15.0
20.0 27.5 50.0
45.0
15.0
35.0
35.0
35.0
35.0
22.5 30.0
22.5 30.0
50.0
15.0
12 .0 15 .0
25 .0
12 0 15 0 25 .0
35 0
35 0
35 0 35 0
25.0 32.5
25.0 32.5
27.5 35.0
27.5 35.0
10
30.0
30.0
11
32.5
32.5
12
35.0
35.0
7.0
7.0
15.0
50.0
55.0
15.0
142
2C 80 tuo braces
Figure 3.21 a
143
Figure 3.21 b
144
Table IV
2 C 80 two braces
Cycle
Exp.
30.0
30.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
30 .0
30 .0
15.0
15.0
25.0
25.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
35.0
35.0
15.0
15.0
20.0
20.0
35 .0
35 .0
17.5
17.5
27.5
27.5
25.0
30.0
20.0
25.0
40.0
25.0
40.0
40.0
25.0
25.0
30.0
30.0
40 .0
40 .0
20.0
20.0
30.0
30.0
25.0
40.0
20.0
25.0
55.0
20.0
45.0
45.0
35.0
35.0
40.0
40.0
45 .0
45 .0
22.5
22.5
32.5
32.5
25.0
50.0
30.0
25.0
20.0
60.0
45.0
45.0
45.0
45.0
25.0
25.0
35.0
35.0
25.0
60.0
35.0
25.0
35.0
50.0
27.5
27.5
37.5
37.5
25.0
65.0
40.0
25.0
25.0
65.0
30.0
30.0
40.0
40.0
45.0
25.0
32.5
32.5
42.5
42.5
50.0
25.0
35.0
35.0
45.0
45.0
55.0
25.0
10
37.5
37.5
60.0
25.0
11
40.0
40.0
65.0
25.0
12
42.5
42.5
13
45.0
45.0
145
2L 80x8 one b r a c e
PESISTENCE RRTIO
RESSTEflCE RATIO
?
LS
I
'y
(5
20
O
S
40
Ui+
O
S
O
S
t U l 
10
70
20
30
40
SO
Ui+ + Ui
tmmJ
SO
70
IO
30
(mm 1
RJLL DUCTILITY RATIO
FULL DUCTILITY RATIO +
T T i 7 m'
10
ZO
SO
. 40
SO
Ul* Ul
SO
limn)
70
SO
SO
10
Figure 3.22 a
CO
30
40
SO
Ul* + Ul
SO
(mini
70
10
90
146
ABSORBED EMERGY PPT IO
10
ZO
Ui+
SS
+ U l 
ABSORBED ENERGY RATIO
70
[mm!
SO
30
io
zo
30
Ui*
40
ss
+ Ul
so
t mm I
70
go
CUflULFITED ENERGY
Fi giare 3.22 b
10
ZO
30
EO
Ul+ + U I 
EO
[mm]
70
10
ao
147 
2C 80 one
brace
RESISTERE RATIO 
RESISTENCE RAT IQ +
30
40
so
Ui + + U i 
sa
tmml
j *
Mi
W.
io
70
20
30
40
SO
Ui+ + U l 
30
so
Ui + + Jl
so
tmml
70
eo
30
FULL DUCTILITY RATIO
FULL DUCTILITY RATIO
IO
zo
CO
(mm)
70
(0
Mt
m.
.r*
t*.
io
Figure 3.23 a
zo
3o
U+
40
*
so
UI
ca
Imml
70
eo
so
148
ABSORBED EI1ERGY RATIO
>0
20
SO
Ui+
SO
+ Ul
ABSORBED EflERGY RATIO
SO
[mm]
70
SO
SO
10
20
SO
III*
40
SO
+ U l 
CO
t mm J
70
CD
XXinULflTED ETIERGY
Figure 3.23 b
10
20
SS
40
Ul+
SO
+ Ul
CO
(mml
70
30
149
2L 50x5 t uo braces
RESISTENCE RATIO *
RESISTERE RATIO
o\.
.in
zo
30
io
so c o
7o
U i + + U  (mm ]
FULL D U C T I L I T Y RTIO
10
O
Z
30
Ul+
O
S
so
.U)
"V
CM
W .
so
10
O
C
30
40
Ui*
+ U l  (mml
ZO
FULL DUCTILITY
70
60
30
,<n
ci.
