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Contents News 03 ......................................................... Feature 15 ............................................... Industrialization 41 IEK 44 Profile 45 25. 05. 14.

News 03 .........................................................

Feature 15 ...............................................







JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2014 Editorial Board: M Kashorda - Chairperson N O Booker J Mutulili F W Ngokonyo


Editorial Board:




- Chairperson

N O Booker J Mutulili F W Ngokonyo

- Secretary

J N Kariuki S M Ngare A Muhalia A W Otsieno S K Kibe



Editorial Assistants:


Peninah Njakwe

Daisy Gakuu

Kevin Achola


Articulate Edits

Design & Layout:

Daniel Wakaba Ndung’u

Sales & Marketing:


Joyce Ndamaiyu

Phylis Muthoni

Teresa Atieno

Oliver Elman

Published by:

JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2014 Editorial Board: M Kashorda - Chairperson N O Booker J Mutulili F W Ngokonyo

P O Box 45754-00100 Nairobi Tel: 4443649/50/72, Cell: 0719 207 712 Fax: 4443650 Email:


A Definitive Publication of Engineers in East Africa & Beyond, since 1972

Editor’s Note

Editor’s Note

E conomist Nicholas Kaldor (1908-1986) proposed that economic growth and enhanced standards of living were positively correlated with a country’s national industrial activity. He suggested that growth in GDP was positively

related to growth in a nation’s manufacturing sector. He also suggested that the

productivity of the non-manufacturing sector was associated with growth in manufacturing.

The debate of whether it is feasible for an economy, as young as Kenya’s, to grow and prosper without a manufacturing sector would be by large a one sided one. Further,

even for advanced economies, it will become very difficult to sustain innovation

without a manufacturing sector.

The key to enhancing a country’s manufacturing industries is to address a number of minor and major issues simultaneously. These include; relevant industry based

training and education and policy based issues that will increase investment in the sector by both the government and private sector players just to mention but a few.

The first issue of the Kenya Engineer magazine in 2014 focuses on Manufacturing

and Industry. In dissecting this theme our writers focus-but not limit themselves- to the following subtitles;

  • 1. Opportunities for Local Engineers in Modernization of Infrastructure

  • 2. Challenges to Industrialization and manufacturing in Kenya

  • 3. Industrialization of counties and the vision 2030

  • 4. Cementing Vision 2030

  • 5. The Sugar industry in Kenya

  • 6. Bus body Building and Safety Concept in Kenya

This also happens to be my first issue as the chairman of the Editorial Board. I trust

you will enjoy the read and I’m looking forward to your feedback.

M. Kashorda – Chairman Editorial Committee

Next issue will be out by 1 st March, 2014


Correspondence should be

addressed to the Institution. Kenya Engineer is published every two months. Views expressed in this Journal are those of the writers and

do not necessarily reflect those of

the Institution.

©Copyright: Reproduction of any article in part or in full is strictly prohibited without written permission from the Institution of Engineers of Kenya. Disclaimer: To our readers, verify all the advertised courses with Engineers Board of Kenya.

NEWS SGR launch marks start of regional integration P resident Uhuru Kenyatta launched the Standard Gauge

SGR launch marks start of regional integration

P resident Uhuru Kenyatta launched the Standard Gauge Railway line at Changamwe in November. In a move

to show the commitment of Governments of Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda and South Sudan to providing high capacity cost effective railway transport within the Northern Corridor. This will be achieved through the construction of the proposed Standard Gauge Railway connecting Mombasa to Malaba (with a branch line to Kisumu) onward to Kampala, Kigali (with branch line to Kasese) and Juba (with a branch line to Pakwach). The Railway line will have a uniform design specification which will permit seamless operation across the borders and in turn reduce costs. The railway development will include upgrading and modernisation of the Railway Training Institutes in Nairobi and Tororo to provide local manpower for the

construction and operation of the railways.

Progress in Kenya

The Government of Kenya will develop Mombasa – Malaba/Kisumu section in two phases: Phase 1 from Mombasa to Nairobi and Phase 2 from Nairobi to Malaba and Kisumu. Construction of phase 1 (Mombasa - Nairobi Section) will commence early 2014 while feasibility studies and preliminary design for phase 2 are in progress. The Government of Kenya is in the process of consolidating funding for phase 1 (Mombasa to Nairobi section) and so far has made budgetary allocation in the 2013/14 budget as well as setting up a railway development fund to be financed by a levy on the cost of all imports. Cost of the project is estimated at 223.6 billion Kshs for infrastructure. The Mombasa to Malaba/Kisumu section

is expected to be operational by 2018.

Uganda, Rwanda and South Sudan

Feasibility study and the preliminary design of Malaba to Kampala section is in progress. The Governments of Uganda and Rwanda are discussing joint procurement of consultants to undertake the Feasibility Studies and Preliminary Designs of the Kampala to Kasese and Bihanga to Kigali sections. Uganda and South Sudan also intend to jointly study Tororo to

Pakwach and Gulu to Juba sections for Standard Gauge Railway installation.

• President Kenyatta during the launch of SGR in Changmawe, looking on is Eng. Kamau CS
• President Kenyatta during the launch of SGR in Changmawe, looking on is Eng. Kamau CS - Transort

Salient Features of the proposed Standard Gauge Railway

The Railway will be developed for freight and passenger traffic. The railway will complement the existing railway and roads, which will continue providing vital transport services for freight destinations and the “last mile” links within and around the region. Each freight train will have a capacity of 216 TEUs and will travel at an average speed of 80 kilometres per hour. Freight trains will be operated on the basis of speed, safety and cost effectiveness.The passenger services will be operated with maximum safety and comfort for passengers at the stations and inside the trains.Each passenger train will have a capacity of 960 passengers and will travel at a average speed of 120 kilometers per hour.Construction of state- of-the-art stations.The railway has been designed for environmental compatibility particularly within the National Parks where fencing will be provided along

with under passages for wild animals.

Benefits of the Standard Gauge Railway development

Economic Benefits

The railway development will have the

following immediate economic benefits:-

Reduced cost of transportation

i n

t h e

r e g i o n

m a k i n g

i t

a n

attractive investment destination. Protect the environment through reduced carbon emission. Accelerate industrialisation through easier and cheaper transport and the establishment of new industries to service the new railway. Contribute to an annual GDP growth of at least 1.5% during

construction and subsequent operation. Enhance the region’s competitiveness. Reduce congestion at Mombasa Port securing the port as the preferred facility in the region. Reduce wear and tear on roads; hence reduce maintenance cost. Enhanced freight security.

Social Benefits The following social benefits will be realised during the construction and operation of the railway:

• Direct jobs: At least 60 new

j o b s p e r k i l o m e t r e o f t r a c k during construction period. • Local Industries: Large quantities of local inputs such as steel, cement, aggregates, electricity generation and electricity transmission pylons and

cables, roofing materials, glass, etc.

required from local industries with

potential to create at least 10,000 jobs.

• Service and hospitality industry:

Estimated 3,000 jobs to provide foods, accommodation and leisure. Skills development: Estimated 15,000 people to acquire skills suitable for self employment after the construction p e r i o d ( m a s o n s , c a r p e n t e r s , mechanics, electricians, etc.) • Technology transfer: Estimated 400 engineers and high technology technicians will be trained during construction and will be available for local and regional railway development. • Accidents reduction: The railway will reduce the number of heavy trucks on the road thus reducing accident incidents making the roads safer for human traffic.

NEWS Benefits of E-Learning –Virtual University and AfDB discuss University (AVU) Project very critical to the

Benefits of E-Learning –Virtual University and AfDB discuss

University (AVU) Project very critical to the effort to improve
University (AVU) Project very
critical to the effort to improve

but also facilitate quality and relevance of education,” said Ruth Charo, Principal Social Development Specialist, AfDB EARC. “OERs, including MOOCS, have the potential to enhance access to quality education. However, certification and accreditation for the OERs has to be looked into. In all countries, especially in Africa, certification as an evidence of one having acquired training is almost mandatory. Networking and partnerships among institutions in Africa and the West will be critical to achieve this,” she added.

NEWS Benefits of E-Learning –Virtual University and AfDB discuss University (AVU) Project very critical to the

• New OER portal from the African Virtual University (AVU)

W e consider the African Virtual

access to higher education in Africa and

are pleased to learn that the deliberations on the integration of e-learning and open education into mainstream education programs was fruitful,” concluded Stefan Muller, Lead Economist of the African Development Bank’s (AfDB) East Africa Regional Resource Center (EARC) during the first international conference

African Virtual University organized

curriculum structures for Teacher Education Program in Maths and Sciences have been shared with the universities for review after

which the specific ICT-enhanced modules

authoring will begin. The professional development program offers today 13 learning modules for open distance and

e-learning programs, including materials development and instructional design,

governance, management and financing of

open, distance and e-learning programs .


from November 20-22, 2013 in Nairobi.

The African Virtual University (AVU) is a

Under the theme “Integrating eLearning and Open Education to Increase Access to Quality Education and Training”, the conference brought together more than 100 participants including Ministries of Education and 22 universities from the Multinational AVU support project as well as the private sector. The main objective of this first gathering was to discuss the future of e-learning in Africa and the role of Open Education Resources (OERs) including the Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) in the ICT learning revolution.

