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Commission of the Eur opean Communities

technical steel research


i

JL

Properties and Ser vice Per for mance

STUDY ON DESIGN OF STEEL BUILDING


IN EARTHQUAKE ZONES

Report
EUR 12091 EN
Blow-up from microfiche original

Commission of the European Communities

technical steel research

Properties and Service Performance

STUDY ON DESIGN OF STEEL BUILDING


IN EARTHQUAKE ZONES

EUROPEAN CONVENTION FOR CONSTRUCTIONAL STEELWORK


Avenue des Ombrages, 32/36
B-1200 BRUSSELS

Contract No 7210.ZZ/437
(15.3.1984-15.9.1985)
FINAL REPORT

PA
Directorate-General
Science, Research and Development

1989

: .c

CL'EUR 12091 EN

Published by the
COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES
Directorate-General
Telecommunications, Information Industries and Innovation
L-2920 Luxembourg

LEGAL NOTICE
Neither the Commission of the European Communities nor any person acting
on behalf of the Commission is responsible for the use which might be made of
the following information.

Catalogue number: CD - NA - 12091-EN-C


ECSC-EEC-EAEC, Brussels Luxembourg, 1989

STUDY ON DESIGN OF STEEL BUILDING IN EARTHQUAKE ZONES


SUMMARY

The present study is attempted to give a contribution to the knowledge of the


behaviour of steel structures in
seismic zones, and of enhancing
the
competitiveness of steel in the European and exported markets. It presents all
the available data and indicates which studies are necessary in the future in
order to push the possibilities of steel structures.
The presentation of the results is articulated in the following chapters:
Chapter 1, "INTRODUCTION", presents the general index and briefly describes
some researches on the behaviour of steel structures under severe conditions
promoted by ECSC.
Chapter 2, "SYNTHESIS OF SEISMIC DATA FOR STEEL BUILDINGS", collects
references on the subject together with a short comment on each paper. Before
each comment the name of the author, title of the work, year of publication and
number of pages of the paper are presented. These references are followed by
five key words which include in all cases the words: seismic design and steel
structures. The papers are collected in subchapters concerning the principal
aspects of the seismic behaviour of steel structures. Designers and researchers
will take profit of this list in order to easly find an up to date state of art
of the most interesting problems.
Chapter 3, "THE EXPERIMENTAL ASSESSEMENT OF SEISMIC STRENGTH AND DUCTILITY OF
STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS AND CONNECTIONS", mainly reflects the studies performed in
the last 3 years by the members of the ECCS Technical Committee 13 dealing with
Seismic Design of Steel Structures (at present Working Group 1.3 of T.C.I). The
ECCS recommended testing procedure for assessing the behaviour of structural
steel elements under cyclic loads is presented. In order to check the validity
of the ECCS recommendations and to win some basic information on the hysteretic
behaviour of steel bracing frames some studies were realized and the obtained
results are discussed. The behaviour of beam-to-column connections and some
considerations on the b/t ratios are also presented.
Chapter 4, "THE ASSESSEMENT OF q FACTORS", propose a method for state the
behaviour factor of structures which can be modelled as systems with one degree
of freedom. Then, it is used to determine the behaviour factor q of some one
floor cantilevers. Numerical analysis have been performed on HEA series columns,
which were deflected both in the plane of maximum and minimum rigidity. The
obtained q factors are compared with those suggested by the Eurocode No 8
outlined that for this type of structures the value suggested is conservative.
Of course this item is the more important and useful to the designers, but
exthensive studies leave still to be performed in order to study in a meaninful
way the behaviour factors q to adopt in a reliable and economic design of steel
structures.

IV

ETUDE SUR LA CONCEPTION DES CONSTRUCTIONS EN ACIER


EN ZONE SISMIQUE
.RESUME
Cette tude est destine contribuer la connaissance du comportement des
constructions en acier en zone sismique et accrotre la comptitivit de
l'acier en Europe et l'exportation. Elle prsente toutes les donnes dis
ponibles et indique les tudes entreprendre pour mieux valoriser les ca
pacits des structures en acier.
La prsentation est dcoupe de la faon suivante :
Le chapitre 1, INTRODUCTION, prsente la table des rfrences et dcrit
brivement quelques recherches finances par la CECA sur l'tude du com
portement de structures en acier soumises des sollicitations svres.
Le chapitre 2, SYNTHESE DES DONNEES RELATIVES AUX CONSTRUCTIONS EN ACIER EN
ZONE SISMIQUE, rassemble des rfrences sur ce sujet, avec, pour chacune,
un bref commentaire. Chaque rfrence est dfinie par le nom de son auteur,
le titre du travail, l'anne de publication et le nombre de pages. De plus,
le contenu de ces rfrences est dfini par cinq mots cls, dont deux sont
toujours : conception parasismique, construction en acier. Les articles de
rfrence sont regroups en souschapitres relatifs aux principaux aspects
du comportement des structures en acier en zone sismique. Les projeteurs et
les chercheurs bnficient ainsi d'une liste de rfrences permettant de
trouver rapidement un tat de la question rcent sur les sujets les plus
intressants.
;
Le chapitre 3, EVALUATION EXPERIMENTALE DE LA RESISTANCE ET DE LA DUCTILITE
D'ELEMENTS DE STRUCTURE ET D'ASSEMBL AGES SOUS ACTION SISMIQUE, reprend
essentiellement les tudes et dveloppements accomplis au cours des trois
dernires annes par les membres du Comit Technique 13, actuellement re
baptis Groupe de Travail 1.3 "Construction en zone sismique" du Comit
Technique 1 de la C E . C M .
La procdure exprimentale d'tude du comportement d'lments structurels
en acier sous des actions cycliques dveloppe dans ce groupe est pr
sente. Certaines tudes effectues pour tester la validit de la procdure
CECM et dfinir des donnes fondamentales du comportement des contrevente
ments sous action alterne sont prsentes et les rsultats sont discuts.
On prsente galement des rsultats relatifs au comportement d'asemblages
poutrecolonne et des considrations sur l'influence des rapports b/t.
Le chapitre 4, EVALUATION DES FACTEURS q, contient une proposition de m
thode d'tablissement du facteur q de structures qui peuvent tre modli
ses comme des systmes un degr de libert. Cette mthode est utilise
pour dterminer le facteur de comportement structural q de portiques un
niveau dont les colonnes sont des profils HEA, sollicits dans leur plan
faible ou fort. Les valeurs de q ainsi obtenues sont compares aux valeurs
suggres dans 1'EUROCODE 8, dont on constate qu'elles sont toujours con
servatives. Ce rsultat est videmment important pour les auteurs de
projet, mais on constate aussi que des tudes exhaustives sont encore n
cessaires pour dfinir les facteurs q adopter dans un dimensionnement
la fois raliste et conomique des structures en acier en zone sismique.

V-

.STUDIE - STAHLKONSTRUKTION IN ERDBEBENGEBIETEN


KURZFASSUNG

Die vorliegende Studie hatte das Ziel, zur Verbesserung der Kenntnisse ber
das Verhalten von Stahlkonstruktionen in Erdbebengebieten beizutragen und die
Wettbewerbsfhigkeit von Stahl auf dem Europischen und dem Export-Markt zu
frdern. In' dem Studienbericht werden die bisher verfgbaren Informationen
und Daten zu diesem Thema vorgelegt und es wird auf weitere erforderliche
Untersuchungen hingewiesen, die die Mglichkeiten fr Stahlkonstruktionen verbessern wrden.
Die Ergebnisse der Untersuchungen werden in vier Kapitel vorgestellt :
Das Kapitel 1 "Einleitung" enthlt das Inhaltsverzeichnis und fasst die Ergebnisse einiger Forschungsvorhaben zusammen, die bisher zum Thema "Stahlkonstruktionen unter Extrembedingungen", von der EGKS gefrdert wurden.
Das Kapitel 2 "Zusammenfassung von Informationen und Daten zu Stahlbauten in
Erdbebengebieten" liefert einen Literaturberblick mit kurzer Kommentierung
jeder Verffentlichung, die mit Autorennamen, Titel, Erscheinungsjahr, Seitenzahl ausgewiesen wird. Die Literaturhinweise werden durch 5 Stichworte in Ergnzung zu "Erdbeben Entwurf" und "Stahlkonstruktionen" erweitert. Die Literaturzusammenstellung ist nach den fr das seismische Verhalten von Stahlkonstruktionen wesentlichen Gesichtspunkten in Unterkapitel gegliedert.
Anwender und Forscher knnen sich aufgrund der Zusammenstellung leicht ein Bild
vom derzeitigen Stand der Technik zu den wichtigsten Problemen machen.
Das Kapitel 3 "Experimenteller Nachweis der Festigkeit und Duktilitt von Bauteilen und Verbindungen unter seismischen Beanspruchungen" gibt hauptschlich
einen berblick ber die Untersuchungen, die in den letzten 3 Jahren von Mitgliedern des Technischen Kommitees 13 (Erdbebenbemessung von Stahlbauten) der
EKS (jetzt Arbeitsgruppe 1.3 der Technischen Kommission 1) durchgefhrt wurden.
Dabei wird die von der EKS empfohlene Versuchsdurchfhrung zur Bestimmung des
Verhaltens von Stahlbauteilen unter zyklischen Lasten vorgestellt. Die zum
Zwecke der berprfung dieser Empfehlungen und zur Bestimmung erster Grundinformationen zum hysteretischen Verhalten von Stahlverbnden durchgefhrten Untersuchungen werden beschrieben und die Ergebnisse diskutiert. Es werden auch
einige Resultate zum Verhalten von Sttzen-Riegel-Verbindungen und Schlussfolgerungen fr die b/t-Verhltnisse fr zyklische Belastung angegeben.
Im Kapitel 4 "Bestimmung von q-Faktoren" wird eine Methode zur Bestimmung von
Verhaltensfaktoren q fr Systeme angegeben, die als Schwinger mit einem Freiheitsgrad abgebildet werden knnen. Die q-Faktoren fr einige eingeschossige
Konstruktionen werden mit dieser Methode bestimmt. Fr HEA Profilsttzen werden
fr Biegung um die starke und schwache Achse numerische Ergebnisse fr q angegeben und mit den Angaben im Entwurf des Eurocode 8 verglichen. Die dort vorgeschlagenen q-Werte erweisen sich als konservativ. Gerade dieses Thema ist natrlich fr den Entwurf besonders wichtig, es mssen aber noch weitere ausfhrliche
Untersuchungen durchgefhrt werden, um q-Werte fr einen sicheren und Wirtschaft
liehen Entwurf von Stahlkonstruktionen zu ermitteln.

VII

ABSTRACT
This study is attempted to give a contribution to the knowledge of the
behaviour of steel structures in seismic zones. It presents all the available
data and indicates which studies are necessary in the future in order to push
the possibilities of steel structures. The study is divided into three main
parts. The first one, collects references on the subject together with a short
comment on each paper. The second concerns the assessement of strength and
ductility of steel members and connections under cyclic loads. In the last part
a method for state the behaviour factor q is proposed, and some results for
simple structures are presented.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; behaviour factor; ductility; cyclic
loads.
SOMMAIRE
Cette tude est destine contribuer la connaissance du comportement des
constructions en acier en zone sismique. Elle prsente toutes'les donnes
disponibles et indique quelles tudes sont ncessaires dans le futur pour
valoriser encore les capacits des structures en acier. L'tude est divise
en trois parties. La premire consiste en un recueil de rfrences avec,
pour chacune, un bref commentaire. La seconde concerne l'valuation 'de la
rsistance et de la ductilit des lments de structure en acier et de
leurs assemblages sous des actions cycliques.
Dans la dernire partie, on propose une mthode d'valuation du facteur q
de comportement structurel et on montre quelques exemples d'application de
cette mthode des structures simples.
Mots cls : construction mtallique, conception parasismique, facteur de
comportement structural, ductilit, action cyclique.

ZUSAMMENFASSUNG
Die Studie hat das Ziel, zur Verbesserung der Kenntnisse ber das Verhalten von
Stahlkonstruktionen in Erdbebengebieten beizutragen. Es werden alle verfgbaren
Informationen und Daten zu diesem Thema vorgelegt, und es wird auf weitere notwendige Untersuchungen hingewiesen, die die Mglichkeiten von Stahlkonstruktionen verbessern wrden.
Der Bericht ist in 3 Hauptteile gegliedert :
Der erste Teil gibt eine Literaturbersicht mit Kommentierung jeder Verffentlichung. Der zweite Teil betrifft die experimentelle Bestimmung der Festigkeit
und Duktilitt von Stahlbauteilen und Verbindungen unter zyklischer Last. Der
letzte Teil liefert eine Methode zur Bestimmung der Verhaltensfaktoren q sowie
einige numerische Ergebnisse fr einfache Tragwerke.
Stichworte : Stahlbauten, Erdbebenentwurf, Verhaltensfaktor, Duktilitt,
zyklische Belastung.

IX-

G E N E R A L

INDEX
Page

CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER 2 - SYNTHESIS OF SEISMIC DATA FOR STEEL IN BUILDINGS

13

2 . 1 - DAMAGES

19

2. 2 - BEHAVIOUR OF COMPRESSION MEMBERS AND THEIR CONNECTIONS .. 20


2 . 3 - CALCULATION METHODS

25

2 . 4 - JOINTS

30

2 . 5 - DESIGN CRITERIA

36

2 . 6 - RECOMMENDATIONS

41

2 . 7 - MULTI-STORY BUILDINGS

45

2 . 8 - LOW-RISE BUILDINGS

49

2 . 9 - FRAME BEHAVIOUR

52

2.10- BRACING BEHAVIOUR

62

2.11- ECCENTRIC BRACING BEHAVIOUR

70

2.12 - INTERACTION BETWEEN FRAMES AND BRACINGS

74

2.13- STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS

78

CHAPTER 3 - THE EXPERIMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF SEISMIC STRENGTH AND


DUCTILITY OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS AND CONNECTIONS

89

3 . 1 - INTRODUCTION

92

3 . 2 - THE ECCS RECOMMENDED TESTING PROCEDURE FOR ASSESSING THE


BEHAVIOUR OF STRUCTURAL STEEL ELEMENTS UNDER CYCLIC LOADS
3.2.1 - INTRODUCTION

99
102

3.2.2 - ASPECTS OF THE TESTING PROCEDURE FOR ASSESSING


THE BEHAVIOUR OF STRUCTURAL STEEL ELEMENTS

103

3.2.3 - COMPLETE TESTING PROCEDURE

103

3.2.4 - SHORT TESTING PROCEDURE

Ill

3.2.5 - END OF TEST

112

3.2.6 - COMBINATION OF LOADS

113

3.2.7 - COMMENTARY ON POSSIBLE DEFINITIONS OF F

.-

113

Page
3.3 - TESTS FOLLOWING THE ECCS RECOMMENDATIONS

115

3.3.1 - BEHAVIOUR OF BRACINGS

117

3.3.2 - BEHAVIOUR OF BEAM-TO-COLUMNS CONNECTIONS

124

3.4 - VALIDITY OF THE ECCS RECOMMENDATIONS

130

3.5 - CONSIDERATIONS ON b/t RATIOS

153

3.6- REFERENCES

159

CHAPTER 4 - THE ASSESSMENT OF q FACTORS

163

4.1- INTRODUCTION

166

4.2- METHOD FOR STATE THE BEHAVIOUR FACTOR q

168

4.3 - ONE FLOOR CANTILEVERS

171

4.4- FURTHER INVESTIGATIONS AND CODE APPROACH

180

4.5- REFERENCES

188

-1

.CHAPTER

INTRODUCTION

-l

3-

PRODUCTION

Even if steel, thanks to its ductility, is the more appropriate material


to employ for construction in seismic areas, many national authorities and
many owners prefer nevertheless concrete structures in spite of their
heaviness.

The interest of designers on the specific problems of steel structures in


seismic areas is quite joung, that is about no more than 20 years. In that
period, a certain amount of experimental as well as theoretical investigations has been made. Most of these investigations have been sponsored by
the European Coal and Steel Community research programme in the field of the
utilization of steel structures in seismic regions, involving the recent
following contracts : 7210 SA 111/SA 305/SA 306/SA 202/ SA 403/ SB 403/
SA 407/ SA 814/ SA 401/ SA 109/ SA 606. Of particular interest for the behaviour of steel structures under severe conditions, are the ECSC researches
summarized at the end of this introduction.

Other investigations have been performed recently in the U.S. and in Japan.
t

All indicate a comparatively good behaviour of steel structures under seismic


action when compared to other materials.

In order to contribute to the promotion of steel construction, an


analysis and a synthesis of data were performed with the aim of improving
the methods for the design of steel structures in seismic zones, and of
enhancing the competitiveness of steel in the European and exports markets.

The data accumulated on ECSC research form a valuable complement to the


work that has been undertaken in the field of design codes and in particular of Eurocode 8, the European Code for Structures in Seismic Regions,
which is concerned with the design of concrete, masonry and steel constructions. Eurocode 8 project has enabled q factors to be specified which define
the capability of the a structural system to resist seismic loads in the
post-elastic range and take into account the energy dissipation capacity of a
ductile response of the constructions.

The q factors specified for steel structures in the first draft of the
Eurocode are very conservative and, thus, not to the advantage of steel construction. This mainly due to the lack of knowledge on the performances of
steel structures subjected to cyclic loads.

The present study is first attempt to give a contribution to the knowlegde of


the behaviour of steel structures in seismic zones. It presents all the available data and indicates which studies are necessary in the future in order to
push the possibilities of steel structures.

The presentation of the results will be articulated in the following chapters :


Chapter 2 collects about references on the subject together with a short comment
on each paper. Designers and researchers will take profit of this list in order
to easily find an up to date state of art of the most interesting problems.

Chapter 3 concerns the assessment

of strength and ductility of steel

members and connections subjected to cyclic loads, lhe chapter mainly


reflects the studies performed in the last 3 years by the members of the
ECCS Technical Committee 13 dealing with Seismic Design of Steel Struck
tures (at present Working Group 1.3 of T.C.I.) .

The study of an experimental procedure, tests on bracings and local stability of compressed parts, and the assessment

of numerical models are foun-

damental contributions to the knowledge of the behaviour of steel structures.

Chapter 4 deals with the assessment

of the q factor. A method is proposed

and some results for simple structures are presented. Of course this item
is the more important and useful to the designers, but extensive
leave still to be performed.

studies

It is our hope that in the next 2-3 years,

many numerical calibrations on typical steel structures will be carried on.


Thus, it will be possible to state correct, safe and economical values for
q factors in order to push the use of steel structures in european market.

At the end of this introduction it must be remembered that during the meeting
of Napoli (November 1984) the Technical Committee 13 gave the task of collecting the material of this report to Ing. Luis Manuel Calado de Oliviera Martins
under my responsability. For his competence and intelligence this work was
possible and to him I wish to present my most warm thanks.

This presentation is followed by the list of ECCS W3 1.3 - Seismic Design


members. They will have, in the next future, the responsability and the task
to continue the studies on argument in order to give an always more important
role to steel structures in seismic zones.

ECSC

RESEARCHES REFERRED TO IN PAGE 1

INFLUENCE OF STRESS-STRAIN

DIAGRAM CHARACTERISTICS ON THE REDISTRIBUTION

OF

BENDING MDMENTS AFTER PLASTIC HINGES HAVE BEEN FORMED, by A. Bernard, M. Darin.
The purpose

of the research is to examine how far the new concepts of

the

plastic design of the frameworks can be applied to high-strength steels, which


have usually a higher yield strength Re to tensile strength Rm ratio than mild
steel and to determine the influence of stress-strain diagram characteristics on
the redistribution capacity of bending stresses at plastic hinges.
The research covers four steel types with Rm/Re ratios between 1.10 and

1.53

and a yield plateau between 5.4 and 21.9 times the yield strain.
The

laboratory

tests concern overall

buckling, local buckling, lateral

buckling and the structural ductility up to the collapse of HE 120 B and IPE 140
rolled

sections. The

tests

are on continuous beams

and

on

frames. The

quantitative effects of the main parameters describing the stress-strain diagram


are also studied by computer simulation of laboratory tests.
It appears

that the design with standards based only on yield stress gives

ample security to plastic collapse for all the Rm/Re ratios taken into account.
The plastic design concepts can be applied as well.
Of course the widening of permissible Rm/Re ratios and of plastic
for plastic design are

of

direct interest

elongation

for earthquake resistant design,

because its concepts are so close to those of plastic design.

OVERALL AND LOCAL BUCKLING

OF THIN-WALLED HOLLOW FOR AXIAL LOADING, by

Rondai, M. Braham, J. P. Grimault and OVERALL AND LOCAL BUCKLING OF

J.

THIN-WALLED

HOLLOW FOR EXCENTRIC LOADING, by J. P. Grimault, A. Plunder, J. Rondai.


The aim of the first research is to study the interaction between local plate
buckling and overall buckling of centrically loaded thin-walled tubular members.
The study is limited to cold-formed members with rectangular hollow sections.

7-

In a first part, the test results are described. Nine different sections have
been selected. The experimental program is

concerned with stub column test and

long column tests. It also contains measurements


stresses

in the

profile

and

in the

on yield

original

stress, residual

plate, and

geometrical

imperfections.
In a

second part, the results obtained

calculation are compared


developed and it gives

frem several

with tests results. A

existing methods

of

of calculation

is

new method

good results. A preliminary

study shows that this

last

method could be extended to the case of beam-columns.


The

second research is aimed to investigate

plate buckling

and overall

buckling

the interaction between

of eccentrically

compressed

local

thin-walled

tubular members. It is restricted to cold-formed members with rectangular hollow


cross sections.
The first part of

the report is devoted

to experimental results that are

drawn from tests on two types of sections: the first one is hot finished
the second one is cold finished.

whilst

The experimental program is concerned with

i)

stub column tests, ii) long column tests in combined compression and bending and
iii) beam tests in pure bending. Measurements of yield stress, residual stresses
and geometrical imperfections of the profiles are reported.
In the

second

part

of the

report, a

beam-columns with thin-walled rectangular

design method

is

suggested

hollow cross sections. The

for

procedure

allows for a complete continuity between columns and beam-columns, thick-walled


and thin-walled profiles. Theoretical and experimental results are shown in good
agreement with respect to the semi-probabilistic concept adopted by the European
Convention for Constructional Steelwork.

HYBRID BEAMS - VOIDABILITY,

STATIC AND FATIGUE BEHAVIOUR, by W. Chapeau, R.

Maguoi, A. Piron, A. Plumier.


Several specific problems

of hybrid

girders are analyzed

in this report.

Tests results are presented together with references on state of knowledges

in

the studied fields. The shopwork problems, mainly those of high strength
welding are dealt

with in the

first part of

the report. As

steel

regards the cold

craking phenomenon, the short transverse properties and the residual

ductility

of the heat affected zone. The second part deals with the statical behaviour of
hybrid girders: it contains a short study of pure bending, which was interrupted
by an accident; the causes of the accident are explained; a study on the problem
of lateral buckling and web crippling under concentrated

loads is then given;,

the second part ends with a thorough study of shear buckling of unstiffened
stiffened girders. The third part contains

and

a study of the fatigue behaviour of

stiffned hybrid girders.


The report
steels in some

concludes to an interest of

hybrid girders and high

strength

specific fields of bridges and structures; that interest will

bring practical use only for high strength steels with a good weldability and
carbon percentage less than 0.1%, in countries where the up to date

computation

methods for web buckling are allowed by national standards.

COMPOSITE HYBRID BEAMS, by A. Bruls, A. Piron, Bo, Caparro, Augusti, Buti.


This research

has allowed to define the conditions in which cased beams of

high strength steel can be made. The realization of three prestressed beams and
one

cased beam

not prestressed

and

their

static

tests

have proved

the

reliability of the calculation of the method proposed, and the usefulness of the
prestressing

in respect to cracking

prestressing, the

hybrid

beams

and

stiffness.

behave elastically

In addition, due to

in

the normal

service

conditions.
The

comparison between

the experimental

results

and

the theoretical

calculations based on the creep coefficients of the European Recommendations has


show the need

of using quite

interpret, with
structure.

sophisticated

calculation criteria

an acceptable approximation, the real

so as to

behaviour

of

the

The fatigue test has shown a good performance of the prestressed structure in
comparison with a steel

homogeneous beam having

equal resistance, even

though

forecasts made at theoretical level proved a little too optimistic.


The experimental research also include bonding tests like the "beam-test" on
smooth steel samples and on steel samples treated with adhesives. Whilst on
smooth samples

the

adhesives showed

joint proved

an excesive

to be perfect, the

slipping gradient

in the

samples treated

the
with

long run. This would

suggest not to rely on such a bonding method.

RIGID FRAME CONNECTIONS TO

NCRETE FILLED TUBULAR STEEL COLUMNS, by

P.

Ansourian.
Rigid frame

connections between I beams of

normal and wide flange section,

and square steel tubes were examined experimentally in tests of nine


units. Both welded and high strength

structural

friction bolted joints were examined. The

axial load on the columns varied from 0.15 to 0.75 of their squash load. Failure
in the connection occurred in three of the units. The deformation of the

column

were analyzed in a second order elasto-plastic numerical analysis including


effects of the axial

the

load and the bending moment distribution existing in the

tests. Where failure occurred in the column, agreement

in column deformation

between theory and expriment was excellent, while the calculated collapse

loads

were always conservative. Premature weld failure occurred in connections to

the

front face of the

the

tube. The best connections were these which transmitted

beam tension flange force to the back of the filled tube.


Though considering only monotonicai ly increased loading, the report

contains

a lot of valuable test data on several types of joints, a theoretical method for
computation of load displacement curve and indications on the best type of rigid
joints. The report is thus a

fundamental

basis for

behaviour of these kinds of joint under cyclic loading.

test on

computation

of

10-

BEAM-CDLUMN CONNECTIONS BASED ON THE

USE OF STUDS, by R. Maquoi, X. Naveau,

J. Rondai.
Stud

shear

connectors are widely used

as

connectors between

concrete in composite construction. The aim of


examine the feasibility of a
beams and columns by means of

steel and

the present research

is to

similar technique for framing connections between


treaded connectors, specially for hollow

section

columns, for which connections set problems.


In the experimental part of the research, several sections and stud diameters
are investigated and the following tests are performed:
- determination of the welding parameters for the threaded connectors;
- tensile and shear tests on welded studs and on simple connection models;
- tests on beam-column assemblages with a

square hollow section for the

column

and an IPE section for the beam. For these tests, end plates are welded on the
IPE section or the

assemblage uses angles connecting

either the beam web or

beam flanges to the wall of the column. In any case, only threaded

connectors

are used.
On base of

experimental results, a

design method is

suggested, which appears

quite similar to that used for bolted connections.


Though tests are performed under monotonicaily increased loading, the
displacement curve
various types of

recorded
joints and

gives
is a

information on
good basis

the relative

load

rigidity of

for research work under

cyclic

loading.

EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON RESISTANCE AND DUCTILITY OF STRUCTURAL CONNECTIONS,


by L. Sanpaolesi, L. Biolzi, S. Caramelli, R. Tacchi.
The research presents a serie of tests on bracings and beam-to-columns joints
subjected to cyclic loads. Different types of bolted connections were examined
in order to study the plastic behaviour of subassemblages.
It was demonstrated that only a full resistance bolted joints may be assumed
as effective in bracing connections.

11

EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS ON RESISTANCE AND DUCTILITY OF CORRUGATED SHEET PANELS,


by L. Sanpaolesi, L. Biolzi, R. Tacchi.
The research considers the possibility of taking into account the facades

to

seismic resistance of the buildings.


Some tests

on corrugated

sheet panel

subjected to

in-plane shear

cyclic

forces vere performed.


Unfortunately, the local instability of the sheet panels cause poor resourses
of ductility of such structural arrangements.

Prof. Dr. Ing. Giulio Bailio

12-

EOCS WG 1.3 - Seismic Design members

Prof. Dr. Ing. F. M. Mazzolarli

(Chairman)

Prof. J. M. Aribert

Prof. Dr. Ing. Giulio Bailio

Mr. R. Pepin

Dr. Ing. A. Plumier

Dipl.-Ing. ETH R. Sagesser

CH

Prof. Dr. Ing. G. Sedlacek

Mr. K. Tohmsen

DK

Mr. H. D. Walker

GB

Prof. Dr. Ing. A. Giuffre

Prof. B. Kao

Prof. Dr. Ing. A. Lamas

Dr. F. Nahler

Prof. Dr. T. Naka

Mr. R. Siirila

SF

Prof. C. Thomas

GB

Dr. D. Tordoff

GB

-13

C H A P T E R

-2

SYNTHESIS OF SEISMIC DATA FOR STEEL IN BUILDINGS

15

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
GENERALITIES

16

2. 1 - DAMAGES

19

2. 2 - BEHAVIOUR OF COMPRESSION MEMBERS AND THEIR CONNECTIONS

20

2 . 3 - CALCULATION METHODS

25

2 . 4 - JOINTS

30

2 . 5 - DESIGN CRITERIA

36

2 . 6 - RECOMMENDATIONS

41

2 . 7 - MULTI-STORY BUILDINGS

45

2 . 8 - LOW-RISE BUILDINGS

49

2 . 9 - FRAME BEHAVIOUR

52

2.10- BRACING BEHAVIOUR

62

2.11- ECCENTRIC BRACING BEHAVIOUR

70

2.12 - INTERACTION BETWEEN FRAMES AND BRACINGS


2.13- STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS

74
78

16

GENERALITIES
A brief canment to each paper dealing with seismic design of steel structures
is presented. Before each comment the name of the author, title of the work,
year of publication and number of pages of the paper are presented. These
references are followed by five key words which include in all cases the main
subjects of the report: seismic design and steel structures.
The papers are collected in subchapters concerning the principal aspects of
the seismic behaviour of steel structures.
The list of the key words used is:

acceleration

B
beams
beam-columns
behaviour factor
bolts
braces
buckling
building construction

calculation methods
collapse
columns
compression members
connections

damages
damping
design criteria
design rules
detailing
drift
ductility

17 -

earthquakes
eccentric braces

fasteners
fatigue
foundations
fracture
frames
frequency
friction

H
high-rise buildings
histeretic behaviour

impact

joints

loads
low-rise buildings

M
multy-storey buildings

offshore structures

panels
planning

?/V<*

18

R
recommendations
repairing
rolling systems

seismic design
shear
slip
spectrum
stability
steel structures
structural safety
structural systems
subassemblages

typology
torsion
tovrs
U
uplift

V
vessels
vibration

W
warping
welding

19
2.1 - DAMAGES

BERTERO, V., BRESLER, B., SELNA, L., CHOPRA, A. and KORETSKY, A. (1973) DESIGN
IMPLICATIONS OF DAMAGES OBSERVED IN THE OLIVE VIEW MEDICAL CENTER
BUILDINGS. Proc. of the V World Conf. on Earthquake Engineering, Rome,
page 51-65. *1*
This article examines the possible causes and design implications of the
observed damages in the Olive View Medical Center produced by the San
Fernando earthquake. The buildings under study are of reinforced
concrete. Special attention is given on the aspects involved in the
seismic design, ground motion, material characteristics and structural
features of individual buildings. Some recommendations with a view to
minimize earthquake damage are also presented.
KEY WORDS: steel
detailing.

structures; seismic

design; damages;

ductility;

BUBNOV, S. (1972) DAMAGE EVALUATION. Proc. of the Int. Conf. on Planning and
Design of Tall Buildings, ASCE-IABSE, Lehigh University, Bethlehem,
Pennsylvania, vol. lb, page 247-253. *2*
This state of art is concerned with the problem of planning and design
of structures in seismic regions. Four topics are examined: the first
one regards the pre-earthquake preparation; the second is concerned to
the performance of buildings
during earthquakes, specially
tall
buildings; the third topic is related to the inspections after the
earthquake. Finally, the fourth is related to the teaching taked out
from damages caused by the earthquake.
KEY WORDS: steel
planning.

structures; seismic

design; damages;

ductility;

PINKHAM, C.W. (1972) EVALUATION OF THE EARTHQUAKE DAMAGE. Proc. of the Int.
Conf. on Planning and Design of Tall Buildings, ASCE-IABSE, Lehigh
University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, vol. lb, page 229-245. *3*
The aim of this paper is the evaluation of the damage in buildings
caused by earthquakes. The damage occasioned specially in reinforced
concrete tall buildings by two levels (high and weak intensity) of the
earthquake motions are described. Some photos are presented to accompany
the description. The errors and
mistakes namely of design and
construction, which have been in the origin of those damages are
examined. Some design recommendations and general rules of construction
are suggested.
KEY WORDS: steel
detailing.

structures; seismic design; damages;

ductility;

TANAKA, A., MORITA, K. and YAMANOUCHI, H. ( ? ) DAMAGE OF BRACED STEEL FRAMES


DUE TO THE 1978 MIYAGIKEN-OKI EARTHQUAKE. ( ? ),.page 49-56. *4*
In this paper are described the results of a research study carried out
on damage of several braced steel frames due to the 1978 Miyagiken-Oki
earthquake. Among the reasons for the large damage examined in the
structures are pointed out: inadequate detailing of the joints;
insufficient strength of the connections; misevaluation of the lateral
resistance of the frames and unbalanced arrangement of braces. To
accompany the description, seme photos are presented.
KEY WORDS: steel
connections.

structures;

seismic

design;

damages;

braces;

20

2.2 - BEHAVIOUR OF COMPRESSION MEMBERS AND THEIR CONNECTIONS

FISHER, J. and GURNEY, T. (1972) HIGH-CYCLIC FATIGUE OF CONNECTIONS AND DETAILS.