.in
in
10
Figure 3.24 a
20
30
EO
EO
70
SO
30
+ U i  [mml
40
RATIO
SO
Ul+ + Ul
CO
tmml
70
10
30
150
f1JJS0REJJ EMERGY RATIO
ABSORBED EMERGY RATIO
io
zo
Ui+
40
sa
+ Ui
so
(mm!
7o
eo
so
30
40
O
S
Ul + + U i 
O
C
70
[mm]
CUMULATED EMERGY
Figure 3.24 b !
SO
40
Ul+
SO
Ul
EO
[mm!
70
IO
90
151
2C 80 t wo
braces
RESISTENCE RATIO *
RESISTENCE RATIO 
10
ZO
30
40
50
Ui+ + U l 
FULL D U C T I L I T Y RATIO
SO
40
Ul+
O
S
Ul
70
SO
30
10
imm]
30
40
EO
Ul + + U i 
(mml
ZO
SO
FULL D U C T I L I T Y RATIO
70
1
Figure 3.25 a
30
40
O
S
Ul + + U l 
70
Imm]
O
C
(mml
70
10
30
1=
152
RESORBED ENERGY MT IO
10
20
30
40
SO
U i' + * U1 
CO
ABSORBED ENERGY RATTO
70
t mm 1
30
10
20
30
40
Ui*
SO
+ VJi
SO
70
so
so
tmml
CUnULflTEIl ENERGY
Figure 3.25 b
10
Z9
30
40
Ul+
SO
+ Ui
CO
t mm]
70
CO
30
153
3.5  CONSIDERATIONS ON b/t RATIOS
In Figures
3.26 to 3.29 are presented
some hysteretic curves of
cantilever
beams with welded H and boxshaped cross sections with different widththickness
ratios. In those curves is represented the
horizontal load at the top the
beam
versus the deflection at the same point.
UELDED H 10 nwi
+ ii
200.00 .
,
/rj/iw>i
150.00 .
150.00.
200^00.
Figure 3.26
i0
i (i
154
UELDED H 4 mm
80.00
200
(m*
rmr*$f99i
1
7.00
r
5.0
,
00
j _
7.00
155
BOX
IJ
mo
200.00.
Figure 3.28
156
BOX 4 nm
200.00 .,
fwwrnrwrum
150.00 .
100.00 .
SO. 00
100.00
150.00.
200.00.
Figure 3.29
l
1(ml
157 
Based on these curves seme conclusions may be advanced:
 Cyclic loops of load
versus deflection are
generaly symmetric respecting
to
deflections axis.
 The maximum
load
both in
compression
increases. This reduction is so much
ratio (b/t) of the
as in
tension
is reduced
as
cycle
higher as larger as the widththickness
flange. This is due to
the
early occurence
of
local
instability of flange elements.
 For large
b/t ratios, the flange
instability occurs
at an early stage of
bending and the contribution of the flange elements to the bending strength of
the H welded or box beam may be reduced as cycles increases.
In photo
3.4 and 3.5 can be
recognized the outofplane deformation of
flange element.
Photo 3.4
the
158
Photo 3.5
The
failure patterns of flange and web plate elements
characterized by the
occurence of
after cycles can be
highly localized deformations
of the whole
section.
At present, it is
structural
programs
in progress
some work
for the analysis of
in order
to develop nonlinear
bent sections
and
braced
frame
structures. The purpose of these programs is undertaken as an effort to gain
better understanding of
dissipate energy
the manners
imputed
in which these
by an earthquake
structural elements
event, and
to
could
avoid the use of
experimental tests everytime one need to know the hysteretic characteristics
a subassemblage or even a complete structure.
of
159
3.6  REFERENCES
l
Bertero, V.
(1979) SEISMIC BEHAVIOUR
ELEMENTS AND THEIR
CONNECTIONS. AICAP
OF
STRUCTURAL CONCRETE LINEAR
 CEB Symposium, Rome, May, CEB
Vol. No. 131.
2
Borges, J. (1979) RECOMMENDED FOR THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF CONCRETE
STRUCTURES IN SEISMIC ZONES. AICAP  CEB Symposium, Rome, May, CEB Vol.