“The conference is very timely, it is taking place at a time of ICT revolution in Africa.

In addition to OERs and MOOCs, discussion also centered on ICT infrastructure including access to e-learning and mobile learning; accreditation and quality assurance in e-learning; management of e-learning; and gender aspects in e-learning.

Benefitting from AfDB funding, the AVU Capacity Enhancement Program (ACEP) launched a training on November 18, 2013 to equip AVU’s partner institutions with e-learning skills in areas such as ICT instructional processes, technology support and management of e-learning. AVU is also considering the delivery of the ACEP program on MOOCs.

pan-African intergovernmental organization

that has established the largest distance and

e-learning network in over 27 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, and produced more than 40,000 graduates. It hosts 219 open educational modules ranging

from mathematics and science, teacher education, and ICT skills – available free of charge in English, French and Portuguese. The AVU’s interactive portal is accessed beyond Africa in 142 countries with a

majority from Brazil and the United States.

AVU works with universities in Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal, Cape Verde,

Guinea Bissau, Mozambique, The Gambia,

It is critical for the Bank to ‘seize the

moment’ and ensure that regional member countries harness ICT technologies that will result not only in increased access,

To this purpose, a feasibility analysis is being conducted to ensure issues such as

certification and quality assurance are given

the necessary attention. The ICT-enhanced

Ghana, Kenya, Ethiopia, Nigeria, Rwanda,

South Sudan, Sudan, and Tanzania


Tullow strikes oil in Agete-1

T ullow Oil plc (Tullow) in November 2013 announced that the Agete-1 exploration well in Block 13T,

onshore Northern Kenya, had discovered and sampled moveable oil with an estimated 100 meters of net oil pay in good quality sandstone reservoirs. The Agete-1 wildcat well is part of a major exploration campaign and has made the fifth consecutive oil discovery in the

first of a chain of multiple rift basins across

Tullow’s acreage in the region. This discovery

de-risks several follow-on prospects located to the north and is on trend with the Twiga South, Ekales, and Ngamia oil discoveries

and adds to the significant resource base

already discovered. The Sakson PR5 rig drilled Agete-1 to a total depth of 1,930 metres. Following completion of logging operations the well

would be suspended for future flow testing which will confirm the net pay count. The

rig would then move to drill the Ewoi-1

wildcat in the east of this basin, targeting a

rift flank prospect similar to the recent Etuko

oil discovery. Tullow operates the Agete-1 well with

a 50% interest and Africa Oil (50%) has a

non-operated interest.“A fifth consecutive

oil discovery onshore Northern Kenya

• Tullow Oil Rig in Northern Kenya
• Tullow Oil Rig in Northern Kenya

highlights the emerging world class

exploration and production potential within our rift basin acreage. An intensive campaign for 2014 includes appraisal and exploration

within this first basin and pioneering wells

targeting the prospectivity throughout the entire chain of similar rift basins,” Angus McCoss, Exploration Director, Tullow Oil plc commented in a press statement. Elsewhere in Kenya, exploration and appraisal activities continue to accelerate

NEWS Tullow strikes oil in Agete-1 T ullow Oil plc (Tullow) in November 2013 announced that

with the Amosing-1 well, in Block 10BB. The Etuko-1 well test in Block 10BB was also scheduled to commence this before end of the year with the PR Marriott 46 rig which had recently arrived in country and the Ekales-1 well test scheduled to commence with the new SMP-5 work over unit in early December.

NEWS Tullow strikes oil in Agete-1 T ullow Oil plc (Tullow) in November 2013 announced that

Engineers summoned to invest

  • M handisi Swahili for Engineer has been adopted for a name of a Sacco already registered

meant for the wahandisi (Engineers) in the country. Speaking in November, during an event held in honor of Eng. Michael Kamau being appointed as the Cabinet Secretary for Transport and Infrastructure courtesy of the Association of Consulting Engineers of Kenya (ACEK), Eng. James Mwangi, the Secretary of ACEK, urged the engineers to join the Sacco for investment.

Mhandisi Sacco which was launched on October 25 this year requires a registration fee of Sh5,000 with a minimum monthly

payment of Sh5,000 and no limitation of a maximum, the minimum shares is 250 which are being sold at Sh20.

“In total the amount of money that is required for you to become a full member is Sh15, 000. The whole idea is that we have to invest,” said Eng. Mwangi. Eng. Johnson Matu who chairs the Sacco was also in attendance and echoed Eng. Mwangi’s sentiments.

According to Eng. Mwangi, this venture spells a bright future in the Engineering sector. The Sacco is set to grow into an investment Company which will enable

engineers to invest in the various sectors of Engineering.

“After this sacco, we want to have an investment company called Mhandisi Sacco investment Company Limited. With that company we shall be able to invest in many areas especially the new areas like Energy-oil and gas, transport- the railway is coming, there’s also the port,” he said.

“I think the future for us is bright because we have the technical know-how and many approachable people and in government who can make it easier for us. So, I appeal to you to join this Sacco,” he concluded.

  • 5 KENYA ENGINEER - January/February 2014

NEWS Greenfield terminal launched; set for completion in 2016 3 rd December last year marked another

Greenfield terminal launched; set for completion in 2016

  • 3 rd December last year marked another milestone taken by the Kenyan government towards development

in the country Kenya marked 50 years of

independence. The President presided over the ground breaking of the KSh. 55.6 billion Greenfield Terminal at the Jomo Kenyatta International Airport (JKIA) set for completion in 2016.

“I expect this facility to be completed on time, within budget and to world class standards,” said President Kenyatta. “It is, therefore, my expectation that in 2016 we will be back here again to open the facility and inaugurate it for use,” he concluded.

The project is meant to expand JKIA by increasing its capacity of handling passengers by accommodating 20 million more annually from it 6.5million capacity.

President Uhuru Kenyatta said that Africa has historically missed out on development opportunities due to inadequate investments in transport infrastructure or reliance on pre- independence infrastructure. “As Kenyans, we must now get it right,” he added.

• President Kenyatta drives an excavator during the ground breaking ceremony of Greenfield Terminal
• President Kenyatta drives an excavator during the ground breaking ceremony of Greenfield Terminal

The Greenfield terminal is one of the flagship projects embodied in the Vision 2030 to be implemented by the Kenya Airports Authority (KAA). It will be built from scratch and delinked from the main JKIA facility and will be the single largest single facility in Africa. This development, the President said will enable Kenya attain her National Vision 2030 aspirations to be

NEWS Greenfield terminal launched; set for completion in 2016 3 rd December last year marked another

a middle income country. The 178, 000 square meters four level facilities includes the construction of eight air bridges for docking the aircrafts, 50 check-in counters of international standards, 45 stands for parking the aircrafts on the linked apron space and an extra runway, access roads and new vehicle parking areas.

NEWS Greenfield terminal launched; set for completion in 2016 3 rd December last year marked another

Kenya’s 40 months energy plan pushed to 72 months

K enya’s energy plan which would have seen the country add up to 5,000 mega

watts energy into the grid in 40 months is

likely to take longer than scheduled. This is according to the Energy Regulatory Commission (ERC) who are revising the

• A section of Ol Karia Geothermal power station
• A section of Ol Karia Geothermal power station

plan to what could be up to 72 months or six years.

An initial plan as per the Vision 2030 was to have an additional 1,500MW of electricity in place by 2017.This would have increased the country’s power production from the current 1,700MW to over 3,000MW.

There are also plans to retire all thermal generators which are currently being operated by Independent and Emergency Power Producers (IPPs).These account for a substantial proportion of installed capacity at over 600MW.Thermal energy is among the most expensive energies in the country and the government is seeking to invest in other cheaper renewable alternatives.

NEWS Infrastructural projects launched as Kenya marks 50 years of independence
NEWS Infrastructural projects launched as Kenya marks 50 years of independence
NEWS Infrastructural projects launched as Kenya marks 50 years of independence
NEWS Infrastructural projects launched as Kenya marks 50 years of independence

Infrastructural projects launched as Kenya marks 50 years of independence

K enya marked 50 last year in style with the launch of three projects set to combat traffic congestion

in Nairobi. Former Prime Minister Raila Odinga launched the Sh455 million Makadara Railway Station located along Jogoo Road, while the two former Presidents, Hon. Mwai Kibaki and Hon. Daniel Moi launched Ring Road in Westlands among other road infrastructures in the area and the Imara Daima Railway station respectively in three consecutive days prior to Kenya’s Jamhuri day on 12th December.

While opening the Makadara station, Hon. Raila called for an efficient, reliable and safe transport system. Mr. Raila thanked the

president for inviting him to officiate a State

function, saying it was an honor. He said poor planning had seen Nairobi, especially the city centre, clogged with traffic jams leading to loss of economic opportunities that run into millions of shillings in just a single day. “While this has been happening in Nairobi, other cities in the region have been investing in urban infrastructure,” he added.

He said the city’s potential is crippled by lack of adequate infrastructure, overcrowded roads, rising population, pollution and a congested airport.

“To attract business to our country, we must

invest in a transport system that is efficient,

reliable, predictable and safe,” said Mr. Raila.

Hon. Moi echoed Mr. Raila’s sentiments during the launch of the Imara Daima station asking the Ministry of Transport to come up with more stations to cover all routes.