Proc. of the Int. Conf. on Planning and Design of Tall Buildings,
ASCE-IABSE, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, vol. lb, page
757-769. *1*
This general paper deals with the major factors that influence the
fatigue strength of members and their connections subjected to cyclic
loads, and suggests how they should be considered in design. In
particular, the detail of the joints and their initial flaw conditions
are examined, as well as the crack propagation and the residual
stresses. Furthermore, brief comments ' about design conditions that
provide high cycle strength are presented.
KEY WORDS:
fracture.

steel

structures; seismic design; fatigue; connections;

JAIN, A. and GOEL, S. (1979) CYCLIC END MOMENTS AND BUCKLING IN STEEL MEMBERS.
Proc. of the 2nd U. S. Nat. Conf. on Earthquake Engineering, EERI,
Standford University, page 413-422. *2*
A hysteresis model for steel members which accounts the interaction
between axial load and bending moment is presented. Reduction in the
axial compression load after the first cycle and the residual elongation
is considered. Neverthless, to take account of these effects it is
necessary to do experimental tests to calibrate the model. Finally, some
comments are presented about the use of the model in the prediction of
the dynamic behaviour of braced frames.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic
behaviour; compression members.

design; buckling; hysteretic

KATO, B. and LU, LE-WU (1972) INSTABILITY EFFECTS UNDER DYNAMIC AND REPEATED
LOAD. Proc. of the Int. Conf. on Planning and Design of Tall Buildings,
ASCE-IABSE, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, vol. lb, page
463-481. *3*
The paper presents and discusses some instability problems of columns
and frames subjected to dynamic and cyclic loadings. The influence of
the dynamic axial loads due to earthquake on the stability of the
columns is described. For members and cantilever beam-columns subjected
to axial loads and cyclic bending moments, a technique is developed for
the construction of the load-deflection curve, which is based on the
monotonie load curve. This technique is also applied to frames under
cyclic deflections. Emphasis is placed on the aspects that are important
in earthquake-resistant design of building frames.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; stability; columns; frames.

21

KRAWINKLER, H., BERTERO, V. and POPOV, E. (1975) SHEAR BEHAVIOR OF STEEL FRAME
JOINTS. ASCE Journal of the Structural Division, STll, page 2317-2336.
*4*
This paper presents the results of a series of experiments investigating
the strength, stiffness, ductility, and hysteretic shear behaviour of
beam-column joints in frames with strong columns weak girders subjected
to s'evere lateral loading. Mathematical models of joint behaviour and
design recommendations derived f rem these experimental investigations
and from analytical studies are presented. Only joints of beam-to-column
subassemblages made of standard rolled sections subjected to strong axis
bending are investigated.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; joints; ductility; shear.
POPOV, E. (1972) LOW-CYCLE FATIGUE OF NNECTIONS AND DETAILS. Proc. of the Int.
Conf. on Planning and Design on Tall Buildings, ASCE-IABSE, Lehigh
University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, vol. lb, page 741-755. *5*
The article examines the results of experimentation carried out on steel
members and connections subjected to low-cycle fatigue. In particular,
the good correlation with the results obtained with cantilevers of small
size and full size is pointed out. An empirical expression for the
energy dissipation is proposed. The mode of failure of specimens
submited to low-cycle fatigue is analogous to the high-cycle one,
allowing to conclude that design recommendations for high-cycle fatigue
are also applicable to low-cycle fatigue.
KEY WORDS:
fracture.

steel

structures; seismic design; fatigue; connections;

POPOV, E. and PINKNEY, R. (1971) CYCLIC YIELD REVERSAL IN STEEL BUILDING


CONNECTIONS. AISC The Engineering Journal, July, page 67-79. *6*
Described herein are tests of 24 connection specimens subjected to
various cyclic, quasi-static loading sequencies. Five different basic
connection types are investigated. In three of these, the beam is
connected to the flange of the column. In the remaining two, the beam is
connected indirectly to the web of the column. All of the connection
details are chosen on the basis of their practibility and their
widespread use. In addition to the behaviour and the manner of failure
of the beams and their connections to the columns, the hysteretic
response of the beams under repeated and reversed loadings received
particular attention.
KEY WORDS:
columns.

steel structures; seismic design; 'connections; ductility;

POPOV, E., BERTERO, V. and KRAWINKLER, H. (1973) MOMENT-RESISTING


STEEL
SUBASSEMBLAGES UNDER SEISMIC LOADINGS. Proc. of the V World Conf. on
Earthquake Engineering, Rome, page 1481-1490. *7*
The paper summarizes the results of an experimental research regarding
the hysteretic behaviour of structural systems and their components
under cyclic loads. The subassemblages are idealized by two horizontal
beams attached to a vertical column. The P-delta effect and the
behaviour of plastic hinges in columns under cyclic loads are also
discussed.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; subassemblages; hysteretic
behaviour; connections.

-22

TAKANASHI, K. (1973) INELASTIC LATERAL BUCKLING OF STEEL BEAMS SUBJECTED TO


REPEATED AND REVERSED LOADINGS.
Proc. of the V World Conf. on
Earthquake Engineering, Rome, page 795-798. *8*
This general paper is concerned with the problem of the interaction in
steel beams between lateral buckling and cyclic loads. The results of
the experimental investigation carred out on rolled H-shaped sections
under repeated and reversed loading at constant deflection amplitudes
are summarized.
KEY WORDS: steel
behaviour; beams.

structures; seismic

design; buckling; hysteretic

VANN, W., THOMPSON, L., WHALLEY, L. and OZIER, L. (1973) CYCLIC BEHAVIOR OF
ROLLED STEEL MEMBERS. Proc. of the V World Conf. on Earthquake
Engineering, Rome, page 1187-1193. *9*
The scope of this experimental work is to analyse some aspects of the
behaviour and failure characteristics of rolled steel members subjected
to cyclic loadings. Three diffrents cases have been examined: unbraced
beam, braced beam and unbraced beam-column. Emphasis is placed on the
effects of cross-sectional dimensions, span length, and intermediate
lateral bracing.
KEY WORDS: steel
behaviour; beams.

structures; seismic design; buckling; hysteretic

YAMADA, M., SAKAE, K., TADOKORO, T. and SHIRAKAWA, K. (1970/1971) . ELASTO-PLASTISCHE BIEGEFORMANDERUNGEN VON STAHLSTUTZEN MIT I-QUERSCHNITT, Teil
I and Teil II, Der Stahlbau, n.12/1970, n.3/1971, n.5/1971. *10*
In order to analyse the elasto-plastic bending deformation of wide
flange steel columns subjected to constant axial compression load, the
cross sectional form of the wide flange profile is modelled by several
assumption and a bilinear stress-strain relationship with a strain
hardening coefficient is assumed. With these assumptions the bending
moment-axial force interaction curves and bending moment-curvature
relationships are derived for the wide flange cross section. The
alternately repeated elasto-plastic cyclic bending of wide flange steel
beam-columns subjected to constant axial compression load is also
studied. Finally, the results are compared with the experimental tests.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; beam-columns; hysteretic
behaviour; stability.

-23

TANABASHI, R., YOKOO, Y., WAKABAYASHI, M., NAKAMURA, T. and KUNIEDA, M. (1971)
DEFORMATION HISTORY DEPENDENT INELASTIC STABILITY OF COLUMNS SUBJECTED
TO COMBINED ALTERNATING LOADING. Colloque International RILEM, Buenos
Aires, page 275-295. *11*
In this paper the behaviour of short columns of a hysteretic strain
hardening material is studied, under a constant axial compressive load
and repeated
constant
displacements amplitude
at midspan. An
experimental investigation, with a large description of the testing
machine, and a theoretical study are done. Some curves and conclusions
are presented where is pointed out that a regular variation process of
the initial hysteresis loops toward more oblong loops with greater
elastic regions and with portions of the same negative slope can be
observed. This negative slope is consequence of the P-delta effects,
while the increasing of the elastic regions is justified by the
constitutive law of the material.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; columns;
behaviour; stability.

hysteretic

TAKANASHI, K., TANIGUCHI, H. and TANAKA, H. (1980) INELASTIC RESPONSE OF


H-SHAPED COLUMNS TO TWO DIMENSIONAL EARTHQUAKE MOTIONS. Bull. ERS, n.13,
Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, page 15-27. *12*
The work deals with the study of H-shaped steel columns subjected to two
components of earthquake ground motions. Two analysis are performed: a
theoretical and an experimental one. The model used in the theoretical
analysis is a single column
built into the rigid floors. The
experimental analysis is based on the bi-axial bending theory of the
beam-column. In both analysis is assumed that the principal axis of the
H-shaped column section are initially parallel to the two components of
the earthquake. Some figures of displacements and restoring forces
obtained from the experimental tests are shown.
KEY WORDS: steel
stability.

structures; seismic design; columns; earthquakes;

FAELLA, C. and RAMASCO, R. (1981) DUTTILIT" TRASLAZIONALE DELLE COLONNE IN


ACCIAIO. Giornate C.T.A., Palermo, page 285-301. *13*
A finite element model for the elastic-plastic analysis of beam-columns
subjected to constante axial compressive load and variable shear force
is proposed. The beam-column is modelled by a bar subdivided in several
elements and the section is divided in a finite number of strips. Both
extremities of the bar are connected by elasto-plastic springs. The
material is considered to be elasto-plastic and the strain hardening may
be taken into account. To avoid local instability, limitation of the
maximum deformation is performed. Some examples to show the influence of
some parameters on the shear force-displacement curve are presented.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; columns;
compression members.

ductility;

24

CALADO, L. (1985) SIMULAO NUMERICA DO COMPORTAMENTO SISMICO DE ESTRUTURAS


METLICAS CONTRAVENTADAS. Dissertation submitted of the requirements for
the degree of Master of Science in the Technical University of Lisbon,
January, 82 pages. *14*
The work deals with a finite element able to describe the behaviour of
cyclic axially loaded members taking into account the geometrical and
physical nonlinear effects. Its formulation is developed and the results
obtained with this model are compared with experimental studies allowing
to check the model. A numerical study is then developed to investigate
the influence of some parameters which affect the bearing capacity of
compressed members. The work also shows how the element can be used to
simulate the braces in order to predict the seismic behaviour of plane
braced pin-end structures, and the evaluation of the behaviour factor of
this type of structures.
KEY WORDS: steel structures;
compression members.

seismic

design;

stability;

braces;

Toma, S. and Chen, W. (1982) INELASTIC CYCLIC ANALYSIS OF PIN-ENDED TUBES. ASCE
Journal of the Structural Division, ST10, page 2278-2294. *15*
An analytical study of the inelastic cyclic load-deflection behaviour
and load-shortening behaviour of axially loaded steel tubular bracing
members subjected to cyclic loading is presented. Expressions are first
derived for the moment and axial strain expressed explicitly in terms of
curvature and thrust for tubular sections with geometric imperfections
and residual stresses. For the case of reversed loading, several
approximations
of
the
moment-thrust-curvature
curves
and
moment-thrust-axial strain curves are made. Using these relations,
cyclic solutions of pin-ended columns subjected to one cycle of axial
loading are obtained and compared with some available experimental
tests.
KEY WORDS: steel structures;
compression members.

seismic

design; stability;

braces;

Fukumoto, Y. and Kusarna, H. (1985) LOCAL INSTABILITY TESTS OF PLATE ELEMENTS


UNDER CYCLIC UNIAXIAL LOADING. Journal of Structural Engineering,
vol.111 , No 5, page 1051-1066. *16*
An experimental study of the inelastic cyclic load-deformation behaviour
of welded built-up square box-section short columns subjected to cyclic
axial loading is presented. A total of 10 test specimens were fabricated
. from mild and M g h strength steels, having plate elements with the
width-thichness ratios of 40, 60 and 80 for mild steel, and 40 and 60
for high strength steel. Furthermore, monotonicaily increased loading
tests were carried out for comparison with deformation behaviour of
cyclic loading tests. This
paper emphasizes the development
of
alternating local instability of plate elements associated with cyclic
loading sequences.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic
compression members.

design; stability;

columns;

-25-

2.3 - CALCULATION METHODS

ARIBERT, J. and EDJTEMAI, N. (1981) PRISE EN COMETE DE DUCTILITE" DANS LA


RESPONSE SPECTRALE A UN SEISME. Construction Mtallique, n.4, page 3-23.
This work shows the basic concepts which allow to take into account the
ductility of the structure in the spectral response of one earthquake. A
review on the elastic response spectra and the influence of the
ductility in the earthquake strength of the structure is presented. The
concept of elastic response spectra is afterwards generalized to the
elasto-plastic response
spectra. Two
criteria to
consider
the
correiativeness between the elastic and elasto-plastic response spectra
are analyzed. A numerical model to obtain the elasto-plastic spectra is
presented. In the
end an
approximative method
to obtain
the
elasto-plastic response spectra from the elastic response spectra is
suggested.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; ductility;
calculation methods.

spectrum;

BEA, R. (1979) EARTHQUAKE AND WAVE DESIGN CRITERIA FOR OFFSHORE PLATFORMS. ASCE
Journal of the Structural Division, ST2, page 401-419. *2*
In this work a process for development of earthquake design criteria for
offshore platforms is presented. The process considers: 1) Projected
environmental conditions; 2) Platform system characteristics;
3)
Environmental loadings and
forces on the
platform systems;
4)
Uncertainties in projected
environmental conditions, forces, and
platform response; 5) Platform system performance, particulary inelastic
behaviour during extreme overload conditions; 6) Reliability quantified
as the ability of the platform system to perform satisfactorily in the
full range of projected environmental conditions; 7) Decisions on what
constitues acceptable performance and reliability.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; offshore structures;
calculation methods; planning.
FIESENHEISER, E. and RONAN, J. (1976) RAPID SELECTION OF BEAM-COLUMNS FOR WIND
OR EARTHQUAKE EFFECTS. AISC Engineering Journal, n.4, page 97-102. *3*
This technical paper present four design charts to expedite selection of
beam-columns subjected to axial force and bending moment about the
X-axis. Those charts are based on the AISC formulas (Specification
Section 1.6 - Combined stresses). The charts are elaborated for two
possibilities of the yield stress (36 and 50 Ksi) and for two
possibilities of the end conditions of the members (restrained Cm=0.85
and unrestrained Cm=l. 00 ). To understand how to use the charts some
examples are givenKEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; calculation methods;
beam-columns; loads.

26-

FLEISCHER, W. (1974) SIMPLIFIED SEISMIC DRIFT ANALYSIS OF


FRAMES. AISC Engineering Journal, n.3, page 53-64. *4*

HIGH-RISE

STEEL

This paper presents a simplified method to obtain drift statements for


high rise steel frames under the application of seismic loads. The
equations of this method are developed for two cases: planar rigid and
planar braced frames. The method is demonstrated step by step by an
example of a typical drift analysis in a planar rigid high-rise steel
bent, including a description of the procedure for both rigid and braced
frames. In the last section, the development of the method and the
derivations of the working equations are explained.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; drift; high-rise buildings;
calculation methods.
KAR, A. (1979) SEISMIC SUPPORT: SPEEDY DETERMINATION OF FREQUENCY. ASCE Journal
of the Structural Division, ST7, page 1289-1306. *5*
In this paper, formulas for expedite determination of the natural
frequency of the most commons steel braced structures used as support
for subsystems are presented. All the structures are assumed as systems
of a single degree of freedom. The formulas and recommendations allow
the determination of the transverse and longitudinal natural frequencies
for the structures showed in the figures, and are valid for pin or rigid
connection between horizontal and vertical members. Finally, an example
of application is presented to demonstrate the use of the formulas.
KEY WORDS: steel
methods; frames.

structures; seismic design;

frequency;

calculation

MONTGOMERY, C. and HALL, W. (1979) SEISMIC DESIGN OF LOW-RISE STEEL BUILDINGS


ASCE Journal of the Structural Division, ST10, page 1917-1933. *6*
This paper presents some methods and recommendations for
design
procedures of low-rise steel buildings. The paper begins with a brief
description of the building system for purposes of illustration. The
second portion of the paper contains a review of the behaviour of
low-rise steel buildings when subjected to seismic ground motion. With a
view to a practical procedure two methods of analysis are refered:
response spectra and modal method. These two methods are compared with
the time history analysis. In the concluding sections of the paper,
recommended design procedures are presented and certain suggested
guidelines for improved practice are examined.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; frames; low-rise buildings;
calculation methods.
SMILOWITZ, R. and NEWMARK, N. (1979) DESIGN SISMIC ACCELERATION IN BUILDINGS
ASCE Journal of the Structural Division, ST12, page 2487-2496. *7*
In this paper, is suggested an expedite procedure for determining design
story shears and overturning moments distributions over the.heigth of a
structure to resist the effects of strong ground motions. Four factors
are taken into account: 1) The mode of the deformation of the structure;
2) The percentage of structural setback; 3) The fundamental frequency of
the structure; and 4) The interaction soil-structure. Some tables and
design charts are given to calculate these distributions.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; calculation methods;
frequency; acceleration.

27 -

IGARASHI, S., INOUE, K., ASANO, M. and OGAWA, K. (1973) RESTORING FORCE
CHARACTERISTICS OF STEEL DIAGONAL BRACINGS. Proc. of the V World Conf.
on Earthquake Engineering, Rome, page 2162-2171. *8*
In this work is studied the load-deformation relationship and the
dynamic response characteristics of steel X-bracing structures under
earthquake ground motions. An axial load-deformation relationship of the
bracing members is suggested and employed to calculate the dynamic
response of a X-braced structure with one degree-of-freedom. The
influence of the slenderness ratio on the dynamic response of X-braced
structures is also analysed.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic
hysteretic behaviour.

design; columns;

TEAL, E. (1978) SEISMIC DRIFT CONTROL AND BUILDING


Journal, n.2, page 30-38. *9*

PERIODS. AISC

stability;
Engineering

General parameters of seismic drift control and building periods are


discussed in this paper. It begins with a description of the forces
formulas used in the drift control and proposed by the 1976 Uniform
Building Code (UBC). That
description is followed from
several
considerations and figures
showing the most important
factores
influence. It is explained how should be applied in design all the
considerations done. A design example is presented, to a better
understanding of the drift control and how to use the UBC.
KEY WORDS: steel
structures; seismic
calculation methods.

design; drift;

frequency;

VASQUES, J., POPOV, E. and BERTERO, V. (1973) EARTHQUAKE ANALYSIS OF STEEL


FRAMES WITH NON-RIGID JOINTS. Proc. of the V World Conf. on Earthquake
Engineering, Rome, page 1752-1755. *10*
In this paper, a model of the non-rigidity of the panel zone existing in
the joints of a frame is present. The formulation is based on two
assumptions: 1) The single component of a panel zone distortion is a
shear deformation, and 2) The constitutive relationship is a bilinear
model. It is also explained how the model can be assembled into the
structure's stiffness matrix considering the deformable joint. Some
results of the application of the model to a structure subjected to
earthquakes are included.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; ductility; joints; frames.
BALLIO, G. and MAZZOLANI, F.
(1980) I
COLLEGAMENTI
NELLE
STRUTTURE
SISMO-RESISTENTI DI ACCIAIO. Ed. Italsider, Quaderno Tecnico n.ll, 47
pages. *11*
The objective of this monography is to present some practical and
theoretical elements on the seismic design of steel structures and their
connections. In order to achieve this objective, the work is divided In
three parts: (1) In the first chapter, basic principles on limit states,
structural steel systems and the behaviour of their connections are
presented. (2) The second chapter, deals with the design of the
connections referring particulary its ductility. (3) In the last
chapter, some elucidatory examples are shown.
KEY WORDS: steel
ductility.

structures;

seismic design;

joints;

detailing;

-28

CASCIATT, F., FARAVELLI, L. and ZANON, P. (1978) CRITERI DI COMBINAZIONE DEI


CARICHI ACCIDENTALI DI STRUTTURE METALLICHE IN ZONA SISMICA. Costruzioni
Metalliche, n.3, 8 pages. *12*
A new criterion for combination of accidental loads considering its
variability in time is proposed. The paper begins with a brief review of
the existing methods seting off that in all methods the loads are
described as a continuous process in time. A new formulation on a
probabilistic way of the structural safety which takes account the
variability of the accidental loads in time, and describe the loads as a
filtered Poisson processes is developed. That methodology is applied on
the design of an industrial steel structure to a better understand of
the proposed formulation.
KEY WORDS: steel
collapse; loads.

structures;

FUJIWARA, T. (1978) AN APPROACH


MEMBERS. Proc. of the 5th
825-832. *13*

seismic design; structural

safety;

TO THE ASEISMIC DESIGN OF THE STRUCTURAL


Japan Earthquake Engineering Symoosium, page

The work deals with dynamic response analysis of plane and space frame
structures. A brief description of the method to use on the nonlinear
earthquake response analyses is briefly mentioned. A study of the
behaviour of plane frame, braced frame and space frame structures with
local restoring force characteristics in the elasto-plastic joints
subjected to ground motion is shown. In the last section, a method of
design of structural members based on the distribution of the shear
force is proposed.
KEY WORDS: steel structures;
calculation methods.

seismic

design; frames;

ductility;

FUJIWARA, T. (1979) EARTHQUAKE RESPONSE OF FRAME STRUCTURES HAVING ASEISMIC


ELEMENTS. Trans, of the Achitectural Institute of Japan, n.285,
November, page 101-108 and n.286, December, page 65-74. *14*
A method of earthquake response analysis of braced frame structures is
proposed. An analytical formulation of the hysterectic characteristics
of the brace with elasto-plastic joints is presented. The equation of
motion of a braced frame using the method previously exposed are
established and applied to a structure to predict the earthquake
response. The results are later compared with the elastic response, and
some conclusions are appointed.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic
methods; hysteretic behaviour.

design; braces;

calculation

-29FUJIWARA, T. (1980) SEISMIC BEHAVIOR OF INELASTIC MEMBERS OF BRACED FRAME


STRUCTURE. Proc. of the 7th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering,
Istanbul, Turkey, page 241-248. *15*
A formulation of the seismic behaviour of inelastic members of braced
frame structures is presented in this work. An analytical representation
of the brace which takes account of (1) the relation between the bending
moment and the rotation of the member with axial force and (2)
elasto-plastic joints is exposed. In the last section, is compared the
elasto-plastic dynamic response of braced frame using the method
previously exposed with a structure without braced members.
KEY WORDS: steel structures;
behaviour; ductility.

seismic

design; braces;

hysteretic

KATO, B. and AKIYAMA, H. (1982) SEISMIC DESIGN OF STEEL BUILDINGS. ASCE ' Journal
of the Structural Division, ST8, page 1709-1721. *16*
An approach for the ultimate limit state' design of steel buildings
againts the credible severest earthquake is presented on the basis of
energy concept. The safety of the structure is judged by comparing
structure's energy dissipating capacity with earthquake input energy to
the structure. A general safety criterion is first developed for a
simple elasto-plastic shear-type system, and then a procedure is
analyzed in detail to relate the strength and deformation capacity of
steel members to those of the dynamically equivalent elasto-plastic
system.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; braces; structural
ductility.

safety;

KATO, B. and AKIYAMA, H. (1981) DUCTILITY OF MEMBERS AND FRAMES SUBJECTED TO


BUCKLING. Presented at the May, 1981 International Convention and
Exhibition, ASCE, held at, New York, N.Y. (Preprint 81-100), 14 pages.
*17*
Criteria to evaluate the eventual good behaviour of steel structures and
their members subjected to strong ground motion are presented. Firstly,
the moment-rotation relationships which take account of the buckling of
structural members based on test results are developed. The tests are
performed on members subjected to bending moment with and without axial
compression load. An analytical model of moment frames is developed and
related with the moment-rotation relationship of the members. In the
last section, the ductility ratio of the frame is evaluated and related
with the ductility ratio of the members.
KEY WORDS: steel
frames.

structures; seismic

design; ductility; buckling;

ARIBERT, J. and BROZZETTI, J. (1984) COMPORTEMENT ET CONCEPTS DE DIMENSIONNEMENT


DES CONSTRUCTIONS METALLIQUES EN ZONE SISMIQUE. Construction Mtallique,
n.l, page 5-23. *18*
The purpose of this work is to present some practical and theoretical
elements on the behaviour and seismic design of steel structures and
their connections. In order to achieve this objective, the work is
divided in three parts. In the first part, special attention is paid to
the strengh, stability and hysteretic behaviour of steel members. The
second part deals with the nonlinear dynamic methods of structures. In
the last part, some numerical values to use in the checking of the limit
states according to the C E . C M . are presented.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; ductility;
calculation methods.

stability;

30
2.4 - JOINTS
KATO, B. and McGUIRE, W. (1973) ANALYSIS OF T-STUB FLANGE-TO-COLUMN CONNECTIONS.
ASCE Journal of the Structural Division, ST5, page 865-888. *1*
An analytic and experimental study on the behaviour of high strength
bolted connections is presented. Four cases are considered:
(1)
Separation does not occur before ultimate strength of the member is
reached; (2) Separation occurs in range from yield strength to ultimate
strength of the member; (3) Separation occurs in range from elastic
limit to yield strength of the member; (4) Separation occurs before the
member reaches it elastic limit. The test results are compared with the
theoretical ones, and a design method using the theoretical formulas is
suggested.
KEY WORDS:
fasteners.

steel

structures;

seismic

MICALI, A. (1981) OYSTER - ROLLING ANTI-SEISMIC


Porli, Italy, 6 pages. *2*

design;

joints;

ductility;

SYSTEM. Aldo Micali, 47100

This technical report presents a rolling anti-seismic system to absorb


horizontal displacement derive from the ground motion. This mechanical
gear is composed by two concavous elements inserted by a sphere whose
diameter is lightly higher in relation to the total heigth of the two
concavous elements. It is possible to superpose two of these systems in
order to absorb
great horizontal displacements.
To follow
the
explanation some figures are shown.
KEY WORDS: steel
detailing.

structures; seismic design;

joints; rolling systems;

POPOV, E. and PINKNEY, R. (1971) CYCLIC YIELD REVERSAL IN STEEL BUILDING


CONNECTIONS. AISC The Engineering Journal, July, page 66-79. *4*
Described herein are tests of 24 connection specimens subjected to
various cyclic, quasi-static loading sequencies. Five different basic
connection types are investigated. In three of these, the beam is
connected to the flange of the column. In the remaining two, the beam is
connected indirectly to the web of the column. All of the connection
details are chosen on the basis of their practibility and their
widespread use. In additon to the behaviour and the manner of failure of
the beams and their connections to the columns, the hysterectic response
of the beams under repeated and reversed loadings received particular
attention.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; joints; ductility; columns.
ROEDER, C. and HAWKINS, N. (1981) CONNECTIONS BETWEEN STEEL FRAMES AND
WALLS. AISC The Engineering Journal, n.l, page 22-29. *5*

CONCRETE

This work describes an analytical and experimental study on the


behaviour of the connections between steel frames and concrete walls.
This connection combine a steel plate, which is embedded into the
concrete with headed metal studs, with a typical steel frame connection
between the plate and the beam. A brief analyses of the deflection of
mixed structures for some connection conditions is presented. A design
procedure to obtain strength,
stiffeness and ductility for
the
connections is suggested. In the concluding sections, the results of a
series of experiments are decribed and compared with the design
procedure.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; frames; bolts; connections.

31

RU-LIANG WANG, L. and CARRLE, G. (1978) END RESTRAINTS ON STEEL JOIST FLOOR
VIBRATIONS. AISC The Engineering Journal, n.2, page 54-58. *6*
This general article deals with the vibration of steel joist floors
presents a method of controlling the floor vibrations. Some concepts
the vibration of floors are exposed and it is suggested that varying
rotational end restraints of the floor it is possible to control
vibration. In the last part, some figures are presented, showing
influence of the end restraints on the frequency, static deflection
amplitude of the floor.
KEY WORDS:
frequency.

and
on
the
the
the
and

steel structures; seismic design; connections; vibration;

ZANON, P. (1979) RESISTENZA E DUTTILIT" DI ANGOLARI TESI BULLONATI. Costruzioni


Metalliche, n.4, 19 pages. *7*
Described herein are the results of an experimental research program
regarding the collapse behaviour of some typical joints for tensioned
bars formed by angles. The study is carried out on sixty-nine elements
to see the influence of some parameters: connection geometry; type of
connection - welded or bolted; number of bolts; class of bolts; joint
ductility. A great number of photos of mechanism of collapse and
load-displacement curves are shown for several connections. Some
comments regarding the experimental research are done in the end.
KEY WORDS: steel
ductility.

structures;

seismic design; detailing;

joints;

KRAWINKLER, H. and POPOV, E. (1982) SEISMIC BEHAVIOR OF MOMENT CONNECTIONS AND


JOINTS. ASCE Journal of the Sructural Division, ST2, page 373-391. *8*
The behaviour of moment connections and beam-column joints in moment
resisting steel frames subjected to severe earthquakes is studied. The
cyclic inelastic
deformation capacities
of different
types
of
connections are discussed and design recommendations are presented. A
conceptual approach to the prediction of the low cyclic fatigue life of
welded connections under random loading is outlined, utilizing concepts
of elastic-plastic
fracture mechanics. The shear
behaviour
of
beam-column joints subjected to large cyclic beam moment reversals is
summarized. Based on experimental
evidence and in a
simplified
mathematical model for shear strength, a method for the shear design of
joints is suggested.
KEY WORDS: steel structures;
behaviour; fatigue.

seismic design;

joints;

hysteretic

KATO, B. (1982) BEAM TO COLUMN CONNECTION RESEARCH IN JAPAN. ASCE, Journal of


the Sructural Division, ST2, page 343-360. *9*
The study of the behaviour on the beam-to-column connection is analysed.
Special attention is given to the behaviour of joint panels. For some
beam to column connection types is suggested design formulas. Based on
an experimental research a semi-empirical moment-shear deformation
relationship for the panel zone is proposed. The influence of the shear
deformation and local buckling of joint panels on frame behaviour is
commented and formulas for the local strength of diaphragm to column
joints are suggested.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; frames; connections; shear.

-32

NISSFOLK, B. (1979) FATIGUE STRENGTH OF JOINTS IN SHEET METAL PANELS. 2. Screwed


and Riveted Connections, Swedish
Council for Building
Research,
Stockholm, Sweden, Document D15: 1979, 196 pages. *10*
This report is part of a research program regarding the structural use
of sheet metal panels. The work begins with an analyses of the fatigue
phencmenom and the crack propagation. The results of experimental
studies on the strength of sheet metal structures and their connections
under different static and fatigue loading conditions are presented. The
performance requirements for fasteners
in sheet panels is
also
investigated. The great number of photos, tables and curves concerning
the tests performed provides data for design of sheet metal structures.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; fatigue; panels; fasteners.
STRNAD, M. (1981) FATIGUE STRENGTH OF SCREWED FASTENINGS IN THIN
SHEET
COMPONENTS. The Structural Engineer, vol. 59B, No. 3, September, page
33-40. *11*
The paper is concerned with the analysis of the behaviour of screwed
fastenings subjected to repeated loading that can lead to fatigue and
also provide data on which some practical calculations can be based. It
begins with an analyses of the influence of the time variation of
loading in the fatigue strength of fastenings. For the elasto-plastic
design strength of fastenings is suggested two ways of the determination
of the design load. Some experimental results to a better understanding
of the behaviour of the fastenings subjected to cyclic loadings are
presented, outlined that in the limite state design of
screwed
fastenings the elasto-plastic behaviour must not be ignored.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; fatigue; joints; fasteners.
KLEE, S. and SEEGER, T. (1973) SCHWINGFF^IGKEITSUNTERSUCHUNGEN AN PROFILBLECHBEFESTIGUNGEN MIT SETZBOLZEN. Der Stahlbau n. 10, page 309-318. *12*
The resistance of corrugated steel sheet fastenings with drive pins
under longitudinal, transverse
static
and
cyclic
loading
is
investigated. For longitudinal loading of 5 10E3 cycles, the fatigue
strength, characterized mostly by sheet failure, are 35% to 60% of the
static strength depending on the steet thickness. For transverse loading
of 5 10E4 cycles the fatigue strength characterized here by pin failure,
is about 30% of the static strength. In addition, fatigue strength
values are determined under combined transverse and
longitudinal
loading.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; fatigue; joints; fasteners.
STRNAD, M. ( ? ) FATIGUE STRENGTH OF SCREWED FASTENINGS. Proceeding of IABSE
Colloquium on Fatigue of Steel and Concrete Structures, page 683-690.
*13*
This state of art is concerned with the problem of the behaviour of
screwed fastenings subjected to cyclic loadings that can lead to
fatigue. A brief summary concerned with the past experimental research
and a description on the response of a fastening subjected to cyclic
loading and the parameters that influences the fatigue strength are
presented. Based on statical
evaluation of experimental
results
emperical design formulas for fatigue strength of screwed fastenings are
suggested.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; fatigue; joints; fasteners.

33 -

MARSH, C. and PALL, A. ( ? ) FRICTION DEVICES TO CONTROL SEISMIC RESPONSE.