No. 131.
3
Grandori, G.
(1979) OBSERVATION
OF ACTUAL STRUCTURES AND
LABORATORY
TESTS. AICAP  CEB Symposium, Rome, May, CEB Vol. No. 131.
4
Bailio, G. and
Zandonini, R.
STEEL STRUCTURAL MEMBERS AND
(1985) AN EXPERIMENTAL EQUIPMENT TO
SUBASSEMBLAGES
SUBJECT TO
TEST
CYCLIC LOADS.
Ingegneria Sismica, No. 3.
151
Carpenter, L. and
Lu, LeWu (1973) REVERSED AND REPEATED
LOAD OF
FULL
SCALE STEEL FRAMES. AISI Bulletin, No. 24, April.
6
Wakabayashi, M., Matsui, C , Minami,
C. and Mitani, I. (1973)
BEHAVIOUR OF STEEL FRAMES SUBJECTED TO CONSTANT VERTICAL AND
LOADS. Proc. of the V
INELASTIC
ALTERNATING
World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Rome,
2529/6/73.
7
ElTayem, A. and
Goel, S.
(1984) CYCLIC BEHAVIOUR
OF ANGLE XBRACING.
Proc. of the ASCE Structures 84 Congress, San Francisco.
160
8
Popov, E. and Pinkley, B. (1969) CYCLIC YIELD REVERSAL IN STEEL BUILDING
CONNECTIONS. ASCE Journal of the Structural Division, vol. 95, No. ST3.
9
Tanabashi, R.,
Kaneta, K.
and Ishika, T. (1973) ON THE RIGIDITY AND
DUCTILITY OF STEEL BRACING ASSEMBLAGES. Proc. of the V World
Conference
on Earthquake Engineering, Rome, 2529/6/73.
10
Popov, E. and Maison, B.
(1980) CYCLIC RESPONSE
PREDICTION FOR BRACED
STEEL FRAMES. ASCE Journal of the Structural Division, vol. 106, No. ST7.
11
Popov, E. and Black, G. (1981) STEEL STRUTS UNDER SEVERE CYCLIC LOADINGS.
ASCE Journal of the Structural Division, vol. 107, No. ST9.
12
Anderson, J. (1975) SEISMIC BEHAVIOUR OF
KBRACED FRAMING SYSTEM. ASCE
Journal of the Structural Division, No. ST10.
13
Bailio, G.,
BEHAVIOUR OF
Gobetti, A. and
PIN JOINTED
Zanon, P. (1979) SIMULATION OF DYNAMIC
STRUCTURES WITH NON SYMMETRICAL
CONSTITUTIVE
LAW. Simulation of System '79, Sorrento, NorthHolland Pubi. Comp.
1141
Perotti, F.,
Rampazzo, L.
and
COEFFICIENTE DI STRUTTURA PER
Setti, P.
(1984) DETERMINAZIONE DEL
COSTRUZIONI METTALICHE SOGGETTE A
CARICHI
ASSIALI. 2 Convegno Italiano d'ingegneria Sismica  Rapallo, 69 Giugno.
1151
Fukumoto, Y.
and Kusarna, H.
(1985) CYCLIC
BEHAVIOUR OF
PLATES UNDER
INPLANE LOADING. Engineering Structures, vol. 7, January.
16
Takanashi, K., Udagawa, K and Takana, H. (1982) PSEUDODYNAMIC TESTS ON A
2STORY STEEL FRAME BY COMPUTER LOAD TEST APPARATUS HYBRID SYSTEM. Proc.
of the VII World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Athens.
161
1171
Shing, P. and Martin, S. (1984) PSEUDODYNAMIC: TEST METHOD FOR
PERFORMANCE EVALUATION
THEORY AND IMPLEMENTATION.
SEISMIC
EERC Report
01/84,
January.
18
DEFINITION
OF
CYCLIC
RESISTANCE EVALUATION
OF
LOADING
TESTING
STRUCTURAL
PROCEDURE
ELEMENTS  Draft
FOR
EARTHQUAKE
from Technical
Committee 13 of European Convention of Structural Steelwork. Paris, 1983.