“This is the mode of transport Kenyans should be using because it’s safer, convenient and faster,” Mr. Moi said. “This will help save the economy huge amounts of cash it uses to build roads,” he added.

Mr. Moi also requested Kenya Railways to promote the use of trains to allow for easy

• Former Prime Minister, Raila Odinga with Eng. Kamau CS - Transort share a laughter aboard
• Former Prime Minister, Raila Odinga with Eng. Kamau CS - Transort share a laughter aboard a train
during the launch of New Makadara Railway Station

movement of goods and services across major towns to save money and time.

The Makadara and Imara Daima stations mark the second and third project completed with regard to decongesting

traffic in Nairobi after the Syokimau station

which was launched in November 13, 2012

by the former President, Mwai Kibaki.

“An efficient road infrastructure is a prerequisite to faster movement of goods, services and persons. I believe it is this spirit that informs the various interventions the Government is implementing in the road sector, ....

>> retired President Mwai Kibaki

NEWS Infrastructural projects launched as Kenya marks 50 years of independence K enya marked 50 last

The Makadara facility which targets 5,000 commuters from Buru Buru, Jogoo Road,

Jerusalem, Jericho, Uhuru and Hamza

Estates will be served by the Syokimau

train. The Imara Daima facility targets 2,000 commuters from Industrial Area, Imara Daima, Embakasi North and Mombasa Road.

During the inauguration of Ring Road, Mr. Kibaki Kibaki said the network of roads, including the Western Ring Road, was deliberately designed to save time, improve access and ensure that vehicle owners were spared from avoidable wear and tear caused by poor roads.

“An efficient road infrastructure is a

prerequisite to faster movement of goods, services and persons. I believe it is this spirit that informs the various interventions the Government is implementing in the road sector, including speedy and timely rehabilitation and reconstruction of deteriorated sections of our roads, “said Mr. Kibaki.

He also said traffic jams and congestion will be a thing of the past and that the new roads and bypasses will open Kenya up to investors, making it an economic hub in the region.

In all inaugurations, in attendance was Engineer Michael Kamau, Cabinet Secretary of Transport and Infrastructure, who

emphasized that his ministry was working

round the clock to ensure that infrastructural projects were completed on time.



E very 22nd March of every year since 1993 Kenya has always marked the World Water Day. This was after a

resolution by the United Nations General Assembly passed in December 1992.

The World Water day has been marked all through with different themes featuring in every year. Last year’s celebration was marked under the theme “Water Cooperation”.

The objective of the day was to raise awareness, both on potential for increased cooperation and on the challenges facing

The objective of the day was to raise awareness, both on potential for increased cooperation and on the challenges facing water management in light of the increase in demand for water access, allocation and services.

NEWS WORLD WATER’S DAY E very 22nd March of every year since 1993 Kenya has always

water management in light of the increase in demand for water access, allocation and services.

• A child drinking clean water
• A child drinking clean water

According to the World Economic Forum 2013, water scarcity is the second most

important risk facing the world in the years ahead. The inability for most countries to measure rainfall patterns or water usage has

made it more difficult to curb the problem.

A lot of investment has been made in

the country from local, government and international investors in the effort to improve increase and protect water bodies. With the country’s latest mega discovery of

an aquifer, there’s more task for the country

to ensure that the water yet freely given is

beneficial to most if not all Kenyans.

World wetlands day

2nd February is the World’s wetlands day. It marks the date of the signing of the Convention on Wetlands, called Ramsar Convention, on 2 February 1971, in the Iranian city of Ramsar on the shores of the Caspian Sea. Each year, government

• A fountain of clean water at Lake Basin Development Authority (LBDA)
• A fountain of clean water at Lake Basin Development Authority (LBDA)

agencies, non-governmental organizations, and groups of citizens at all levels of the

community have taken advantage of the opportunity to undertake actions aimed at

raising public awareness of wetland values

and benefits.

Mismanagement of water sources has led to drying up of large water bodies with some reducing their capacity with up to more than half. While 65-70 per cent of global water is used in agriculture, there is need to regulate the usage to ensure sustainable

and profitable use.

NEWS Extractive Information center launched in Nairobi A n Information Center for the Extractive Sector (ICES)

Extractive Information center launched in Nairobi

A n Information Center for the Extractive Sector (ICES) has been opened in

Nairobi. The center which promotes knowledge-based dialogue with the aim of

promoting policies for the extractive sector

was officially launched on 11th December

2013 by the Mining Cabinet Secretary, Naajib Balala.

Speaking during the launch of the center, AfDB director for the East Africa Resource Center Gabriel Negutu pointed the timeliness of the information center saying that the opportunity to use the sector to accelerate national development and promote economic growth required careful planning.

Extractives as of the year 2013 contributed one per cent of the country’s national income and less than two per cent of export

of Australia, Canada and the United Kingdom.
of Australia, Canada and the United

earnings. It is however estimated that the sector may grow to 10 per cent of GDP.

Housed by the AfDB, the information center would be supported by the United Nations Development Programme and Governments

NEWS Extractive Information center launched in Nairobi A n Information Center for the Extractive Sector (ICES)
NEWS Extractive Information center launched in Nairobi A n Information Center for the Extractive Sector (ICES)

Kenya’s cyber security faulty

K enya’s cyber security has been dimmed poor following a test by Eluclid Consultancy. This was concluded after an

18 month test on the security of consumers using the four telecommunication networks. The report said that the four telecom

firms in the country use old technology to

encrypt information which is easily prone to attacks. A test was conducted where they intercepted voice traffic and also tried to obtain temporary secret keys for some subscribers which proved successful, affirming the weakness of the country’s cyber security.

The older technologies being used-A5/1 and A5/2 -attracted global attention mid last year when a German company cryptographer revealed that he was able to manipulate mobile handsets into granting access to device location, SMS functions and allow

NEWS Extractive Information center launched in Nairobi A n Information Center for the Extractive Sector (ICES)

changes to voicemail number. Millions of mobile phone subscribers and internet users in the country remain exposed to snooping and data interception

as the service providers are using outdated network security software industry regularly. Some have however announced plans to migrate to safer platforms.

NEWS ARM races to set up plant in country’s limestine hub C ementing industry faces competition

ARM races to set up plant in country’s limestine hub

C ementing industry faces competition

and likely battles amongst cement

manufacturers for Kitui’s treasure,

its huge limestone deposits and proximity to the Mui basin, which has large coal reserves offering a convenient source of energy. Athi River Mining (ARM) Cement is set to build Kenya’s biggest plant in Kitui County and other plants elsewhere in the country whereas in September last year Aliko Dangote, Africa’s richest man stated plans to open a Sh34.8 billion ($400 million) plant in Kenya.

With most cement firms turning to coal to power their machines as opposed to expensive oil fuel, which is prone to price instability, a plant’s proximity to the reserves is an added advantage over the company’s rivals.

After Dangote announced during his trip last year that he would invest $400m in a cement plant in Kenya’s Kitui County, local cement makers were roused to action.

According to a note from financial services

firm Imara Africa Securities,East African

Portland Cement and other firms including

Bamburi Cement and ARM rushed to Kitui to seal deals with the local government to take control of resources in the area. Currently, Kenyan cement makers import coal from South Africa.

“Dangote told us he needs 1,000MW of energy, which we don’t have. So we are looking to put up a 960MW coal plant in Kitui,” explained Kenya’s cabinet secretary for energy Davis Chirchir, adding that Kenya’s government will soon ask for expressions of interest from investors to build it.

ARM will raise up to Sh25.5 billion ($300 million) to fund the new plants including the Kitui unit that is anticipated to produce 8,000 tonnes of cement per day making it the single largest cement factory in the country and superior to the unit planned by Dangote that will have a daily capacity of about 5,500 tonnes.

• Athi River Mining cement plant
• Athi River Mining cement plant

“We plan to start construction of the Kitui plant late next year. It is a major development for us,” said Pradeep Paunrana, ARM’s chief executive in an interview in December.

Kenya produced 4.7 million tonnes of cement in 2012, up from 2.8 tonnes in 2008, according to the Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (KNBS). ARM posted a 28 per cent rise in net profit for the nine months to September last year, boosted by higher sales. Its net profit stood at Sh1.53 billion in the period, driven by a 32 per cent jump in sales to Sh10.2 billion.

According to Mr. Paunrana the firm will raise up to Sh25.5 billion to fund the Kitui plant and other planned factories over the

next five years which will be done through

a mix of bank loans, corporate bonds and

rights issues. He added that the board is yet to arrive at the share of debt and equity.

Kenya produced 4.7 million tonnes of cement in 2012, up from 2.8 tonnes in 2008, according to the Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (KNBS). ARM posted a

28 per cent rise in net profit for the nine

months to September last year, boosted by

higher sales. Its net profit stood at Sh1.53

billion in the period, driven by a 32 per cent jump in sales to Sh10.2 billion. Its share gained 30.7 per cent over the past six months to Sh85 since June last year. Portland Cement is up 42 per cent in the period while Bamburi has shed 8.2 per cent.