Interna Report, Concordia University, Montreal, page 809-818. *14*
This report presents a technique for kinetic energy dissipation in
structures based on friction joints, during strong earthquakes. Some
systems for concrete and steel structures are suggested. The idea of
these systems is to reduce the earthquake damages in buildings by using
friction joints which acts as fuses. The explanation is followed by some
figures.
KEY WORDS: steel
detailing.

structures; seismic

design;

joints;

friction;

PALL, A. , MARSH, C. and FAZIO, P. (1980) FRICTION JOINTS FOR SEISMIC CONTROL OF
LARGE PANEL STRUCTURES. PCI Journal, vol. 25, n. 6, page 38-61. *15*
A technique for energy dissipation in concrete panel structures based in
friction joints during strong earthquakes is suggested in this paper.
The behaviour of these joints and selection of its location is
explained. Some results of experimental tests realized on diffrents
joints are shown. In order to investigate the influence of these joints
on the seismic response of panel structures a simple idealization of
these joints are suggested, and some seismic analyses with parametric
study are performed for the optimization of seismic response.
KEY WORDS: steel
detailing.

structures; seismic

design;

joints;

friction;

TAKANASHI, K., TANAKA, H. and TANAGUCHI ( ? ) INFLUENCE OF SLIPPING AT HIGH


STRENGTH BOLT CONNECTIONS ON DYNAMIC BEHAVIOUR OF FRAMES. Report of the
Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, 19 pages. *16*
In this work the influence of slipping at high strength bolt connections
on seismic response of frames is investigated. Some repeated and
reversed load tests on high strength bolt connections are performed in
order to establish the analitical load-deformation relationship of the
connection. A numerical model of bolted connections is suggested and a
mathematical formulation of the dynamic behaviour of frames with these
connections is developed. The analitical results using the previous
formulation are compared with experimental tests carried on steel frames
and are used for discussion of the slip on the seismic response of
frames.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; frames; slip; bolts.
BALLIO, G. and
MAZZOLANI, F.M.
(1980) I COLLEGAMENTI NELLE
STRUTTURE
SISMO-RESISTENTI DI ACCIAIO. Ed. Italsider, Quaderno Tecnico n.ll, 47
pages. *17*
The objective of this moncgraphy is to present some practical and
theoretical elements on the seismic design of steel structures and their
connections. In order to achieve this objective, the work is divided in
three parts: (1) In the first chapter, basic principles on limit states,
structural steel systems and the behaviour of their connections are
presented. (2) The second chapter, deals with the design of the
connections referring particulary its ductility. (3) In the last
chapter, seme elucidatory examples are shown.
KEY WORDS: steel
ductility.

structures;

seismic design;

joints;

detailing,

34

RENTSCHLER, G., CHEN, W. and DRISCOLL, G. (1980) TESTS OF BEAM-TO-COLUMN WEB


MOMENT CONNECTIONS. ASCE Journal of the Structural Division, ST5, page
1005-1022. *18*
Described herein are the results of a series of four full-scale beam to
column moment resisting web connection assemblages under static loading.
Each assemblage consists of an 5.50m long column and a beam approximativ
1.50m long connected at midheight of the column. Four different
geometries of welding and bolting the beam to the column are tested.
These connections
simulate building
connections with
the beam
transmitting shear and moment to the column and the column being acted
upon by an axial load. Special attention is paid to the strength,
stiffness and ductility of those connections.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; connections; detailing,
ductility.
CHEN, W. and PATEL, K. (1981) STATIC BEHAVIOR OF BEAM-TO-COLUMN
MOMENT
CONNECTIONS. ASCE Journal of the Structural Division, ST9, page
1815-1838. *19*
Described herein are tests of 12 full-size symmetrically-loaded moment
resisting beam-to-column
connections, subjected
to
monotonicaily
increasing static loading to failure. All specimens are designed
incorporating all possible limiting cases in practical connection
design. The discussion of the tests is diveded into four parts: 1) Fully
welded connections; 2) Flange welded, web bolted connections; 3) Flange
welded connections with various means
of carrying a shear;
4)
Fully-bolted connections. The results show the general behaviour of
moment connections and peculiar change in behaviour when the connection
detailings are changed from fully welded to bolted and to fully bolted.
KEY WORDS:
ductility.

steel structures; seismic design; connections; detailing,

RENTSCHLER, G., CHEN, W. and DRISCOLL, G. (1982) BEAM-TO-COLUMN WEB CONNECTION


details. ASCE Journal of the Structural Division, ST2, page 393-409.
*20*
The results of eight simulated tests on web connection details are
presented. In the simulations, pairs of steel plates are welded to
column sections using different attachment ' details. These plates
represent the tension and compression flanges of the beam attached to
the column. The pair of flange plates are loaded by tension and
compression forces to simulate the bending moment of a beam acting upon
the column. Observations are made of stresses and deformations as well
as phenomena that prevented
the connections from obtaining
the
theoretical maximum_load level.
KEY WORDS:
ductility.

steel structures; seismic design; connections; detailing;

35

BERTERO, V., POPOV, E. and KRAWINKLER, H. (1972) BEAM-COLUMN SUBASSEMBLAGES.


UNDER REPEATED LOADING. ASCE Journal of the Structural Division, ST5,
page 1137-1159. *21*
An experimental study on the behaviour of two types of structural steel
half-scale subassemblages of a multistory unbraced frame subjected to
simulated gravity and cyclic seismic loads is presented in this paper.
The two types of specimens are typical of an upper story and a lower
story of a building. One of the simulated seismic loading patterns
applied to the specimens is of the low cyclic fatigue type with
progressively increasing displacement amplitudes. The other is of the
incremental displacement type. The lateral loads are applied in a
quasistatic manner. Special attention is given to the behaviour of the
column panel zone and the 2nd order effects.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; subassemblages; hysteretic
behaviour; ductility.
MONCARZ, P. and GERSTLE, K. (1981) STEEL FRAMES WITH NONLINEAR CONNECTIONS. ASCE
Journal of the Structural Division, ST8, page 1427-1441. *24*
In this paper is outlined a method of analysis which accounts for
nonlinear connection behaviour and
variable load histories. The
analytical approach is briefly described and applyed to some frames to
document the consequences of approximations on the prediction of sway,
force distribution among girders and columns, deflection stability, and
response to load histories. Finally, some conclusions based on the
numerical evidence are presented.
KEY WORDS: steel structures;
behaviour; connections.

seismic design; frames;

hysteretic

BOUWMAN, L. (1982) BOLTED CONNECTIONS DYNAMICALLY LOADED IN TENSION.


Journal of the Structural Division, ST9, page 2117-2129. *28*

ASCE

A report of fatigue tests on tensile loaded bolted connections is


presented. The object of these dynamic tests is to determine the fatigue
strength of the connections for various locations of the contact
pressures, various preloads and bolts distances. Some typical examples
of structural connections design are presented, being outlined that, by
a judiciously selection of the location of the contact faces, in
connections with bolts loaded dynamically in tension, a good structural
design can be obtained.
KEY WORDS: steel
connections.

structures; seismic

BUTLER, L., PAL, S.


and KULAK, G.
CONNECTIONS. ASCE Journal of
989-1005. *29*

design;

bolts;

fatigue;

(1972) ECCENTRICALLY LOADED


WELDED
the Structural Division, ST5, page

\x

The behaviour of eccentrically loaded welded connections is investigated


in this paper. With this purpose a theoretical method is developed for
predicting the ultimate loads of eccentrically loaded fillet welded
connections. The method is based upon the load deformation response of
elemental fillet welded. The method takes into account the variation in
fillet weld strength with respect to the direction of the applied load.
An experimental program is done and the results are compared with the
predicted by the analytical method.
KEY WORDS: steel
connections.

structures; seismic design; welding;

ductility;

36

2.5 - DESIGN CRITERIA

ARNOLD, C. (1979) CONFIGURATION AND SEISMIC DESIGN: A GENERAL REVIEW. Proc. of


the II U.S. National Conference on Earthquake Engineering, EERI,
Standford University, page 22-36. *1*
The relationship between building configuration (size and shape) and
seimic design is explained in this paper. After a short analysis of the
Uniforme Building Code (USA), which gives some rational rules for
building configurations, it identifies some configuration problems
namely: general building form; size; nature and location of resisting
elements. It is possible to conclude that the final configuration choice
is the result of a decision process which involves architects and
structural engineers in a way to reach a good configuration and a safe
building.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; planning; typology; design
criteria.
BERG, V. and HANSON, R. (1973) ENGINEERING LESSONS TAUGHT BY EARTHQUAKES. Proc.
of the V World Conference on Earthquake Enguneering, Rome, page 82-93.
*2*
This general article describes the results of a research study carried
on earthquake damages of some reinforced concrete structures. The errors
and mistakes which have been in the origin of those damages are
examined. Some photos are shown to accompany the description. Evaluation
of damages caused by earthquakes gives us the opportunity to check the
assumptions made in the planning and design of structures.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; planning; damages; design
criteria.
FUJIMOTO, M. and NAKA, T. ( ? ) EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES CONCERNING STEEL
STRUCTURES, THEIR ELEMENTS AND THEIR CONNECTIONS. ( ? ) , page 47-65.
*3*
This state of art presents some mechanical characteristics of steel
structures, their elements and their connections under cyclic loadings
obtained through experimental investigation. The topics considered are:
(1) Materials; (2) Local buckling of plate elements; (3) Compression
members; (4) Beam and columns; (5) Mechanical fasteners and welding; (6)
Connections; (7) Unbraced frames; (8) Braced frames. Based on these
topics, is suggested a summary for a symposium discussion.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic
hysteretic behaviour.

design; connections; frames;

-37

FUJIMOTO, M. (1970) DESIGN ESSENTIALS IN EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT BUILDINGS.


Architectural Institute of Japan, Tokyo, page 91-114. *4*
The 5th chapter of the book "Design essentials in earthquake resistant
buildings" is dedicated to the steel structures. This chapter is divided
in three parts. In the first part, "General", some considerations on
steel structures and mechanical characteristics of the steel are
presented. The second part, "Structural design", deals with
the
structural typology and the use of the diferents types of steel members,
hot rolled steel shapes and steel pipes. The last part "Structural
precautions", examines the seismic design of steel members and their
connections, bolted and welded.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic
criteria; detailing.

design; connections;

design

GIANGRECO, E. (1971) TENDANCES ACTUELLES DANS LE CALCUL ANTISISMIQUE DES


CONSTRUCTIONS METALLIQUES. Construction Mtallique, n.3, pagell-21. *5*
The fundamental criteria for planning of steel multi-story buildings in
seismic zones are examined in this work. The dynamic response based on
the response spectra is reviewed. The estimation of the seismic
coefficient and the parameters that influence its value, such as:
seismici ty zone; type of soil foundation; dynamic behaviour of the
structure; masses distribution along the heigth of the building is
consedered. The influence of the braces on the spacial earthquake
response of multi-story buildings of diferents shapes is analysed and
some remarks on seismic design of industrial buildings are outlined.
KEY WORDS: steel
braces.

structures; seismic design; frames; design

criteria;

GIANGRECO, E. (1969) ORIENTAMENTI SULLA PROGETTAZIONE DI COSTRUZIONI IN ACCIAIO


IN ZONA SISMICA. Costruzioni tetaniche, n. 5, 7 pages. *6*
The fundamental criteria for planning of steel multi-story buildings in
seismic zones are examined in this note. Special attention is given on
the estimation of the seismic coefficient and the parameters that
influence its value, such as: seismici ty zone; type of soil foundation;
dynamic behaviour of the structure; masses distribution along the heigth
of the building. The influence of the braces on the earthquake response
of multi-story buildings is also considered through the analysis of an
example of a frame structure with and without braces.
KEY WORDS: steel
braces.

structures; seismic design; frames; design criteria;

KATO, B. and AKIYAMA, H. (1982) SEISMIC DESIGN OF STEEL BUILDINGS. ASCE


of the Structural Division, ST8, page 1709-1721. *7*

Journal

An approach for the ultimate limite state design of steel buildings


againts the credible severest earthquake is presented on the basis of
energy concept. The safety of the structure is judged by comparing
structure's energy dissipating capacity with earthquake input energy to
the structure. A general safety criterion is first developed for a
simple elasto-plastic shear-type system, and then a procedure is
analyzed in detail to relate the strength and deformation-capacity of
steel members to those of the dynamically equivalent elasto-plastic
system.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; braces; structural
ductility.

safety;

38

RAMASCO, R. (1979) PROBLEMI DI INGEGNERIA SISMICA. Palermo, Corso sulle


strutture in acciaio; Le strutture in acciaio nella edilizia, ACAI,
CESIA, CTA, Aprile-Giugno, 40 pages. *8*
In this note, the dynamic analyses fundaments of steel structures are
reviewed. The dynamic equations of a system with one degree of freedom
are deduced for a later generalization to systems with many degrees of
freedom. To predict the natural frequences of structures, the Holzer's
method is deduced. In the seismic design, a simplified method to
estimate the forces acting on multi-story frames is presented. The
concluding sections have some references on stiff elements and braces.
KEY WORDS: steel
methods; braces.

structures; seismic

TEAL, J. (1975) SEISMIC DRIFT CONTROL


page 56-67. *9*

design;

frames;

calculation

CRITERIA. AISC Engineering Journal, n.2,

In this work, the seismic drift control is analyzed. It is defined as


the product of two variables: building flexibility and seismic force. As
the seismic force is not known, it is suggested to define the drift by
one index, "Dynamic Flexibility Index", in order to compare the
performance of different buildings. Tables giving the values of this
index for buildings of different types, height and occupancy are
presented allowing a vision of the practical limits of the index. In
appendix, it is given a vocabulary of some terms used in seismic design.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; drift; structural
design criteria.

safety;

PLUMIER, A. (1981) ELEMENTS DE CONCEPTION DES STRUCTURES EN ACIER EN ZONE


SISMIQUE. Note Technique
NT20, Septembre, Centre de
Recherches
Scientifiques et Techniques de l'Industrie des Fabrications Mtalliques,
Bruxelles, 52 pages. *10*
The fundamental principles concerning with the planning and seismic
design of steel structures and their connections are exposed in this
technical report. The work is divided in four chapters. In the first
chapter, a brief review of seismic action, behaviour of structures and
seismic design methods is presented. The second chapter deals with the
fundamental rules of planning of earthquake resistent buildings. In the
third chapter seme design recommendations regarding with connections,
instability, type of steel and braced frames are suggested. In the last
chapter, are exposed a few remarks relating to the behaviour of bridges
and its seismic detailing. In annex, a design example of the type
"Static Equivalence Force" using the New Zealand Code is examined.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; planning; design criteria;
connections.

-39

BALLIO, G. (1980) CONSIDERAZIONI SUL PROGETTO DI STRUTTURE INACCIAIO IN


SISMICA. Costruzioni Metalliche, n.2, page 61-67. *11*

ZONA

The article examines some problems regarding seismic design of steel


structures and their connections. The study of the structural safety
based on limite states approach is presented. The behaviour
of
structural members is analyzed in particular the influence of the
slenderness and local instability on the ductility of the struts. The
performance of the connections (bolted and welded) is also investigated,
specially its ductility. Some criteria for evaluation and control of
ductility of struts and their connections are presented. A numerical
example of simple bracing truss is solved to a better understand of the
concepts presented.
KEY WORDS: steel structurs; seismic design; ductility; design criteria;
connections.
DECLERCK, R. and HISETTE, J. (1978) L'INDUSTRIE DE LA CONSTRUCTION EN JAPON.
C.S.T.C. - Revue, n.4, Decembre, page 8-15. *12*
This general paper presents an economical study on the building
construction in Japan. The topics examined are: The Japanese building
companies; The wages and the social loads; The professional organic
structures in the building constructions; The research in the building
sector; The building dockyard. In the last topic are presented seme data
on the planning, safety and building technic of a new town - Ashiyahama.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic
planning; structural safety.

design; building

construction;

ENGLEBERT, J. (1978) TENDANCE DE L'INDUSTRIALISATION DU BATIMENT EN JAPON.


C.S.T.C. - Revue, n.4, Decembre, page 35-44. *13*
In this paper, it is concisely presented two governamental operations
realized in Japan in 1970 and 1976 with a view to find new building
formulas in the face of the increase of the costs of the lands and the
constructions. The two operations were called "Pilot-House" (1970) and
"Housing 55" (1976). For the two operations are succintly described the
winner projects (the preconized systems and the materials used (steel,
concrete and wood)).
Some photos are
shown to accompany
this
description, and some conclusions on these two governamental operations
are exposed.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic
planning; design criteria.

design; building

construction;

POPOV, E. and BLACK, R. (1981) STEEL STRUTS UNDER SEVERE CYCLIC LOADINGS. ASCE
Journal of the Structural Division, ST9, page 1857-1881. *14*
The results of cyclic experiments on 24 struts of different steel shapes
of sizes employed in practice are reported in this paper. The geometries
of some of the specimens are so selected that they also-simulate some
frequently used sections of larger members. The reported hysteric loops
provide a wide range of data on the inelastic behaviour of struts under
severe reversing loads. An approach for predicting analytically the
deteriorating capacity of struts under extreme load reversals is
suggested. Sane practical implications resulting from this work are
summarized at the end of the paper.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic
stability; columns.

design; hysteretic behaviour;

40

COMO, M. and IANNI, G. (1981) DUTTILIT" E CALCOLO ALLO STATO LIMITE DELLE
STRUCTTURE ANTISISMICHE. Universit" degli Studi di Napoli, Quaderni di
Teoria e Tecnica delle Strutture n.487, 12 pages. *15*
A seismic design methodology for structures with control of ductility is
suggested in this work. It is based on a optimum condition of ductility,
that is: the collapse mechanism should be the global type; the ductility
of the structure should not be excessively high in order to give rise to
an economical seismic design; the local safety of the sections should be
compatible with
the verifications
by admissible
stresses. The
theoretical bases are developed, allowing to estimate the elasto-plastic
dissipation capacity of the structure during a strong earthquake.
Special emphasis is given to reinforced concrete structures and in final
part a illustrative example using the proposed methodology is presented.
KEY WORDS: steel structures;
calculation methods.

seismic

design; ductility;

frames;

COMO, M. and IANNI, G. (1981) RESISTENZA E DUTTILIT" NECESSARIE


ALLE
COSTRUZIONI PER L'ASSORBIMENTO DEI TERREMOTI DISTRUTTIVI. Industria
Italiana delle Costruzioni, n.120, 7 pages. *17*
Through the observation of the difference of level between the Italian
Seismic Code spectrum and the acceleration spectra of some recent
italian strong earthquakes is suggested a method based on the ultimate
kinetic energy that the structure can absorve, to evaluate the ductility
and strength demand of structures to resist to strong earthquakes. A
simplified scheme of the energy dissipation is assumed and the equations
for the ultimate kinetic energy are deduced. The concept of "aseismic
toughness" is introduced. To evaluate the seismic ductility requirements
are presented seme curves of the "aseismic toughness". The paper ends
with a proposal of an improvement of the Italian Seismic Code.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; ductility; frames; design
criteria.
SANTORELLI, S. (1976) LA COSTRUZIONE DI TERREMOTI ARTIFICIALI: LO SPETTRO DI
PROGETTO. Universit" degli Studi di Napoli, Quaderni di Teoria e
Tecnica delle Strutture n.400, 8 pages. *18*
In this work, it is suggested a method to define a more suitable
spectrum of project related to the structure and based on the available
data of real earthquakes. Seme contents on the principal parameters
which influence the earthquake intensity are presented. To evaluate the
maximum ground acceleration in the building zone, some formulas and
curves are given, being function of the magnitude and the epicentrum
distance selected for the building zone. The paper ends with an
illustrative example showing how can these values be used with a dynamic
analyses of the structure to evaluate the spectrum of project.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic
calculation methods.

design; spectrum; earthquakes;

41 -

2.6 - RECOMMEM)ATIONS

ALONGI, C. (1981) SINTESI DELLA NORMATIVA INTERNAZIONALE PER QUANTO CONCERNE IL


COEFICIENTE DI STRUTTURA.
Istituto di Scienza
e Tecnica
delle
Costruzioni, Politecnico di Milano, Technical Report n. 1/81, 36 pages.
In this research are compared the values of the behavior factor ( q )
considered in some international codes. The codes considered are:
Algeria, Argentine, Canada, Chile, China, Cuba, France, Japan, Mexico,
New Zealand, Peru, Portugal, Rumania, Turkey, U.S.A., U.R.S.S.. In the
end, a summarizing table for different structural types and for the
codes considered is presented together with some remarks.
KEY WORDS: steel
structures; seismic
ductility; recommendations.

design; behaviour

factor;

CECM - ECCS (1971) CONCEPTION ET CALCUL DES BATIMENTS A ETAGES DANS LES ZONES
SISMIQUES. Recommandations de la C E . C M . , CECM-XIII-71-1F, Construction
Mtallique, n.3, page 50-57. *2*
Design rules and recommendations of structures in seismic regions are
presented herein. In the first part, design concepts and safety
verifications are presented together with discussion of the choice of
the braces and foundations to use in the structure. The seismic loads,
specially the horizontal forces are examined in the second part, as well
as the influence of the building shape in the torsional behaviour of the
structure. In the concluding sections a few remarks on ductility are
presented.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; recommendations; torsion;
structural safety.
GAVARINI, C
(1980) AGGIORNAMENTO DELLA NORMATIVA ANTISSMICA.
Consiglio
Nazionale delle Ricerche, Progetto Finalizzato Geodinamica, Convegno
Annuale, Roma, 6/8.5.80, 10 pages. *3*
The purpose of this general work is to bring up-to-date the italian
rules for design of structures in seismic . regions. A summary on
technical rules since 1909 until 1980 are presented in the first part.
The philosophy of the actual technical rules (1975) is examided and
commented. In the last section, seme research future lines in this field
are drawn.
KEY WORDS: steel structures;
recommendations; design rules.

seismic design; structural

safety;

42

GRECO, C. (1972) ORIENTAMENTI NELLA MODERNA NORMATIVA SISMICA. Seminario di


Ingegneria Sismica, Instituto Universitario Statale di Architettura di
Reggio Calabria, 22/24.6.72, 47 pages. *4*
In this paper, remarks on some international codes for structures in
seismic zones as well as their seismic behaviour are presented. The
topics examined are: 1) Hypotesis on seismic behaviour of structures; 2)
Seismic response; 3) Fundamental parameters in the seismic response; 4)
Seismic intensity; 5) Response of structures with multy degree of
freedom; 6) The elasto-plastic behaviour and the ductility factor; 7)
The three-dimensional behaviour of framed structures; 8) Generalities on
seismic international codes; 9) Discussion of some seismic international
codes; 10) Dicussion of the draft for the new italian seismic code.
KEY WORDS: steel structures;
recommendations ; design rules.

seismic

design; structural

safety;

GIANGRECO, E. ( ? ) SPECIFICATIONS ON MULTI-STORY BUILDINGS AND IN PARTICULAR ON


STEEL STRUCTURES IN SEISMIC. ( ? ) , page 625-635. *5*
It is briefly reported on the works of the Commission XIII of the
Convention of European Constructional Steelwork Associations concerning
the recommendations for designing steel structures in seismic area. The
results of a study on the dynamic behaviour of plane and space framed
structures are also shown. Finally, some simplified formulae obtained
through a large numerical investigation are suggested.
KEY WORDS: steel
recommendations.

structures;

seismic design; vibration;

frames;

WATABE, M., ISHIYAMA, Y. and FUKUTA, T. (1983) EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT REGULATIONS


FOR BUILDING STRUCTURES IN JAPAN. Original of this document is Building
Standard Law in Japan, page 493-501. *6*
The purpose of these general article is to present some topics of the
Japanese recommendations for buildings in seismic zone. The topics are
refered with the design procedure and the lateral seismic shear. For the
first topic, remarks on eccentricity, stiffness and ultimate lateral
shear strengh are presented. In the second one, lateral seismic shear
above the ground level, lateral seismic shear of appendages and of the
basement are considered.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; shear; recommendations;
calculation methods.
MINISTERO DEI LAVORI PUBBLICI (1980) NORME TECNICHE PER LE COSTRUZIONI IN
SISMICHE, Roma, 30 Guigno 1980, 43 pages. *7*

ZONE

These italian rules contain specific design information concerning


structures in seismic zones. The chapters are: 1) General principles and
design methods; 2) Seismic action; 3) Load combinations; 4) Structure
performance; 5) Soil foundation performance; 6) Design rules; 7) Design
criteria; 8) Structural analysis; 9) Safety verification. To a better
understanding of the rules some comments are presented.
KEY WORDS: steel structures;
recommendations; design rules.

seismic design; structural

safety;

43-

MINISTERO DEI LAVORI PUBBLICI (1981) NORMATIVA PER LE RIPARAZIONI ED IL


RAFFORZAMENTO DEGLI DANNEGGIATI DAL SISMA NELLE REGIONI BASILICATA,
CAMPANIA E PUGLIA. Supplemento ordinario alla "Gazzeta Ufficiale" n.
198, Roma, 21 Luglio, 10 pages. *8*
The purpose of these recommendations is to provide the rules necessary
for buildings strengthening and their repairing due to earthquake
damages. The rules are applicable to concrete structures, steel
structures and masonry structures. Design procedures and construction
techniques for strengthening
and repairing
these buildings
are
described.
KEY WORDS: steel
recommendations.

structures; seismic

design; damages;

repairing;

MINISTERO DEI LAVORI PUBBLICI, PRESIDENZA DEL CONSIGLIO SUPERIORE, SERVIZIO


TECNICO CENTRALE (1981) ISTRUZIONI PER L'APPLICAZIONE DELLA NORMATIVA
TECNICA PER LA RIPARAZIONE ED IL RAFFORZAMENTO DEGLI EDIFICI DANNEGGIATI
DAL SISMA. Legge 14.5.1981 N.219, art.10, 68 pages. *9*
The purpose of these recommendations is to clarify the rules given in
the "Supplemento ordinario alla "Gazzeta Ufficiale" n. 198, Roma, 21
Luglio" (Ni *8*) on the strengthening and repairing of buildings due to
earthquake damages. General
design procedures
and
construction
techniques specialy for masonry structures are presented. In appendix,
some numerical examples concerning the verification of the structural
safety are presented.
KEY WORDS: steel
recommendations.

structures; seismic

TEAL, E. (1975) SEISMIC DESIGN PRACTICE FOR


Journal, n.4, page 101-151. *10*

design; damages;

repairing;

STEEL BUILDINGS. AISC

Engineering

The work provides a treatment on seismic theory and design, particulary


as it applies to structural steel. Much of the theory is condensed into
simple terms more readily applied to the typical problems faced by busy
design engineers. Specific seismic code provisions are discussed, to aid
in their interpretation. The work is divided in six sections: 1) Seismic
design Terminology (Part 1); 2) Basis for 1974 SEAOC Seismic Code; 3)
Seismic design of a 7-story office building; 4) Building code variations
from the 1974 SEAOC Seismic Code; 5) Seismic design Terminology (Part
2); 6) Drift control analysis for steel moment frames; Appendix: SEAOC
Code.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic
calculation methods.

design; drift; design rules;

44
ZSUTTY, T. and SHAH, H. (1979) FINAL DRAFT OF SEISMIC RESISTANT DESIGN RULES FOR
BUILDING STRUCTURES. The John A. Blume Eathquake Engineering Center,
Department of Civil Engineering, Stanford University, August, 63 pages.
*12*
These Algerian provisions are applicable to all building structures.
They are, however, not directly applicable to important non-building
structures such as bridges, dams, pipelines or electrical distribution
equipment. These recommendations are expressed in terms of two levels of
ground shaking: 1) Maximum capable ground shaking; 2) Maximum probable
ground shaking. They are divided in four chapters: 1) Generalities; 2)
General Principles; 3) Design Rules; 4) Structures with Different
Materials, (alike with Nl *15*)
KEY
WORDS: steel
structures;
recommendations; structural safety.

seismic

design;

design

rules;

ZSUTTY, T. and SHAH, H. (1978) A COMMENTARY FOR THE RECOMMENDED DESIGN PROCEDURE
FOR ALGERIA. The John A. Blume Eathquake Engineering Center, Department
of Civil Engineering, Stanford University, June, 176 pages. *13*
This interesting rational explanation on seismic theory and design is
divided in ten chapters: 1) Introduction; 2) Introduction to the
Proposed Seismic Design Procedure; 3) Design Philosophy and Acceptable
Risk; 4) Development of
the Dynamic Amplification Factor
Shape
Statistics; 5) The Effective Structural Response Spectrum; 6) Types and
Behaviour of Lateral Force Resisting Systems; 7) Reliability of Design
Objectives; 8) Construction of Design Spectra, Design Procedure and
Calibration of Strength Design Load Levels; 9) Examples on the Use of
the Proposed Method; 10) Conclusion.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; recommendations;, design
rules; structural safety.
CONSIGLIO NAZIONALE DELLE RICERCHE, GRUPPO NAZIONALE DIFESA TERREMOTI
RELAZIONE INTRODUTTIVA, Roma, 26.11.81, 10 pages. *14*

(1981)

In this report, it is presented the purposes of the "Gruppo Nazionale


per la Difesa dai Terremoti" (GNDT) established by the italian law n.874
of 22/12/80. The purposes are to address, to co-ordinate, to promote and
to develop the study and earthquake operations for the earthquake
protection, and to give technique and science advices to the Ministries
and Local Entities.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; recommendations; damages;
structural safety.
REGLES PARASISMIQUES ALGERIENNES (1981), Republique Algrienne Dmocratique et
Populaire, Ministere de l'Habitat et de l'Urbanisme, Juillet, 86 pages.
*15*
These Algerian
recommendations are
applicable to
all
building
structures. They are, however, not directly applicable to important
non-building structures such as bridges, dams, pipelines or electrical
distribution equipment. These design rules are expressed in terms of two
levels of ground shaking: 1) Maximum capable ground shaking; 2) Maximum
probable ground shaking. They are divided in four chapters:
1)
Generalities; 2) General Principles; 3) Design Rules; 4)
Design
Procedures for Braces, (alike with Nl *12*)
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; design rules; structural
safety; recommendations.

-45 -

2.7 - MULTI-STORY BUILDINGS

EDISHERASHVILI, N. and SHAISHMELASHVILI, V. (1973) EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF


DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF MULTY-STOREY STEEL FRAME BUILDING LARGE-SCALE
MODELS WITH DIFFERENT VERTICAL BRACINGS. Proc. of the V World Conf. on
Earthquake Engineering, Rome, page 299-303. *1*
Herein are presented results of experimental studies of large scale
models (1/6 of natural size) of steel carcass buildings with frame and
frame bracing systems. The carcass models are tested for: free, forced
(resonance) vibrations and static very intensive horizontal loads
permitting to cause destruction
of model constructions.
Special
attention is paid to variation of vibration frequencies and to the
damping decrement of models when plastic deformations are developed in
them.
KEY WORDS: steel
structures; seismic
multy-storey buildings.

design;

braces;

frames;

FLEISCHER, W. (1974) SIMPLIFIED SEISMIC DRIFT ANALYSIS OF HIGH-RISE


FRAMES. AISC Engineering Journal, n.3, page 53-64. *2*

STEEL

This paper presents a simplified method to obtain drift statements for


high-rise steel frames under the application of seismic loads. The
equations of this method are developed for two cases: planar rigid and
planar braced frames. The method is demonstrated step by step by an
example of a typical drift analysis in a planar rigid high rise steel
bent, including a description of the procedure for both rigid and braced
frames. In the end, the development of the method and the derivations of
the working equations are explained.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; drift; high-rise buildings;
calculation methods.
GIANGRECO, E. ( ? ) SPECIFICATIONS ON MULTI-STORY BUILDINGS AND IN PARTICULAR 'ON
STEEL STRUCTURES IN SEISMIC. ( ? ) , page 625-635. *3*
It is briefly reported on the works of the Commission XIII of the
Convention of European Constructional Steelwork Associations concerning
the recommendations for designing steel structures in seismic area. The
results of a study on the dynamic behavior of plane and space framed
structures are also shown. Finally, some simplified formulae obtained
through a large numerical investigation are suggested.
KEY WORDS: steel
recommendations.

structures;

seismic design; vibration;

frames;

46 GOEL, S. and HANSON, R. (1973) SEISMIC BEHAVIOR OF MULTISTORY BRACED STEEL


FRAMES. Proc. of the V World Conf. on Earthquake Engineering, Reme, page
2934-2943. *4*
This paper presents and discusses the results of a numerical study on
the influence of the method of design and different arrangements of the
bracing members (fully braced, bottom story open, alternate stories open
and completely unbraced) in the seismic response of multistory steel
frames. The dynamic response is computed by assuming an elasto-plastic
type hysteresis behaviour in tension only for the diagonal bracing
members, in bending for the girders, and the 2nd order effects for the
columns. In the end, some curves for different response parameters are
shown.
KEY WORDS: steel
braces; ductility.

structures; seismic

design; calculation methods;

KONNO, T. and KIMURA, E. (1973) EARHQUAKE EFFECTES ON STEEL TOWER STRUCTURES


ATOP BUILDINGS. Proc. of the V World Conf. on Earthquake Engineering,
Rome, page 184-194. *5*
This article presents the results of the full scale measurements and
earthquake response analysis carried out on some steel towers for
microwave antennes in Japan, as well as the results of vibration tests
performed by using steel tower and building models. It is outlined that
the steel tower atop building may be affected by the vibrational
characteristics of the building and consequently generate high seismic
forces at the time of a strong earthquake since the damping of tower is
very small. Finally, some remarks on the seismic forces acting on the
steel towers are presented.
KEY WORDS: steel structures;
multy-storey buildings.

seismic

design; towers;

vibration;

LORD, J. (1972) INELASTIC DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF TALL BUILDINGS. Proc. of the Int.
Conf. on Planning and Design of Tall Buildings, ASCE-IABSE, Lehigh
University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, vol. lb, page 291-297. *6*
In this general article, it is presented some energy and drift
considerations involved in determining the inelastic dynamic behaviour
of tall buildings. The energy considerations are related with the
stability of the structure and the distribution of energy dissipation
during an earthquake event, while drift considerations are refered to
the drift control and the inelastic drift predictions.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; multy-storey buildings;
stability; drift.
SANDHU, B. (1974) DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF MULTISTORY BUILDINGS. AISC Engineering
Journal, n.3, page 67-72. *7*
Some simplified methods for determining natural periods in first, second
and third modes of vibrations of multistory buildings are presented in
this paper. The simplified methods are developed using the concept of an
elastic wave equation in solid uniforme bars. For the horizontal
deflection of the building, it is taken into account the contribution of
the shear deformation, flexural deformation and the deformation due to
joint rotations. Some remarks on the influence of the foundation
rotation and translation in the use of the formulas are presented. The
paper ends with an illustrative example for a six story shear building.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; design rules; vibration;
multy-storey buildings.