19
Higashi, Ohkubo and
Ohtsuka (1977) INFLUENCE OF LOADING EXCURSIONS
RESTORING FORCE CHARACTERISTICS AND FAILURE MODES OF REINFORCED
COLUMNS. Proc. of the
VT World
Conference on
ON
CONCRETE
Earthquake Engineering,
NewDelhi.
120
Popov, E.
(1980) SEISMIC BEHAVIOUR OF
STRUCTURAL SUBASSEMBLAGES. ASCE
Journal of the Structural Division, vol.106, No. ST7.
163
C H A P T E R
 4
THE ASSESSEMENT OF q FACTORS
165
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
4.1 INTRODUCTION
166
4.2 METHOD FOR STATE THE BEHAVIOUR FACTOR q
168
4.3  ONE FLOOR CANTILEVERS
171
4.4 FURTHER INVESTIGATIONS AND CODE APPROACH
4.5 REFERENCES
180
188
166
4.1  INTRODUCTION
In current
codes l,  21,
structures in seismic zones may be
with a control
of the plastic
3, is commonly accepted that
the design of
based on a linear elastic analysis
deformability of the
combined
structures. In such case,
large plastic deformations may occur during a seismic event if the elastic limit
of the structure is surpassed.
The seismic
forces to apply as part of the elastic
analysis are usually
indicated by identifying a normalized spectrum depending on the soil nature and
the features of the ground.
The design
spectrum can be derived thereform
coefficient which takes
into account
the
through the introduction of
energy dissipation
ductile response. The values
of
classification
systems according
of
structural
this coefficient
depend
to
capacity
of
a
a
on the basis of
ductility
levels. This
coefficient, the so called "behaviour factor" is commonly designated by "q". Its
values depends on the nonlinear dynamic behaviuour of the structure as well as
on its ability to undergo plastic deformation.
The Euroccde No. 8  Common Unified
recently issued by
the Commission of
Rules Por Structures in Seismic Zones,
the European Communities
4 states the
design spectrum:
C(T) = AR(T) / q
where:
C(T) is the value of the design spectrum at the period T.
(1)
167 
is the design value of the ground acceleration which depends on the degree
of local seismic
activity. Suggested
values of
A are between 0.15
and
0.35g.
R(T)
is the value
of the normalized
design spectrum. It depends on the
soil
nature and it is stated on the basis of 5% of the damping ratio.
q
is the behaviour factor.
With regard to the above approach two design methods are possibles:
 the structure is designed to resist seismic actions elasticaly. In such case,
it is not necessary the consideration of dissipative zones (q = 1).
 the structure is designed
to
exit from
earthquakes. Thus, the consideration of
must be examined in these
the
elastic
range under
dissipative zones
strong
is necessary
zones both strength and ductility
and
(q > 1). In non
dissipative zones only strength must be assessed.
Summing
everything up, for
reliable and
economic
definition of the behaviour factor q seems foundamental.
design
correct
168
4.2  METHOD FOR STATE THE BEHAVIOUR FACTOR q
For structures which can be modelled as systems with one degree of freedom, a
numerical approach is suggested 5, and used to determine the behaviour
factor
q of some floor cantilevers.
With reference to the structures under investigation, the maximum force to be
expected in an elastic oscillator can be expressed as:
F = A R(T) m
(2)
where:
F
is the maximum static force expected during a strong earthquake.
is the maximum ground acceleration (in the sense of peak value) expected
during a strong earthquake.
R(T) is the normalized design spectrum,
m
is the mass of the oscillator.
is the period of the oscillator.
The maximum displacement v is assumed equal to:
v =
Let us
A R(T)
T 2 / 4TT2
(3)
consider two analogous oscillators with the same period T, the same
normalized design spectrum R(T) but under different acceleration peak A, and A.
The behaviour of the
two oscillators will
relation of proportionality will be valid:
not be the
same, but the
following
169
l
(4)
F
2
If the ductility factor theory is valid, we may assume that even in the
of nonlinear behaviour of the
case
oscillator, its maximum displacement is
still
proportional to the peak acceleration, while the maximum load is limited to
the
ultimate load.
According to the Eurocode No. 8 4, the design spectrum is:
C(T) = A R(T) / q
(!)