NEWS ARM races to set up plant in country’s limestine hub C ementing industry faces competition
NEWS KShs. 17bn committed to the country’s second largest wind power firm • Ngong Hills Wind

KShs. 17bn committed to the country’s second largest wind power firm

• Ngong Hills Wind turbines and power substation
• Ngong Hills Wind turbines and power substation

T he US committed Sh17 billion to

finance a 100 megawatt wind farm

located in Kajiado County. The

Kipeto Wind farm as is named is another

one of Kenya’s mega wind projects after Lake Turkana Wind Power, Ngong Hills among others.

A US public agency responsible for

mobilizing capital for private firms,

Overseas Private Investment Corporation

(OPIC) pledged to inject the Sh17 billion into the project. This will be part of the Ksh 43 billion that the US intends to invest in the country’s renewable energy resources in

the next five years.

Kipeto Energy Limited will install 47 GE 1.6- 100 and 16 GE 1.6-82.5 wind turbines each with a rated

capacity of 1.62 MW which leads to an installed capacity of 102.06 MW. It is estimated that the project activity will supply 410,476 MWh of clean electricity to the Kenyan national electricity grid per year. Construction works will also include the

construction of a new on-site substation and a 66 kV transmission line, which will transmit generated electricity to the Kenyan national electricity grid.

The project comes at a time when the country is seeking to lower the cost of energy in the country as well as exploit cheaper resources of energy to end over reliance on hydro power as well as cut on the use of the expensive diesel energy. The 2011-2031 Updated Least Cost Power Development Plan forecasts that, in 2031, Kenya’s peak

demand will range between 12,738 and 22,985MW. In order to meet this demand, the candidate generation sources considered in the system expansion plan include geothermal, hydro, wind, coal, oil

fired plants and nuclear power plants.

medium speed diesel and gas turbines will provide 9% and 11% of the total capacity respectively.

The project activity will achieve CO2 emission reductions by replacing electricity generated by fossil fuel powered plants connected to the national electricity grid. “The project is expected to achieve annual emission reductions of about 253,469 t CO2 / year. “,says a report on the project.


The wind farm is managed by Kipeto Energy

Limited (KEL),initially founded by Kenya based Craftskills Wind Energy International Limited.KEL is majority owned by General Electric with the World Bank Group’s investment arm,IFC and a community trust owning the other shares.

It is expected that over the 30-year period,

26% of the total installed capacity will be obtained from geothermal, 19% from nuclear plants, 13% from coal plants and 9% from imports. Wind and hydro plants will provide 9% and 5% respectively while

The Kipeto wind will become the country’s second largest wind power farm after LTWP which will have an installed capacity of


NEWS Harnessing energy from telecommunication device s I n a world where tireless efforts are being

Harnessing energy from telecommunication devices

NEWS Harnessing energy from telecommunication device s I n a world where tireless efforts are being
  • I n a world where tireless efforts are being made to save on energy and also generate more, researchers have

developed a device with a mechanism to capture and harness energy transmitted by sources such as radio and television transmitters, cell phone networks and satellite communications systems. This energy though has been with us, has never been well utilised or thought as a major source of energy until recently.

expected to generate one millliwatt or more. This amount of power is enough to operate many small electronic devices.


Scavenged energy could assist a solar element to charge a battery during the day. At night, when solar cells don’t provide power, scavenged energy would continue to increase the battery charge or would prevent discharging.

The device features a five cell meta-material

array made up of five fiberglass and copper

conductors on a circuit board which is

responsible for the energy conversion process. The device is made using inkjet printers which combine sensors, antennas and energy-scavenging capabilities on

paper or flexible polymers.

Communication devices transmit energy in many different frequency ranges. This energy is captured converting it from AC to DC and then stores it in capacitors and batteries.

The technology can utilise frequencies from FM radio to radar, a range spanning

100 megahertz to 15 gigahertz or higher.

TV bands are also a good source of energy that can give energy amounting to hundreds of microwatts with multi-band systems

Utilizing ambient electromagnetic energy

could provide a form of system backup. If a battery or a solar-collector/battery package failed completely, the scavenged energy could allow the system to transmit a wireless distress signal while also potentially maintaining critical functionalities.

By scavenging this ambient energy from the air around us, the technique could provide a new way to power networks of wireless sensors, microprocessors and communications chips.

The device features a five cell meta- material array made up of five fiberglass and copper conductors on a circuit board which is responsible for the energy conversion process.

NEWS Harnessing energy from telecommunication device s I n a world where tireless efforts are being

Juice Box;

Solution to address global energy access

Juice Box; Solution to address global energy access E nergy portability would be termed a fantasy

E nergy portability would be termed a fantasy before this concept came up. The Juice

box, developed by the Artefact group, is an open energy system concept that allows people to capture energy from multiple sources, store and transport it to where it is needed, and power devices even in the remotest locations. Gavin Kelly, principal and co-

founder of Artefact feels it important to try to “give shape and form to one of Bill Gates’ ideas on how to use technology to solve the world’s most severe challenges.” And that’s exactly what he and the team are doing. However, developing the concept is the first step but making it a reality he says would require partnerships; engineering companies to invest and the manufacturers to it a reality. The Juice box is designed to be

flexible in terms of supporting multiple

energy sources like solar, car battery, from the electric grid or even kinetic. The Juice box has a detachable LED Light which Artefact says will enable people to work or even study after dark; swappable and stackable batteries with a USB port which can be stacked together for extra energy; source agnostic input panel which

safely connects to multiple sources,

including raw cables; Multiple Outputs that allows charging of many devices and supports electronics and a display that shows the time remaining , not forgetting an attachable dynamo which harnesses kinetic power and enables manual charging in emergencies.

NEWS Africa’s largest wind power project recieves a major boost A frica’s largest wind power project

Africa’s largest wind power project recieves a major boost

A frica’s largest wind power project is now on course following European

Union’s move to inject Sh3.5 billion to

bridge a financing gap in the project. The

Lake Turkana Wind Project (LTWP) will see the country’s national grid add 300 mega watts energy.

The entire Lake Turkana Wind Project (LTWP) is estimated to cost Sh70 billion making it one of the largest private investment projects in Kenya and also the largest single wind farm in sub-Saharan Africa.

• Ngong Hills wind power project
• Ngong Hills wind power project

It will involve a consortium comprising KP&P Africa B.V., Aldwych International, Industrial Development Corporation of South Africa (IDC), Industrial Fund for Developing Countries (IFU), and Norwegian Investment Fund for Developing Countries (Norfund).

KeThe entire Lake Turkana Wind Project (LTWP) is estinmated to cost Sh. 70 Billio ...

NEWS Africa’s largest wind power project recieves a major boost A frica’s largest wind power project

Aldwych, a power company focused on Africa, will oversee the construction and operations of the power plant on behalf of LTWP. Vestas will provide the maintenance of the plant in contract with Lake Turkana Wind Project.

Kenya Power will buy the energy produced at a fixed price over a 20-year period in accordance with the signed Power Purchase Agreement (PPA).

NEWS Africa’s largest wind power project recieves a major boost A frica’s largest wind power project
NEWS Africa’s largest wind power project recieves a major boost A frica’s largest wind power project

Bidders called for development of geothermal plant at Menengai

T he government of Kenya via Geothermal Development Company (GDC) has

called on interested bidders to send in their tenders papers for the development of geothermal energy at the Menengai. This follows the acquisition of funds by the government from the African Development Bank.

The funds will be used to finance the phase

1 of the Menengai Geothermal project. Whoever wins the tender will be expected to supply and install 5-10MW modular power plant.

The project works will include design, manufacture, supply and installation, commissioning and training of GDC instructors. The project location is Menengai Geothermal Field in Nakuru County.

“Bids must be delivered to the Tender Box

on 2nd Floor of GDC Riverside Office, Riverside Drive, Nairobi, Kenya on or before 1400hrs on 6th January 2014 and must be accompanied by a bid security of

USD 250,000 (United States Dollars Two Hundred and Fifty Thousands)or equivalent in Kenya Shillings (KES).”,says a statement on the tender invitation advert

• Hot steam gushing out from a pipe at the Olkaria Power Station
• Hot steam gushing out from a pipe at the Olkaria Power Station


  • I nfrastructure is crucial to economic and social development. Poor infrastructure impedes a nation’s economic growth

and international competitiveness. Adequate supply of infrastructure services is an essential ingredient for productivity and

growth. The Cement industry plays a major role if not the main role in Infrastructure development of any country. It is hence significant to analytically review and asses Kenya’s Cement industry in view of infrastructure development within the context of the way forward for meeting the outcomes of the country’s Vision 2030. Kenya has maintained a stable macroeconomic environment and has, at the same time, been developing key infrastructure facilities and public works nationwide to stimulate growth. In the financial year 2010/11, the Kenyan

government adopted a fiscal policy geared

towards consolidating economic recovery and putting the economy back to the Vision 2030 targets. Cement is the main ingredient for construction and infrastructure development. According to data from the Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (KNBS), Cement consumption for the 11 months ended November last year hit a high of 2.8 million metric tonnes while supply for the

12 months ended December hit a record

3.7 million metric tonnes. This is the highest cement supply and production since 2006. With new cement companies, the Kenya economy has begun to enjoy healthy economic development in terms of advancement of technology, eventually

leading to realization of Vision 2030.