-47 -

TEAL, E. (1975) SEISMIC DESIGN PRACTICE FOR


Journal, n.4, page 101-151. *8*

STEEL BUILDINGS. AISC

Engineering

The work provides a treatment on seismic theory and design, particulary


as it applies to structural steel. Much of the theory is condensed into
simple terms more readily applied to the typical problems faced by busy
design engineers. Specific seismic code provisions are discussed, to aid
in their interpretation. The work is divided in six sections: 1) Seismic
design terminology (Part 1); 2) Basis for 1974 SEAOC Seismic Code; 3)
Seismic design of a 7-story office building; 4) Building code variations
from the 1974 SEAOC Seismic Code; 5) Seismic design terminology (Part
2); 6) Drift control analysis for steel moment frames; Appendix: SEAOC
Code.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; drift; design rules;
calculation methods.
YAMADA, M. (1972) EFFECT OF CYCLIC LOADING ON BUILDINGS. Proc. of the Int. Conf.
on Planning and Design of Tall Buildings, ASCE-IABSE, Lehigh University,
Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, vol. II, page 725-739. *9*
In this article are presented some recommendations that provide fatigue
and fracture criteria for cyclic loading. These recommendations are
refered to: 1) Loading related to fatigue and fracture of tall steel
buildings; 2) Low cyclic fatigue characteristics of structural steels;
3) Low cycle fatigue fracture limits of structural members as the
evaluation basis or design criteria for aseismic capacity.
KEY TORDS: steel structures; seismic design; fatigue; fracture; design
criteria.
MUTO, K. and NAGATA, M. (1981) CALCUL ANTISISMIQUE D'UN IMMEUBLE DE
HAUTER. Construction Mtallique, n.3, page 63-74. *10*

GRANDE

This work presents the results of. an analytic seismic study of a


multistory building. Due to the unusual plan design (in V ) , as well as
the thickness of their structural elements, the analysis performed had
in attention the stresses and the strains due to the tridimensional
effect under the seismic loads. The seismic study is made with support
of a tridimensional frame analysis program using the feed back method.
It is succintly described the building, the principles employed in the
seismic design and the formulation used in the program. Finally some
curves and tables describing the behaviour of the building are shown.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; design criteria; vibration;
multy-storey buildings.
D'ANURIA, P. and RAMASCO, R. (1980) L'ECCENTRICIT"" CONVENZIONALE DELLE AZIONI
SISMICHE ORIZZONTALI NEGLI EDIFICI MULTIPIANO DISSIMMETRICI. Universit*
degli Studi di Napoli, Quaderno di Teoria e Tecnica delle Strutture
n.471, 13 pages. *11*
This paper presents a methodology of how to find the conventional
eccentricity of the horizontal seismic forces used in the seismic design
of multistorey dissymetryc buildings. The method has been developped
first considering a two degrees of freedom model which does not take
into account th
effects of
not in
phase seismic
horizontal
acceleration. The results obtained have been verified by examining some
multistorey buildings.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; design rules; calculation
methods; multy-storey buildings.

48

PAPIA, M., ZINGONE, G. and RUSSO, G. (1981) UN CRITERIO DI CALCOLO ALLO STATO
LIMITE ULTIMO DEI SISTEMI INTELAIATI IN ACCIAIO IN ZONA SISMICA.
Giornate Italiane della Costruzione in Acciaio, Palermo, page 485-498.
*12*
This article shows a limite state design procedure for braces of steel
structures in seismic zone as a function of the ductility demand of the
structure in relation to a pre-established safety coefficient when
subjected to strong ground motion. Some simplified hypotheses on the
earthquake simulation are established in order to obtain formulas of
easy use. The formulation is based on energy criteria, and it is
possible to consider two distributions of the seismic loads: uniforme
and triangular. The paper ends with an illustrative example of the use
of those formulas.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic
methods; multy-storey buildings.

design; ductility;

calculation

MEROVICH, A., NICOLETTI, J. and HARTLE, E. (1982) ECCENTRIC BRACING IN TALL


BUILDINGS. ASCE Journal of the Structural Division, ST9, page 2066-2080.
*13*
The paper describes how an eccentric bracing scheme may be used to
satisfy the requirements for both drift control and ductility in the
design of high-rise structure located in a zone of high seismic expose.
This structural system is used in the design of the 4 Embarcadero Center
Building situated in downtown San Francisco. A brief description of the
site and the building is done, as well as the static and dynamic
analyses performed. Special attention is paid to the ductility of. beams
and columns.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; high-rise buildings;
eccentric braces; drift.

49

2.8 - LOW-RISE BUILDINGS

CLOUGH, R., REA, D., TANG, D. and WATABE, M. (1973) EARTHQUAKE SIMULATOR TEST OF
A THREE STORY STEEL FRAME STRUCTURE. Proc. of the V World Conf. on
Earthquake Engineering, Rome, page 308-311. *1*
This paper shows the results of experimental tests conducted on a three
story steel frame structure using a square shaking table. In this
structure, the panel zones are left understrength so that yielding would
occur first in the panel zone. The intensity of the table motions are
increased progressively until a peak acceleration of 0.5 g to cause
yielding in the panel zones. The results described could be used in
analytical studies to determine the accurancy of the computer programs
for predicting the behaviour of steel frames under large vibrations
enough to cause inelastic behaviour.
KEY WORDS: steel
buildings; frames.

structures; seismic design; ductility;

low-rise

MONTGOMERY, C. and HALL, W. (1979) SEISMIC DESIGN OF LOW-RISE STEEL BUILDINGS.


ASCE Journal of the Structural Division, ST10, page 1917-1933. *2*
This paper presents some methods and recommendations for
design
procedures of low-rise steel buildings. The paper begins with a brief
description of the building system for purposes of illustration. The
second part of the paper contains a review of the behaviour of low-rise
steel buildings when subjected to seismic ground motion. With a view to
a practical procedure two methods of analysis are refered: response
spectra and modal method. These two methods are compared with the time
history analysis. In the concluding sections of the paper, recommended
design procedures are presented and certain suggested guidelines for
improved practice aire examined.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; frames; low-rise buildings;
calculation methods.
TAKANASHI, K., UDAGAWA, K. and TAKANA, H. (1982) PSEUDO DYNAMIC TESTS ON A
2-STORY STEEL FRAME BY COMPUTER LOAD TEST APPARATUS HYBRID SYSTEM. Proc.
of the VII World Conf. on Earthquake Engineering, Athens, 8 pages. *3*
This work presents a non-linear earthquake response analysis method by
the computer load test apparatus hybrid system, where the response
calculations are carried out on the basis of real restoring force
characteristics. The procedure of the hybrid system is explained and
applied in the non-linear response analysis of a two story steel frame.
The results are compared with the "pure" computer analysis.
KEY WORDS: steel
buildings; frames.

structures; seismic

design; ductility;

low-rise

50

GRECO, C. and RAMASCO, R. (1972) LA RISPOSTA SISMICA DI STRUTTURE INTELAIATE


PIANE DI FORMA QUALSIASI. Giornale del Genio Civile, n.4,5,6, 13 pages.
*4*
A method of seismic design for plane framed structures of any shape
which takes account the horizontal and vertical ground motions is
suggested in this article. The analytical formulation is shown and the
method is applied to some structural samples of industrial buildings.
Some significant aspects of the seismic behaviour are emphasized namely
the influence of the vertical acceleration and the roof inclination. The
conclusions presented are interesting and useful for a correct planning.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; acceleration; low-rise
buildings; calculation methods.
CONTALDO, M., RAMASCO, R. and SANTORELLI, S. (1977) UN'INDAGINE TEORICA
SULL'INFLUENZA DELLA CONTEMPORANEIT' DEI MOTI SISMICI ORIZZONTALI E
VERTICALI NELLA RISPOSTA DELLE STRUTTURE. Giornale del Genio Civile,
n.7,8,9, 22 pages. *5*
The paper presents an analytical study on the influence of the
interation between horizontal and vertical acceleration on the seismic
behaviour of steel structures. A simple model of two degrees of freedom
consisting of a mass elastically restrained by two springs, one
horizontal and the other inclined, is developed. A numerical research
using the model for seme inclinations of the spring and some relations
between the vertical and horizontal periods is realized. Afterwards the
model is applied to seme structural typologies in order to obtain some
coefficients which allow to predict the displacement and the efforts in
those typologies.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic
buildings; calculation methods.

design; acceleration; low-rise

KANETA, K., KOHZU, I. and MIYAKAWA, H. (1982) LOW CYCLE FATIGUE DAMAGE OF WEAK
BEAM TYPE STEEL STRUCTURE DUE TO EARTHQUAKE. Proc. of the VII European
Conf. on Earthquake Engineering, Athens, page 323-332. *6*
The low cycle fatigue damage at the beam of one bay, one story steel
frames due to both horizontal and vertical ground acceleration, as well
as gravity load, is investigated in this work. The structural frame
model employed in this study is restricted to a situation in which the
flexural stiffness of the beam is infinite and the axial forces at the
columns are ignored. The frame has lumped masses placed at the top of
the columns and at midspan of the beam. Some results showing the
behaviour of the frame and seme conclusions drawn out from these results
are presented in the end.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic
buildings; fatigue.

design; acceleration; low-rise

51

JORUKOVSKI, D. and MAMUCEVSKI, D. (1982) MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF A SINGLE BAY


STEEL FRAME STRUCTURE USING PARAMETRE SYSTEM IDENTIFICATION AND SHAKING
TABLE EXPERIMENTS. Proc. of the VII European Conf. on Earthquake
Engineering, Athens, page 333-339. *7*
In this general paper is suggested a technique for the definition of a
mathematical model of a prefabricated steel frame structure using
parametre system identification and shaking table experiments. The
mathematical model has two degrees of freedom with two lumped masses and
the load-displacement relationship is defined by the Ramberg-Osgood
model. According to the authors the use of this technique offers a
considerably more realistic solutions which is phisically closer to the
dynamic solution and in the present case was used to define the viscous
damping coefficient value.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; low-rise buildings; frames;
damping.
PETRINI, V., SETTI, P. and ZANDONINI, R. (1982) INELASTIC BEHAVIOUR OF STEEL
FRAMES SUBJECTED TO STRONG EARTHQUAKES. Proc. of the VTI European Conf.
on Earthquake Engineering, Athens, page 347-356. *8*
This paper presents a numerical technique for the elasto-plastic dynamic
analysis of steel columns permitted to sway. Constant axial loads are
considered, while the lateral loads and the ground acceleration can vary
with time according to any law. This approach takes into account the
real bending moment thrust curvature relationship for the given cross
section, allowing for structural imperfection. The non-linear effects of
the vertical load due to the lateral displacements and the initial
deflected configuration are also considered. Some results are presented
and discussed with reference columns of ligth industrial buildings.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic
columns; stability.

design;

low-rise

buildings;

SETTI, P. and ZANDONINI, R. (1980) CONSIDERAZIONI SUL COMPORTAMENTO SISMICO DEI


TELAI MONOPIANO IN ACCIAIO A COPERTURA NON SPINGENTE. Ingegneria Sismica
in Italia, C.I.S.M., Udine, page 313-324..*9*
The seismic behaviour of ligth industrial buildings is discussed in this
work. It begins with an analysis of the Italian Code of steel structures
in a way to select the cases to study. To investigate the elasto-plastic
response of those frames a numerical model of one degree of freedom is
presented. This model is applied in the analysis of different frames
subjected to Tolmezzo and El Centro earthquakes, being the results
compared with the elastic analysis based on the response spectrum. Some
conclusions drawn out from these results are presented in the end.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic
columns; stability.

design;

low-rise

buildings;

-52-

2.9 - FRAME BEHAVIOUR

CARPENTER, L. and LU, LE-WU (1973) REVERSED AND REPEATED LOAD TESTS OF
SCALE STEEL FRAMES. AISI Bulletin n.24 April 1973, 38 pages. *1*

FULL

In this bulletin is described the tests done in full sized single bay
steel frames subjected to constant gravity loads on the beams and
columns and cycles of reversed and repeated displacements. Some
particular problems are investigated, namely: the effect of the local
buckling of the beam in the single story frame; the behaviour of the
columns in the inelastic range and of th beam to
beam-column
connections; the effect of the localization of the plastic hinges in the
behaviour of a two story frame. The bulletin describes the design of the
steel frames, the technique developed to test those frames, the
experimental behaviour of the frames and the observations drawn out from
the experimental results.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; hysteretic behaviour;
connections; frames.
FLEISCHER, W. (1974) SIMPLIFIED SEISMIC DRIFT ANALYSIS OF
FRAMES. AISC Engineering Journal, n.3, page 53-64. *2*

HIGH-RISE

STEEL

This paper presents a simplified method to obtain drift statements for


high-rise steel frames under the application of seismic loads. The
equations of this method are developed for two cases: planar rigid and
planar braced frames. The method is demonstrated step by step by an
example of a typical drift analysis in a planar rigid high rise steel
bent, including a description of the procedure for both rigid and braced
frames. In the last section, the development of the method and the
derivations of the working equations are explained.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; drift; high-rise buildings;
calculation methods.
GRECO, C. and RAMASCO, R. (1972) LA RISPOSTA SISMICA DI STRUTTURE INTELAIATE
PIANE DI FORMA QUALSIASI. Giornale del Genio Civile, n.4,5,6, 13 pages.
*3*
A method of seismic design for plane framed structures of any shape
which takes account the horizontal and vertical ground motions is
suggested in this article. The analytical formulation is shown and the
method is applied to some structural samples of industrial buildings.
Some significant aspects of the seismic behaviour are emphasized namely
the influence of the vertical acceleration and the roof inclination. The
conclusions presented are interesting and useful for a correct planning.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; acceleration;
buildings; calculation methods.

low-rise

-53HUCKELBRIDGE, A. and CLOUGH, R. (1978) SEISMIC RESPONSE OF UPLIFTING BUILDING


FRAME. ASCE Journal of the Structural Division, ST8, page 1211-1229. *4*
This work shows the results of an experimental and analytical research
program on seismic response of uplifting building frames. In the
experimental tests a one-third scale model of a nine story steel moment
frame prototype with special detail of the footing to allow column
uplift on the shaking table is used. In the nonlinear analytical
procedure it is employed bilinear elastic foundation elements with zero
tensile capacity in the upward direction to accurate behaviour during
uplift motion of the frame. The results of the two analyses are compared
for two cases: fixed and uplift foundation. In the end, a discussion of
the results obtained are presented with some conclusions.
KEY WORDS:
foundations.

steel

structures; seismic

design;

frames;

uplift;

KATO, B. , AKIYAMA, H., SUZUKI, H. and FUKAZAWA, Y. (1973) DYNAMIC COLLAPSE TESTS
OF STEEL STRUCTURAL MODELDS. Proc. of the V World Conf. on Earthquake
Engineering, Rome, page 1457-1460. *5*
This general article presents the results of an experimental study on
the dynamic behaviour and strength of beam-columns with H-shaped cross
section. The beam-columns are fixed at both ends and are tested on a
shaking table which can generate simulated earthquake motions. The
results of the experimental tests are compared with those of the
numerical analysis which take into account the strain-hardening of the
steel and the 2nd order effects.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic
hysteretic behaviour.

design; columns;

stability;

KATO, B. and LU, LE-WU (1972) INSTABILITY EFFECTS UNDER DYNAMIC AND REPEATED
LOADS. Proc. of the Int. Conf. on Planning and Design of Tall Buildings,
ASCE-IABSE, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, vol. lb, page
463-481. *6*
The paper presents and discusses some instability problems of columns
and frames subjected to dynamic and cyclic loadings. The influence of
the dynamic axial loads due to earthquake on the stability of the
columns are described. For members and cantilever beam-columns subjected
to axial loads and cyclic bending moments a technique is developed for
the construction of the load-deflection curve, which is based on the
monotonie load diagram. This technique is also applied to frames under
cyclic deflections. Emphasis is placed on the aspects that are important
in earthquake-resistant design of building frames.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; stability; columns; frames.
KOSTEM, C. and HECKMAN, D. (1979) EARTHQUAKE RESPONSE OF THREE DIMENSIONAL STEEL
FRAMES STIFFENED BY OPEN TUBULAR CONCRETE SHEAR WALLS. Proc. of the 2nd
U. S. Nat. Conf. on Earthquake Engineering, EERI, Standford University,
page 969-977. *7*
This work shows the results of a numerical study on the dynamic
behaviour of frame-shear wall systems. An open tubular concrete shear
wall (U-shaped) extending through the height of the building is
considered. Special attention is paid to the effect of the changes in
the dimensions (length and thickness) of the open tubular concrete shear
wall in the fundamental frequencies of this structural system.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; multy-storey buildings;
shear; frequency.

-54-

OKADA, H., TAKEDA, T., YOSHIOKA, K., OMOTE, Y. and NAKAGAWA, K. (1973)
EXPERIMENTAL AND RESEARCH ON THE RESPONSE OF STEEL MODEL STRUCTURES
SUBJECTED TO IMPACT HORIZONTAL LOADING AND TO SIMULATED EARTHQUAKES.
Proc. of the V World Conf. on Earthquake Engineering, Rome, page
2721-2730. *8*
The behaviour of steel frames under impulsive loading and earthquake
motions are reported in this article. It is divided in two parts. In the
first part, experimental results of one-bay one-storied steel portal
frames (four specimens) under impact loading at their base with the use
of a shock table are reported and compared with the elasto-plastic
analysis. In the second part, experimental results of a two-bay
three-storied portal frame under simulated earthquake motion using a
vibration table are presented together with the theoretical analysis.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; impact; vibration; frames.
POPOV, E. (1980) SEISMIC BEHAVIOUR OF STRUCTURAL SUBASSEMBLAGES, ASCE Journal of
the Structural Division, ST7, page 1451-1470. *9*
In this paper, some types of hysteretic loops which can be observed in
inelastic experiments with structural members and systems under cyclic
loads are presented. Attention is directed to structural steel and
reinforced concrete members and subassemblages. The distinction among
the various ductility factors are emphasized. The relationship between
the response spectrum approach and conventional code design procedure is
also examined. This paper may serve as an aid for evaluating the
numerous hysteretic loops which are becoming
available in
the
literature.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; hysteretic behaviour;
ductility;.subassemblages.
RAMASCO, R. and SANTORELLI, S. (1973) LA SCHEMATIZZAZIONE SHEAR-TYPE NELLA
RISPOSTA SISMICA DI OSSATURE INTELAIATE PIANE. Estratto dal Giornale del
Genio Civile, fase. 9,10,11,12, 10 pages. *10*
This paper suggests a process for the definition of shear type frames
equivalent to plane frameworks and concerning the evaluation of the
horizontal forces caused by seismic phenomena. Some remarks on the shear
type frame are presented and a numerical investigation for some frames
of different heigth using the shear type frame and the dynamic analysis
is realized. The comparing of the two methods shows a good degree of
approximation of the shear type frame for the first three modes of
vibration. Some comments on the use of the shear type frame in the
seismic design are presented in the last part.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; shear; calculation methods;
frames.

55
RAMASCO, R. and SANTORELLI, S. (1974) L'INFLUENZA DELLO SMORZAMENTO E DEL
COMPORTAMENTO ELASTO-PLASTICO SULLA
RISPOSTA SISMICA DI
OSSATURE
INTELAIATE PIANE. Estratto dal Giornale del Genio Civile, fase.
10,11,12, 14 pages. *11*
The influence of the damping in the seismic behaviour of steel plane
frames is studied in this article. A brief review of the definition of
ductility is presented in the beginning. Based on a shear type frame, it
is developed a formulation to evaluate the damping matrix and a
numerical research to examine the influence of the damping on the
different natural modes in frames of different height using the
precedent formulation is done. In the end, it is presented some
observations drawn out from the numerical investigation.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; damping; ductility; frames.
TAKANASHI, K., UDAGAWA, K. and TAKANA, H. (1978) EARTHQUAKE RESPONSE ANALYSIS OF
STEEL FRAMES BY COMPUTER-ACTUATOR ON-LINE SYSTEM. V Japan Earthquake
Engineering Symposium, page 1321-1328. *12*
In this paper is analyzed the non-linear response of one and two story
steel frames, using the instantaneous restoring forces obtained from the
structural experiment and controlled by computer which is running
simultaneously for the response calculation (computer actuator on-line
system). Two methods of numerical integration of the equation of motion
using the secant stiffness at a
step of the specimen or
the
instantaneous restoring force of the specimen in structural experiment
are explained and applied in the non-linear response of sane frames.
Some results and concluding remarks are also presented.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic
behaviour; frames.

design; ductility; hysteretic

TAKANASHI, K. and TANIGUCHI, H. (1982) PSEUDO-DYNAMIC ON FRAMES INCLUDING HIGH


STRENGTH BOLTED CONNECTIONS. Proc. of the VII European Conf. on
Earthquake Engineering, Athens, 4 pages. *13*
To study the influence of slippage in high strength bolted connections,
a numerical model for the moment-rotation relationship in the beam is
proposed in this paper. This model consists of a bi-linear type
hysteresis loop which describes the behaviour before slippage and a slip
type hysteresis loop which describes the behaviour after slippage. The
dynamic response of some frames using this model are compared with
experimental results and some conclusions are presented.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; hysteretic behaviour; slip;
connections.
TANABASHI, R., KANETA, K. and ISHIKA, T. (1973) ON THE RIGIDITY AND DUCTILITY OF
STEEL BRACING ASSEMBLAGE. Proc. of the V World Conf. on Earthquake
Engineering, Rome, page 834-840. *14*
This paper shows the results of the experiment on the strength and
ductility of the Y-braced frames carried out by using column testing
machine. Static tests are performed on five models of Y-braced frames
and compared with the K-braced frames. A table describing the size,
properties of the cross-sections
of the members and
mechanical
properties of the material is presented, as well as the curves obtained
in the experimental tests.
KEY WORDS: steel
connections.

structures;

seismic

design; ductility;

braces;

-56

TANG, D. and CLOUGH, R. (1979) SHAKING TABLE EARTHQUAKE RESPONSE OF STEEL FRAME.
ASCE Journal of the Structural Division, STI, page 221-243. *15*
This paper presents the results of an experimental and analytical
investigation on the seismic behaviour of a large scale steel structure.
The test structure consists of two identical 5.30m high three story
frames having a bay width of 3.70m and to excite the structure a shaking
table motion is used. After a brief comment of the planning of the test
structure and test program, the most significant results are examined.
The description of suitable analytical models for computing the seismic
behaviour of the structure, the effects of various model parameters and
the experimental results are presented in the last part.
KEY WORDS: steel
connections.

structures;

seismic design; ductility;

frames;

UCHIDA, N., AOYAGI, T., KAWAMURA, M. and NAKAGAWA, K. (1973) VIBRATION TEST OF
STEEL FRAME HAVING PRECAST CONCRETE PANELS. Proc. of the V World Conf.
on Earthquake Engineering, Rome, page 1167-1176. *16*
In this work are reported the tests conducted in a two-storey, two-bay
steel frame model having full-size precast concrete panels in order to
obtain seme basic data on the effects of precast concrete panels on the
vibration characteristics of the high-rise buildings, and the behaviour
of the panel fastening system. The tests conducted are: 1) Forced
vibration test; 2) Free vibration test; 3) Dynamic load test. Special
attention is paid to the modes of deflection of precast concrete panels
and slabs.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; panels; vibration; frames.
VASQUES, J., POPOV, E. and BERTERO, V. (1973) EARTHQUAKE ANALYSIS OF STEEL
FRAMES WITH NON-RIGID JOINTS. Proc. of the V World Conf. on Earthquake
Engineering, Rome, page 1752-1755. *17*
In this paper, a model of the non-rigidity of the panel zone existing in
the joints of a frame is presented. The formulation is based on two
assumptions: 1) The single component of a panel zone distortion is a
shear deformation, and 2) The constitutive relationship is a bilinear
model. It is also explained how the model can be assembled into the
structure's stiffness matrix considering the deformable joint. Some
results of the application of the model to a structure subjected to an
earthquake are included.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; ductility; joints; frames.
WAKABAYASHI, M., NONAKA, T. and MATSUI, C. (1969) AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE
HORIZONTAL RESTORING FORCES IN STEEL FRAMES UNDER LARGE VERTICAL LOADS.
Proc. of the TV World Conf. on Earthquake Engineering, Santiago, vol.1,
page 177-193. *18*
Herein are presented the results of an experimental study on the
behaviour of single bay, one and two storyed rectangular frames and
"cruciform" frames with wide flange sections under constant vertical
load on the columns and varying horizontal force. A theoretical analysis
is made to study the elasto-plastic behaviour of those frames and
compared with the experimental results. Some curves of the horizontal
force-displacement relationship are shown being outlined a redution in
the restoring force due to the unstable effect of the vertical loads.
KEY WORDS:
frames.

steel

structures; seismic design; ductility; stability;

-57 -

WAKABAYHASHI, M. (1972) FRAMES UNDER STRONG IMPULSIVE, WIND OR SEISMIC LOADING.


Proc. of the Int. Conf. on Planning and Design of Tall Buildings,
ASCE-IABSE, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, vol. lb, page
343-363. *19*
This state of art presents some mechanical characteristics of steel
structures, their elements and connections under strong impulsive, wind
or seismic loading. The topics are: fundamental characteristics of
frames;
relationship
between
load
characteristics
and
frame
characteristics; ductility of members and connections; braced and
unbraced frames; hysteretic characteristics and low cycle fatigue of
steel members and their connections; hysteretic characteristics of
braced and unbraced frames; progressive plastic deformation. In the end
a large reference list and number of figures are presented.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; stability; hysteretic
behaviour; braces.
WAKABAYASHI, M., NONAKA, T., MINAMI, K. and SHIBATA, M. (1971) EXPERIMENTAL
STUDIES ON THE LARGE PLASTIC DEFORMATION OF FRAMES DUE TO HORIZONTAL
IMPACT. Bulletin of the Disaster Prevention Research Institute, Kyoto
University, vol.20, Part 4, n. 181, March, page 245-266. *20*
The main objective of this paper is to measure the load and acceleration
magnitudes, as well as the total impulse and the velocity change in
frames due to horizontal impact. In the experimental tests, two cases
are considered: 1) The portal frame speciments are subjected to impact
loads in their columns tops, and 2) The portal frames are subjected to a
large acceleration for a short duration at the column bases. The. applied
load and the inicial velocity are measured by the barium titane ceramics
accelerometer and load cell. A theoretical analysis is done in order to
evaluate the final plastic deflection of the frame being the results
compared with the experimental tests.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; stability; frames; impact.
WAKABAYASHI, M., NONAKA, T. and MORINO, S. (1969) AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE
INELASTIC BEHAVIOR OF STEEL FRAMES WITH A RECTANGULAR CROSS-SECTION
SUBJECTED TO VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL LOADING. Bulletin of the Disaster
Prevention Research Institute, Kyoto University, vol.18, Part 3, n. 145,
February, page 65-82. *21*
This paper presents the experimental results of a study on the inelastic
behaviour of single bay three-storied frames using 1/30 scale models
with rectangular cross-sections. A constant vertical load is applied
symmetrically on the top of the upper columns and a varying horizontal
force is applied in a quasi-static manner at top floor level. Some
experimental results are compared with the theoretical analysis. In the
discussion of the results, the following points are considered: 1)
Deformed shape of specimens; 2) Horizontal force-displacement relation;
3) The effect of the vertical load; 4) The effect of the dimensions and
material; 5) The maximum horizontal force; ductility factor.
KEY WORDS: steel
frames.

structures; seismic

design; stability; ductility;

58

WAKABAYASHI, M., NONAKA, T. and MATSUI, C. (1967) AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE


INELASTIC BEHAVIOR OF STEEL FRAMES SUBJECTED TO VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL
LOADING. Bulletin of the Disaster Prevention Research Institute, Kyoto
University, vol.17, Part 1, n. 119, July, page 27-48. *22*
Herein are presented the experimental results of a study on the
inelastic behaviour of single bay, one and two-storied frames using 1/4
scale models with wide flange sections. Vertical loads are applied
constantly on the columns and a varying horizontal force is applied at
top floor level. Special attention is paid to the effects to the axial
forces existing in the columns on the behaviour of unbraced frames. The
theoretical analysis is also done in order to determine the restoring
force characteristics, or the horizontal force-displacement relation
being the results compared with the experimental tests.
KEY WORDS: steel
frames.

structures; seismic

design;

stability; ductility;

WAKABAYASHI, M., MATSUI, C , MINAMI, K. and METANI, I. (1973) INELASTIC BEHAVIOR


OF STEEL FRAMES SUBJECTED
TO CONSTANT VERTICAL AND
ALTERNATING
HORIZONTAL LOADS. Proc. of the V World Conf. on Earthquake Engineering,
Rome, page 1194-1197. *23*
This general article presents the experimental results of a study on the
inelastic behaviour of both braced and unbraced frames under constant
vertical and alternating horizontal loading using four full scale
models. The behaviour under monotonie loading is also presented for
comparison with that under alternating loading. A theoretical analysis
is made to study the hysteretic behaviour of both braced and unbraced
frames tested, being later on the results compared with the experimental
tests. At last, seme theoretical and experimental hysteretic curves are
shown.
KEY WORDS: steel structures;
hysteretic behaviour.

seismic

design;

stability;

braces;

SETTI, P. and ZANDONINI, R. (1980) CONSIDERAZIONI SUL COMPORTAMENTO SISMICO DEI


TELAI MONOPIANO IN ACCIAIO A COPERTURA NON SPINGENTE. Ingegneria Sismica
in Italia, C.I.S.M., Udine, page 313-324. *24*
The seismic behaviour of ligth industrial buildings is discussed in this
work. It begins with an analysis of the Italian Code of steel structures
in a way to select the cases to study. To investigate the elasto-plastic
response of those frames a numerical model of one degree of freedom is
presented. This model is applied in the analysis of different frames
subjected to Tolmezzo and El Centro earthquakes, being the results
compared with the elastic analysis based on the response spectrum. Some
conclusions drawn out from these results are presented in the end.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic
columns; stability.

design;

low-rise

buildings;

59 -

PETRINI, V., SETTI, P. and ZNDONINI, R. (1982) INELASTIC BEHAVIOUR OF STEEL


FRAMES SUBJECTED TO STRONG EARTHQUAKES. Proc. of the VII European Conf.
on Earthquake Engineering, Athens, page 347-356. *25*
This paper presents a numerical technique for the elasto-plastic dynamic
analysis of steel columns permitted to sway. Constant axial loads are
considered, while the lateral loads and the ground acceleration can vary
with time according to any law. This approach takes into account the
real bending moment thrust curvature relationship for the given cross
section, allowing for structural imperfection. The non-linear effects of
the vertical load due to the lateral displacements and the initial
deflected configuration are also considered. Some results are presented
and discussed with reference columns of ligth industrial buildings.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic
columns; stability.

design;

low-rise

buildings;

UDAGAWA, K., TAKANASHI, K. and KATO, B. (1984) EFFECTS OF DISPLACEMENT RATES ON


THE BEHAVIOR OF STEEL BEAMS AND COMPOSITE BEAMS. Proc. of the VIII World
Conf. on Earthquake Engineering, San Francisco, 8 pages. *26*
This paper deals with quasi-static and dynamic tests of steel beams and
fully composite beams with steel deck subjected to monotonie and cyclic
loadings, and investigates how the difference of displacement rates
affects: 1) Maximum moment capacity; 2) Elastic stiffness and stiffness
under unloading in plastic range and 3) Deformation capacity and shape
of hysteresis loop. A viscous damping in an elastic range of steel beams
is evaluated and the increase in moment capacities due to a viscous
damping is examined.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic
damping; ductility.

design; hysteretic behaviour;

TANIGUCHI, H. and TAKANASHI, K. (1984) INELASTIC RESPONSE BEHAVIOR OF H-SHAPED


STEEL COLUMN TO BI-DIRECTIONAL EARTHQUAKE MOTION. Proc. of the VIII
World Conf. on Earthquake Engineering, San Francisco, 8 pages. *27*
This paper presents the response behaviour of steel H-shaped columns to
two horizontal components of recorded earthquake motions analyzed by a
hybrid system of a digital computer and a loading test system. Two
numerical methods
are presented:
one
uses a
tri-linear
type
stress-strain relationship and the other is an extention of Ziegler's
kinematic hardening rule with a bi-linear type shear-displacement
relationship. The results computed by these numerical models are
compared with the experimental tests.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic
hysteretic behaviour.

design; columns;

stability;

60

RAMASCO, R. (1971) LA RISPOSTA SISMICA DELLE STRUTTURE INTELAIATE PIANE IN CAMPO


ELASTO-PLASTICO. Giornale del Genio Civile, Luglio, fase. 7, page
547-567. *28*
The main objective of this paper is to examine the seismic behaviour of
framed structures in elasto-plastic range. In order to achive this
objective a program of automatic calculation is developed and its
formulation is presented. The program is quite general both for
materials, concrete and steel, and for the shape of the framework on the
hypotesis of rectangular frame. Some numerical applications on steel
framed structures and concrete framed structures are shown in order to
study some phenomena, such as the damping and the P-delta effect due to
vertical loads on the elasto-plastic behaviour.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; stability; frames; damping.
0N0, T. (1982) DEFORMATION CAPACITY AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH OF COLD FORMED STEEL
MEMBERS AND FRAMES. Proc. of the VTI European Conf. on Earthquake
Engineering, Athens, page 315-322. *29*
This article shows the experimental results on deformation capacity and
ultimate strength of cold formed steel members and frames. Two testing
programs are performed: one is the bending test of beams in order to
understand the plastic deformation capacity of cold formed steel members
and, the other is the lateral loading test of the moment frames and
braced frames in order to explain the inelastic behaviour and the
deformation capacity. In the moment-rotation curves of the beams special
attention is paid on the influence of the slenderness ratios of members.
Tables describing the dimension of test beams, test frames and material
properties are presented, as well as some experimental curves.
KEY WORDS: steel
buckling.