The static force F to be applied in elastic designing is:
F
= A
R(T) m
(A/q) R ( T ) m
(5)
The behaviour factor q corresponds to the ratio between seismic intensity (in
the sense of the peak value A) which cause the collapse of the structure and the
attainment of the elastic limit state A, = A/q.
If F d corresponds
to the yield stress of
the ductility factor theory implys
the structure F , the validity
that the structure be
able to resist to
of
an
acceleration equal to A, q time larger than the acceleration A, that produce the
first plastification of
the structure, since its ductility
factor be
greater
than q.
It is not necessary that
F be related with the admissible ductility of
the
structure.
Even
not having
perfect
displacement of the structure and
relationship
between the
elastoplastic
its elastic displacement, the seismic
design
170
based on (1) and
(5) could result safe or unsafe according the
elastoplastic
response of the structure be lesser or greater the amplified elastic response.
Three patterns are possibles, Figure 4.1
q=qA/Al
Figure 4.1
Pattern "a" corresponds to a behaviour in complience with the results of
ductility
factor theory. Pattern
"b" shows an unsafe behaviour
the
because
everywhere v > q v,. Pattern "c" presents a first safe range (v < q v,) followed
by an unsafe one. The values of q = v / v, for which the ductility factor theory
is accomplished may be
choosen as q values
for the structures and v / y, =
represents the ductility overall demand of the structure.
171
The procedure to obtain the behaviour factor q can be summarized as follows:
 evaluation of the
inertia and
strength characteristics of
the structure as
well as its period T in elastic range. The second order effects, if they are,
may be taken into account in the evaluation of the period of the structure.
 selection of
an accelerogram
which normalized
spectrum for
a unitary
peak
origine to the period T a response equal toR(T).
 several elastoplastic analysis are performed at an increasing
of excitation and the par of values v / v, and q = A / A,
amplification
are represented in
a diagram form.
 the interception of
these points
with the
bisectrix v /
v, =
q gives the
behaviour factor q to the structure.
4.3  ONE FLOOR CANTILEVERS
The method previously
explained was used
for assessing q
factors for one
floor cantilevers.
Numerical analysis have
deflected
both
in the
been performed
plane
on HEA series
of maximum
testedoutmembers had slendernesses
columns, which
and minimum
ranging from
were
rigidity.
50 to 200, while the
The
axial
load has been made to vary from 0.00 to 0.20 of the Euler force N . The mass
e
m,
governing the system's inertia, has been preserved independent of the axial load
and selected in
such a way that
a previously
assigned value of the natural
period ranging from 1.0 to 2.5 sees, corresponded to each case. In all
analysis
172
a damping value equal to 0.03 of
the critical damping has been considered. Two
different numerical simulations have been accomplished for each instance, using
two artificially developed accelerograms according to the procedure described in
reference 6 based
on the normalized
spectrum defined in
4 and applied
to
designing.
Two different guidelines
have been followed
in order to
shape and
design
samples:
 in the first
case, the
natural period has
been computed
regardless of
the
reduced stiffness associated with the axial load.
 in the second case, on the contrary, the period variation caused by the sample
design was taken into account.
Both approaches highlight the significance of the designing criterion: if the
natural period is computed disregarding the secondorder effects, one is on
safe side, since the
earthquake intensity
is overrated
through the
the
function
R(T), expressing the design spectrum. In fact, R(T) decreases as the period goes
up in the range of greatest significance for the type under consideration.
The results of all cases
rigidity are reported
tested for deflection in the plane of the greatest
in Table I and II. They
refer to the
first and
second
designing standards adopted respectively.