According to Architectural Association

of Kenya (AAK) officials the multi-billion

technical cement plants now play a significant role in attainment of green

technology that has increased national output. AAK says that in a move to compete for market of their products and improve

efficiency, cement companies are investing

in the most modern of technologies. Consumers of building materials

now consider the efficiency of getting the

products and its quality rather than price,

forcing investors to utilize new production

and supply chain techniques that increase

efficiency of their operations.

Among the technologies cement manufacturing plants are embracing is

the use of back filters to trap dust from the

crushed clinker and pozzollana, which

is recycled as raw material, minimizing environmental hazard and reducing

wastage. Kenya’s cement industry, the largest

in East Africa, benefits from increased government spending on infrastructure projects both within the country and in neighboring countries. Domestic consumption is growing at a faster rate than production, and Kenya’s market is expected to consume 81 percent of output in 2013. According to a report published last year by Investment Bank Dyer and Blair, Kenya’s building and construction sector is amongst the most rapidly growing, experiencing an average growth rate of 14.2% for the period 2006 – 2011. While the cement industry, cement consumption in particular is highly correlated to a country’s economic performance, cement consumption experienced superior growth that was more than twice the rate of GDP growth during the period. Growing in tandem with the construction sector, cement consumption increased at an average rate of 14.1% for the period 2006 – 2011, with consumption reaching 3.43 million tonnes (mT) in 2011, up from 1.57mT in 2006. The key drivers of this growth in consumption according to the report included rising demand for housing, the commercial construction boom fuelled by increased foreign investment, and extensive government and donor-funded spending on the country’s mega infrastructure projects.

• A Cement Mining plant
• A Cement Mining plant

Cement production expanded at an average rate of 11.6% for the period 2006

– 2011 to 4.09mT in 2011 from 2.41mT in 2006. This rise in production was driven by the entry of new cement producers and extensive capacity expansion by existing players in response to increasing competition. This rise in production led to the consistent oversupply of cement during this period. Given an estimated industry

capacity utilization rate of about 72%, this

glut supply could be much higher were

installed capacity fully utilized.

Kenya’s Cement exports average 21.1%

of total cement production with key export

markets including Uganda, Tanzania, the

Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and other East and Central African countries. Imported cement accounts for a marginal 2% of total cement consumption indicating the country’s overall reliance on locally produced cement. In 2011, cement import duty under the East African Community Common External Tariff was lowered by 10% to 25% despite stiff opposition from industry players. Should the suspension of the 10% import duty remain, the quantum of cheap cement imports particularly from low-cost producers such as Egypt, India, China and Pakistan could increase considerably, further widening the demand-supply mismatch.

Summary of Cement production process

Cement is a fine powder which sets after a

few hours when mixed with water, and then

hardens in a few days into a solid, strong material. Cement is mainly used to bind

fine sand and coarse aggregates together in

concrete. Cement is a hydraulic binder, i.e. it hardens when water is added. There are 27 types of common cement which can be grouped into 5 general categories and 3 strength classes: ordinary, high and very high. In addition, some special cements exist like sulphate resisting cement, low heat cement and calcium aluminate cement.

The quarry is the starting point

Cement is typically made from limestone and clay or shale. These raw materials are extracted from the quarry crushed to a very

fine powder and then blended in the correct

proportions. Cement plants are usually

located closely either to hot spots in the

market or to areas with sufficient quantities

of raw materials. The aim is to keep transportation costs low. Basic constituents for cement (limestone and clay) are taken from quarries in these areas. Clinker is then produced from raw materials and the cement is produced from cement clinker.

Making clinker

The raw materials are delivered in bulk,

crushed and homogenized into a mixture

which is fed into a rotary kiln. This is an

enormous rotating pipe of 60 to 90 m long

and up to 6 m in diameter. This huge kiln is heated by a 2000°C flame inside of it. The kiln is slightly inclined to allow for the materials to slowly reach the other end, where it is quickly cooled to 100-200°C. Four basic oxides in the correct proportions make cement clinker: calcium oxide (65%), silicon oxide (20%), alumina oxide (10%) and iron oxide (5%). These elements mixed homogeneously will combine when heated by the flame at a temperature of approximately 1450°C. New compounds are formed: silicates, aluminates and ferrites of calcium. Hydraulic hardening of cement is due to the hydration of these

compounds. The final product of this phase

is called “clinker”. After cooling, the clinker may be stored temporarily in a clinker store, or it may pass directly to the cement mill. The second phase is handled in a cement grinding mill, which may be

located in a different place to the clinker plant. Gypsum (calcium sulphates) and possibly additional cementitious (such

as blastfurnace slag, coal fly ash, natural pozzolanas, etc.) or inert materials

(limestone) are added to the clinker. All constituents are ground leading to a fine and homogenous powder. The cement is then stored in silos before being dispatched either in bulk or bagged.

What is concrete?

Concrete is a solid material made of cement, sand, water, aggregates and often with admixtures. When fresh, it has a certain workability and takes the form of the mould into which it is put. When set and hardened,

it is as strong as natural stone and resists time, water, frost, mechanical constraints

and fire. Typically, concrete is the essential

material used in all types of construction.

Top Cement Manufacturers in Kenya

Top Cement Manufacturers in Kenya include;

Bamburi Cement Limited of the Nguvu brands ARM Cement Limited of the Rhino brand East African Portland Cement Company Limited of the Blue Triangle brand Savannah Cement of the Savannah brand National Cement of the Simba brand Mombasa Cement of the Nyumba brand.

FEATURE Cement production expanded at an average rate of 11.6% for the period 2006 – 2011

Bus Building and safety Concept in Kenya

by Daisy Gakuu

• A mini bus matatu in Nairobi
• A mini bus matatu in Nairobi
  • I n Kenya road accidents are on the rise with approximately 3,000 deaths per year according to a report by the

National Transport and Safety Authority (NTSA). As of 8th November 2013, a total

of 2,683 lives had been lost in road traffic

accidents, 5,485 had been seriously injured while 4,258 had been slightly injured since January 2013. Since the Kenyan Government took to establishing busses as the mode of Public transport they have been victims of the mayhem, but could this be countered? Is it a question of the quality of the Public Service Vehicles (PSVs) assembled and if improved, could they withstand such situations if they occur?

Yes. According to the Cabinet Secretary for Transport and Infrastructure, Eng. Michael Kamau: The number of fatalities resulting from road crash involving PSVs is on the rise partly due to weak vehicle bodies that collapse or shears-off on frontal, side or rollover impacts.

Vital safety features involved

The critical safety features involved in bus building as stipulated in the Traffic Act and the Kenya Bureau of Standards (KEBS) bus standards compiled by Kenya Vehicle Manufacturers (KVM) Limited (one of the key assemblers in Kenya) include: roll over protection, front impact protection, side impact protection, Cross members, gangway and seat arrangement, side wall diagonals, passenger door, passenger seats, uppermost stair, front grille and rear overhang.

According to experts, a bus should always meet minimum standards which include: Roll over protection; Front impact protection; and side impact protection.

Roll over protection would include the use of gussets to reinforce the strength in between side walls and the roof and diagonals to prevent a passenger cabin from collapsing sideward.

Front impact protection involves two

A case in point would be the Ntulele bus crash along Mai Mahiu-Narok road on August 29, 2013 which recorded the highest number of fatalities in the year. One of the causes of loss of many lives was poor building of the bus evidenced by the tearing off of the entire roof of the bus.

options; on one hand the use of a diagonal

column to stabilize the roof through

directing the impulse force into the lower body by making a column out of two

strong tubes, using zig-zag interconnection

in between bars ensuring there’s a correct angle from roof to column and another one from the column into the bus body. On the

other hand, body builders could stabilize

the roof through reinforced side pillars.

Side impact protection involves two recommended options; the use of triangular

vertical reinforcement underneath the floor

which gives structural strength against side impact and roll over; And triangular reinforcement in the longitudinal inside of

floor level.

During a bus or coach rollover without the above minimum standards, the occupant will have a larger distance from the centre of rotation as compared to that of a car occupant. This is what makes a rollover accident extremely fatal and explains the huge number of accident fatalities in Kenya. The side windows get broken, the risk of passenger ejection and injury increases. The most common body regions injured in a rollover, when no ejection occurs, are the head, the neck and the shoulder.

Research from Crash analysis indicate that injury in rollover crashes can be caused by the impact of the occupants on the side panel, on the luggage rack and also by the effects of occupant interaction.

The number of cross members are meant to be enough for strength and safety according to the load class (which is a minimum of 4 for a 26-seater and a maximum of 8 for a


71-seater), They should not be more than necessary but be weight and cost relevant

and the welding joints be first grade and verified.

With regards to the gangway and seat arrangement, the width of the gangway recommended is 450 mm (for Class IV, above 40 passengers) and 350 mm (for Class III, 26 – 40 passengers). This requires a 3 by 2 seat arrangement and a vehicle track width of 2250 mm or correctly curved side pillars.

The side wall diagonal setting safety concept would involve building a structural strength against rattling, cracks and bending which prevents share force in an accident.

The passenger door dimensions according to KEBS is a minimum height of 1650 mm with a minimum width of 650 mm and not above 700 mm and lastly, that the 1st step has a maximum height of 460 mm above ground. According to the European Safety regulations, in case of a panic after an accident the passengers want to press the door outward. The passenger door should

swing outward or be a pantographic door otherwise it becomes a death trap in case of an emergency.