structures;

seismic design; stability;

frames;

Mcniven, H. and Matzen, V. (1978) A MATHEMATICAL MODEL TO PREDICT THE INELASTIC


RESPONSE OF A STEEL FRAME: FORMULATION OF THE MODEL. Earthequake
Engineering and Structural Dynamics, vol.6, page 189-202. *30*
The purpose of this research is to use data from experiments to
formulate a mathematical model that will predict the non-linear response
of a single-storey steel frame to an earthquake input. The process used
in this formulation is system identification. The form of the model is a
second-order non-linear differential equation with linear
viscous
damping and Ramberg-Osgood type hysteresis. The damping coefficient and
the three parameters in the hysteretic model are to be established. An
integral weighted mean squared error function is used to evaluate the
"goodness of fit" between the model's response and the structure's
response when both are subjected to the same exitation.
KEY WORDS: steel
structural safety.

structures;

seismic design; stability;

frames;

61

Mcniven, H. and Matzen, V. (1978) A MATHEMATICAL MODEL TO PREDICT THE INELASTIC


RESPONSE OF A STEEL FRAME: ESTABLISHMENT OF PARAMETERS FROM SHAKING
TABLE EXPERIMENTS. Earthequake Engineering and Structural Dynamics,
vol.6, page 203-219. *31*
The purpose of this research is to use data from experiments to
formulate a mathematical model that will predict the non-linear response
of a single-storey steel frame to an earthquake input. The process used
in this formulation is system identification. In experiments performed
on a shaking table, the frame was subjected to two earthquake motions at
several intensities. In each case the frame underwent severe inelastic
deformation. A computer program which incorporates the concepts of
system identification makes use of the recorded data to establish four
parameters in a non-linear mathematical model. When different amounts of
data are used in the program, parameter sets are established which give
the best model response for that amount of test data.
KEY WORDS: steel
structural safety.

structures;

seismic

design; stability;

frames;

Popov, E. and Bertero, V. (1980) SEISMIC ANALYSIS OF SOME STEEL BUILDING FRAMES.
ASCE Journal of the Engineering Mechanics Division, vol.106, EMI, page
75-92. *32*
Assurance of ductile behaviour under inelastic load reversals occurring
during severe seismic disturbances is basic for earthquake-resistant
design of structural frames. The principal features encountered in the
analysis of this behaviour for three major types of steel building
frames are considered in this paper. The widely used moment-resisting
framing is considered first. This is followed by an examination of
conventionally braced frames. Lastly, a novel bracing system in which
the diagonal braces are made eccentric with respect to the beam-column
joint are considered.
KEY WORDS: steel
subassemblages.

structures; seismic design;

frame; eccentric braces;

-62

2.10 - BRACING BEHAVIOUR

ANDERSON, J. (1975) SEISMIC BEHAVIOR OF K-BRACED FRAMING SYSTEMS. ASCE Journal


of the Structural Division, ST10, page 2147-2159. *1*
The purpose of this work is to evaluate the inelastic seismic response
of three K-brace framing systems to strong earthquake motions. The
framing systems considered in this work are ten stories high with three
equal bays. In all cases, the primary K-bracing is located in the center
bay with the bracing members oriented so as to form a vee. The seismic
response of those frames is determined by a numerical analysis which is
briefly described. The comparison of the seismic response of the three
systems is evaluate in terms of the following parameters: 1) Absolute
maximum lateral displacement; 2) Maximum relative displacement; 3)
Ductility requirement; 4) Hysteretic behaviour; 5) Time history.
KEY WORDS: steel structures;
behaviour; ductility.

seismic

design; braces;

hysteretic

EDISHERASHVTLI, N. and SHAISHMELASHVILI, V. (1973) EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF


DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF MULTY-STOREY STEEL FRAME BUILDING LARGE-SCALE
MODELS WITH DIFFERENT VERTICAL BRACINGS. Proc. of the V World Conf. on
Earthquake Engineering, Rome, page 299-303. *2*
Herein are presented results of experimental studies of large scale
models (1/6 of natural size) of steel carcass building with frame and
frame bracing systems. The carcass models are tested for: free, ' forced
(resonance) vibrations and static very intensive horizontal loads
permitting to cause destruction
of model constructions.
Special
attention is paid to variation of vibration frequencies and to the
damping decrement of models when plastic deformations are developed in
them.
KEY WORDS:
steel
structures; seismic
multy-storey buildings.

design;

braces;

frames;

GOEL, S. and HANSON, R. (1973) SEISMIC BEHAVIOR OF MULTISTORY BRACED STEEL


FRAMES. Proc. of the V World Conf. on Earthquake Engineering, Rome, page
2934-2943. *3*
This paper presents and discusses the results of a numerical study on
the influence of the method of design and different arrangements of the
bracing members (fully braced, bottom story open, alternate stories open
and completely unbraced) in the seismic response of multistory steel
frames. The dynamic response is computed by assuming an elasto-plastic
type hysteretic behaviour in tension only for the diagonal bracing
members, in bending for the girders, and the 2nd order effects for the
"columns. In the end, some curves for different response parameters are
shown.
KEY WORDS: steel
braces; ductility.

structures; seismic design; calculation methods;

-63 HUCKELBRIDGE, A. and CLOUGH, R. (1978) SEISMIC RESPONSE OF UPLIFTING BUILDING


FRAME. ASCE Journal of the Structural Division, ST8, page 1211-1229. *4*
This work shows the results of an experimental and analytical research
program on seismic response of uplifting building frames. In the
experimental tests a one-third scale model of a nine story steel moment
frame prototype with special detail of the footing to allow column
uplift on the shaking table was used. In the nonlinear analytical
procedure it was employed bilinear elastic foundation elements with zero
tensile capacity in the upward direction to accurate behaviour during
uplift motion of the frame. The results of the two analyses are compared
for two cases: fixed and uplift foundation. In the end, a discussion of
the results obtained are presented with some conclusions.
KEY WORDS:
foundations.

steel

structures; seismic

design;

frames;

uplift;

JAIN, A. and GOEL, S. (1980) SEISMIC RESPONSE OF ECCENTRICALLY BRACED FRAMES.


ASCE Journal of the Structural Division, ST4, page 843-859. *5*
The purpose of this paper is to define the situation in which a bracing
member
can
be
treated
as
rigid-connected
nonbuckling
type,
rigid-connected buckling type, or pin-connected buckling type so that an
appropriate hysteretic model can be used in the seismic analysis of
eccentrically braced frames. The seismic response of three eccentrically
braced frames with different member proportions are also compared so as
to study the merits of different design philosophies used to proportion
the frame members.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; eccentric braces; buckling;
frames.
MURAKAMI, M., TAMURA, R., TANAKA, Y., OAMI, K., OSAWA, Y. and UMEMURA, H. (1973)
EARTHQUAKE RESISTANTE OF A STEEL FRAME APARTMENT HOUSE WITH . PRECAST
CONCRETE PANEL. Proc. of the V World Conf. on Earthquake Engineering,
Rome, page 2688-2697. *6*
The dynamic behaviour of a steel frame apartment house with precast
concrete wall panels and its surrounding soil during actual earthquakes
is investigated in this work. Sixteen sets of the electro-magnetic
seismometers are installed to measure the earthquake acceleration
records under, around and inside the building. With those records if is
possible to establish an appropriate dynamic model for the soil-building
system to study the dynamic behaviour of this kind of building under
severe earthquake exitations. Seme results and concluding remarks are
presented in the end.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; multy-storey buildings;
vibration; frames.
MAISON, B. and POPOV, E. (1980) CYCLIC RESPONSE PREDICTION FOR BRACED STEEL
FRAMES. ASCE Journal of the Structural Division, ST7, page 1401-1416.
*7*
In this paper, some experimental results on the behaviour of half-scale
K braced building frames subjected to severe cyclic loading are
reviewed. This is followed by a presentation of the experimentally
determined hysteretic behaviour for the individual braces used in the
test frames. An improved procedure for a computer simulation of brace
behaviour is then described. Using this formulation, the overall
inelastic cyclic response of one of the test frames is compared with the
predicted results. The agreement between the experimental and analytical
results are good.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; braces; frames; hysteretic
behaviour.

-64

POPOV, E. (1980) SEISMIC BEHAVIOR OF STRUCTUAL SUBASSEMBLAGES. ASCE Journal


the Structural Division, ST7, page 1451-1470. *8*

of

In this paper seme types of hysteretic loops which can be observed in


inelastic experiments with structural members and systems under cyclic
loads are presented. Attention is directed to structural steel and
reinforced concrete members and subassemblages. The distinction among
the various ductility factors are emphasized. The relationship between
the response spectrum approach and conventional code design procedure is
also examined. This paper may serve as an aid for evaluating the
numerous hysteretic loops which are becoming
available in
the
literature.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; hysteretic behaviour;
ductility; subassemblages.
WAKABAYASHI, M. and TSUJI, B. (1967) EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON THE BEHAVIOR
OF FRAMES WITH AND WITHOUT BRACING UNDER HORIZONTAL LOADING. Bulletin of
the Disaster Prevention Research Institute, Kyoto University, vol.16,
Part 2, n. 112, January, page 81-94. *9*
The experimental results on the behaviour of steel frames with and
without bracing under horizontal loading are shown in this paper. The
test speciments are moment frames and one span two storied frames. The
experiments are conducted for the moment frames under monotonous
horizontal and also under repeated loading, and for the one span two
storied frames under repeated horizontal loading. Special attention is
paid on the influence of the local or lateral buckling of the frame and
to the buckling and post-buckling behaviour of the compressive bracing
on the restoring force characteristics of the whole frame. In appendix,
it is given a method for calculating the axial force-displacement
relationship of the compression bracing.
KEY WORDS: steel
structures; seismic
hysteretic behaviour.

design; buckling;

braces;

WAKABAYASHI, M., MATSUI, C , MINAMI, K. and MITANI, I. (1974) INELASTIC BEHAVIOR


OF FULL-SCALE STEEL FRAMES WITH AND WITHOUT BRACINGS. Bulletin of the
Disaster Prevention Research Institute, Kyoto University, vol.24, Part
1, n. 216, March, page 1-23. *10*
Inelastic behaviour of unbraced and braced steel frames subjected to a
monotonie and alternatingly repeated horizontal load are experimentally
investigated on approximately full-scale, one-bay, one-story models of
mild steel H-sections. Eigth frames are tested; four braced and four
unbraced. Four of them
are horizontally loaded with their columns
simultaneously subjected to constant vertical load. The other four
frames are loaded only
horizontally. A theoretical analysis of
elastic-plastic behaviour of those frames are realyzed and compared with
the test results. Some tables describing the properties of frames
members and loading conditions of test frames are presented as well as
the experimental load-displacement relationships.
KEY WORDS: steel structures;
hysteretic behaviour.

seismic design; stability;

braces;

65 -

WAKABAYASHI, M. (1970) THE BEHAVIOR OF STEEL FRAMES WITH DIAGONAL BRACINGS UNDER
REAPEATED LOADING. Japan - U.S. Seminar on Earthquake Engineering with
Emphasis on the Safety of School Buildings, September 21-26, Sendai, 31
pages. *11*
This state of art is mainly concerned with the behaviour of bracing
members used in steel structures. Some topics are examined, namely: 1)
School buildings and steel structures in Japan; 2) The damages of steel
structures due to the 1968 Tokachi Offing earthquake; 3) Current
situation of diagonal bracing used in steel structures; 4) Previous
studies
on
braced
frames;
5)
Pretensioning
and
hysteretic
characteristics of steel bar bracings; 6) Buckling and hysteretic
characteristics of compressed bracings; 7) Experimental study on the
behaviour of steel frames with diagonal bracings. In the end, some
figures and curves are presented.
KEY WORDS: steel structures;
behaviour; stability.

seismic

design; braces;

hysteretic

BALLIO, G. , GOBETTI, A. and ZANON, P. (1979) SIMULATION OF DYNAMIC BEHAVIOUR OF


PIN JOINTED STRUCTURES WITH A NON SYMMETRICAL CONSTITUTIVE LAW.
Simulation of Sistem '79, North-Holland Publishing Company, page
509-516. *12*
The seismic response of pin jointed structures is analyzed in this
paper. The investigation is performed for a typical steel frame, i.g. a
bracing system of industrial building. The model used for the non
symmetrical constitutive law of compressed and tensioned bars is
described and applied in a step-by-step algoritm to evaluate the dynamic
behaviour of pin jointed structures. A numerical example is presented
showing the possibilities of the proposed method. Some considerations on
the ductility requested by the dynamic loads to this kind of structures
are presented.
KEY WORDS: steel structures;
behaviour; braces.

seismic

design; ductility; hysteretic

BALLIO, G., GOBETTI, A. and ZANON, P. (1979) RESISTENZA E DUTTILIT" DI STRUTTURE


RETICOLARI DI CONTROVENTO. Atti del Convegno 1978 Consiglio Nazionale
delle Ricerche, Progetto Finalizzato "Geodinamica", Roma, Gennaio, page
291-305. *13*
In this general work, it is presented some experimental and numerical
results concerning the behaviour of steel structures, their elements and
connections in seismic zones. Special attention is given to the braces,
namely the influence of its slenderness and the type of end connection
in the strength and ductility of those members. In the end some
experimental and theoretical curves are shown.
KEY WORDS: steel structures;
behaviour; braces.

seismic

design; ductility; hysteretic

66

BALLIO, G., CAMPANINI, G., GOBETTI, A. and ZANON, P. (1980) CONDIZIONI DI


COLLASSO DI STRUTTURE METALLICHE RETICOLARI DI CONTROVENTO SOGGETTE AD
AZIONI SISMICHE. Ingegneria Sismica in Italia, C.I.S.M., Udine, page
275-287. *14*
The dynamic behaviour of braced structures is the argument of this
paper. The correlation between the applied load and the longitudinal
displacement for compressed bars, varying according with the slenderness
of the bar is briefly described and idealized constitutive laws for
compressed and tensioned bars are suggested. The results of a numerical
approach on the behaviour of a bracing structure during an earthquake
are presented and used to find the relation between design seismic
coefficient and collapse acceleration by amplifying the adopted input.
KEY WORDS: steel
braces.

structures; seismic

design; ductility; collapse;

BALLIO, G., GOBETTI, A. and ZANON, P. (1979) ANALYTICAL COMPUTATIONS OF DYNAMIC


BEHAVIOUR OF PIN JOINTED STRUCTURES. Proc. of the Int. Conf. on
Environmental Forces on Engineering Structures, London, July, 14 pages.
*15*
The seismic behaviour of bracings built up with angles profiles is
investigated in this work. For this purpose, an experimental and
numerical analysis in order to measure the ductility of tensioned and
compressioned members with bolted and welded connections have been
performed as well as a numerical approach for simulation with a computer
the behaviour of
bracing structures during
an earthquake. The
constitutive laws used in the model for the compressed and tensioned
bars is briefly described and applied in a step-by-step algoritm to
evaluate the dynamic behaviour of a pin jointed structure. A numerical
example is shown as well as some considerations on the ductility
requested to this kind of structures.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; ductility;
behaviour; braces.

hysteretic

HIGGINBOTHAM, A. and HANSON, R. (1976) AXIAL HYSTERETIC BEHAVIOR OF STRUCTURAL


MEMBERS. ASCE Journal of the Structural Division, ST7, page 1365-1380.
*16*
This paper presents a procedure for modeling axially-loaded members
under large inelastic cyclic deflections. Two analytical solutions for
pin-ended members are formulated. Both solutions employ the plastic
hinge concept, including axial force effects, to account for plastic
rotation. The solutions differ in accounting for axial displacement due
to lateral deflection of the members. The first solution uses the exact
expression for curvature whereas the second solution assumes the
internal bending moment to vary linearly along the member. The results
obtained with these procedures are compared with the experimental ones.
KEY WORDS: steel structures;
hysteretic behaviour.

seismic

design; braces;

stability;

-67 -

SAMPAOLESI, L. , BIOLZI, L. and TACCHI, R. ( ? ) SUL COMPORTAMEOTXD DI STRUTTURE


DI CONTROVENTO RETICOLARI IN ACCIAIO SOTTO AZIONI SISMICHE. ( ? ) , 32
pages. *17*
The report presents the results of a research program dealing with the
analysis of the behaviour of steel braced structures subjected to
alternate loading conditions. In the experimental tests a natural scale
models of a frame with one and two braces are utilized. Experiments are
performed by using a test apparatus able to impress cyclic displacements
slowly variable in time. A numerical model for predicting the behaviour
of the braces is presented and applied in an algoritm to evaluate the
behaviour of braced structures. Some considerations on the ductility
requested by these structures and its hysterectic behaviour
are
presented in the end.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic
behaviour; braces.

design; ductility;

hysteretic

CALADO, L. (1985) SIMULAO NUMERICA DO COMPORTAMENTO SISMICO DE ESTRUTURAS


METLICAS CONTRAVENTADAS. Dissertation submitted of the requirements for
the degree of Master of Science in the Technical University of Lisbon,
January, 82 pages. *18*
The work deals with a finite element able to describe the behaviour of
cyclic axially loaded members taking into account the geometrical and
physical nonlinear effects. Its formulation is developed and the results
obtained with this model are compared with experimental studies allowing
to check the model. A numerical study is then developed to investigate
the influence of some parameters which affect the bearing capacity of
compressed members. The work also shows how the element can be 'used to
simulate the braces in order to predict the seismic behaviour of plane
braced pin-end structures, and the evaluation of the behaviour factor of
this type of structures.
KEY WORDS: steel structures;
compression members.

seismic

design; stability;

braces;

TAYEM, A. and GOEL, S. (1984) CYCLIC BEHAVIOR OF ANGLE X-BRACING. ASCE


Structures '84 Congress, San Francisco, October, 1/3.10.84, 22 pages.
*19*
Five full scale X-bracing specimens are tested under quasi-static cyclic
loading with a view to explore their response and then ultimately to
synthesize a composite hysteresis model for the two X-members. The main
parameters of the study are: 1) Mode of buckling; 2) Interaction between
the two members; 3) Slenderness ratio and 4) Width-thickness ratios. The
general cyclic behaviour, behaviour of compression diagonal, local
buckling and hysteresis loops of the tested specimens are presented in
this work.
KEY WORDS: steel structures;
behaviour; stability.

seismic

design; braces;

hysteretic

68

GHANAAT, Y. (1980) STUDY OF X-BRACED STEEL FRAME STRUCTURES UNDER EARTHQUAKE


SIMULATION. Report No. UCB/EERC 80/80, Earthquake Engineering Research
Center, University of California, Berkeley, April, 226 pages. *20*
This report presents experimental results on the seismic performance of
a model three-story building frame, both unbraced and with three
different wind bracing systems and correlates these results with
analytical predictions. Considerable compression buckling and tension
yielding of the diagonal bracing members are observed in the tests, but
the bracing provided significant reductions in the lateral displacements
when compared with the unbraced frame response. Analytical techniques
employing three different hysteresis models to represent the three types
of bracing systems are shown to predict the response of braced frames
with good accurancy.
KEY WORDS: steel structures;
behaviour; stability.

seismic design; braces;

hysteretic

Kahn, L. and Hanson, R. (1976) INELASTIC CYCLES OF AXIALLY LOADED STEEL MEMBERS.
ASCE Journal of the Structural Division, ST5, page 947-959. *21*
The object of this investigation was to experimentally determine the
hysteretic characteristics of axially loaded steel members subjected to
alternating tension and compression. Sixteen steel bars of various
lengths were tested under both static and quasi-dynamic loads, the
principal result was the determination of axial load-deflection curves
for members subjected to cycles of post-buckling deflections and high
tension loads. The results of these are particularly applicable to the
seismic design of bracing members where large cyclic deflections may not
lead to collapse of the entire structure.
KEY WORDS: steel structures;
behaviour; stability.

seismic

design; braces;

hysteretic

Jain, A., Goel, S. and Hanson, R. (1978) INELASTIC RESPONSE OF RESTRAINED STEEL
TUBES. ASCE Journal of the Structural Division, ST6, page 897-910. *22*
The purpose of this experimental investigation was to determine the
hysteresis behaviour of axially loaded steel bracing members with
rotational end restraint provided by connections and to study the
influence of connection flexural strength, stiffness and change of
member length on the hysteresis behaviour. The .experimental results are
compared with theoretical results obtained by other authors.
KEY WORDS: steel structures;
behaviour; stability.

seismic design; braces;

hysteretic

69

Popov, E., Zayas, V. and Mahin, S. (1979) CYCLIC INELASTIC BUCKLING OF THIN
TUBULAR COLUMNS. ASCE Journal of the Structural Division, STll, page
2261-2277. *23*
In this paper, experimental results from tests on six tubular columns
subjected to severe cyclic loading are considered. The one-sixth scale
specimens were so chose so that their diameter-to-thickness ratios and
fixities are representative of
members encountered in practice.
Experimentally obtained hysteretic loops
for axial force
versus
elongation, as well as versus the maximum lateral deflection are
presented and
interpreted.
Suggestions for
analytic
(computer)
representation of the hysteretic loops are also given. The paper
concludes with an examination of possible approaches for analyzing
braced offshore towers and recommendations for additional research.
KEY WORDS: steel structures;
behaviour; stability.

seismic

design; braces;

hysteretic

Toyama, K. (1983) SEISMIC BEHAVIOUR OF STEEL BENT-BRACING SYSTEMS. Kajima


Institute of Construction Technology Report No 41, 47 pages. *24*
In this paper, in order to improve the aseismic characteristics of
braced frames, a special bracing called "bent-bracing" having stable
restoring force characteristics is applied to the braced frame, and the
effects is studied both experimentally and analytically. Bent-bracing
has the initial deflection provided at the center of bracing by
previously bending the section. The skeleton curve of bent-bracing and
the practical evaluation method of the hysteresis model are also
presented.
KEY WORDS: steel structures;
behaviour; stability.

seismic

design; braces;

hysteretic

-70-

2.11 - ECCENTRIC BRACING BEHAVIOUR

ANDERSON, J. (1975) SEISMIC BEHAVIOR OF K-BRACED FRAMING SYSTEMS. ASCE Journal


of the Structural Division, ST10, page 2147-2159. *1*
The purpose of this work is to evaluate the inelastic seismic response
of three K-brace framing systems to strong earthquake motions. The
framing systems considered in this work are ten stories high with three
equal bays. In all cases, the primary K-bracing is located in the center
bay with the bracing members oriented so as to form a vee. The seismic
response of those frames are determined by a numerical analysis which is
briefly described. The comparison of the seismic response of the three
systems is evaluated in terms of the following parameters: 1) Absolute
maximum lateral displacement; 2) Maximum relative displacement; 3)
Ductility requirement; 4) Hysteretic behaviour; 5) Time history.
KEY WORDS: steel structures;
behaviour; ductility.

seismic design; braces;

hysteretic

HUCKELBRIDGE, A. and CLOUGH, R. (1978) SEISMIC RESPONSE OF UPLIFTING BUILDING


FRAME. ASCE Journal of the Structural Division, ST8, page 1211-1229. *2*
This work shows the results of an experimental and analytical research
program on seismic response of uplifting building frames. In the
experimental tests a one-third scale model of a nine story steel moment
frame prototype with special detail of the footing to allow column
uplift on the shaking table was used. In the nonlinear analytical
procedure it was employed bilinear elastic foundation elements with zero
tensile capacity in the upward direction to accurate behaviour during
uplift motion of the frame. The results of the two analyses are
confronted for two cases: fixed and uplift foundation. In the end a
discussion of the results obtained are presented with some conclusions.
KEY WORDS:
foundations.

steel

structures; seismic

design;

frames;

uplift;

JAIN, A. and GOEL, S. (1980) SEISMIC RESPONSE OF ECCENTRICALLY BRACED FRAMES.


ASCE Journal of the Structural Division, ST4, page 843-859. *3*
The purpose of this paper is to define the situation in which a bracing
member
can
be
treated
as
rigid-connected
nonbuckling
type,
rigid-connected buckling type, or pin-connected buckling type so that an
appropriate hysteresis model can be used in the seismic analysis of
eccentrically braced frames. The seismic response of three eccentrically
braced frames with different member proportions are also compared so as
to study the merits of different design philosophies used to proportion
the frame members.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; frames; buckling; eccentric
braces.

71

POPOV, E. (1980) SEISMIC BEHAVIOR OF STRUCTURAL SUBASSEMBLAGES, ASCE Journal


the Structural Division, ST7, page 1451-1470. *4*

of

In this paper some types of hysteretic loops which can be observed in


inelastic experiments with structural members and systems under cyclic
loads are presents. Attention is directed to structural steel and
reinforced concrete members and subassemblages. The distinction among
the" various ductility factors are emphasized. The relationship between
the response spectrum approach and conventional code design procedure is
also examined. This paper may serve as an aid for evaluating the
numerous hysteretic loops
which are becoming
available in
the
literature.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; hysteretic behaviour;
ductility; subassemblages.
POPOV, E. (1980) AN UPDATE ON ECCENTRIC
Journal, n.3, page 70-71. *5*

SEISMIC BRACING. AISC

Engineering

This general paper presents some considerations on the seismic design of


diagonal braced frame systems with eccentric connections, with special
attention on the design of the shear link, i.e., the beam element
between the face of the column and the brace. The paper ends with some
remarks on the buckling of the web and the flanges in the shear link as
well as the future investigation to do in this type of eccentric braces.
KEY WORDS: steel
eccentric braces.

structures; seismic

design; connections; buckling;

POPOV, E. and ROEDER, C. (1978) DESIGN OF ECCENTRICALLY BRACED STEEL FRAME. AISC
Engineering Journal, n.3, page 77-81. *6*
In this paper it is summarized the design requirements for diagonal
braced frame systems with eccentric connections. According to the
authors, for these type of frames, a'good design is achieved if plastic
hinges form at both ends of the eccentric beam element shortly after
shear yielding. Therefore, the eccentricity and plastic moment capacity
must be carefully balanced to assure the proper yield mechanism. Based
in these considerations a design example is solved.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; connections; ductility;
eccentric braces.
Some authors (1979) Discussion on "ECCENTRICALLY BRACED STEEL FRAMES FOR
EARTHQUAKES" by W. Roeder and E. Popov, ASCE Journal of the Structural
Division: ST2, page 462-463; ST3, page 687-689; STll, page 2471-2472.
*7*
In these discussions, some points have been analized, namely: the
comparison between the dynamic responses of the concentrically and
eccentrically braced structures; the relative savings in weight of steel
for braced structures, and the extent of damage and cost of repair of
the alternate bracing systems. In the STll the authors reply to the
questions and the discussion is closed.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; connections; ductility;
eccentric braces.

72

LIBBY, J. (1981) ECCENTRICALLY BRACED FRAMES CONSTRUCTION - A CASE HISTORY. AISC


Engineering Journal, n.4, page 149-153. *8*
The principal purpose of this paper is to describe why eccentrically
braced frames were selected for the San Diego Bank of America building.
Some topics are analized, namely: 1) General requirements of the client;
2) Detail of the tower structure; 3) Rationale for using eccentrically
braced frames; 4) Structural details of the lateral load resisting
system; 5) Summary of quantities and cost. The paper ends with some
concluding remarks on the eccentrically braced frames.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; connections; ductility;
eccentric braces.
OSTRIKOV, G. and MAKSIMOV, Y. (1982) NEW CONSTRUCTIVE FORMS OF STEEL
RESISTANT FRAMES. Proc. of the VII European Conf. on
Engineering, Athens, page 341-346. *9*

EARTHQUAKE
Earthquake

This general paper presents a design solution and experimental studies


data for energy absorbing capacity and durability of main beams with
corrugated webs as well as of ring-type, tube-type and beam-type energy
absorbers used in braced frames structures. Dynamic tests for a thirty
storeyed spatial framed structure model with ring type energy absorbed
are refered and economic efficiency of application of
suggested
solutions in earthquake resistent engineering are discussed.
KEY WORDS:
braces.

steel structures; seismic design; connections; ductility;

POPOV, E. and MALLEY, J. (1983) ECCENTRICALLY BRACED FRAMES. ASCE Manual on


Beam-to-Column Building Connections. January, Draft of the Chapter 11 of
the upcoming ASCE Manual on Beam-to-Column Building Connections under
preparation. (To be published), 59 pages. *10*
This report is divided in five parts. In the first, "Introduction",
general remarks on the analysis and characteristics of eccentrically
braced frames as well as the classification of active links are
presented. The second, "Experimental results on link behavior", is
concerned with the experimental setup for studying links and the
principal test conclusions. The third, "Design and detailing of active
link connections", provides guidance for connection design and details
in eccentrically braced frames. In the fourth, "Non-seismic application
of eccentric bracing", are refered other possibles application for
eccentric braces. The report ends with the projected research on
eccentrically breed frames.
KEY WORDS: steel structures;
eccentric braces.

seismic

design; connections; frames;

POPOV, E. (1982) SEISMIC STEEL FRAMING SYSTEMS FOR


Engineering Journal, n.3, page 141-149. *11*

TALL BUILDINGS. AISC

This state of the art reviews the advantages and disadvantages of three
framing systems: 1) Moment resisting frames; 2) Concentrically braced
frames and, 3) Eccentrically braced frames. The choice of a particular
framing system and its functional requirements are discussed. According
to the author, in some applications eccentric bracing may be the most
economical, being given for this system some design guidelines.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; multy-storey buildings;
frames; braces.