The
following
slenderness
data
are
given
X , axial load as compared
value find to the behaviour factor q.
for each
cases: natural
period
T,
to Euler critical load N / N , and the
173
Table I
N/Ne
N/Ne
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
50
50
50
100
100
100
50
50
50
50
50
100
100
100
100
100
150
150
200
200
50
50
50
50
50
100
100
100
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.00
0.05
0.00
0.05
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.00
0.05
0.10
5.4
2.9
2.3
5.5
2.9
2.3
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
100
100
150
150
100
200
200
200
50
50
50
50
50
100
100
100
100
100
150
150
150
150
150
200
200
200
200
0.15
0.20
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
3.6
4.5
> 8
3.4
3.2
3.0
2.6
> 8
3.4
3.2
3.0
2.5
> 8
3.3
> 8
3.3
> 8
4.1
3.4
3.6
4.5
> 8
4.1
3.4
> 8
4.1
3.4
8
4.2
3.4
> 8
> 8
3.5
3.7
4.1
> 8
> 8
3.5
3.7
4.1
> 8
> 8
3.5
3.7
4.1
> 8
> 8
3.5
3.7
Table I I
N/Ne
N/Ne
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1.0
1.0
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
50
50
50
50
50
50
150
150
150
0.05
0.10
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.05
0.10
0.15
2.3
2.1
3.1
3.0
3.1
3.0
3.1
3.0
3.0
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
1.5
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.5
2.0
2.0
2.5
150
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
0.20
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
3.0
4.1
4.0
3.5
3.4
> 8
2.9
2.9
2.9
174
Figures 4.2 and 4.3 show diagrammatically the procedure adopted to determine
Figure 4.2
Figure 4.3
175
Figure 4.4 to 4.7 indicate individually, for all the natural periods
considered, the value (function of the slenderness X ) of the behaviour factor
arrived.
U
6.
T: 1.5 S
T : 1.0 S
N:0.0
A.
_.N:.05Ne
50
100
150
Figure 4.4
N:.05NE
.N:.20Ne
N.IONE
2.
"" N:.10NE
N:.15NE
3.
2.
4
200 X
50
100
150
Figure 4.5
200
176
<U
6.
T : 2.0 S
Ts2.5 S
5.
*Nr.20NE

. N:.05NE
.N:.20NE
^N:.15Ne
. N..15NE
NI.IONE
3_
2.
1.
50
100
150
Figure 4.6
200
50
100
150
Figure 4.7
200
177
comparison among the
q values as function
on the N
/ N
ratio
obtained
following the two guidelines descriebed above are shown in Figures 4.8 to 4.9.
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20 N /
0.05
0.10
0.15
'NE
Figure 4.8
Figure 4.9
0.20
N/
178
For
oscilations in
the plane of the minimum stiffness, the results
summarized in Table III.
Table III
N/Ne
N/Ne
1.0
100
0.00
8.5
14
1.5
200
0.05
> 9
1.0
100
0.05
8.5
15
1.5
200
0.10
7.9
1.0
150
0.00
8.3
16
2.0
100
0.00
> 9
1.0
150
0.05
8.2
17
2.0
100
0.05
8.6
1.5
100
0.00
8.9
18
2.0
100
0.10
9.0
1.5
100
0.05
8.9
19
2.0
100
0.15
> 9
1.5
100
0.10
7.9
20
2.0
100
0.20
> 9
1.5
100
0.15
8.8
21
2.5
100
0.00
> 9
1.5
100
0.20
> 9
22
2.5
100
0.05
> 9
10
1.5
150
0.00
8.9
23
2.5
100
0.10
> 9
11
1.5
150
0.05
> 9
24
2.5
100
0.15
> 9
12
1.5
150
0.10
7.9
25
2.5
100
0.20
> 9
13
1.5
200
0.00
8.9
are
179
The
Figures 4.10
and
4.11 show the procedure adopted to
determine
behaviour.'factor q.
V
V.
A j loo
N10.10 Ni
12.
T.tl.5 8
11.
10.
9.
a.
7.
6.
5.
4.
3.
2.
1.
r
i
Figure 4.10
Figure 4.11
the
180
Based on this numerical research 7 on the structural behavior factor of one
floor cantilevers some conclusions may be reached
which have important design
implications.
1) Apparently, the behaviour
unaffected by
slenderness.
factor q depends
Nevertheless, it
upon the period,
is
whereas it
heavily dependent
of
is
the
section shape.
2) The consideration of the second order effects is important. The N / N
ratio
seems not affect in a large measure the evaluation of the q factor.
3) For HEA
series columns
which are
deflected
in the
plane of
the
maximum
stiffness a value of 2.5 for the behaviour factor seems adequate.
4) For HEA
series columns
which are
deflected
in the
plane of
the
minimum
stiffness a value of 8 for the behaviour factor seems excessive because needs
a greater value for the ductility of the columns.