The uppermost stair should not be protruding into gangway which reduces the dangerous interference. In relation to interference, the passenger seat should have neither sharp corner nor protrusions, they should be made out of round tubes and the width of the seat frame be 400 mm per seat.

The Front grille gets lost and almost always gets locked and will endanger traffic. It should be fixed to the bus body through the hinges. While the Rear overhang should be a maximum of 60 % of the wheel base measured behind rear axle to rear bumper to ensure comfortable vehicle handling (stability on the road).

Way forward

However, according to Eng. Kamau there are new regulations on vehicle body building that have been developed by KEBS in order to address the challenge of making quality bus bodies which NTSA is set to implement. This he said during GM’s commissioning of

the bus building technology centre in late October.

The Centre according to the East African Region assembler is set to “be used as a benchmark for safety, quality and technology in the industry.”

Eng. Kamau added that Compliance with KEBS regulations would enhance survival rates in the event of a crash. NTSA is also set to ensure that vehicle body builders adhere

to the use of specified materials failure to

which they will be deregistered.

NTSA has also recommended outlawing of mounting of carriers on the roof tops of public service vehicles. This is important to avoid instances where buses with load carriers on top are prone to tipping over when overloaded as happened in the case of Ntulele crash.

With improved bus body building technology, lives will be saved, there will be job creation and we won’t have to compromise design for safety for appearance only.

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FEATURE 71-seater), They should not be more than necessary but be weight and cost relevant and
FEATURE Challenges to Industrialization and manufacturing in Kenya
FEATURE Challenges to Industrialization and manufacturing in Kenya
FEATURE Challenges to Industrialization and manufacturing in Kenya
FEATURE Challenges to Industrialization and manufacturing in Kenya

Challenges to Industrialization and manufacturing in Kenya

by Achola Kevin - Bsc. Mechanical & Manufacturing Engineering, UoN

• A Staff at work in Agro Chemical Ltd. in Western Kenya.
• A Staff at work in Agro Chemical Ltd. in Western Kenya.


  • M anufacturing and industry are some of the pillars of Kenya Vision 2030; these two must

be emphasized to support the populations’

human needs and also provide materials for most of the development projects set in the

vision 2030. Kenya is an emerging economy that

is averagely industrialized. It has a large

manufacturing sector serving both the

local market and exports mostly to the

East African region. Industrialization and

manufacturing cut through most of the ministries of the Kenyan government and

affects all Kenyans. Industrialization and

manufacturing contribute to approximately 10% of the Gross Domestic Product of Kenya per year. Consequently it is the real engine of economic growth in Kenya. Industrialization is the process in which a society transforms itself from a primarily agricultural society into one based on industry and the manufacturing of goods and services. Industry is the production of an economic good or service within an economy. Manufacturing however is to make or process raw materials, especially in large quantities and by means of an industrial process. Manufacturing makes an important

contribution to the Kenyan economy and currently employs about 254,000 people, which represents 13 per cent of total employment in Kenya. An additional

1.4 million people are employed in the informal side of the industry. The sector is highly fragmented with more than 2,000 manufacturing units.

To guide industrialization in Kenya,

the government set up an initiative

dubbed ‘Master Plan for Kenya’s Industrial development {MAPSKID}’. This will provide the roadmap for development of the industrial sector. The priority sectors

identified in the MAPSKID include Agro-

processing; Agro-machinery; Electrical and

Electronics/Information Communications Technology {ICT}. Kenya has made several

attempts at industrialization and has

repeatedly faced emerging and traditional challenges. Challenges include; Lethargic rates of adoption of ICT in industries, the low levels of penetration and high cost of ICT infrastructure has hindered

access and usage. This leads to low access to markets and technological information and increased costs of marketing and communication. We live in a digital age where ICT has to permeate all sectors of the economy for sustainable growth to be


The performance of the manufacturing sector has further been affected by low capital injection. Before the Chinese, local and foreign investments in industries and infrastructure had been on the decline. This could be attributed to Kenya’s poor business environment, or politics. The entry into the local market of substandard, counterfeit and contra-band products has unfairly reduced the market share for locally manufactured products. Counterfeit trade has also discouraged innovation efforts, reduced the government

revenue base and some are a health- hazard

to consumers.

One can also not ignore competition from other countries for the Kenyan Market

exemplified by the current battle between

the Sugar manufacturers and COMESA to uphold the ban stopping other COMESA

countries from entering the Kenyan sugar market. If they are allowed with the prices they offer, Kenyan sugar industry will be all but done. Informality and poor sustainability of most local initiatives hamper

industrialization. Majority of the micro and

small industries are informal, rural based and have a high mortality rate. Due to the

informality and concentration of formal firms

in major towns, there are weak linkages,

inadequate Business Development Services and subcontracting arrangements with the

medium and large firms. In addition, the growth and graduation of the firms in this sector has not fully realized its potential due

to a number of factors such as poor market

access, restrictive legislation and regulation, high cost of credit, poor infrastructure and access to land. High input costs result in expensive and often low-quality raw materials, rising labor costs, unreliable and expensive energy. Low productivity levels: Capital productivity in the Kenyan manufacturing sector is particularly low, compared to regional and global productivity levels. Lack of investment in an industrial knowledge base, innovation, research and development uptake in Manufacturing limits the growth of modern methods of manufacturing in the country. The lack of knowledge, high cost and fear of change

has led to low technology uptake. Lack of awareness on intellectual property rights hinders the development, registration and protection of new innovations in the manufacturing sector. There are limited technical and managerial skills; there is generally poor linkage between the industry and the training institutions. Inadequate capacity of industries to meet product quality standards and ISO certification limits their efficiencies and product qualities. This also makes consumers

reluctant to trust these organizations and

their products or services.

Inefficient flows of goods and services:

Inefficiency in the local transport and logistics sector (e.g. port, rail and road transport services), greatly hampers the ability of local manufacturers to access and be competitive in regional and global markets. Weak Public Private Partnerships, the Government policy embraces the Private Sector as the engine for economic growth. Nevertheless, there is disharmony and a lack of constructive dialogue between the public and private sectors. This absence of partnership opportunities has contributed to skewed development initiatives, duplication of efforts and the development of policies that are not responsive to the needs of the Private Sector. Uncertainty in politics with unfortunate occurrences like the post election violence of 2007 and the Westgate terrorist attack

FEATURE • An aerial view of Boilers
• An aerial view of Boilers

destroy industrial infrastructure physically, reduce morale and also deter foreign investment in Kenya. Furthermore, the absence of what may

correctly be seen as an “Industrialization

Culture” in Kenya has inhibited growth and

innovation in the sector. From a historical perspective there has hardly been any

effort in locating national industrialization

as a necessary and important political

decision to be made at the highest level. Examples from other countries indicate how decisive political decisions led many countries to pursue extremely rewarding

Industrialization policies. Japan for instance

took the political decision in the 1960s and despite having no minerals, including oil, has proved to be a manufacturing powerhouse and an immense economy. A major problem in Kenya has also been the fact that the operational industrial policies are contained in many disparate policy documents including Acts of Parliament, Sessional Papers, development plans and other sectoral policies and strategies some of which have been

reviewed in the foregoing sections. The

lack of a harmonized and clearly defined

National Industrialization Policy has

therefore negatively affected the process

of industrialization and is compounded by

the existence of numerous laws; a weak legal framework, as well as, overlapping ministerial mandates, all of which have culminated into an uncoordinated and

slow pace of industrialization. Lack of

clear boundaries on the mandates and

functions of ministries and agencies has caused distortions in the value chain, weak

sectoral policies, overlaps and conflicts in

policy implementation. The rising levels of poverty coupled with the general slowdown of the economy

has continued to inhibit growth in the demand of locally manufactured goods, as effective demand continues to shift more in favor of relatively cheaper imported manufactured items. Goods manufactured

elsewhere have also served to deter the stimulation of local industries. In addition, the high cost of inputs as a result of poor infrastructure has led to high prices of locally manufactured products thereby limiting their competitiveness in the regional markets and hampering the sector’s capacity


In Conclusion

It can however be argued that the world

is quickly moving into an information age based on knowledge economies, where emphasis is laid on information systems and the service industry. The most developed countries are investing away from the heavy manufacturing industries of the last century. They even push most of their manufacturing and industrial companies to developing economies to exploit the cheap labor there and keep the pollution at bay. One would on this basis propose that more emphasis should be laid on the service and ICT industries. These include trade, banking, education, transportation and telecommunications and not manufacturing and industry.


  • i) Kenya Vision 2030. Ministry of State for Planning, National Development & Vision 2030. ii) National industrialization Policy 2012. Ministry of Industrialization

iii) Master Plan for Kenya’s Industrial

development (MAPSKID) (June 2007). Ministry of Trade and industry

FEATURE History SUGAR INDUSTRY IN KENYA T he industry is inextricably linked to our history. The


T he industry is inextricably linked to our history. The Asian were the authors of sugar cane farming

in Kenya. The first sugar production on a commercial basis was started

in Kibos, today’s Nyanza, when the

Miwani Sugar Mills was established on a medium scale at Miwani in Kisumu

District of Nyanza Province, in 1922.

by Peninah Njakwe

The second sugar mill was established in

1927 by the Associated Sugar Company Limited at Ramisi in Kwale District of the Coast Province and managed by the Madhvani Group International of India. The post-independence period saw the post-colonial state begin to participate directly in the sugar industry with the government aggressively boosting sugar production with the aim of making the

country self-sufficient in sugar production.