73

HJELMSTAD, K. and POPOV, E. (1983) SEISMIC BEHAVIOR OF ACTIVE BEAM LINKS IN


ECCENTRICALLY BRACED FRAMES. Report No. UCB/EERC - 83/15, Earthquake
Engineering Research Center, University of California, 169 pages. *12*
This report has two parts. In the first part, the results of an
experimental study of the behaviour of active links are presented. The
study includes fifteen tests on full sized active links, which are
performed to determine the general response characteristics of this type
of element, especially as regards the buckling and post-buckling
behaviour. The second part of the report concerns the elasto-plastic
analysis of eccentrically braced frames, with emphasis on accurately
modeling the active link elements. For this purpose two analytical
models are developed. An appendix dealing with the effects of warping
restraint in thin walled beams is presented.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; connections; hysteretic
behaviour; eccentric braces.
HJELMSTAD, K. and POPOV, E. (1984) CHARACTERISTICS OF ECCENTRICALLY BRACED
FRAMES. ASCE Journal of the Structural Engineering, vol. 110, n.2,
February, page 340-353. *13*
In this paper, some of the fundamental characteristics of the elastic
and inelastic behaviour of eccentrically braced frames are examined by
studying some simple examples. The behaviour of the segment of the beam
(active link) in which is dissipated large amounts of input energy of a
severe seismic event is briefly analysed, followed by some remarks on
detailing this connection. The results provide a qualitative assessment
of the behaviour of the eccentrically braced frames for use in
seismically active regions.
KEY WORDS: steel
eccentric braces.

structures; seismic

design; connections; frames;

MALLEY, J. and POPOV, E. (1984) SHEAR LINKS IN ECCENTRICALLY BRACED FRAMES. ASCE
Journal of the Structural Engineering, vol. 110, n.9, September, page
2275-2295. *14*
The results of an experimental investigation of the effects of inelastic
loading history, connection details, and web stiffener details on active
link behaviour are presented. The test results are evaluated using
energy dissipation as the basic parameter. A design procedure for active
links which yield primarily in shear is outlined. This procedure
includes recommendations on structural configuration, member sizes, link
connection details, and web stiffener details. Suggested connection and
stiffener details are illustrated.
KEY WORDS: steel
eccentic braces.

structures; seismic

design; connections;

shear;

74

2.12 - INTERACTION BETWEEN FRAMES AND BRACINGS

CLOUGH, E. and GHANAAT, Y. (1979) SEISMIC BEHAVIOR OF DIAGONAL STEEL WIND


BRACING. Proc. of the 2nd U. S. Nat. Conf. on Earthquake Engineering,
EERI, Standford University, page 313-322. *1*
The purpose of this paper is to give experimental data on the seismic
performance of a building frame with diagonal wind bracing, and to
correlate these results with computer analyses. The test structure is a
three-story steel building frame, and the motions are applied by a
shaking table. Two test series with different bracings (rod bracing and
welded pipe X bracing) are performed. The experimental results are
compared with an analytical model giving a satisfactory correlation.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; braces; frames; ductility.
MAZZOLANI, F. and FAELLA, C. (1977) ANALYSIS OF HIGH STRENGTH STEEL BARS UNDER
REPEATED AXIAL LOADING. Universit" degli Studi di Napoli, Quaderni di
Teoria e Tecnica delle Strutture n.430, 6 pages. *2*
In this general paper, the analysis of pre-and post-buckling behaviour
of high strength steel bars under reapeated axial loading process is
investigated by means of an incremental simulation method. The material
is interpreted through an elastic strain hardening bilinear relationship
which considers the Bauschinger effect. Some numerical results are
shown, allowing to derive informations about the influence of various
parameters on the load carrying capacity.
KEY WORDS: steel
buckling.

structures;

seismic design; braces;

stability;

MAZZOLANI, F. and FAELLA, C. (1974) INFLUENZA DELL'EFFETTO BAUSCHINGER SUL


COMPORTAMENTO DI ASTE METALLICHE SOTTO CICLI DI ELONGAZIONI. Estratto
dalla rivista "La Ricerca", Maggio-Agosto, page 59-79. *3*
In this paper, the analysis of pre-and post-buckling behaviour of steel
bars with Bauschinger effect under reapeated axial deformation is
investigated by means of an incremental simulation method. The
Bauschinger effect is interpreted through the three classical models:
ideal, semideal and isotropical hardening. Some numerical results are
shown, allowing to derive informations about the influence of various
parameters particulary the increase of the lowering of the load carrying
capacity in post-buckling range, strictly depending upon the assumed
Bauschinger effect model.
i
KEY WORDS: steel
buckling.

structures;

seismic design; braces;

stability;

-75

IGARASHI, S., INOUE, K., ASANO, M. and OGAWA, K. (1973) RESTORING FORCE
CHARACTERISTICS OF STEEL DIAGONAL BRACINGS. V World Conf. on Earthquake
Engineering, Rome, page 2162-2171. *4*
This work studies the load-deformation relationship and the dynamic
response characteristics of the steel X-bracing structures
under
earthquake ground motions. An axial load-deformation relationship of the
bracing member is suggested and employed to calculate the dynamic
response of a X-braced structure with one degree-of-freedom. The
influence of the slenderness ratios on the dynamic response of X-braced
structures is also analysed.
KEY WORDS: steel structures;
hysteretic behaviour.

seismic

design; braces;

stability;

MAISON, B. and POPOV, E. (1980) CYCLIC RESPONSE PREDICTION FOR BRACED STEEL
FRAMES. ASCE Journal of the Structural Division, ST7, page 1401-1416.
*5*
In this paper, some experimental results on the behaviour of half-scale
K braced building frames subjected to severe cyclic loading are
reviewed. This is followed by a presentation of the experimentally
determined hysteretic behaviour for the individual braces used in the
test frames. An improved procedure for a computer simulation of brace
behaviour is then described. Using this formulation, the overall
inelastic cyclic response of one of the test frames is compared with the
predicted results. The agreement between the experimental and analytical
results are good.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; braces; frames; hysteretic
behaviour.
POPOV, E. (1979) INELASTIC BEHAVIOR OF STEEL BRACES UNDER CYCLIC LOADING. Proc.
of the 2nd U. S. Nat. Conf. on Earthquake Engineering, EERI, Standford
University, page 923-932. *6*
The paper presents and discusses the results of some experiments on
cyclically loaded members into the inelastic range. The speciments are
selected from standard structural steel shapes. Some speciments have
pinned ends and others are fixed at one end and pinned at the other. The
experiments are performed by slowly applying cyclic axial displacements.
Some experimental results are shown, allowing to derive informations
about the parameters that reduce the initial buckling capacity of the
strut.
KEY WORDS: steel structures;
hysteretic behaviour.

seismic

design; braces;

stability;

-76

SHIBATA, M., NAKAMURA, T., YOSHIDA, N., MORINO, S., NONAKA, T. and WAKABAYASHI,
M. (1973) ELASTO-PLASTIC BEHAVIOR OF STEEL BRACES UNDER REPEATED AXIAL
LOADING. Proc. of the V World Conf. on Earthquake Engineering, Rome,
page 845-848. *7*
This state of the art
presents and discusses seme results
of
experimental and theoretical studies on the elasto-plastic behaviour of
steel braces under repeated loading. The hysteretic behaviour of braces
is briefly commented to a better understand of its contribution to the
strength and rigidity of steel framed structures during the earthquakes.
KEY WORDS: steel structures;
hysteretic behaviour.

seismic

design; braces;

stability;

WAKABAYASHY, M., NAKAMURA, T. and YOSHIDA, N. (1977) EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON THE


ELASTIC-PLASTIC BEHAVIOR OF BRACED FRAMES UNDER REPEATED HORIZONTAL
LOADING. Bulletin of the Disaster Prevention Research Institute, Kyoto
University, vol.27, Part 3, n. 251, September, page 121-154. *8*
An experimental
study is
conducted
to obtain
the
hysteretic
characteristics of the brace itself in a braced frame under repeated
loading. Braces with an H-shaped cross section are tested in a single or
a double bracing system. The effects of the slenderness ratio, the
buckling plane and the local buckling are investigated. The fundamental
properties of a
brace for
the formulation
of the
hysteretic
characteristics under repeated loading are extracted.
KEY WORDS: steel structures;
hysteretic behaviour.

seismic

design; braces;

stability;

WAKABAYASHY, M., NAKAMURA, T., SHIBATA, M., YOSHIDA, N. and MASUDA, H. (1977)
HYSTERETIC BEHAVIOR OF STEEL BRACES SUBJECTED TO HORIZONTAL LOAD DUE TO
EARTHQUAKES. Proc. of the VI World Conf. on Earthquake Engineering, New
Delhi, India, vol.3, page 3188-3194. *9*
This general paper discusses the elasto-plastic hysteretic behaviour of
steel braces. In the first part, the experimental and theoretical
investigations by the authors, on the braces are briefly introduced. In
the second part, idealized post-buckling curve and hysteresis loops of
the brace members are formulated and proposed for the design use, based
on the parametric analysis of the experimental and theoretical results.
KEY WORDS: steel structures;
hysteretic behaviour.

seismic

design; braces;

stability;

-77

WAKABAYASHY, M., NAKAMURA, T. and YOSHIDA, N. (1980) EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON THE


ELASTIC-PLASTIC BEHAVIOR OF BRACED FRAMES UNDER REPEATED HORIZONTAL
LOADING. Bulletin of the Disaster Prevention Research Institute, Kyoto
University, vol.29, Part 4, n. 266, March, page 143-164. *10*
Experimental studies are conducted to investigate the
hysteretic
behaviour of one story-one bay braced steel frames whose braces are made
of built-up H-shapes and whose columns and beams are made of rolled
H-shapes. Hysteretic behaviour and change of load carrying capacity of
each component member of a frame, i.e., braces, columns and beams under
repeated horizontal load are examined individually, as well as the
hysteretic behaviour of a braced frame as a whole. Interaction behaviour
between the braces built in a frame and the components of the
surrounding frame is also discussed.
KEY WORDS: steel structures;
hysteretic behaviour.

seismic

design; braces;

stability;

TAKANASHI, K. and OHI, K. (1984) SHAKING TABLE TESTS ON 3-STORY BRACED AND
UNBRACED STEEL FRAMES. Proc. of the VIII World Conf. on Earthquake
Engineering, San Francisco, 8 pages. *11*
A series of shaking table tests are performed on three-story moment
resistant steel frames and braced steel frames. Two sets of moment
resistant frames, each one is designed to have a different story shear
strength, are subjected to earthquake acceleration records to examine
the response shear forces and the damage concentration. Braced frames
with X-type braces are also subjected to the acceleration records. The
results of response displacements and story shear forces are used to
verify the analytical procedure where the inelastic behaviour of the
structural elements are presumed.
KEY WORDS: steel
behaviour; frames.

structures;

seismic

design; braces;

hysteretic

-78

2.13 - STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS

ANDERSON, J. (1975) SEISMIC BEHAVIOUR OF K-BRACED FRAMING SYSTEMS. ASCE Journal


of the Structural Division, STlO, page 2147-2159. *1*
The purpose of this work is to evaluate the inelastic seismic response
of three K-brace framing systems to strong earthquake motions. The
framing systems considered in this work, are ten stories high with three
equal bays. In all cases, the primary K-bracing is located in the center
bay with the bracing members oriented so as to form a vee. The seismic
response of those frames is determined by a numerical analysis which is
briefly described. The comparison of the seismic response of the three
systems is evaluated in terms of the following parameters: 1) Absolute
maximum lateral displacement; 2) Maximum relative displacement; 3)
Ductility requirement; 4) Hysteretic behaviour; 5) Time history.
KEY WORDS: steel structures;
behaviour; ductility.

seismic design; braces;

hysteretic

BEA, R. (1979) EARTHQUAKE AND WAVE DESIGN CRITERIA FOR OFFSHORE PLATFORMS. ASCE
Journal of the Structural Division, ST2, page 401-419. *2*
In this work, a process for development of earthquake design criteria
for offshore platforms is presented. The process considers: 1) Projected
environmental conditions; 2)
Platform system characteristics;
3)
Environmental loadings and
forces on the
platform systems; 4)
Uncertainties in projected
environmental conditions, forces, and
platform response; 5) Platform system performance, particulary inelastic
behaviuor during extreme overload conditions; 6) Reliability quantified
as the ability of the platform system to perform satisfactorily in the
full range of projected environmental conditions; 7) Decisions on what
constitutes acceptable performance and reliability.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic
calculation methods; planning.

design; offshore structures;

BEA, R., AUDIBERT, J. and AKKY, M. (1979) EARTHQUAKE RESPONSE OF OFFSHORE


PLATFORMS. ASCE Journal of the Structural Division, ST2, page 377-400.
*3*
The purpose of this article is to give a better understanding of the key
aspects and factors that may determine the response and performance of
one class of offshore platforms, i.e., steel, tubular membered,
truss-framed structures supported by tubular piles and conductors,
during intense ground motions. In appendix, a long reference list is
given in order to built a more complete understanding of the behaviour
of these stuctures.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic
calculation methods; structural systems.

design; offshore structures;

79

BERTERO, V., BRESLER, B., SELNA, L., CHOPRA, A. and KORETSKY, A. (1973) DESIGN
IMPLICATIONS OF DAMAGES OBSERVED IN THE OLIVE VIEW MEDICAL CENTER
BUILDINGS. Proc. of the V World Conf. on Earthquake Engineering, Rome,
page 51-65. *4*
This article examines the possible causes and design implications of the
observed damages in the Olive View Medical Center produced by the San
Fernando erathquake. The buildings under study are of reinforced
concrete. Special attention is given on the aspects involved in the
seismic design, ground motion, material characteristics and structural
features of individual buildings. Some recommendations with a view to
minimize earthquake damage are presented.
KEY WORDS: steel
detailing.

structures; seismic

design; damages;

ductility;

BLUME, J. (1972) ANALYSIS OF DYNAMIC EARTHQUAKE RESPONSE. Proc. of the Int.


Conf. on Planning and Design of Tall Buildings, ASCE-IABSE, Lehigh
University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, vol. lb, page 191-211. *5*
This state of the art, is concerned with the dynamic response of tall
buildings under earthquake ground motions. It is divided in twelve
parts: 1) Introduction; 2) Types of tall buildings; 3) Behaviour of tall
buildings; 4) Idealized linear systems; 5) Idealized inelastic systems;
6) Analysis; 7) The reserve energy technique; 8) Vertical motions; 9)
Probabilistic analysis; 10) Equipment and appendages; 11) Long periods
of vibrations; 12) Need for future research and development.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic
multy-storey buildings; planning.

design; structural

systems;

CARPENTER, L. and LU, LE-WU (1973) REVERSED AND REPEATED LOAD TESTS OF FULL
SCALE STEEL FRAMES. AISI Bulletin n.24, April, 38 pages. *6*
In this bulletin is described the tests done in full sized single bay
steel frames subjected to constant gravity loads on the beams and
columns and cycles of reversed and repeated displacements.
Some
particular problems are investigated, namely: the effect of the local
buckling of the beam in the single story frame; the behaviour of the
columns in the inelastic range and of the beam to
beam-column
connections; the effect of the localization of the plastic hinges in the
behaviour of a two story frame. The bulletin describes the design of the
steel frames, the technique developed to test those frames, the
experimental behaviour of the frames and the observations drawn out from
the experimental results.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic
connections ; frames.

design; hysteretic behaviour;

80-

CLOUGH, R. , REA, D., TANG, D. and WATABE, M. (1973) EARTHQUAKE SIMULATOR TEST OF
A THREE STORY STEEL FRAME STRUCTURE. Proc. of the V World Conf. on
Earthquake Engineering, Rome, page 308-311. *7*
This paper shows the results of experimental tests conducted on a three
story steel frame structure using a square shaking table. In this
structure, the panel zones are left understrength so that yielding would
occur first in the panel zone. The intensity of the table motions are
increased progressively until a peak acceleration of 0.5 g to cause
yielding in the panel zones. The results described could be used in
analytical studies to determine the accurancy of the computer programs
for predicting the behaviour of steel frames under large vibrations
enough to cause inelastic behaviour.
KEY WORDS: steel
buildings; frames.

structures; seismic design; ductility;

low-rise

CHENG, F. and OSTER, K. (1976) ULTIMATE INSTABILITY OF EARTHQUAKE STRUCTURES.


ASCE Journal of the Structural Division, ST5, page 961-972. *8*
An analytical technique for dynamic instability analysis of structural
systems subjected to time dependent axial force, lateral force or ground
motions is suggested. The general formulation is presented and applied
in two numerical examples. Special attention is paid to the effects of
2nd order, outlined that the vertical force may not always be critical
to dynamic response and can actually cause certain structures to have
smaller deflections than that of the associated systems
without
consideration of these effects.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic
hysteretic behaviour; stability.

design;

structural

systems;

CLOUGH, R., NIWA, A. and CLOUGH, D. (1979) EXPERIMENTAL SEISMIC STUDY OF


CYLINDRICAL TANKS. ASCE Journal of the Structural Division, STI2, page
2565-2590. *9*
In this work, it is summarized the most significant results of an
experimental investigation on the earthquake response behaviour of
flexible cylindrical liquid-storage tanks. The test procedures are
described, followed by a short summary of the observations made in
testing the 3.70m x 1.80m tank. The results obtained with the 2.40m x
4.60m tank are considered more thoroughly, including the principal
findings of a static-test program carried out with this speciment.
Finally, comparisons are made between the experimental observations and
quantities predicted by standard design procedures, and conclusions are
drawn concerning the adequacy of these design methods.
KEY WORDS: steel
systems; vessels.

structures; seismic design; stability;

structural

-81

EDISHERASHVTLI, N. and SHAISHMELASHVILI, V. (1973) EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF


DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF MULTY-STOREY STEEL FRAME BUILDING LARGE-SCALE
MODELS WITH DIFFERENT VERTICAL BRACINGS. Proc. of the V World Conf. on
Earthquake Engineering, Rome, page 299-303. *10*
Herein are presented results of experimental studies of large scale
models (1/6 of natural size) of steel carcass buildings with frame and
frame bracing systems. The carcass models are tested for: free, forced
(resonance) vibrations and static very intensive horizontal loads
permitting to cause destruction
of model constructions.
Special
attention is paid to variation of vibration frequencies and to the
damping decrement of models when plastic deformations are developed in
them.
KEY WORDS:
steel
structures; seismic
multy-storey buildings.

design;

braces;

frames;

FARDIS, M., CORNELL, C. and MEYER, J. (1979) ACCIDENT AND SEISMIC CONTAINMENT
RELIABILITY. ASCE Journal of the Structural Division, STI, page 67-83.
*11*
An integrated reliability study of a containment vessel of a nuclear
power plant is presented. The study focuses'on events and features of
the behaviour that may prohibit the fulfillment of the containment
safety role.
It is
shown how
the probabilistically
described
safety-significant damage that is caused by accidents or earthquakes can
be coupled with a probablistic description of these events to yield
reliability estimates for the entire plant lifetime. The superposition
of the effects of those events when they act simultaneously or
separately is also analysed.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; structural safety; damages;
vessels.
GOEL, S. and HANSON, R. (1973)
SEISMIC BEHAVIOR OF MULTISTORY BRACED STEEL
FRAMES. Proc. of the V World Conf. on Earthquake Engineering, Rome, page
2934-2943. *12*
This paper presents and discusses the results of a numerical study on
the influence of the method of design and different arrangements of the
bracing members (fully braced, bottom story open, alternate stories open
and completely unbraced) in the seismic response of multistory steel
frames. The dynamic response is computed by assuming an elasto-plastic
type hysteresis behaviour in tension only for the diagonal bracing
members, in bending for the girders, and the 2nd order effects for the
columns. In the end, some curves for different response parameters are
shown.
KEY WORDS: steel
braces; ductility.

structures; seismic

design; calculation methods;

-82

HUCKELBRIDGE, A. and CLOUGH, R. (1978) SEISMIC RESPONSE OF UPLIFTING BUILDING


FRAME. ASCE Journal of the Structural Division, ST8, page 1211-1229 *13*
This work shows the results of an experimental and analytical research
program on seismic response of uplifting building frames. In the
experimental tests a one-third scale model of a nine story steel moment
frame prototype with special detail of the footing to allow column
uplift on the shaking table was used. In the nonlinear analytical
procedure it was employed bilinear elastic foundation elements with zero
tensile capacity in the upward direction to accurate behaviour during
uplift motion of the frame. The results of the two analyses are compared
for two cases: fixed and uplift foundation. In the end, a discussion of
the results obtained are presented with some conclusions.
KEY WORDS:
foundations.

steel

structures; seismic

design;

frames;

uplift;

JAIN, A. and GOEL, S. (1980) SEISMIC RESPONSE OF ECCENTRICALLY BRACED FRAMES.


ASCE Journal of the Structural Division, ST4, page 843-859. *14*
The purpose of this paper is to define the situation in which a bracing
member
can
be
treated
as
rigid-connected
nonbuckling
type,
rigid-connected buckling type, or pin-connected buckling type so that an
appropriate hysteresis model can be used in the seismic analysis of
eccentrically braced frames. The seismic response of three eccentrically
braced frames with different member proportions are also compared so as
to study the merits of different design philosophies used to proportion
the frame members.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; frames; buckling; eccentric
braces.
KATO, B., AKIYAMA, H., SUZUKI, H. and FUKAZAWA, Y. (1973) DYNAMIC COLLAPSE TESTS
OF STEEL STRUCTURAL MODELS. Proc. of the V World Conf. on Earthquake
Engineering, Rome, page 1457-1460. *15*
This general article presents the results of a experimental study on the
dynamic behaviour and strength of beam-columns with H-shaped cross
section. The beam-columns are fixed at both ends and are tested on a
shaking table which can generate simulated earthquake motions. The
results of the experimental tests are compared with those of the
numerical analysis which take into account the strain-hardening of the
steel and the 2nd order effects.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic
hysteretic behaviour.

design; columns;

stability;

KHAN, A., LEE, P., MEHTA, D. and WANG, G. (1978) ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF SEISMIC
CATAGORY I THIN SHEET STRUCTURES. ENGINEERING DESIGN FOR EARTHQUAKE
ENVIRONMENTS, I Mech E CONFERENCE PUBLICATIONS 1978-12, London, page
111-118. *16*
The design criteria for seismic Category I thin sheet structures and
restraints in nuclear power plants is presented in this paper.
Structural design considerations, loads, load combinations, design
allowables and analytical methods for design and analysis of such
structures and its restraints are also presented. The analytical methods
presented include procedures for analysis of this thin structures due to
internal negative pressure, seismic and gravity loads.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; structural safety; vessels;
design criteria.

-83KONNO, T. and KIMURA, E. (1973) EARTHQUAKE EFFECTS ON STEEL TOWER STRUCTURES


ATOP BUILDINGS. Proc. of the V World Conf. on Earthquake Engineering,
Rone, page 184-194. *17*
This article presents the results of the full scale measurements and
earthquake response analysis carried out on some steel towers for
microwave antennes in Japan, as well as the results of vibration tests
performed by using steel tower and building models. It is outlined that
the steel tower atop building may be affected by the vibrational
characteristics of the building and consequently generate high seismic
forces at the time of a strong earthquake since the damping of tower is
very small. Finally, some remarks on the seismic forces acting on the
steel towers are presented.
KEY WORDS: steel structures;
multy-storey buildings.

seismic

design; towers;

vibration;

KOSTEM, C. and HECKMAN, D. (1979) EARTHQUAKE RESPONSE OF THREE DIMENSIONAL STEEL


FRAMES STIFFENED BY OPEN TUBULAR CONCRETE SHEAR WALLS. Proc. of the 2nd
U. S. Nat. Conf. on Earthquake Engineering, EERI, Standford University,
page 969-977. *18*
This work shows the results of a numerical study on the dynamic
behaviour of frame-shear wall systems. An open tubular concrete shear
wall (U-shaped) extending through the height of the building is
considered. Special attention is paid to the effect of the changes in
the dimentions (length and thickness) of the open tubular concrete shear
wall in the fundamental frequencies of this structural system.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; multy-storey buildings;
shear; frequency.
LORD, J. (1972) INELASTIC DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF TALL BUILDINGS. Proc. of the Int.
Conf. on Planning and Design of Tall Buildings, ASCE-IABSE, Lehigh
University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, vol. lb, page 291-297. *19*
In this general article, it is 'presented seme energy and drift
considerations involved in determining the inelastic dynamic behaviour
of tall buildings. The energy considerations are related with the
stability of the structure and the distribution of energy dissipation
during an earthquake event, while drift considerations are refered to
the drift control and the inelastic drift predictions.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; multy-storey buildings;
stability; drift.
MURAKAMI, M., TAMURA, R., TANAKA, Y., GAMI, K., OSAWA, Y. and UMEMURA, H. (1973)
EARTHQUAKE RESISTANCE OF A STEEL FRAME APARTMENT HOUSE WITH PRECAST
CONCRETE PANEL. Proc. of the V World Conf. on Earthquake Engineering,
Rome, page 2688-2697. *20*
The dynamic behaviour of a steel frame apartment house with precast
concrete wall panels and its surrounding soil during actual earthquakes
is investigated in this work. Sixteen sets of the electro-magnetic
seismometers are installed to measure the earthquake acceleration
records under, around and inside the building. With those records it is
possible to establish an appropriate dynamic model for the soil-building
system to study the dynamic behaviour of this kind of building under
severe earthquake exitations. Seme results and concluding remarks are
presented in the end.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; multy-storey buildings;
vibration; frames.

-84
OKADA, H., TAKEDA, T., YOSHIOKA, K., OMOTE, Y. and NAKAGAWA, K. (1973)
EXPERIMENTAL AND RESEARCH ON THE RESPONSE OF STEEL MODEL STRUCTURES
SUBJECTED TO IMPACT HORIZONTAL LOADING AND TO SIMULATED EARTHQUAKES.
Proc. of the V World Conf. on Earthquake Engineering, Rome, page
2721-2730. *21*
The behaviour of steel frames under impulsive loading and earthquake
motions are reported in this article. It is divided in two parts: in the
first part, experimental results of one-bay one-storied steel portal
frames (four speciments) under impact loading at their base with the use
of a shock table are reported and compared with the elasto-plastic
analysis. In the second part, experimental results of a two-bay
three-storied portal frame under simulated earthquake motion using a
vibration table are presented together with the theoretical analysis.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; impact; vibration; frames.
OSAWA, Y. (1972) OBSERVATION OF STRUCTURAL BEHAVIOR. Proc. of the Int. Conf. on
Planning and Design of Tall Buildings, ASCE-IABSE, Lehigh University,
Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, vol. lb, page 213-227. *22*
This state of the art summarizes briefly the available methods to
observe or to check the
(1) rigidity, strength and
hysteresis
characteristics of structures and structural components against lateral
forces and (2) the natural periods and damping characteristics of
buildings. The items are: 1) Static laboratory studies; 2) Dynamic
laboratory studies; 3) Static field studies; 4) Dynamic field studies.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; calculation methods;
structural systems; earthquakes.
POPOV, E. (1980) SEISMIC BEHAVIOR OF STRUCTURAL SUBASSEMBLAGES, ASCE Journal
the Structural Division, ST7, page 1451-1470. *23*

of

In this paper, some types of hysteretic loops which can be observed in


inelastic experiments with structural members and systems under cyclic
loads are presented. Attention is directed to structural steel and
reinforced concrete members and subassemblages. The distinction among
the various ductility factors are emphasized. The relationship between
the response spectrum approach and conventional code design procedure is
also examined. This paper may serve as an aid for evaluating the
numerous hysteretic loops
which are becoming
available in the
literature.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; hysteretic behaviour;
ductility; subassemblages.
TANG,D. and CLOUGH, R. (1979) SHAKING TABLE EARTHQUAKE RESPONSE OF STEEL FRAME.
ASCE Journal of the Structural Division, STI, page 221-243. *24*
This paper presents the results of an experimental and analytical
investigation on the seismic behaviour of a large scale steel structure.
The test structure consists of two identical 5.30m high three story
frames having a bay width of 3.70m and to excite the structure a shaking
table motion is used. After a brief account of the planning of the test
structure and test program the most significant results are examined.
The description of suitable analytical models for computing the seismic
behaviour of the structure, the effects of various model parameters and
the experimental results are presented in the last part.
KEY WORDS: steel structures;
connections.

seismic design; ductility;

frames;

85

TANSIRIKONGKOL, V. and PECKNOLD, D. (1979) EQUIVALENT LINEAR SDF RESPONSE TO


EARTHQUAKES. ASCE Journal of the Structural Division, STI2, page
2529-2545. *25*
This paper presents seme remarks on the available numerical information
on the accuracy of the equivalent linear approach for earthquake
response of histeretic single degree-of-freedom (SDF) systems. The
qualitative behaviour of bilinear SDF systems is presented together with
the equivalent linear system. Expressions for linear stiffness and
damping in terms of maximum earthquake response are developed. Some
numerical results, in order to investigate the influence of some
parameters (earthquake imput, system yield level, elastic natural
frequency, bilinear hardening and viscous damping) on the accurancy of
response prediction, are presented and discussed in the end.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic
methods; structural systems.

design; earthquakes; calculation

UCHIDA, N., AOYAGI, T., KAWAMURA, M. and NAKAGAWA, K. (1973) VIBRATION TEST OF
STEEL FRAME HAVING PRECAST CONCRETE PANELS. Proc. of the V World Conf.
on Earthquake Engineering, Rome, page 1167-1176. *26*
In this work are reported the tests conducted in a two-storey, two-bay
steel frame model having full-size precast concrete panels in order to
obtaining some basic data on the effects of precast concrete panels on
the vibration characteristics of the highrise building, and
the
behaviour of the panel fastening system. The tests conducted are: 1)
Forced vibration test; 2) Free vibration test; 3) Dynamic load test.
Special attention is paid to the modes of deflection of precast 'concrete
panels and slabs.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; panels; vibration; frames.
WERNER, S., LEE, L., WONG, H. and TRIFUNAC-, M. (1979) STRUCTURAL RESPONSE TO
TRAVELING SEISMIC WAVES. ASCE Journal of the Structural Division, STI2,
page 2547-2563. *27*
The influence of the traveling seismic waves in the earthquake response
of structures is analysed in this paper. It consists of two main part:
The first part briefly summarizes a new methodology for analyzing the
three-dimensional dynamic response of soil-structure systems subjected
to traveling seismic waves. The second, and principal part of the paper,
describes an example application of the methodology to a single-span
bridge subjected to incident plane SH-waves. The purpose of this
application is to demonstrate basic phenomena associated with the
three-dimensional vibrations induced in bridge-type structures
by
traveling seismic waves.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; earthquakes; vibration;
structural systems.

86-

WAKABAYASHI, M. (1973) STUDIES ON DAMPING AND ENERGY ABSORPTION OF STRUCTURES.


IABSE, Symposium on Resistance and Ultimate Deformability of Structures
Acted on by Well Defined Repeated Loads, Lisboa, page 27-46. *28*
The significance of damping and energy absorption of structures and
structural elements under earthquake exitation is first described, as
veil as the details of these phenomena in relation to the equivalent
viscous damping coefficient. Some mathematical models representing the
hysteretic behaviour of materials, members, connections and frames are
shown. Finally, seme important problems are indicated for the symposium
discussions.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic
damping; connections.

design; hysteretic behaviour;

WAKABAYASHI, M. (1977) BEHAVIOR OF SYSTEMS. Proc. of the VI World Conf. on


Earthquake Engineering, New Delhi, India, January, vol.1, page 65-75.
*29*
This paper discusses the general performances of some structural systems
under earthquake events. The systems discussed are: 1) Reinforced and
prestressed concrete systems; 2) Steel systems; 3) Mixed steel and
concrete systems; 4) Masonry systems. The general performances of these
systems are refered to its hysteretic behaviour, energy dissipation
capacity and ductility. Some design problems with referring to the
research work done in the past are also presented.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; hysteretic behaviour;
structural systems; ductility.
YAMADA, M. (1972) EFFECT OF CYCLIC LOADING ON BUILDINGS. Proc. of the Int. Conf.
on Planning and Design of Tall Buildings, ASCE-IABSE, Lehigh University,
Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, vol. II, page 725-739. *30*
In this article are presented seme recomendations that provide fatigue
and fracture criteria for cyclic loading. These recommendations are
refered to: 1) Loading related to fatigue and fracture of tall steel
buildings; 2) Low cycle fatigue characteristics of structural steels; 3)
Low cycle fatigue fracture limits of structural members as
the
evaluation basis or design criteria for aseismic capacity.
KEY WORDS: steel structures; seismic design; fatigue; fracture; design
criteria.

87 -

MAZZOLAMI, F. and RAMASCO, R. (1971) STATICA DEI SISTEMI INTELAIATI SPAZIALI CON
IRRIGIDIMENTI DI FORMA QUALSIASI. Estratto dal Giornale del Genio
Civile, fase. 3, Marzo, page 196-217. *32*
The analysis of space structures for tall buildings under later forces
is emphasized in this paper. A general calculation method based on
matrix algebra for space structures with frames and walls variously
shaped under lateral forces is presented. This procedure is developed
through two stages: the first studies the behaviour of each single plane
structure; the second one calculates the whole space structure. The
torsional behaviour of walls with thin open cross-section is also
examined taking into account the warping effect. Finally, seme numerical
applications of this procedure are shown.
KEY WORDS: steel structures;
multy-storey buildings.

seismic

design;

torsion;

frames;

MAZZOLNI, F. and RAMASCO, R. (1973) BEHAVIOR OF STRUCTURES UNDER LOADS CAUSING


TORSION by Jacobus Wynhoven and Peter Adams (July, 1972), (Discussion),
ASCE Journal of the Structural Division, ST8, page 1788-1791. *33*
The behaviour of multistory framed structures under loads causing
torsion is briefly discussed in this article. It is outlined that the
correct analysis of the ultimate load carrying capacity of multistory
structures with reinforced concrete channel walls must take warping
effect into account especially when the ultimate load produces large
torsional rotations of floors.
KEY WORDS: steel
structures; seismic
multy-storey buildings.

design; torsion;

warping;

89

C H A P T E R

THE EXPERIMENTAL ASSESSEMENT OF SEISMIC STRENGTH AND DUCTILITY

OF
STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS AND CONNECTIONS

91

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
3.1- INTRODUCTION

92

3.2 - THE ECCS RECOMMENDED TESTING PROCEDURE FOR ASSESSING THE


BEHAVIOUR OF STRUCTURAL STEEL ELEMENTS UNDER SYCLIC LOADS ...

99

3.2.1 - INTRODUCTION

102

3.2.2 - ASPECTS OF THE TESTING PROCEDURE FOR ASSESSING


THE BEHAVIOUR OF STRUCTURAL STEEL ELEMENTS

103

3.2.3 - COMPLETE TESTING PROCEDURE

103

3.2.4 - SHORT TESTING PROCEDURE

Ill

3.2.5 - END OF TEST

112

3.2.6 - COMBINATION OF LOADS

113

3.2.7 - COMMENTARY ON POSSIBLE DEFINITIONS OF Fy

113

3.3 - TESTS FOLLOWING THE ECCS RECOMMENDATIONS

115

3.3.1 - BEHAVIOUR OF BRACINGS

11.7

3.3.2 - BEHAVIOUR OF BEAM-TO-COLUMNS CONNECTIONS

124

3.4 - VALIDITY OF THE ECCS RECOMMENDATIONS

130

3.5 - CONSIDERATIONS ON b/t RATIOS

153

3.6- REFERENCES

159

92

3.1 - INTRODUCTION

Everyone

agrees

on

the necessity

to

define

interpretation of tests, |l|, |2|, |3|, but up

unique

procedure and

till now insufficient work has

been done in this field.


The main reason for this, is the amount of difficult questions that arise on
many aspects of the problem: definition of the investigation method to predict
the seismic behaviour of

a structure; definition of

the loading conditions

to

apply on a structural element or even a complete structure, in order to simulate


the earthquake

event; definition

of the main parameters

to characterize

the

structural behaviour.

The task in an experimental investigation are first to model as accurately as


possible the physical domain of

the problem and then to

excite the model in a

meaningful way. For this purpose, various methods of investigation have been or
are used to predict the seismic behaviour of a structure 141. Among them, it is
possible to consider:
a) The use of the shaking tables to simulate earthquakes for to test

structures

or moderate-scale model of these

structures. This certainly comes closer to

actual reality, but requires a

sophisticated equipment which implies high

capital and running costs.


b) The use

of a

static equipment

|5|, |6|, |7| to

impress a

slowly-varying

alternate loading to the structure or moderate-scale model. The capital

93

involved

is

lesser

than

the previous

one, but

the

testing

procedure

nevertheless involves high running costs.


c) The application of

a quasi-static

cyclic loading

|8|, |9|, |10|, |ll| to

individual members or structural subassemblages to collect information in the


most critical zones
extremely costly
different

of the

equipment

solutions

structure. This procedure


and it

regarding

does not

is particulary suitable
a

particular

necessitate

for

structural

comparing

member

or

|12|, |13|, |l4|, |15| to define

the

subassemblage.
d) The use of

suitable numerical models

structure. It is certainly the most

inexpensive, but has the risk of

giving

unrealistic results.
e) The interaction between the actual
structure and

the numerical

"pseudo-dynamic" |16|,

testing of a member or

analysis. This

|17|, is still

even a part of

interesting approach

under

investigation and

known
the

a
as

small

quantities of results available are insufficient to its appreciation.


Summing everything up, it seems
inpress cyclic loadings
part of

the

that the use of a testing apparatus able

(or displacements) slowly

structure provides

an attractive

in time to

way and

test an

avoid

to

isolate

thecnical

and

economical difficulties.