4.4  FURTHER INVESTIGATIONS AND CODE APPROACH
As regard
the behaviour factors q to
adopt in seismic design of
structures
the Eurocode No 8  Catimon Unified Rules for Structures in Seismic Regions
141,
indicates that their values are given in the appropriate material chapters.
For
steel structures,
the
the
values
of the
factors
are make
dependent
of
structural type and the ductility level. According to Eurocode No 8, a structure
can be inserted in one of the following structural type to which three ductility
levels are possibles:
181 
Frames and trusses
A structure
behaves as a frame if
lateral forces are mainly supported
by
bending moments. Energy dissipation may occur where plastic hinges form.
A structure
behaves as a truss if
axial forces. Energy
lateral forces are mainly supported
dissipation occurs
when
diagonals in tension
plastic as the compressed members may have only a
by
become
so small amount of
energy
dissipation that it may be disregarded.
A structure behaves
as an eccentric
truss if lateral
forces are mainly
supported by axial forces but bending moments and shear forces locally
occur
due to eccentricities. Energy dissipation
shear
may occurs where bending and
cause plastifications.
Unbraced frames
if : a,
is the multiplier
to the
design load corresponding
to the
first
attainment of the elastic design capacity in one or more bent sections.
a
is the multiplier
of the design loads
attainment of the ultimate
sufficient
to transform
corresponding either to the
design capacity in a
the
structure
number of bent
into a mechanism
or
sections
to the
attainment of any kind of buckling in one structural member.
Ductility level
III characterizes a
negligible and the ratio ac / a ,
Ductility level
II characterizes
frame
in which
the
PA
effects
are
effects
are
is greater than 1.20.
a frame
in which
the PA
negligible and the ratio a c / a , is limited between 1.10 and 1.20.
Ductility level I characterizes a frame in which the ratio
than 1.10.
a c / a,
is less
182
Unbraced frames in which the connections in dissipative zones don't have
strength greater than 1.001.20 times the one corresponding the gross area of
the connected members must be designed without taking into account dissipative
zones.
>
LEVEL III
77777Z
mm.
t *
LEVEL I
LEVEL II
Figure 4.12
183 
 Truss bracings
a  A tension diagonal bracing is a
bracing in which compressed diagonal
are
negleted in the design,
b  A
tension
and
compression
compressed diagonals
diagonal
are taken
bracing
into account
is a
bracing
for equilibrating
in which
external
loads.
Figure 4.13
Ductility level
III characterizes
a tension diagonal bracing
in which
connections in dissipative zones have a strength greater than 1.001.20
the one
corresponding
the gross
area
the
times
of the connected members, diagonal
bracings have a slenderness lesser than X B = V 2
being
Xe = nVE/f
and the
tensile forces under design loads reach the 80% of full plastic resistance of
the corresponding sections in at least 50% of diagonals.
184
Ductility level II
only the
characterizes others tension diagonal bracings for which
connections
in dissipative
zones have
strength
greater
1.001.20 tines the one corresponding the gross area of the connected
and
diagonal
bracings
have
slenderness
lesser
than
than
members
XevV
being
e = TTVE/fy .
Ductility level I characterizes tension and compression diagonal bracings
which the connections
in dissipative
zones
have a
strength
greater
1.001.20 times the one corresponding the gross area of the connected
and diagonal
Bracings
bracings
have
in which the
slenderness
lesser
than
connections in dissipative
for
than
members
\e=V2
being
zones don't have
strength greater than 1.001.20 times the one corresponding the gross area of
the connected members, and diagonal
\eV2
being
X 0 = TTVE/f
bracings have a slenderness greater
must be designed
than
without taking into account
dissipative zones.
Eccentric bracings
Ductility level III characterizes eccentric bracings in which the
in dissipative zones have a
strength greater
than 1.001.20
connections
times the one
corresponding the gross area of the connected members, diagonal bracings have
a slenderness lesser than A e = V 2 , being
X B = nVE/l
and the design
loads
reach at least the 50% of the members designed for bending and shear reach the
80% of their ultimate plastic capacity.