To this end the state’s strategy to develop the sugar industry was guided by two policy

documents. The first was the Swynnerton

Plan of 1954 and the second was Sessional

Paper No.10 of 1965, a policy document in which the government stated its version of African Socialism. The African Socialism and its Application to Planning in Kenya as is titled has remained the country’s development “bible” since its adoption.

Sugarcane is one of the country’s major cash crops alongside tea, coffee and others. According to the strategic report by Kenya Sugar Board of Kenya 2010-14, the sugarcane industry is a major source of livelihood for communities along the sugar belt region in Western Kenya. According to the report, the sugarcane industry accounts for about 15 per cent of agricultural GDP.

Today, the sugar business has faced economical, political and social challenges that have left sugar extrapolations pointing down.

• A section of Sony Sugar Milling Company

“Kenya Sugar Industry Strategic Plan


would require KSh.51.1 billion. KSh.15.3

The Strategic Plan is intended to be the basis


In 2008/2009, the industry produced close to 520,000 tonnes of sugar operating at 56 percent of the installed capacity. The industry has the potential of producing over 1 million tonnes of sugar if operated at 89 percent of the installed capacity. This would meet the domestic needs, currently standing at about 700,000 tonnes, and provide a sustained surplus for export.

billion would be used to initiate power co-generation projects in various factories. KSh.12.8 billion would be used to initiate ethanol production projects. The remaining KSh.23 billion would be used to carry out other activities outlined in this Plan.

of facilitating the transformation required in the sugar subsector. It sets out the framework that will enable the industry achieve its

A s

o f

2 0 1 1 ,

t h e

i n d u s t r y

f a c e d

vision of being ‘a world class multi-product

several challenges including capacity

sugarcane industry’ in the next five years.

underutilization, lack of regular factory

Despite the challenges the industry

m a i n t e n a n c e ,

p o o r

t r a n s p o r t

faces, this Plan underlines the industry’s

infrastructure and weak corporate

c o m m i t m e n t o f b e i n g e f f i c i e n t ,




diversified and globally competitive.

factories have accumulated large debts amounting to KSh.58 billion.

In the 2010-2014 strategic plan, the industry

Current status

The parliament has put Kenya Sugar Board on notice over a KSh.1 billion cane


demand for sugar annually stands at 700,000 tonnes while only 500,000 tonnes is produced locally. The balance is imported from the COMESA regional bloc.

Lack of sugarcane is also blamed for the sector’s poor performance despite increase in number of hectares under the crop over the years. However, in a move to curb this, a new breed of the crop has been introduced. The new cane breed is fast-maturing taking 12 months to be ready unlike the current one that takes up to 24 months.

To fully utilize the potential in the industry, some essential reforms have been identified

in the Agricultural Sector Development Strategy 2009-2020.They include

enhancing access to input markets, raising cane yields, reducing post-harvest losses, upgrading factory capacity, increase to credit facilities for farmers, increasing value addition by more processing and product diversification as well as strengthening corporate governance in the industry.

There are also plan to privatize some sugar companies such as Nzoia, Chemelil, South Nyanza and Miwani factories. The factory

crushing capacities are also an area that needs re-touch as many new factories have crushing capacity of less than 2,000 metric tonnes in a day. The largest sugar company in Kenya currently is with a crushing capacity of 10,000 metric tonnes.

testing project which according to the parliamentary committee was not a priority.

The project saw some testing machines; one

costing KSh.150 million placed at Nzoia

and Sony Sugar factories. They argued that the project was ill-timed when majority of sugar millers were struggling to pay farmers. The two millers recently reported a combined loss of up to KSh.6.1 billion.

The State millers are earmarked for sale,

a step that is expected to inject efficiency

in a sector that currently hinges on COMESA safeguards that limit imports.

The industry’s main source of woes is attributed to the country’s importation of sugar whereas there are firms producing sugar locally. This creates unhealthy competition that in turn injures the economy and the consumers not forgetting fellow competitors. The country’s current

FEATURE demand for sugar annually stands at 700,000 tonnes while only 500,000 tonnes is produced locally.

Opportunities for Local Engineers in Modernization of


• Engineers at a session during The IEK Launcheon held December last year.
• Engineers at a session during The IEK Launcheon held December last year.

O n 6th November the Institution of Engineers of Kenya {IEK} held a Luncheon at Sarova Panafric,

Nairobi. The Guest Speaker was Eng. M

S M Kamau- Cabinet Secretary, Transport & Infrastructure and the theme was “Opportunities for Local Engineers in

Modernization of Infrastructure”.

This is a timely initiative by the institution with more to come. After preliminaries, giving awards to outstanding members and sharing a meal the guest speaker took to the center stage, and when he delivered his message; it was abundant with insight.

He started by reminding IEK members of the importance of the engineers bill 2011 and the impact it will have for engineers when enacted fully. He said honorable Franklin Bett the former minister of roads should be honored for his passionate role in having the bill sail through parliament.

‘‘Your space will never ever be given to, you have to claim it,’‘the guest speaker asserted. ‘‘Because all of us engineers are taught always to make reasonable assumptions in engineering matters, we should make the

same when dealing with non-engineering issues’‘. He however reminded engineers that the world is full of unreasonable people. Engineers should learn to negotiate while making reasonable assumptions. Marine transport

‘‘If you want to know what transport can do for a country you need to look at Dubai and Singapore, Dubai in terms of the seaport and how much business in brings for them,’‘ Eng. Kamau said. Dubai manages 67 ports being the largest transshipment port in the world. They have a huge logistic centre to handle the massive transportation activities in the ports. Because of its marine transport industry, Dubai deals in vehicles, spares parts, heavy machinery and has a big auction for construction equipment.

‘‘What did Vasco da Gama see in the Kenyan coast to build fort Jesus here and nowhere else? What is it that we can do with the port of Mombasa? What is it that we have not done with the port of Mombasa?’‘ He asked rhetorically. He said there is need to re ignite the dominance of the Kenyan port. The government has started investing in ports at Mombasa and Lamu

‘‘If you want to know what transport can do for a country you need to look at Dubai and Singapore, Dubai in terms of the seaport and how much business in brings for them,’‘

>> Eng. Kamau,

CS - Transport & Infrastructure

FEATURE Opportunities for Local Engineers in Modernization of Infrastructure • Engineers at a session during The

and engineers should invest on industries that revolve around the port. This includes repairing containers and maintenance of ships, logistics centers to handle the massive cargo. South Sudan, Uganda, Burundi and Rwanda depend on Kenya for handling their cargo.

Air transport

He added that there will also be more traffic

going through Jomo Kenyatta International Airport with the construction and opening of the new terminus. This brings with it opportunities not only in the construction of the infrastructure to handle the millions

• Eng. Kamau, CS-Transport presenting an award to Eng. McCorkindale, former I.E.K Journal Committee Chairperson
• Eng. Kamau, CS-Transport presenting an award to Eng. McCorkindale, former
I.E.K Journal Committee Chairperson

of passengers but also aircraft maintenance industry.

Railway transport

He reminded the Engineers that on 17th of November, the government is set to start the construction of the standard gauge railways.

The energy alone need for the railways will be 1200 MW bearing in mind that the current installed capacity in Kenya is only 1570 MW, Engineers have the responsibility

to bridge the deficit. The railways will need

maintenance once constructed; Engineers should be braced for it. The rolling stock will also require private investors. He encouraged engineers to get together and invest in the rolling stock.

Electrical energy

He also said that there will be massive need

for energy to maintain all the industries that Kenya is setting in place. The railway system,

the pipelines and refineries will be massive

consumers of energy. Towards vision 2030 we have to produce up to 19000MW of energy. There are also opportunities in the green energy sector with projects like the Lake Turkana wind power production set to produce 300MW.


On mining he urged engineers to reflect

on why the president gave it a fully fledged

ministry. With the discovery and exploitation of new mineral resources in the country new opportunities arise. These include the actual mining, processing and transportation of the minerals. The oil discoveries will bring

the need to set up and maintain pipelines

and refineries. There will be opportunities

for use and handling of the coal from the

Mui basin. More minerals have also been discovered in Kwale and elsewhere in the country. Engineers play a major role in these projects.


He implored the Engineers to get ready for

the irrigation opportunities that come with the government’s initiative to irrigate one million (1 million) acres in the Turkana basin. There will also be opportunities in the food processing industry that will be stimulated by the yield from the irrigation. Setting up the infrastructure like canals and maintenance of it will also require Engineers.

Housing and property development

He also added that with the ever increasing

population and the traffic expected from the

marine and air transport there is need to develop proper housing and other facilities like lodges and hotels. He urged engineers to get in groups and invest akin to what the doctors are currently doing.

As a closing remark Engineer Kamau said he appreciated the former President Kibaki for his vision in initiating the massive infrastructure and transportation projects like LAPSSET, roads and railways. After visiting Dubai and experiencing what transport and infrastructure development has done to that country; the vision is much clearer to him.