Some types of loading conditions have been or are used in practice. Beside of
the monotonicaily increasing load of the static test, loads can, for instance be

1X81 :

94-

- cyclic with no force reversal;


- cyclic with force reversal, but no deformation reversal;
- cyclic with partial deformations reversals;
- cyclic with full deformation reversals;
- random cyclic;
- shakedown.
As

the real loading

history in future earthquakes

is unknown, the

loading

history to be used in tests should not be linked with that "imput" aspect of the
problem, but

rather

in a way

to make

behaviour best visible. Defining

the peculiarities of

an appropriate

link between

the

structural

the

structural

response to a test and to a peculiar earthquake is another problem.


Displacement increase should be preferred to load increase, for the following
practical reasons:
The

resistance of

a structural

element may

decrease after a few cycles

because of cracking or instability. Load increase is then surely inappropriate,


because the test cannot be controlled and may bring a sudden and complete break
on the tension side while the compression side would still be interesting

(or

reverse). This interest canes from the fact that the element is only a part of
the structure and its

own fall of resistance

in tension (or compression) does

not necessarily means an important fall in resistance for the whole structure.
The way to

impose the cyclic

displacements to the

defined. Displacements can be increased at each

structure must also be

cycle or after a set of

with equal maximum displacement. Tests performed on concrete elements


to either three or ten load

cycles

subjected

reversals at each displacement level indicate that

95 -

increasing the

number of

reversals above

three does not alter

the response

substantially |l9|. So, as suggested by Higashi |19| the number of cycles at

an

equal displacement should not be less then three, but need not, in general, more
then three.
From the above considerations, it is reasonable to expect that the test could
have the following characteristics:
- impose displacements and measure loads;
- three or more complete cycles at each considered displacement level;
- cycles with full or partial reversal.

To interpret the tests, it is advantageous the use of some parameters able to


characterize

the

structural

behaviour

of

substructures

or

even

complete

structures.
Popov 1201

suggests the

use of

the "displacement

ductility factor" as

parameter able to provide an index for overall behaviour of a structure, i.e. of


a structure's ability to safety

deform inelastically beyond the elastic range.

This displacement ductility factor,u

, is the ratio of the ultimate or maximum


o

horizontal deflection
deflection 6

6m

of a

structure at

selected story, to the

at the same point at the yield, i.e. :

(1

>

h " TT

In this definition of ductility as a parameter to be deduced from tests, the


debate is mainly on the definition of the 5

and

6m

96

Popov

1201 suggests that we

can call

6y

the beginning of

significant

deviation from linearly elastic behaviour of the force-displacement relationship


of the whole

system to define

defining the value of

6,

6y

. Still another

, consists of finding

possible approach

the intersection

of

for
the

asymptotes to the elastic and plastic ranges.


For the definition of the maximum horizontal deflection
in on the origin to be considered: the original
intersection between the "" axis and the

, the debate

origin of displacement or

the

"F - 6" curve in a particular cycle.

(Figure 3.1)

Figure 3.1

97

In this case, we could

expect two definitions of ductility factors: one

associated with the total excursion of displacement for one half cycle, and
other

the

6" associated with the part of the excursion of displacement included in

the positive part of the "F - 6 " diagram.


These definitions are not
energy content
consider the

of

the

fully satisfactory because they partly ignore

earthquake

two diagrams

of the

resistance problem.
Figure

3.2, they

If

for

give the

the

instance, we

same ductility

factor, though the energy absorbed in the (a) cycle is roughly a half of the (b)
one.

~7
/Vi,

a)

b)
Figure 3.2

"

/ntycle

98

So, it will be advantageous

to define another parameter

able to take into

account the area involved by one cycle or a group of cycles.

The stability of a structure is directly connected with the strength capacity


of their

stiffening

hysteretic loop

elements. An

in which

for a

decreasing resistance. The

unstable

increasing in

stability of

assured if all stiffening elements are


part of the hysteretic
can offer a

of a

is characterized

the displacement

a structure must

by

correspond

certainly cannot be

running altogether on such a decreasing

loop. However, when combined

really available

account. A definition

element

resistance, of which

parameter able

with stable elements they


it is

interesting to take

to characterize

the resistance or

rigidity of the structure or substructure will be also important.

From the analysis

developed hereabove, we

parameters to characterize the

structural behaviour may be

ductility, energy absortion and strength


even the complete structure.

could expect

that the main

able to define the

capacity of the structural element or

-99 -

3.2 - THE ECCS RECOMMENDED TESTING

PROCEDURE FOR

ASSESSING THE BEHAVIOUR

OF

STRUCTURAL STEEL ELEMENTS UNDER CYCLIC LOADS

Preliminary remark
In the following definitions, the word load or force is to be taken in
general meaning. It may be a classical

tensile force load. It may be a

bending

moment, if bending is the normal work of the structural element. It also may
shear. Accordingly the word displacement is

to be taken as an elongation

be
for

tensile force, rotation X for bending moment, rotation y for shear.

Symbols

A.

: area of the positive force range half cycle in the

load-displacement

diagram.
A.

: same, negative.

: force.

F.

: positive force corresponding to displacement e. in cycle i.

F.

: same, negative.

: yield load in positive force range.

: same, negative.

100

: absolute value of the displacement.

v^

: absolute value of the maximum positive displacement in the i

v.

: same, negative.

: absolute value of the displacement defined as F + /tga

: same, negative.

Av.

: absolute value
range in the i

of the maximum displacement

in the positive

force

cycle.

Av.

: same, negative.

: index of the number of achieved cycles in a test.

tga .

: slope of

the tangent to the (F - v) curve when F

negative to positive at the i


tga .

: same, reversed in sign.

tga

: slope of the

cycle.

changes

from

cycle.

tangent at the origin of the (F - v)

curve, when

increases in positive side.


tga

: same, negative.

: general symbol for partial ductility, see next line.

^oi
M .

P a r t i a l ductility at the i

: same, negative.

cycle for the positive displacements.

101 -

\i .

: full ductility, a t t h e i

cycle for t h e positive displacements.

a ."

: full ductility, a t t h e i

cycle for t h e negative displacements.

: resistance ratio, a t t h e i

cycle, f o r t h e positive force range.

: resistance ratio, at the i

cycle, for the negative force range.

E(H )

: relative resistance function.

_*
e

iu .) : resistance drop ratio on the F positive side at the i

cycle.

(u .) : same, negative.

e ( )
o

: resistance drop function,

: rigidity ratio on the positive side of force at the i

: same, negative.

f(u )
' o

: relative rigidity function.

i|i.

: full ductility ratio on the positive side of force at the i

(/.

: same, negative.

ib (ii )
"o

: full ductility function.

n .

: absorbed energy ratio o n t h e positive side o f force a t t h e i

r\.

: same, negative.

r| ( |J. )

: relative absorbed energy function.

cycle.

cycle.

cycle.

102

3.2.1 - INTRODUCTION

The

following testing procedure is intended

as a reference, to produce an

adequate and, as much as possible, an unified way to carry out tests in order to
characterize the structural behaviour of structural components, substructures or
even complete structures.
The necessity of

unquestionable, because

testing

the real

procedure and of
cyclic behaviour

having

test results

of structural

is

element may

differ by far from the ideal reference of the perfect elasto-plastic behaviour.
Testing may be necessary in order to prove the adequacy of a substructure or
a structural detail to

fulfill the demande of

local ductility as specified

by

seismic recommendations.
The testing procedure explained here consists in defining the way to apply on
J
a structural element to be tested the part of the testing action corresponding
to seismic action.
The testing procedure should

in particular help to verify the common design

relation between a pseudo-static horizontal

force and 'a specified ductility or

displacement given by Codes and Recommendations, such as, for instance the ECCS
Recommendations for Steel Structures in Seismic Zones.
The procedure has been
element in that peculiar

chosen to set

context. The

forward the

characteristics of

complete definition

the

of the test also

-103

requires datas on the

combination of seismic and

not seismic loads. Paragraph

3.2.6 is devoted to that aspect of the definition of the testing procedure.

3.2.2. - ASPECTS OF

THE TESTING

PROCEDURE FOR

ASSESSING THE

BEHAVIOUR

OF

STRUCTURAL STEEL ELEMENTS

The testing

procedure may

displacement increase tests

include

or obviate them.

preliminary

classical

monotonie

In the first case, it is called

complete testing procedure (Paragraph 3.2.3). In the opposite case, it is called


short testing procedure (Paragraph

3.2.4).

The possibilities

for restricted

reversal tests are mentioned at paragraph 3.2.6.


The procedure can be applied to plane 3 dimensional tests. The possibility of
having various law for

increasing various forces in various directions is not

considered in this reference procedure.

3.2.3 - COMPLETE TESTING PROCEDURE

Introductory remark
Each of the three following tests, will be performed on a different specimen.

3.2.3.1 - First test


The first test performed on the structural element is a classical
displacement increase test.

monotonie

104

The increases are on the tension range defined as positive. From the recorded
F-v curve, the

conventional limit of

elastic range F

and the

corresponding

displacement v + may be deduced as follows (Figure 3.3)

Figure 3.3

- evaluate the tangent at the

origine of

the F-v

curve; it gives a

modulus E. = tga ;
^
y
- locate the tangent that has a slope of E. /10;
- the intersection of the two tangents defines the level of F
- v

is the displacement corresponding to-that intersection.

tangent

105

The above definition is


of F

nay be

used, if

the general definition of F

properly justified

commentary on possible definitions of F

. Any other

by design or testing

definition
context.

is given at paragraph 3.2.7.

3.3.3.2 - Second test


The

second test also is a

but it is performed

classical monotonie displacement increase test,

on the compression (negative) range. The procedure is

same as in the first test. F


Y

and v

the

are deduced.
Y

3.2.3.3 - Third test


The third test is a cyclic test with increase of displacement, which has the
following characteristics:
- one cycle in the v

/4, v

/4 interval;

- one cycle in the 2v / 4 , 2v

/4 interval;

- one cycle in the 3v / 4 , 3v /4 interval;


- one cycle in the v

,v

- three cycles in the 2v

interval;
, 2v

- three cycles in the (2 + 2n) v

interval;
, (2 + 2n) v

interval (n = 1,2,...).

More cycles or more intervals may be use if necessary.

3.2.3.4 - Parameters of interpretation for one cycle


The absolute values of

the following quantities are deduced from the

diagram after each cycle (Figure 3.4) in the range of v > v .

F-v

106

Figure 3.4

- the extremes of displacement v.

and v. ;

- the values

and F.

of

displacement v.

the

force F.

corresponding

to

the extremes of

and v. ;

- the extremes of displacement in the positive and negative range of the applied
forces, v.

and AV. ;

- the tangent modulus

corresponding to the change of the

load, tg a . and tg a . ;

sign of the

applied

107

the areas A.

and A.

of the positive and negative half cycles (Figure 3.5)

Figure 3.5

The

following quantities, considered as

computed :

characterizing paramaters are then

108

Partial Ductility*- :

iio i. = v. l / ' vy

ur o i. = v.

/v

l ' y

Comment - this parameter represents the ratio between the absolute value of the
maximum positive (or negative) displacement in the i
cycle, and the
absolute value
of the
displacement defined
as F /tg
(or
F /tg Q
). So much high is this ratio, so much greater is the
structure^capacity to absorb large deformations out the elastic range.
Full Ductility :

r-

= Av.

/ v

.
"i

= Av.

/ v
l ' y

Comment - this parameter represents the ratio between the absolute value of the
maximum displacement in the positive force range (or negative) in the
i
cycle, and the absolute value of the displacement in elastic range
defined as F /tg a
(or F /tga
). So much high is this ratio, so
much greater is the structure capacity to absorb large deformations
out the elastic range.
Full Ductility ratios :

i|>.

= Av.

/ (v. + (v.~ - v ~) )

<
." = Av." / (v." + (v.+ - v + ) )
Tl
i
i '
i
i
y
Comment - this parameter represents the ratio between the absolute value of the
maximum displacement in the positive force range (or negative) in the
i
cycle, and the global displacement that one would have in a
perfect elasto-plastic behaviour. It is a measure of the deterioration
of the cycle. So much high is this ratio, so much greater is the
deterioration of the structure due for instance: loss of stiffness,
slip, etc.
Resistance ratios :

e.
i

= F.

/ F
l ' y

e." = F." / F ~
i

Comment - this parameter represents the ratio.between the force corresponding to


the maximum displacement in the i
cycle, and the yield force that
one would have in a perfect elasto-plastic behaviour. Depending on the
definition of the yield force, this ratio could give values >1 .

109

Rigidity ratios :

= tg a.

Si"

= tga

/ tg a

i~ /

tgQ

y~

Comment - this parameter is the ratio between the rigidity of the structure in
" the i
cycle, and the initial rigidity. A little value of this ratio
( 1 ) indicates a large loss of rigidity of the structure. This can
be caused by instability phenomena, Bauschinger effect exhibited by
the steel subjected to inelastic load reversals or the residual
curvature during previous cycles.
Absorbed Energy ratios :
"

n.
'i
tl .
'i

= A . /(v. + v. - v
-v ) * F
i
i
i
y
y
y
= A.
i

/ (v. + v.
i
i

- v
y

- v
y

)* F
y

Comment - this parameter represents the ratio between the energy absorbed by the
structure in a real cycle, and the energy absorbed in perfect
elasto-plastic behaviour with the same maximum displacements.

Comment - all these parameters are defined as the ratio between the value find
in the cyclic testing procedure and,that one that would have in a
reference test to which is assumed a perfect elasto-plastic behaviour.
The behaviour of the real structure is so much better as its behaviour
is near of the perfect elasto-plastic behaviour, that is, values of
these parameters near 1. A little value of these parameters ( 1 )
can be assumed as an index of the end of the test, because in this
case one have a great loss of resistance, rigidity or energy
dissipation.
3.2.3.5 - Specific parameters for a group of 3 cycles of equal displacement
The behaviour of tested
cycles

of

equal

piece is characterized after each group of

displacement

by

the

following parameters. The

three

partial

ductility \i . , where i is the index of the last cycle of the group, being taken
as variabile, the parameters are:

-110

- ij ( \ . ) , m i n i m u m v a l u e o f

t h e t h r e e i| .

evalueted i n

the group of

three

the three e.

evalueted in

the group of three

cycles

- ( M ) , minimum value of
cycles
- (U . ) , minimum value of

the three .

evalueted in

the group of

three

cycles

- r\ ( |i ) , averege value of the three TI . evalueted in the group of three


cycles
+*
+

- e (U. ) = F.

/ F . J , defined as the resistance drop ratio of the group of

three cycles in the range of positive forces.


Similary, I|J (\LQ ) , e (|Q ) , (l1^") ' are
three i|i .

, e.

(\i . ) =

of

the

and . evalueted in the group of three cycles.

1 (|i . ) is the averege of the

the ndnimum value

F.

r\ .

of the group.

/ F ._ is the resistance drop ratio of the group of

three

cycles in the range of negative forces.

3.2.3.6 - Parameters of interpretation for the whole test


The partial

ductility \i

being taken

as

the variable, the

test is

characterized by the following functions, which are continuous functions defined


on the basis of a limited number of values established in 3.2.3.5.
- Full ductility function f ( \i ).
- R e l a t i v e r e s i s t a n c e function e ( u ),
- R e l a t i v e r i g i d i t y f u n c t i o n (|i ) .
- R e l a t i v e a b s o r b e d e n e r g y f u n c t i o n T|(Ji. ),

111

Resistance drop function e (|i ).


The number of cycles n up to end of test must also be given.

3.2.4 - SHORT TESTING PROCEDURE


In that case, the first and second
are not executed. The third

test of the complete testing

test is executed alone, but F

,F

,v

procedure
+

and

are not known at the beginning of the test, so that the procedure is as follows:
- The test should be performed with
ensure that at

step of displacement sufficiently small

last four levels

of displacement are reached before v

to
and

v .
Y
- The tangent moduli at

the origin tg a

and

tga

are evaluated from

the

the intersection of the

two

first cycle curve.


- As in the complete procedure, F
tangent lines or any

other

is defined by

justified definition.

tangent is evaluated at the origin

(slope tg a

tangent to the envelope curve of the cycles with a

In the first

case, one

); the other one is the


0.1 tga

curve

(Figure

3.6).
Again, v

is the displacement corresponding to the intersect.

- Similar definition are used on the negative side for F ~ and v

y
- As soon as

these F

,F

, v

and

are defined, the testing

procedure

becomes the same as in 3.2.3.3.


- The parameters
3.2.3.6.

of interpretation

are the

same as

in 3.2.3.4, 3.2.3.5 and

112

Figure 3.6

3.2.5 - END OF TEST


The test may be stopped at any level of displacement decided with regard
a specific code or research requirements.

to

113

3.2.6 - COMBINATION OF LOADS


The principles uses

in tests for

combined loads are those of the design

codes. In general, they are as follows:


- the seismic action should be considered

as an accident situation; hence, the

values assigned to variable actions of long duration should be "most probable


values", while other short duration actions

(such as wind forces) should

not

be considered.
- the combination of

seismic action with

reversal in sign may bring

long duration actions which have no

unsymmetrical demand on

structural elements. In

this case test may be performed with a partial reversal of displacement. This
partial reversal can be of various forms and must be properly justified.

3.2.7 - COMMENTARY OF POSSIBLE DEFINITIONS OF Fy


There are many possible

definitions of a conventional limit of the elastic

range F . Let us mention, amongst others:


a) The value

corresponding

to

first yield

somewhere in the tested

piece

Figure 3.7 a;
b) The maximum reached load, Figure 3.7 b;
c) The value corresponding to
which would have been

a deformation is a

obtained in a purely

certain time the deformation

elastic behaviour. Figure 3.7

gives an example with two times the elastic deformation.


d) Figure 3.7 d recalls the definition recommended in the present document.
e) In some cases, F

could be a reference load deduced for computation.

114

Figure 3.7

Each definition offers sane advantages and disadvantages.


Definition a) ignores the post elastic resources.
Definition b) are interesting in the buckling context, but may correspond

to

exagerated deformation in flexural behaviour of beams or joints. On the contrary


the definition c) applies well to beams or joints but not to buckling problems.
The

ECCS

recommended

definition (Figure

3.7d)

applies

in all cases.

Definition e) corresponds to the case where design resistances would have been
defined previously to any test.

-115

3.3 - TESTS FOLLOWING THE ECCS RECOMMENDATIONS

In order to obtain some experimental


components

or

substructures, and

data on the

to

check

the

behaviour of
validy

of

structural
the

ECCS

recommendations, it was designed and developed | 4 | in the Structural Engineering


Department of the

Politecnico di Milano a

testing apparatus

able to

impress

cyclic displacements slowly in time to structural components or subassemblages.


The

general view

of

the equipment

is shown

schematically represented in Figures 3.8 and 3.9.

Photo 3.1

in the photo

1 and

it

is

-116

Figure 3.8

*fc*H

im
i

!!
!'

f-^-^

I
' 1

.li

.ltt ' ' ' ' _' ! ' i ; * J *

1
Figure 3.9

-117 -

Its main components are:


- A foundation composed of reinforced concrete slab which is part of the testing
apparatus available in the Laboratory of the Structural Engineering Department
of the Politecnico di Milano.
- A supporting

girder

with longitudinal

dimension

6.57

m which

acts

as

mounting of specimens and axial-loading system that are bolted on.


- A counterframe composed of

one column and two truss systems inclined at

60

toward each other.


- A power

jackscrew which displays

a 100 KN capacity, a

300 mm

stoke and

1.7cm/mim of feed rate.


- A axial-loading system able

to impress axial deformations

to beam to

column

connections.
- A lateral bracings system to prevent specimens lateral displacements.
Throughout

a cyclic

test, the

load

applied to

the

specimen

and

the

displacement are measured continouosly.

3.3.1 - BEHAVIOUR OF BRACINGS

The most

important result from

cyclic experiments with

frames subjected

to cyclic

horizontal displacements

which relate the

applied horizontal force

is the

frames or
hysteretic

F at the top of the

braced
curve

frame, to the

-118

horizontal displacement v in the same point. Some examples of hysteretic

curves

for single and double braced frames with braces of different cross-section
slenderness ratio are shown in Figure 3.10 to 3.13.

300-

200-

~r
-7

"T"
5

-5

-400-

Figure 3.10

and

119-

400 -

3Z 80
X = 114

- 500-

Figure 3.11

-120-

Figure 3.12

-121

Figure 3.13

-122

From these hysteretic curves some indications can be appointed.


When a brace

buckles, during the

compression cannot be

subsequente cycles the

reached. Two main

same capacity

in

the decrease

in

causes contribute to

strength capacity of the braced frames during the inelastic loadings. These are
the Bauschinger

effect, exhibited

reversals, and the effect due to


from plastic
decrease is

hinge

by

subjected to

inelastic

load

the residual curvature of the brace resulting

rotation during

less pronounced

the steel

due

previous

cycles. In double

the combined

action of

behaviour of the compression member and the yielding

the

braces

post-buckling

behaviour of the tension

member. Photo 3.2 and 3.3 show an example of local buckling occured in a
braced frame.

Photo 3.2

this

double

123

Photo 3.3

The

deterioration

slenderness ratio
great values of

of

the critical

buckling

force

is related

to

the

X of the brace. The hysteretic curves for braced franes with

the slenderness ratios

their compressive strengths


slenderness ratio of

exhibit a more rapid deterioration

than those with small values of

the braces

appears to

be

the

the

single most

parameter in determining the hysteretic behaviour of braced frames.

in
The

important

124

According to Popov experiments |10|, 1111 , 1201 the cross-sectional shape of


the braces

affects also

the

observed in some braces with

hysteretic behaviour

of

braced frames. He has

singly symmetric sections (tee and

lateral-torsional buckling. This was

due

to geometric

double-angles)

proportions

of

the

cross-section which cause buckling in the direction perpendicular to their axis


of symmetry. In such cases, flexural and lateral-torsional buckling take place
simmultaneously causing a lower critical load
pure flexural

buckling. This

performance of the

tends

to

than that which would develop

contribute

tees and double-angles in

to

the

in

somewhat poorer

comparison with

tubes and wide

flanges.

3.3.2 - BEHAVIOUR OF BEAM-TQ-COLUMNS CONNECTIONS

Joints of steel structures in current design are usually assumed to behave as


simple hinged

or

full

fixed.

In the case of

elastic

design, it

is not

unrealistic to make these simplified assumptions for the following reasons:


a) The resulting

analytical

models lead to

reasonable results

in terms of

reliability;
b) In several cases these models do correspond to the actual behaviour.
On the contrary, when analyzing
structures, it is necessary to take
of the

joints undergoing

the post-elastic and

cyclic behaviour of

into account the complex constitutive

cyclic loading

together with

the way

laws

in which the

energy is dissipated both under monotonie or cyclic loading.


In some cases it is important to introduce the actual restraint conditions of
joints even if the analysis is limited to the elastic range. This is the case of

125

steel structures in which the


realistic model of

importance of the PA

the restraint

fixity factors which

conditions of

take into account

effects calls for a

bars by means of

the increased

more

appropriate

deformability

of

the

structure.
Actual restraint conditions
by a complex

behaviour both

rotation relationships

of joints in steel structures are

under monotonie

being generally

and cyclic

characterized

loadings, the moment

non linear with different

degrees

of

deterioration as far as the number of cycles increase.


The typologies of beamtocolumn joints in framed structures can be
with respect

to

monotonie test

three types

of

identifying three

behaviour which

can be characterized

categories with increasing

(Figure 3.14):

ir*r

1 1 1 1.

.
t

-V

Figure 3.14

examined

*t

i ' i
ii

' V

lowering

by

degree

126-

st
1
Category: comprises welded joints with stiffners in the column web.
2

Category: comprises end-plate joints with or without stiffners.

rd
3
Category: comprises shear bolt joints.
All

types of

connections

can be

included in the three above mentioned

categories.
In order to have a

homogeneous comparison, it is necessary to refer to

full

strength joints which provide an .ultimate moment at least equal to the one of
the cross-section of the connected member.
The lowering degree is therefore represented by a reduction of stiffness from
one category to the next one.
It should be noted that the first category is characterized by a quite rigid
behaviour. The lowering degree is only due to the nodal panel deformation caused
by the highly

concentrated forces, which can cause

local buckling phenomena.

This deterioration is dependent upon the stiffness and reaches its maximum when
the column web is unstiffened.
In the
one

second category the degrading phenomena characteristic of the

(nodal panel

deformation of

the

flexibility) are
column

increased

flange and

by

the

effects of

first

flexural

the end plate in addition to axial

deformation of bolts, depending upon the tightening force.


In the third category,

in addition

to the previous degrading phenomena,

slipping of bolts arises due to bolt-hole clearance.


From the cyclic behaviour

point of view the joint constitutive

can be stable if it exhibits the same behaviour of

relationship

the monotonie test even if

the number of cycles increases. On the other hand, the behaviour can be unstable
when its stiffness decreases with number of cycles.

127

Under cyclic loading, the three categories of connections are

characterized

by three typical behaviours (Figure 3.15):

Figure 3.15

a) The joints of the first category exhibit a stable behaviour characterized

by

hysteresis loops having the same area inside the curve which remains constant
with increasing number of cycles.
b) The joints of the second category, instead, exhibit an unstable behaviour due
to permanent deformations
effect of the

in holes

and bolts, thus reducing the

stiffning

tightening force. Therefore, for constante amplitude

cyclic

loading, we observe hysteresis loops with increasing deformations up to

the

complete collapse. The slope of the hysteresis curves characterizing

the

stiffness of the i

cycle is continuously decreasing.

c) The joints of the third category exhibit un unstable behaviour

characterized

by slipping of bolts. This phenomenon significantly modifies the shape of the


curve by reducing the dissipated energy for the same values of deformations. '

128

Main causes

of the

increasing

deterioration have

to be ascribed

to the

permanent deformations of holes and shanks.


Cases b) and c) lead to collapse due to deterioration of stiffness (low-cycle
fatigue).
Testing

results on actual joints under repeated loading conditions

confirm

the above described behaviours.


The

first example

(Figure 3.16).

This

is related

to a beam-to-column stiffned

joint exhibits

almost a

stable

welded

joint

behaviour with

small

deterioration of stiffness, so that it can be considered of the first category


defined above.

Figure 3.16

129 -

The second

example is related to an end plate beam-to-column joint without

stiffners subjected to cyclic opposite constant loads (Figure 3.17).

T M

Figure 3.17

This joint exhibits

a deterioration of

slippage phenomena. This behaviour can be


category described above.

stiffness together with


therefore ascribed

to

increasing
the

third

130

3.4 - VALIDITY OF THE ECCS RECOMyENDATIONS

The good correlation

between experimental and numerical analysis induce the

evaluation of the main parameters used


elements. At this point, it

to define the

is necessary to

behaviour of

control if

structural

these parameters

are

really able.to describe the behaviour of structural elements under cyclic loads.
This control consists in examine if these parameters are characteristics of

the

tested elements and not dependent of the applied loading history.


The comparison between
and energy

the adymensional parameters of resistence, ductility

dissipation may

allow

a control

of

the

truthfulness

of

these

parameters.
As the

experiments are performed using

component, some numerical

as control parameter a

simulation analogous

to the tests

displacement

are realized, in

which the cycles of loading are characterized by different values of the maximum
component of

the displacement. In this way

experimental procedure

are divided

the

effects related

from these characteristics of

with

the

the tested

elements.
In the numerical analysis

eigth simulations are performed for each element;

the maximum displacement (v. + v. ) of each simulation is the same of that used
in experiments. The simulation

are organized in

order to evidence

all

the

possible behaviours of the element. Their main characteristic are the following:
1 test - After executing some cycles in elastic range, elastoplastic cycles are
performed using an
experimental tests.

increment two time greater than that used in the

-131 -

2 test - Similar to the previous

one, but the

increase of displacement

starts

with a different initial displacement.


3 test - Similar to the both previous, but without cycles in elastic range.
4 test -.It has cycles in elastic range, but the increment of the

displacement

is a half of that using in the experimental tests.


5 test - Similar to the previous one, but without cycles in elastic range.
In

these

five tests

positive and

negative

displacements have

the

same

absolute value (|v. | + |v. | ) .


6 test - It has

symmetrical

cycles

in

elastic range; over

this

range the

displacement increases only in negative field.


7 test - Similar to the previous one, but with increment of displacement only in
positive field.
8 test - It is a

random cyclic test; the only limitation

maximum excursion of the displacement (v.

is related with

the

+ v.~) which must be equal

or lesser than that reached in the experimental test.


For each simulation

the

force-displacement diagram

diagrammatically shown in Figures 3.18 to 3.21.

is plotted.

In Tables I to IV the

This

is

sequence

of cycles employed in the numerical analysis are given. The Figures 3.22 to 3.25
represent the diagrams related to the following parameters:
- resistance ratio in positive range
- resistance ratio in negative range
- Ductility ratio in positive range
- Ductility ratio in negative range
- Absorbed energy ratio in positive range

132-

- Absorbed energy ratio in negative range


- Total accumulated energy
These

diagrams show the

ratio between the

numerical simulation and those that one could


elasto-plastic behaviour;
parameters and in

in

ordinate are

parameters evaluated during

the

find in an ideal element with

an

represented

abscissa the sum of positive and

the value

of

those

negative displacement

for

each cycles.
Each diagram presents the rielaboration of the eigth simulations executed for
each element; in this way, it is possible to

certify that the parameters

have

similar values for different history displacements; that allows to conclude that
they are really

characteristics of the tested elements and not linked to the

history displacements.
In particular the differences between the single simulation that one can find
in seme diagrams regarding the resistance ratio, are due to the fact that using
as control

parameter

strictly influenced

displacement

by the

component, the

resistance

ratios

imposed displacements. Ductility ratios

are

generally

show a good agreement between the different tests; the values exhibited by
absorbed energy ratios near the maximum dispacement are generally equals.

the

-133

2L 80x8 one b r a c e

Figure 3.18 a

134

Figure 3.18 b

135

Table I
2 L 80x8 one brace
Cycle

Exp.

5.0
-5.0

5 0
-5 0

12 .0
5 0
-5 0 -12 .0

5.0
-5.0

15.0
-15.0

6.0
-6.0

8 0
-8 0

20 .0
8 0
-8 0 -20 .0

7.5
-7.5

17.5
20.0
-17.5 -15.0

15.0
15.0
-20.0 -20.0

15.0
-15.0

20.0
-20.0

15.0
-30.0

25 0
35 .0 15.0
20.0
20 0
-20.0 -25 0 -20 0 -35 0 -15.0

25.0
-25.0

35 0
30 0
-40 0 -30 0

17.5
-17.5

25.0
-25.0

30.0
35 .0 35 .0
-35.0 -35 0 -40 0

20.0
-20.0

27.5
60.0
15.0
20.0
-27.5 -15.0 -60.0 -40.0

30.0
-40.0

22.5
-22.5

30.0
-30.0

25.0
-25.0

32.5
-32.5

27.5
-27.5

35.0
-35.0

12 0
12.5
15 0
30 .0
-15 0 -12 0 -30 0 -12.5

7.0
-7.0

30.0
-15.0

8.0
-8.0

7.0
-10.0

25.0
-15.0

22.5
40.0
15.0
20.0
-22.5 -15.0 -40.0 -30.0

10

30.0. 37.5
-30.0 -37.5

11

32.5
-32.5

12

35.0
-35.0

13

37.5
-37.5

Exp.
Experimental patterns
1,2... 8
numerical tests
Assumed maximum displacements [ mm ] for each Cycle

50.0
-15.0

15.0
15.0
-50.0 -45.0

45.0
-30.0

136-

2C 80 one

brace

Figure 3.19 a

137

Figure 3.19 b

138

Table II
2 C 80 one brace
Cycle

Exp.

20.0
-10.0

8 0
-8 0

20.0
-15.0

10. 0
-10 0

5 .0 15 .0
-5 0 -15 .0

7.5
-7.5

17.5
-17.5

8.0
-8.0

8.0
-8.0

7.0
-10.0

25 .0 10.0
9 0
-9 0 -25 .0 -10.0

20.0
-20.0

15.0
-20.0

15.0
-20.0

10.0
-10.0

22.5
20.0
15 0
20 0
35 .0 12.5
-20.0 -15 0 -20 0 -35 .0 -12.5 -22.5

15.0
-30.0

25.0
-20.0

20.0
-30.0

25.0
-25.0

25 0
30 0
40 0
15.0
-25 0 -30 0 -40 .0 -15.0

25.0
-25.0

15.0
-40.0

35.0
-20.0

10.0
-50.0

30.0
-30.0

35 0
-35 0

27.5
15.0
-27.5 -50.0

45.0
-20.0

50.0
-20.0

35.0
45 0
45 .0
-35.0 -45 0 -45 0

20.0
-20.0

30.0
-30.0

15.0
-60.0

55.0
-20.0

35.0
-40.0

40.0
-47.0

22.5
32.5
-22.5 -32.5

20.0
-70.0

65.0
25.0
-25.0 -65.0

45.0
-45.0

25.0
35.0
-25.0 -35.0

45.0
-50.0

37.5
27.5
-37.5
-27.5

45 .0 17.5
40 0
-40 0 -45 .0 -17.5

10

30.0
-30.0

40.0
-40.0

11

32.5
-32.5

42.5
-42.5

12

35.0
-35.0

45.0
-45.0

13

37.5
-37.5

14

40.0
-40.0

15

42.5
-42.5

16

45.0
-45.0

139

2L 50x6 two braces

Figure 3.20 a

140

Figure 3.20 b

-141 -

Table III
2 L 50x6 two braces
Cycle

Exp.