Ductility level
II characterizes
eccentric
bracings
for which only the
connections in dissipative zones have a strength greater than 1.001.20
times
185 
the
one
corresponding
the
gross
area
of
the
connected
diagonal bracings have a slenderness lesser than X e = V 2
members
and
being 8 = TTVE/
Eccentric bracings in which the connections in dissipative zones don't have
a strength greater than 1.001.20 times
the one corresponding the gross
of the connected members, and diagonal bracings have
than X e  V 2 being
Ae = nVE/f
a slenderness
area
greater
must be designed without taking into account
dissipative zones.
 Braced frames
Braced frames are compound systems in which both frames and truss
bracings
are considered acting together at the same row.
Ductility level III characterizes braced frames having frame and truss bracing
both of ductility level III. In adi tion the frame must be designed to
sustain
alone at least 50% of the total design load.
Ductility level II characterizes braced frames having frames and truss bracing
both of ductility level II.
For each structural type and ductility level the Eurocode No 8 suggests
following values to the behaviour factor q.
the
186
Table IV
Ductility level
III
II
elastic model without
dissipative zones
Structural type
Behaviour factor q
braced and unbraced
frames, eccentric
bracings
6.00
truss bracings
5.00
braced and unbraced
frames, eccentric
bracings
4.00
truss bracings
3.00
braced and unbraced
frames
truss bracings
2.00
all types
1.00
These values are valid only
for structurally regular buildings. For
structurally non regular buildings provision shall be taken by dividing the q
factors by 1.20.
Other structural types are allowed provided
analysis.
that q factors are worked out by
187
Based on the research presented in
4.3 on the q factor values for one
floor
cantilevers, it is possible to conclude that the value suggested in Eurocode
8 for
this structural
type is
conservative. In
fact, for
columns which
No
are
deflected in the plane of the maximum stiffness a value of 2.5 for the behaviour
factor q seems adequate, while the
Eurocode No 8 suggests 1.0 disregarding
the
ressource of stiffness of this structural type. If the deflection occurs in the
plane of the minimum stiffness a greater value of the q factor can be
but in
this case a greater
ductility
demand will
utilized,
be necessary. However, a
behaviour factor q = 2.5 for one floor cantilevers seems suitable.
Nevertheless, insufficient data are available to analyse the truthfulness
the other structural types. It will be necessary in future realize
tests and develop numerical programs
behaviour factors q to
adopt in
in order to study
experimental
in a meaninful way
reliable and economic design
of
structures. The work carried on the cantilevers may be considered as an
of such activity. At present, some work
factors of steel braced frames.
of
is in course to assess the
the
steel
example
behaviour
188
4.5  REFERENCES
1
CEB  MODEL CODE FOR SEISMIC DESIGN OF CONCRETE STRUCTURES CEB Bulletin
of Information No. 160  1984.
2
COMISION FEDERAL DE ELECTRICIDAD
(1981) MANUAL
DE DISEO
DE OBRAS
CIVILES, ESTRUTURAS, CRITERIO DE DISENO. Cl.3 Diseno por Sismo.
131
TENTATIVE PROVISIONS
BUILDINGS. ATC
FOR THE
Publication ATC
DEVELOPMENT OF
306 Applied
SEISMIC
REGULATIONS FOR
Technology Council, June,
1978.
4
EUROCODE n.8  COMMON UNIFIED RULES FOR STRUCTURES IN SEISMIC ZONES  EUR
8850.
5
Setti, P. (1984) UN METODO
STRUTTURA
PER LA DETERMINAZZIONE
PER COSTRUZIONI METTALICHE
IN
ZONA
DEL COEFFICIENTE DI
SISMICA.
Costruzioni
Mettaliche n.4.
6
Vanmarche, E. and Gasparini, D. (1976) SIMQKE 
SIMULATED
EARTHQUAKE
MOTIONS COMPATIBLE WITH PRESCRIBED RESPONSE SPECTRA. MIT Report R764.
7
Perotti, F., Rampazzo, L. and
Setti, P.
(1984) DETERMINAZIONE DEL
COEFFICIENTE DI STRUTTURA PER COSTRUZIONI METTALICHE SOGGETTE A
CARICHI
ASSIALI. 2 Convegno Italiano d'Ingegneria Sismica  Rapallo, 69 Giugno.
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