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VLSM LAB MANUAL

Created by Sandup Kolwalkar, CCNA s_holwalkar@yahoo.com

Edited by Virginia Phillips, CCNA,CCAI phillips@cis.ysu.edu

VLSM vs. CIDR

VLSM is similar to CIDR

Both recursively divide networks into small sub networks

Difference

VLSM:

The recursion is performed on the address space previously assigned to an organization and is invisible to the global Internet.

CIDR:

CIDR permits the recursive allocation of an address blocked by an Internet Registry to a high-level ISP, to a mid level to a lower level ISP and finally to a private organization’s network.

The issues to be considered while designing a network

1) How many total subnets does the organization need today?

2) How many total subnets will the organization need in the future?

3) How many hosts are there on the organization’s largest subnet today?

4) How many hosts will there be on the organization’s largest subnet in the future?

Solution to Problem 1:

To support 26 hosts on a subnet, a minimum of 5 bits is needed in the host portion of the address. 5 bits result in 30 possible host addresses (2^5-2). The other 3 bits in the last octet can be added to the default 24-bit Class C mask. Thus, a 27-bit mask can be used to create the following subnets:-

Subnet #

Subnet Address

0

192.168.15.0 /27

1

192.168.15.32

/27

2

192.168.15.64

/27

3

192.168.15.96

/27

4

192.168.15.128

/27

5

192.168.15.160

/27

6

192.168.15.192

/27

5 192.168.15.160 /27 6 192.168.15.192 /27 Sub-subnet 0 192.168.15.0 /30 Sub-subnet 1

Sub-subnet 0

192.168.15.0

/30

Sub-subnet 1

192.168.15.4

/30

Sub-subnet 2

192.168.15.8

/30

Sub-subnet 3

192.168.15.12

/30

Sub-subnet 4

192.168.15.16

/30

Sub-subnet 5

192.168.15.20

/30

Sub-subnet 6

192.168.15.24

/30

To maximize the address space, the 192.168.150.0 /27 subnet is further subnetted using a 30-bit mask. This creates subnets that can be used on point-to-point links with minimal waste, because each subnet contains only 2 possible host addresses.

Solution to Problem 2:

The network address given is 192.168.15.0. Since this is the only network address available it cannot be supernetted. Also the problem we are now facing is that one subnet requires 60 hosts and we require at least 4 subnets. Therefore at least 3 bits are needed for 4 subnets (2^3-2=6). We are therefore left with 5 bits which would give us a maximum of 30 hosts (2^5-2). We solve this problem by supernetting 2 subnets. A 27-bit mask can be used to create the following subnets:-

Subnet #

Subnet Address

0

192.168.15.0 /27

1

192.168.15.32

/27

2

192.168.15.64

/27

3

192.168.15.96

/27

4

192.168.15.128

/27

5

192.168.15.160

/27

6

192.168.15.192

/27

5 192.168.15.160 /27 6 192.168.15.192 /27 Sub-subnet 0 192.168.15.0 /30 Sub-subnet 1

Sub-subnet 0

192.168.15.0

/30

Sub-subnet 1

192.168.15.4

/30

Sub-subnet 2

192.168.15.8

/30

Sub-subnet 3

192.168.15.12

/30

Sub-subnet 4

192.168.15.16

/30

Sub-subnet 5

192.168.15.20

/30

Sub-subnet 6

192.168.15.24

/30

The 2 subnets viz. subnet #2 and #3 can be supernetted using a 26-bit mask thus giving a subnet 192.168.15.64 /26 which provides 62 (2^6-2) hosts on this subnet.

To maximize the address space, the 192.168.15.0 /27 subnet is further subnetted using a 30-bit mask. This creates subnets that can be used on point-to-point links with minimal waste, because each subnet contains only 2 possible host addresses.

Solution to Problem 3:

The CIDR address given is 192.168.24.0 /22. This corresponds to the following 4 subnets:

192.168.24.0

/24

192.168.25.0

/24

192.168.26.0

/24

192.168.27.0

/24

One of the network requires 400 hosts. We therefore combine the 2 subnets to give a bigger subnet which provides 510 hosts.(2^9-2) viz.192.168.24.0/24 and 192.168.25.0

/24 are combined to give 192.168.24.0 /23 subnet.

The 192.168.26.0/24 subnet will give 254 (2^8-2) hosts and is therefore used for one of the subnets consisting of 200 hosts.

The 192.168.27.0 /24 subnet can be further subnetted as follows:-

Subnet #

Subnet Address

 

0

192.168.27.0 /26

1

192.168.27.64 /26

 

2

192.168.27.128

/26

3

192.168.27.192

/26

 

Sub-subnet 0

192.168.27.128

/30

Sub-subnet 1

192.168.27.132

/30

Sub-subnet 2

192.168.27.136

/30

 
  Sub-subnet 3 192.168.27.140 /30

Sub-subnet 3

192.168.27.140

/30

 

--

--

--

--

Sub-subnet 14

192.168.27.184

/30

The subnet #0 and #1 would provide 62 hosts (2^6-2) per subnet and are therefore used for the networks consisting of 50 hosts.