5.0
-5.0

10.0
-10.0

1
5 0
-5 0

5 .0
15 .0
-5 0 -15 .0

4
7.5
-7.5

5
15.0
-15.0

10.0
-10.0

7.0
-7.0

10.0 17.5
15.0
20.0
-10.0 -17.5 -10.0 -15.0

20.0
-15 0

15.0
20 0
25 0
35 .0
-15.0 -20 0 -25 0 -35 .0

12.5 20.0
15.0
-12.5 -20.0 -20.0

30.0
-15.0

20.0
-25.0

20.0
30 0
30 0
-20.0 -30 0 -30 0

15.0 22.5
15.0
-15.0 -22.5 -30.0

35.0
-15.0

40.0
-15.0

25.0
-25.0

17.5 25.0
15.0
40.0
-17.5 -25.0 -40.0 -15.0

20.0
-40.0

30.0
-30.0

20.0 27.5
15.0
-20.0 -27.5 -50.0

45.0
-15.0

35.0
-35.0

35.0
-35.0

22.5 30.0
-22.5 -30.0

50.0
-15.0

12 .0 15 .0
25 .0
-12 0 -15 0 -25 .0

35 0
35 0
-35 0 -35 0

25.0 32.5
-25.0 -32.5

27.5 35.0
-27.5 -35.0

10

30.0
-30.0

11

32.5
-32.5

12

35.0
-35.0

7.0
-7.0

15.0
-50.0

55.0
-15.0

-142

2C 80 tuo braces

Figure 3.21 a

143

Figure 3.21 b

144-

Table IV
2 C 80 two braces
Cycle

Exp.

30.0
-30.0

12.0
-12.0

12.0
-12.0

30 .0
-30 .0

15.0
-15.0

25.0
-25.0

12.0
-12.0

12.0
-12.0

12.0
-12.0

35.0
-35.0

15.0
-15.0

20.0
-20.0

35 .0
-35 .0

17.5
-17.5

27.5
-27.5

25.0
-30.0

20.0
25.0

40.0
-25.0

40.0
-40.0

25.0
-25.0

30.0
-30.0

40 .0
-40 .0

20.0
-20.0

30.0
-30.0

25.0
-40.0

20.0
-25.0

55.0
-20.0

45.0
-45.0

35.0
-35.0

40.0
-40.0

45 .0
-45 .0

22.5
-22.5

32.5
-32.5

25.0
-50.0

30.0
-25.0

20.0
-60.0

45.0
-45.0

45.0
-45.0

25.0
-25.0

35.0
-35.0

25.0
-60.0

35.0
-25.0

35.0
-50.0

27.5
-27.5

37.5
-37.5

25.0
-65.0

40.0
-25.0

25.0
-65.0

30.0
-30.0

40.0
-40.0

45.0
-25.0

32.5
-32.5

42.5
-42.5

50.0
-25.0

35.0
-35.0

45.0
-45.0

55.0
-25.0

10

37.5
-37.5

60.0
-25.0

11

40.0
-40.0

65.0
-25.0

12

42.5
-42.5

13

45.0
-45.0

145

2L 80x8 one b r a c e
PESISTENCE RRTIO

RESSTEflCE RATIO

?
LS
I

'y

(5

20

O
S

40

Ui+

O
S

O
S

-t- U l -

10

70

20

30

40

SO

Ui+ + Ui-

tmmJ

SO

70

IO

30

(mm 1

RJLL DUCTILITY RATIO

FULL DUCTILITY RATIO +

T T i 7 m'

10

ZO

SO

. 40

SO

Ul* Ul-

SO

limn)

70

SO

SO

10

Figure 3.22 a

CO

30

40

SO

Ul* + Ul-

SO

(mini

70

10

90

-146

ABSORBED EMERGY PPT IO

10

ZO

Ui+

SS

+ U l -

ABSORBED ENERGY RATIO

70

[mm!

SO

30

io

zo

30

Ui*

40
ss
+ Ul-

so
t mm I

70

go

CUflULFITED ENERGY

Fi giare 3.22 b

10

ZO

30

EO

Ul+ + U I -

EO

[mm]

70

10

ao

147 -

2C 80 one

brace
RESISTERE RATIO -

RESISTENCE RAT IQ +

30

40
so
Ui + + U i -

sa
tmml

j *

Mi

W.

io

70

20

30
40
SO
Ui+ + U l -

30

so
Ui + + Jl-

so
tmml

70

eo

30

FULL DUCTILITY RATIO

FULL DUCTILITY RATIO

IO

zo

CO
(mm)

70

(0

Mt

m.

.r*

t*.

io

Figure 3.23 a

zo

3o

U+

40
*

so
UI-

ca
Imml

70

eo

so

148

ABSORBED EI1ERGY RATIO

>0

20

SO

Ui+

SO

+ Ul-

ABSORBED EflERGY RATIO

SO

[mm]

70

SO

SO

10

20

SO

III*

40

SO

+ U l -

CO

t mm J

70

CD

XXinULflTED ETIERGY

Figure 3.23 b

10

20

SS

40

Ul+

SO

+ Ul-

CO

(mml

70

30

149

2L 50x5 t uo braces
RESISTENCE RATIO *

RESISTERE RATIO

o\.

.in

zo

30
io
so c o
7o
U i + + U - (mm ]

FULL D U C T I L I T Y RTIO

10

O
Z

30

Ul+

O
S

so

.U)

"V

CM

W .

so

10

O
C

30

40

Ui*

+ U l - (mml

ZO

FULL DUCTILITY

70

60

30

,<n

ci.

.in

in

10

Figure 3.24 a

20

30

EO

EO

70

SO

30

+ U i - [mml

40

RATIO

SO

Ul+ + Ul-

CO

tmml

70

10

30

150

f1JJS0REJJ EMERGY RATIO


ABSORBED EMERGY RATIO

io

zo

Ui+

40
sa
+ Ui-

so
(mm!

7o

eo

so

30

40

O
S

Ul + + U i -

O
C

70

[mm]

CUMULATED EMERGY

Figure 3.24 b !

SO

40

Ul+

SO

Ul-

EO

[mm!

70

IO

90

151

2C 80 t wo

braces

RESISTENCE RATIO *
RESISTENCE RATIO -

10

ZO

30

40

50

Ui+ + U l -

FULL D U C T I L I T Y RATIO

SO

40

Ul+

O
S

Ul-

70

SO

30

10

imm]

30

40

EO

Ul + + U i -

(mml

ZO

SO

FULL D U C T I L I T Y RATIO

70

1
Figure 3.25 a

30

40

O
S

Ul + + U l -

70

Imm]

O
C

(mml

70

10

30

1=

-152

RESORBED ENERGY MT IO

10

20

30

40

SO

U i' + * U1 -

CO

ABSORBED ENERGY RATTO

70

t mm 1

30

10

20

30

40

Ui*

SO

+ VJi-

SO

70

so

so

tmml

CUnULflTEIl ENERGY

Figure 3.25 b

10

Z9

30

40

Ul+

SO

+ Ui-

CO

t mm]

70

CO

30

-153

3.5 - CONSIDERATIONS ON b/t RATIOS

In Figures

3.26 to 3.29 are presented

some hysteretic curves of

cantilever

beams with welded H and box-shaped cross sections with different width-thickness
ratios. In those curves is represented the

horizontal load at the top the

beam

versus the deflection at the same point.


UELDED H 10 nwi
-+ ii

200.00 .

,
/rj/iw>i

150.00 .

-150.00.

-200^00.
Figure 3.26

i0

i (i

154-

UELDED H 4 mm

80.00

200

(m*|

rmr*$f99i

1
-7.00

r
-5.0

-,

00

j _

7.00

155

BOX

IJ

mo

-200.00.

Figure 3.28

156

BOX 4 nm

200.00 .,

fwwrnrwrum

150.00 .

100.00 .

SO. 00

-100.00

-150.00.

-200.00.

Figure 3.29

-l

1-(ml

-157 -

Based on these curves seme conclusions may be advanced:


- Cyclic loops of load

versus deflection are

generaly symmetric respecting

to

deflections axis.
- The maximum

load

both in

compression

increases. This reduction is so much


ratio (b/t) of the

as in

tension

is reduced

as

cycle

higher as larger as the width-thickness

flange. This is due to

the

early occurence

of

local

instability of flange elements.


- For large

b/t ratios, the flange

instability occurs

at an early stage of

bending and the contribution of the flange elements to the bending strength of
the H welded or box beam may be reduced as cycles increases.
In photo

3.4 and 3.5 can be

recognized the out-of-plane deformation of

flange element.

Photo 3.4

the

-158-

Photo 3.5

The

failure patterns of flange and web plate elements

characterized by the

occurence of

after cycles can be

highly localized deformations

of the whole

section.
At present, it is
structural

programs

in progress

some work

for the analysis of

in order

to develop non-linear

bent sections

and

braced

frame

structures. The purpose of these programs is undertaken as an effort to gain


better understanding of
dissipate energy

the manners

imputed

in which these

by an earthquake

structural elements

event, and

to

could

avoid the use of

experimental tests everytime one need to know the hysteretic characteristics


a subassemblage or even a complete structure.

of

159-

3.6 - REFERENCES

|l|

Bertero, V.

(1979) SEISMIC BEHAVIOUR

ELEMENTS AND THEIR

CONNECTIONS. AICAP

OF

STRUCTURAL CONCRETE LINEAR

- CEB Symposium, Rome, May, CEB

Vol. No. 131.


|2|

Borges, J. (1979) RECOMMENDED FOR THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF CONCRETE


STRUCTURES IN SEISMIC ZONES. AICAP - CEB Symposium, Rome, May, CEB Vol.
No. 131.

|3|

Grandori, G.

(1979) OBSERVATION

OF ACTUAL STRUCTURES AND

LABORATORY

TESTS. AICAP - CEB Symposium, Rome, May, CEB Vol. No. 131.
|4|

Bailio, G. and

Zandonini, R.

STEEL STRUCTURAL MEMBERS AND

(1985) AN EXPERIMENTAL EQUIPMENT TO


SUBASSEMBLAGES

SUBJECT TO

TEST

CYCLIC LOADS.

Ingegneria Sismica, No. 3.


151

Carpenter, L. and

Lu, Le-Wu (1973) REVERSED AND REPEATED

LOAD OF

FULL

SCALE STEEL FRAMES. AISI Bulletin, No. 24, April.


|6|

Wakabayashi, M., Matsui, C , Minami,

C. and Mitani, I. (1973)

BEHAVIOUR OF STEEL FRAMES SUBJECTED TO CONSTANT VERTICAL AND


LOADS. Proc. of the V

INELASTIC

ALTERNATING

World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Rome,

25-29/6/73.
|7|

El-Tayem, A. and

Goel, S.

(1984) CYCLIC BEHAVIOUR

OF ANGLE X-BRACING.

Proc. of the ASCE Structures 84 Congress, San Francisco.

160

|8|

Popov, E. and Pinkley, B. (1969) CYCLIC YIELD REVERSAL IN STEEL BUILDING


CONNECTIONS. ASCE Journal of the Structural Division, vol. 95, No. ST3.

|9|

Tanabashi, R.,

Kaneta, K.

and Ishika, T. (1973) ON THE RIGIDITY AND

DUCTILITY OF STEEL BRACING ASSEMBLAGES. Proc. of the V World

Conference

on Earthquake Engineering, Rome, 25-29/6/73.


|10|

Popov, E. and Maison, B.

(1980) CYCLIC RESPONSE

PREDICTION FOR BRACED

STEEL FRAMES. ASCE Journal of the Structural Division, vol. 106, No. ST7.
|11|

Popov, E. and Black, G. (1981) STEEL STRUTS UNDER SEVERE CYCLIC LOADINGS.
ASCE Journal of the Structural Division, vol. 107, No. ST9.

|12|

Anderson, J. (1975) SEISMIC BEHAVIOUR OF

K-BRACED FRAMING SYSTEM. ASCE

Journal of the Structural Division, No. ST10.


|13|

Bailio, G.,
BEHAVIOUR OF

Gobetti, A. and
PIN JOINTED

Zanon, P. (1979) SIMULATION OF DYNAMIC

STRUCTURES WITH NON SYMMETRICAL

CONSTITUTIVE

LAW. Simulation of System '79, Sorrento, North-Holland Pubi. Comp.


1141

Perotti, F.,

Rampazzo, L.

and

COEFFICIENTE DI STRUTTURA PER

Setti, P.

(1984) DETERMINAZIONE DEL

COSTRUZIONI METTALICHE SOGGETTE A

CARICHI

ASSIALI. 2 Convegno Italiano d'ingegneria Sismica - Rapallo, 6-9 Giugno.


1151

Fukumoto, Y.

and Kusarna, H.

(1985) CYCLIC

BEHAVIOUR OF

PLATES UNDER

IN-PLANE LOADING. Engineering Structures, vol. 7, January.


|16|

Takanashi, K., Udagawa, K and Takana, H. (1982) PSEUDO-DYNAMIC TESTS ON A


2-STORY STEEL FRAME BY COMPUTER LOAD TEST APPARATUS HYBRID SYSTEM. Proc.
of the VII World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Athens.

161

1171

Shing, P. and Martin, S. (1984) PSEUDODYNAMIC: TEST METHOD FOR


PERFORMANCE EVALUATION

THEORY AND IMPLEMENTATION.

SEISMIC

EERC Report

01/84,

January.
|18|

DEFINITION

OF

CYCLIC

RESISTANCE EVALUATION

OF

LOADING

TESTING

STRUCTURAL

PROCEDURE

ELEMENTS - Draft

FOR

EARTHQUAKE

from Technical

Committee 13 of European Convention of Structural Steelwork. Paris, 1983.


|19|

Higashi, Ohkubo and

Ohtsuka (1977) INFLUENCE OF LOADING EXCURSIONS

RESTORING FORCE CHARACTERISTICS AND FAILURE MODES OF REINFORCED


COLUMNS. Proc. of the

VT World

Conference on

ON

CONCRETE

Earthquake Engineering,

New-Delhi.

120

Popov, E.

(1980) SEISMIC BEHAVIOUR OF

STRUCTURAL SUBASSEMBLAGES. ASCE

Journal of the Structural Division, vol.106, No. ST7.

163

C H A P T E R

- 4

THE ASSESSEMENT OF q FACTORS

165

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
4.1- INTRODUCTION

166

4.2- METHOD FOR STATE THE BEHAVIOUR FACTOR q

168

4.3 - ONE FLOOR CANTILEVERS

171

4.4- FURTHER INVESTIGATIONS AND CODE APPROACH


4.5- REFERENCES

180
188

166

4.1 - INTRODUCTION

In current

codes |l|, | 21,

structures in seismic zones may be


with a control

of the plastic

|3|, is commonly accepted that

the design of

based on a linear elastic analysis

deformability of the

combined

structures. In such case,

large plastic deformations may occur during a seismic event if the elastic limit
of the structure is surpassed.
The seismic

forces to apply as part of the elastic

analysis are usually

indicated by identifying a normalized spectrum depending on the soil nature and


the features of the ground.
The design

spectrum can be derived thereform

coefficient which takes

into account

the

through the introduction of

energy dissipation

ductile response. The values

of

classification

systems according

of

structural

this coefficient

depend

to

capacity

of

a
a

on the basis of

ductility

levels. This

coefficient, the so called "behaviour factor" is commonly designated by "q". Its


values depends on the non-linear dynamic behaviuour of the structure as well as
on its ability to undergo plastic deformation.
The Euroccde No. 8 - Common Unified
recently issued by

the Commission of

Rules Por Structures in Seismic Zones,

the European Communities

|4| states the

design spectrum:
C(T) = AR(T) / q
where:
C(T) is the value of the design spectrum at the period T.

(1)

167 -

is the design value of the ground acceleration which depends on the degree
of local seismic

activity. Suggested

values of

A are between 0.15

and

0.35g.
R(T)

is the value

of the normalized

design spectrum. It depends on the

soil

nature and it is stated on the basis of 5% of the damping ratio.


q

is the behaviour factor.

With regard to the above approach two design methods are possibles:
- the structure is designed to resist seismic actions elasticaly. In such case,
it is not necessary the consideration of dissipative zones (q = 1).
- the structure is designed

to

exit from

earthquakes. Thus, the consideration of


must be examined in these

the

elastic

range under

dissipative zones

strong

is necessary

zones both strength and ductility

and

(q > 1). In non

dissipative zones only strength must be assessed.

Summing

everything up, for

reliable and

economic

definition of the behaviour factor q seems foundamental.

design

correct

-168

4.2 - METHOD FOR STATE THE BEHAVIOUR FACTOR q

For structures which can be modelled as systems with one degree of freedom, a
numerical approach is suggested |5|, and used to determine the behaviour

factor

q of some floor cantilevers.


With reference to the structures under investigation, the maximum force to be
expected in an elastic oscillator can be expressed as:
F = A R(T) m

(2)

where:
F

is the maximum static force expected during a strong earthquake.

is the maximum ground acceleration (in the sense of peak value) expected
during a strong earthquake.

R(T) is the normalized design spectrum,


m

is the mass of the oscillator.

is the period of the oscillator.


The maximum displacement v is assumed equal to:
v =

Let us

A R(T)

T 2 / 4TT2

(3)

consider two analogous oscillators with the same period T, the same

normalized design spectrum R(T) but under different acceleration peak A, and A.
The behaviour of the

two oscillators will

relation of proportionality will be valid:

not be the

same, but the

following

-169

l
(4)

F
2

If the ductility factor theory is valid, we may assume that even in the
of non-linear behaviour of the

case

oscillator, its maximum displacement is

still

proportional to the peak acceleration, while the maximum load is limited to

the

ultimate load.
According to the Eurocode No. 8 |4|, the design spectrum is:
C(T) = A R(T) / q

(!)

The static force F to be applied in elastic designing is:


F

= A

R(T) m

(A/q) R ( T ) m

(5)

The behaviour factor q corresponds to the ratio between seismic intensity (in
the sense of the peak value A) which cause the collapse of the structure and the
attainment of the elastic limit state A, = A/q.
If F d corresponds

to the yield stress of

the ductility factor theory implys

the structure F , the validity

that the structure be

able to resist to

of
an

acceleration equal to A, q time larger than the acceleration A, that produce the
first plastification of

the structure, since its ductility

factor be

greater

than q.
It is not necessary that

F be related with the admissible ductility of

the

structure.
Even

not having

perfect

displacement of the structure and

relationship

between the

elasto-plastic

its elastic displacement, the seismic

design

170-

based on (1) and

(5) could result safe or unsafe according the

elasto-plastic

response of the structure be lesser or greater the amplified elastic response.


Three patterns are possibles, Figure 4.1

q=q|A/Al

Figure 4.1

Pattern "a" corresponds to a behaviour in complience with the results of


ductility

factor theory. Pattern

"b" shows an unsafe behaviour

the

because

everywhere v > q v,. Pattern "c" presents a first safe range (v < q v,) followed
by an unsafe one. The values of q = v / v, for which the ductility factor theory
is accomplished may be

choosen as q values

for the structures and v / y, =

represents the ductility overall demand of the structure.

-171

The procedure to obtain the behaviour factor q can be summarized as follows:


- evaluation of the

inertia and

strength characteristics of

the structure as

well as its period T in elastic range. The second order effects, if they are,
may be taken into account in the evaluation of the period of the structure.
- selection of

an accelerogram

which normalized

spectrum for

a unitary

peak

origine to the period T a response equal toR(T).


- several elasto-plastic analysis are performed at an increasing
of excitation and the par of values v / v, and q = A / A,

amplification

are represented in

a diagram form.
- the interception of

these points

with the

bisectrix v /

v, =

q gives the

behaviour factor q to the structure.

4.3 - ONE FLOOR CANTILEVERS

The method previously

explained was used

for assessing q

factors for one

floor cantilevers.
Numerical analysis have
deflected

both

in the

been performed
plane

on HEA series

of maximum

tested-out-members had slendernesses

columns, which

and minimum

ranging from

were

rigidity.

50 to 200, while the

The
axial

load has been made to vary from 0.00 to 0.20 of the Euler force N . The mass
e

m,

governing the system's inertia, has been preserved independent of the axial load
and selected in

such a way that

a previously

assigned value of the natural

period ranging from 1.0 to 2.5 sees, corresponded to each case. In all

analysis

172-

a damping value equal to 0.03 of

the critical damping has been considered. Two

different numerical simulations have been accomplished for each instance, using
two artificially developed accelerograms according to the procedure described in
reference |6| based

on the normalized

spectrum defined in

|4| and applied

to

designing.
Two different guidelines

have been followed

in order to

shape and

design

samples:
- in the first

case, the

natural period has

been computed

regardless of

the

reduced stiffness associated with the axial load.


- in the second case, on the contrary, the period variation caused by the sample
design was taken into account.
Both approaches highlight the significance of the designing criterion: if the
natural period is computed disregarding the second-order effects, one is on
safe side, since the

earthquake intensity

is overrated

through the

the

function

R(T), expressing the design spectrum. In fact, R(T) decreases as the period goes
up in the range of greatest significance for the type under consideration.
The results of all cases
rigidity are reported

tested for deflection in the plane of the greatest

in Table I and II. They

refer to the

first and

second

designing standards adopted respectively.


The

following

slenderness

data

are

given

X , axial load as compared

value find to the behaviour factor q.

for each

cases: natural

period

T,

to Euler critical load N / N , and the

173-

Table I

N/Ne

N/Ne

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28

1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0

50
50
50
100
100
100
50
50
50
50
50
100
100
100
100
100
150
150
200
200
50
50
50
50
50
100
100
100

0.00
0.05
0.10
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.00
0.05
0.00
0.05
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.00
0.05
0.10

5.4
2.9
2.3
5.5
2.9
2.3

29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55

2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5

100
100
150
150
100
200
200
200
50
50
50
50
50
100
100
100
100
100
150
150
150
150
150
200
200
200
200

0.15
0.20
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15

3.6
4.5

> 8

3.4
3.2
3.0
2.6
> 8

3.4
3.2
3.0
2.5

> 8

3.3

> 8

3.3

> 8

4.1
3.4
3.6
4.5

> 8

4.1
3.4

> 8

4.1
3.4
8
4.2
3.4

> 8
> 8

3.5
3.7
4.1

> 8
> 8

3.5
3.7
4.1

> 8
> 8

3.5
3.7
4.1

> 8
> 8

3.5
3.7

Table I I

N/Ne

N/Ne

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

1.0
1.0
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5

50
50
50
50
50
50
150
150
150

0.05
0.10
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.05
0.10
0.15

2.3
2.1
3.1
3.0
3.1
3.0
3.1
3.0
3.0

10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

1.5
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.5
2.0
2.0
2.5

150
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50

0.20
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20

3.0
4.1
4.0
3.5
3.4

> 8

2.9
2.9
2.9

-174

Figures 4.2 and 4.3 show diagrammatically the procedure adopted to determine

Figure 4.2

Figure 4.3

175

Figure 4.4 to 4.7 indicate individually, for all the natural periods
considered, the value (function of the slenderness X ) of the behaviour factor
arrived.

U
6.

T: 1.5 S

T : 1.0 S
N:0.0

A.

_.N:.05Ne

50

100

150

Figure 4.4

-N:.05NE

-.N:.20Ne

-N.IONE

2.

"" N:.10NE
N:.15NE

3.
2.

4
200 X

50

100

150

Figure 4.5

200

176-

<U
6.

T : 2.0 S

Ts2.5 S

5.
-*Nr.20NE
-

. N:.05NE

-.N:.20NE

^N:.15Ne

. N-..15NE
NI.IONE

3_

2.

1.

50

100

150

Figure 4.6

200

50

100

150

Figure 4.7

200

177

comparison among the

q values as function

on the N

/ N

ratio

obtained

following the two guidelines descriebed above are shown in Figures 4.8 to 4.9.

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20 N /

0.05

0.10

0.15

'NE

Figure 4.8

Figure 4.9

0.20

N/

178

For

oscilations in

the plane of the minimum stiffness, the results

summarized in Table III.

Table III

N/Ne

N/Ne

1.0

100

0.00

8.5

14

1.5

200

0.05

> 9

1.0

100

0.05

8.5

15

1.5

200

0.10

7.9

1.0

150

0.00

8.3

16

2.0

100

0.00

> 9

1.0

150

0.05

8.2

17

2.0

100

0.05

8.6

1.5

100

0.00

8.9

18

2.0

100

0.10

9.0

1.5

100

0.05

8.9

19

2.0

100

0.15

> 9

1.5

100

0.10

7.9

20

2.0

100

0.20

> 9

1.5

100

0.15

8.8

21

2.5

100

0.00

> 9

1.5

100

0.20

> 9

22

2.5

100

0.05

> 9

10

1.5

150

0.00

8.9

23

2.5

100

0.10

> 9

11

1.5

150

0.05

> 9

24

2.5

100

0.15

> 9

12

1.5

150

0.10

7.9

25

2.5

100

0.20

> 9

13

1.5

200

0.00

8.9

are

179

The

Figures 4.10

and

4.11 show the procedure adopted to

determine

behaviour.'factor q.

V
V.

A j loo
N10.10 Ni

12.

T.tl.5 8

11.
10.

9.

a.
7.
6.
5.
4.
3.
2.
1.

r-

-i

Figure 4.10

Figure 4.11

the

-180

Based on this numerical research |7| on the structural behavior factor of one
floor cantilevers some conclusions may be reached

which have important design

implications.
1) Apparently, the behaviour
unaffected by

slenderness.

factor q depends
Nevertheless, it

upon the period,


is

whereas it

heavily dependent

of

is
the

section shape.
2) The consideration of the second order effects is important. The N / N

ratio

seems not affect in a large measure the evaluation of the q factor.


3) For HEA

series columns

which are

deflected

in the

plane of

the

maximum

stiffness a value of 2.5 for the behaviour factor seems adequate.

4) For HEA

series columns

which are

deflected

in the

plane of

the

minimum

stiffness a value of 8 for the behaviour factor seems excessive because needs
a greater value for the ductility of the columns.

4.4 - FURTHER INVESTIGATIONS AND CODE APPROACH

As regard

the behaviour factors q to

adopt in seismic design of

structures

the Eurocode No 8 - Catimon Unified Rules for Structures in Seismic Regions

141,

indicates that their values are given in the appropriate material chapters.

For

steel structures,

the

the

values

of the

factors

are make

dependent

of

structural type and the ductility level. According to Eurocode No 8, a structure


can be inserted in one of the following structural type to which three ductility
levels are possibles:

181 -

Frames and trusses


A structure

behaves as a frame if

lateral forces are mainly supported

by

bending moments. Energy dissipation may occur where plastic hinges form.
A structure

behaves as a truss if

axial forces. Energy

lateral forces are mainly supported

dissipation occurs

when

diagonals in tension

plastic as the compressed members may have only a

by

become

so small amount of

energy

dissipation that it may be disregarded.


A structure behaves

as an eccentric

truss if lateral

forces are mainly

supported by axial forces but bending moments and shear forces locally

occur

due to eccentricities. Energy dissipation

shear

may occurs where bending and

cause plastifications.
Unbraced frames
if : a,

is the multiplier

to the

design load corresponding

to the

first

attainment of the elastic design capacity in one or more bent sections.


a

is the multiplier

of the design loads

attainment of the ultimate


sufficient

to transform

corresponding either to the

design capacity in a
the

structure

number of bent

into a mechanism

or

sections
to the

attainment of any kind of buckling in one structural member.


Ductility level

III characterizes a

negligible and the ratio ac / a ,


Ductility level

II characterizes

frame

in which

the

P-A

effects

are

effects

are

is greater than 1.20.


a frame

in which

the P-A

negligible and the ratio a c / a , is limited between 1.10 and 1.20.


Ductility level I characterizes a frame in which the ratio
than 1.10.

a c / a,

is less

-182

Unbraced frames in which the connections in dissipative zones don't have

strength greater than 1.00-1.20 times the one corresponding the gross area of
the connected members must be designed without taking into account dissipative
zones.

>

LEVEL III

77777Z

mm.

t *

LEVEL I

LEVEL II

Figure 4.12

183 -

- Truss bracings
a - A tension diagonal bracing is a

bracing in which compressed diagonal

are

negleted in the design,


b - A

tension

and

compression

compressed diagonals

diagonal

are taken

bracing

into account

is a

bracing

for equilibrating

in which
external

loads.

Figure 4.13

Ductility level

III characterizes

a tension diagonal bracing

in which

connections in dissipative zones have a strength greater than 1.00-1.20


the one

corresponding

the gross

area

the

times

of the connected members, diagonal

bracings have a slenderness lesser than X B = V 2

being

Xe = nVE/f

and the

tensile forces under design loads reach the 80% of full plastic resistance of
the corresponding sections in at least 50% of diagonals.

-184-

Ductility level II
only the

characterizes others tension diagonal bracings for which

connections

in dissipative

zones have

strength

greater

1.00-1.20 tines the one corresponding the gross area of the connected
and

diagonal

bracings

have

slenderness

lesser

than

than

members

Xe-vV

being

e = TTVE/fy .
Ductility level I characterizes tension and compression diagonal bracings
which the connections

in dissipative

zones

have a

strength

greater

1.00-1.20 times the one corresponding the gross area of the connected
and diagonal

Bracings

bracings

have

in which the

slenderness

lesser

than

connections in dissipative

for
than

members

\e=V2

being

zones don't have

strength greater than 1.00-1.20 times the one corresponding the gross area of
the connected members, and diagonal
\e-V2

being

X 0 = TTVE/f

bracings have a slenderness greater

must be designed

than

without taking into account

dissipative zones.
Eccentric bracings
Ductility level III characterizes eccentric bracings in which the
in dissipative zones have a

strength greater

than 1.00-1.20

connections

times the one

corresponding the gross area of the connected members, diagonal bracings have
a slenderness lesser than A e = V 2 , being

X B = nVE/l

and the design

loads

reach at least the 50% of the members designed for bending and shear reach the
80% of their ultimate plastic capacity.
Ductility level

II characterizes

eccentric

bracings

for which only the

connections in dissipative zones have a strength greater than 1.00-1.20

times

185 -

the

one

corresponding

the

gross

area

of

the

connected

diagonal bracings have a slenderness lesser than X e = V 2

members

and

being 8 = TTVE/|

Eccentric bracings in which the connections in dissipative zones don't have


a strength greater than 1.00-1.20 times

the one corresponding the gross

of the connected members, and diagonal bracings have


than X e - V 2 being

Ae = nVE/f

a slenderness

area

greater

must be designed without taking into account

dissipative zones.
- Braced frames
Braced frames are compound systems in which both frames and truss

bracings

are considered acting together at the same row.


Ductility level III characterizes braced frames having frame and truss bracing
both of ductility level III. In adi tion the frame must be designed to

sustain

alone at least 50% of the total design load.


Ductility level II characterizes braced frames having frames and truss bracing
both of ductility level II.

For each structural type and ductility level the Eurocode No 8 suggests
following values to the behaviour factor q.

the

186

Table IV

Ductility level

III

II

elastic model without


dissipative zones

Structural type

Behaviour factor q

braced and unbraced


frames, eccentric
bracings

6.00

truss bracings

5.00

braced and unbraced


frames, eccentric
bracings

4.00

truss bracings

3.00

braced and unbraced


frames
truss bracings

2.00

all types

1.00

These values are valid only


for structurally regular buildings. For
structurally non regular buildings provision shall be taken by dividing the q
factors by 1.20.
Other structural types are allowed provided
analysis.

that q factors are worked out by

187

Based on the research presented in

4.3 on the q factor values for one

floor

cantilevers, it is possible to conclude that the value suggested in Eurocode


8 for

this structural

type is

conservative. In

fact, for

columns which

No
are

deflected in the plane of the maximum stiffness a value of 2.5 for the behaviour
factor q seems adequate, while the

Eurocode No 8 suggests 1.0 disregarding

the

ressource of stiffness of this structural type. If the deflection occurs in the


plane of the minimum stiffness a greater value of the q factor can be
but in

this case a greater

ductility

demand will

utilized,

be necessary. However, a

behaviour factor q = 2.5 for one floor cantilevers seems suitable.


Nevertheless, insufficient data are available to analyse the truthfulness
the other structural types. It will be necessary in future realize
tests and develop numerical programs
behaviour factors q to

adopt in

in order to study

experimental

in a meaninful way

reliable and economic design

of

structures. The work carried on the cantilevers may be considered as an


of such activity. At present, some work
factors of steel braced frames.

of

is in course to assess the

the

steel

example

behaviour

188-

4.5 - REFERENCES

|1|

CEB - MODEL CODE FOR SEISMIC DESIGN OF CONCRETE STRUCTURES- CEB Bulletin
of Information No. 160 - 1984.

|2|

COMISION FEDERAL DE ELECTRICIDAD

(1981) MANUAL

DE DISEO

DE OBRAS

CIVILES, ESTRUTURAS, CRITERIO DE DISENO. Cl.3 Diseno por Sismo.


131

TENTATIVE PROVISIONS
BUILDINGS. ATC

FOR THE

Publication ATC

DEVELOPMENT OF
3-06 Applied

SEISMIC

REGULATIONS FOR

Technology Council, June,

1978.
|4|

EUROCODE n.8 - COMMON UNIFIED RULES FOR STRUCTURES IN SEISMIC ZONES - EUR
8850.

|5|

Setti, P. (1984) UN METODO


STRUTTURA

PER LA DETERMINAZZIONE

PER COSTRUZIONI METTALICHE

IN

ZONA

DEL COEFFICIENTE DI

SISMICA.

Costruzioni

Mettaliche n.4.
|6|

Vanmarche, E. and Gasparini, D. (1976) SIMQKE -

SIMULATED

EARTHQUAKE

MOTIONS COMPATIBLE WITH PRESCRIBED RESPONSE SPECTRA. MIT Report R76-4.


|7|

Perotti, F., Rampazzo, L. and

Setti, P.

(1984) DETERMINAZIONE DEL

COEFFICIENTE DI STRUTTURA PER COSTRUZIONI METTALICHE SOGGETTE A

CARICHI

ASSIALI. 2 Convegno Italiano d'Ingegneria Sismica - Rapallo, 6-9 Giugno.