To maximize the address space, the 192.168.27.128 /26 subnet is further subnetted using a 30-bit mask. This creates subnets that can be used on point-to-point links with minimal waste, because each subnet contains only 2 possible host addresses.

Solution to Problem 4

The CIDR address given is 192.68.30.0 /23.

192.168.30.0 /24 192.168.31.0 /24 192.168.30.0 /25 192.168.31.128 /25 192.168.31.0 /26
192.168.30.0 /24 192.168.31.0 /24 192.168.30.0 /25 192.168.31.128 /25 192.168.31.0 /26
192.168.30.0 /24 192.168.31.0 /24 192.168.30.0 /25 192.168.31.128 /25 192.168.31.0 /26
192.168.30.0 /24 192.168.31.0 /24 192.168.30.0 /25 192.168.31.128 /25 192.168.31.0 /26
192.168.30.0 /24 192.168.31.0 /24 192.168.30.0 /25 192.168.31.128 /25 192.168.31.0 /26
192.168.30.0 /24 192.168.31.0 /24 192.168.30.0 /25 192.168.31.128 /25 192.168.31.0 /26
192.168.30.0 /24 192.168.31.0 /24 192.168.30.0 /25 192.168.31.128 /25 192.168.31.0 /26
192.168.30.0 /24 192.168.31.0 /24 192.168.30.0 /25 192.168.31.128 /25 192.168.31.0 /26

192.168.30.0 /24

192.168.31.0 /24

192.168.30.0 /24 192.168.31.0 /24 192.168.30.0 /25 192.168.31.128 /25 192.168.31.0 /26

192.168.30.0

/25

192.168.31.128

/25

192.168.30.0 /25 192.168.31.128 /25 192.168.31.0 /26

192.168.31.0 /26

192.168.31.64 /26

} 192.168.30.0 /23

} These 2 would provide 2 subnets of 126 hosts each

Æ This would give a 62 host subnet 192.168.31.64 /27

each Æ This would give a 62 host subnet 192.168.31.64 /27 192.168.31.96 / 2 7 }

192.168.31.96each Æ This would give a 62 host subnet 192.168.31.64 /27 / 2 7 } 2

would give a 62 host subnet 192.168.31.64 /27 192.168.31.96 / 2 7 } 2 30 host

/27 } 2 30 host subnets

192.168.128 /26

192.168.31.128/ 2 7 } 2 30 host subnets 192.168.128 /26 192.168.31.160 /27 /27 } 2 3

192.168.31.1602 7 } 2 30 host subnets 192.168.128 /26 192.168.31.128 /27 /27 } 2 3 0

/27 /27 } 2 30 host subnets

/27 /27 } 2 3 0 h o s t s u b n e t

.

.

.

.

.

.

192.168.31.192 /26

192.168.31.192 /30

192.168.31.196/30

192.168.31.200/30

. 192 168 31 220/30

192.168.31.192

/27

192.168.31.224

/27

Solution to Problem 5

192.168.48.0

/21

192.168.48.0

/23

192.168.50.0

/23

192.168.52.0

/23

192.168.54.0

/23

/23 192.168.52.0 /23 192.168.54.0 /23 We require 2 subnets with 512 hosts, so we use a
/23 192.168.52.0 /23 192.168.54.0 /23 We require 2 subnets with 512 hosts, so we use a
/23 192.168.52.0 /23 192.168.54.0 /23 We require 2 subnets with 512 hosts, so we use a
/23 192.168.52.0 /23 192.168.54.0 /23 We require 2 subnets with 512 hosts, so we use a
/23 192.168.52.0 /23 192.168.54.0 /23 We require 2 subnets with 512 hosts, so we use a

We require 2 subnets with 512 hosts, so we use a mask of 23 bits

} give 2 510 hosts each

192.168.53.0 192.168.52.0 /24 /24 } is used for 210 host subnet. Give 2 254 host subnets

/24 } is used for 210 host subnet. Give 2 254 host subnets 192.168.53.0 /25 192.168.53.128

192.168.53.0 /25 192.168.53.128 /25

} gives 2 126 host subnets

192.168.54.0

192.168.55.0

/24

/24

gives 2 126 host subnets 192.168.54.0 192.168.55.0 /24 /24 192.168.54.0 /28 192.168.54.16 /28 192.168.54.32 /28 …

192.168.54.0 /28

192.168.54.16 /28

192.168.55.0 /24 /24 192.168.54.0 /28 192.168.54.16 /28 192.168.54.32 /28 … 192.168.54.240 /28 14 host subnets
192.168.55.0 /24 /24 192.168.54.0 /28 192.168.54.16 /28 192.168.54.32 /28 … 192.168.54.240 /28 14 host subnets
192.168.55.0 /24 /24 192.168.54.0 /28 192.168.54.16 /28 192.168.54.32 /28 … 192.168.54.240 /28 14 host subnets

192.168.54.32 /28

192.168.54.240 /28

192.168.54.16 /28 192.168.54.32 /28 … 192.168.54.240 /28 14 host subnets 192.168.54.128 192.168.54.132 192.168.54.136

14 host subnets

192.168.54.128

192.168.54.132

192.168.54.136

/30

/30

/30

192.168.54.140 /30

For 3 serial connections{

2 host subnet