About ENG. MICHAEL S. M. KAMAU ; Cabinet Secretary Transport and infrastructure Engineer Kamau was born

About ENG. MICHAEL S. M. KAMAU; Cabinet Secretary Transport and infrastructure

Engineer Kamau was born in 1958. He is married with two children and has been in the Civil Service since 1981. He was seconded to Moi University in Eldoret for seven years between 1990 – 1998

He holds a Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering from the University of Nairobi, Master of Science in Engineering from the University of New Castle upon Tyne, United Kingdom. He has received extensive training in the field of engineering and management both locally and internationally. He is registered as a Professional Consulting Engineer by Engineers Board of Kenya. He is a fellow of the Institution of Engineers of Kenya and also a fellow of the Kenya Institute of Management. He is an associate member of the Chartered Institute of Arbitrators. He has been a Permanent Secretary since October, 2007 and a key architect in the infrastructure upgrade in the last 10 years.



How safe are your tyres?

by Eng. Daniel S. Cherono - KENHA

FEATURE DRIVING ON EXPIRED TYRES How safe are your tyres? ⌠ by Eng. Daniel S. Cherono

O n Thursday 24th October 2013 at about 1500hrs, a passenger service vehicle bound for Bomet County,

carrying 9 passengers was involved in a

horrific collision with a Nairobi bound bus

at a few kilometeres from Ntulele township along the Mai Mahiu – Narok National Trunk Road (B3) claiming the lives of all the nine passengers on board. Two months

ealier, on the dark night of 29th August 2013, about 200 meters from that spot a bus destined for Homabay County overturned and plunged into a 60ft ravine, killing 41

passengers and maiming a dozen others.

As the country mourned, several theories were put across to explain the cause of the accidents.

vehicle load limits, and inspecting tyres for

cuts, slashes, and other irregularities are the most important things you can do to avoid tyre failure, such as tread separation or

blowout and flat tyres. These actions, along

with other care and maintenance activities, improve vehicle handling help protect you and others from avoidable breakdowns and accidents, improve fuel economy and increase the life of your tyres.

Many drivers do not pay attention to their tyres. Every tyre has important information which all drivers must know. These are temperature resistance, traction; tread wear, Maximum Load Capacity, speed symbol and the date of manufacture as shown below.

However, a keen observation of the wreckage of both vehicles pointed out to the front left tyre failure or what is commonly referred to ‘tyre burst’ as the likely cause that precipitated the chain of events that led to the deadly accidents. But what caused the tyres to fail? Could the accidents have been avoided?

Tyres are engineered to withstand high forces and tough conditions. Studies of tyre safety however show that maintaining proper tyre pressure, observing tyre and

FEATURE DRIVING ON EXPIRED TYRES How safe are your tyres? ⌠ by Eng. Daniel S. Cherono

The information is explained in detail as follows;

Temperature Resistance

These letters indicates a tyre’s resistance to heat. From highest to lowest, a tyre’s resistance to heat is graded as “A” for hot area, “B” for Normal weather area, or “C” for Cold area.

FEATURE DRIVING ON EXPIRED TYRES How safe are your tyres? ⌠ by Eng. Daniel S. Cherono

Treadware Number

This number indicates the tyre’s wear rate. The higher the treadwear number is, the longer it should take for the tread to wear down. For example, a tyre graded 400

should last twice as long as a tyre graded

200 Traction

This letter indicates a tyre’s ability to stop on wet pavement. A higher graded tyre should allow you to stop your car on wet roads in a shorter distance than a tyre with a lower grade. Traction is graded from highest to lowest as “AA”,”A”, “B”, and “C

FEATURE DRIVING ON EXPIRED TYRES How safe are your tyres? ⌠ by Eng. Daniel S. Cherono

Maximum Load Capacity & Tyre Speed Symbol

Number indicates the maximum load that can be carried by the tyre. Symbol indicates the max. Speed at which a tyre is designed to be driven for extended periods of time

FEATURE Maximum Load Capacity & Tyre Speed Symbol Number indicates the maximum load that can be
FEATURE Maximum Load Capacity & Tyre Speed Symbol Number indicates the maximum load that can be

Manufacturing Date

FEATURE Maximum Load Capacity & Tyre Speed Symbol Number indicates the maximum load that can be

Tyre Expiry

Vehicle tyres have a 4-year validity period

from their Date of Manufacture (DOM). Thereafter, the tyre expires and may burst whilst in use.

How do you find out whether your tyre

has expired? Check for a stamp like this:

(*2603*) There is an asterisk at the beginning

and at the end of this serial number. The

first two numbers 2 6 will tell you which

week of the year the tyre was manufactured. Note that one year has 52 weeks. The last two numbers represent the year of make. *2610* therefore, shows that the said tyre was manufactured on the 26th week of the year 2010. *2612* shows that the tyre was made on the 26th week of 2012. Check all your tyres for safety purposes. Do not use expired tyres. They are likely to burst (especially when running in hot weather) because the rubber component may have hardened and cracked. Whereas the treads on your tyres may look okay, driving on expired tyres exposes you to grave danger as they are susceptible to failure.

FEATURE Maximum Load Capacity & Tyre Speed Symbol Number indicates the maximum load that can be

If your tyre does not contain all the above information, as it has been observed on some imports from Far East countries sold cheaply in back streets tyre shops in our cities, then such tyres are counterfeit. Do not buy them. During regular traffic checks on highways and inspection of motor vehicles, the police and/or the inspectors do not

check whether drivers are using expired tyres, yet this is the most likely cause of the numerous tyre failures experienced on our roads every day. The importation of used vehicles with expired tyres use of re-treaded tyres has also worsened the situation. In the case of the Ntulele accidents that claimed over 50 lives and caused injuries to

a dozen others, investigations are likely to

indicate that overloading, speeding and use of expired tyres resulted in tyre failure that caused the ill-fated bus to overturn and the

PSV van to lose direction and collide head- on with the Nairobi bound bus. In conclusion, drivers must understand the information on their tyres and maintain their condition. This is achieved by properly

rotating the tyres, inflating them with the

right pressure, and constantly evaluating them for wear or damage. The traffic enforcement officers and motor vehicle inspectors should ensure that tyres on all vehicles are safe. Now that you are more informed on tyre safety, always remember to check and take care of your tyres and that expired tyres must not be used.



by Prof. Francis John Gichaga,UON

• President Kenyatta listens as he’s shown a model of a proposed building plan during ground
• President Kenyatta listens as he’s shown a model of a proposed building plan during
ground breaking of New Macjhakos City development project


  • I n order to industrialize Kenya, and indeed the counties which have recently been created, there is need to transform

the country’s economy from being heavily dependent on agriculture to a status where manufacturing would be a major contributor

towards the Gross Domestic Product.

The new constitution in our country has brought with it a devolved government system which has given counties responsibilities which were originally shouldered by the Central Government. As engineers therefore we should orient our

focus towards the new requirements in the way we train our engineers in order to equip them with capabilities of addressing the new challenges in the context of the need for

industrialization of the counties as envisaged

in the Kenya Vision 2030. In particular we, as engineers must be prepared to address the issue of infrastructure development for the many counties in order to facilitate the achievement of the Vision 2030 for the counties and indeed for the nation at large.

We are for example expected to address the issue of public utilities (which include electric power, telecommunications, water supply and sanitation, sewerage and waste disposal); public works (which includes irrigation systems, schools, housing and hospitals); transport services (which include roads, railways, ports, waterways, airports and pipelines) and research and development facilities.

We know that the three critical elements which contributed to the rapid economic growth of the South East Asian countries (i.e. Asian Tigers) included;

Provision of basic infrastructure, including roads, schools, water, sanitation, irrigation, health care,

energy and telecommunications. Development of small and medium- size enterprises that supply goods

and services to the agriculture and natural resources sectors. Government support and funding

to establish and nurture academies of engineering and technological sciences, professional engineering and technological associations, and industrial and trade associations. It is to be noted that these human resource and supporting institutional frameworks spur sector wide innovations in development processes.

Again we know that a nation’s ability to solve problems and initiate and sustain economic growth is heavily dependent on the nation’s capabilities in science, technology and innovation. We also

acknowledge that scientific and technical

capabilities determine the ability to provide such services like clean water, good health care, adequate infrastructure and safe food.

As engineers we know that we need to develop a science, technology and innovation policy which is underpinned by well-designed measures for addressing

such issues as learning, research and development and the diffusion, transfer and

commercialization of technology.

of the Kenyan people and in doing so we

need to consider the indicators which reflect

the basic necessities of life as indicated

earlier, and thereby recognize the need to

It is important to recognize that today’s

global trends are towards knowledge based economies whereby research institutions

must collaborate with industries and work in partnership. There is indeed need for public- private partnerships and collaboration between the government, the universities and research institutions and the industries including the many types of enterprises to achieve higher rate of economic growth. In the area of industrial development we must acknowledge that currently our country heavily relies on imported products some of which could be produced locally. This underpins the need to encourage engineers particularly those working in research oriented institutions/sections, to carry out research leading to development of products that can be sellable locally and internationally. In doing so engineers are required to work closely with the industry in order to influence the adoption of technology that adds value to the locally produced raw materials. This is indeed what

we understand by industrialization, which

in our case implies that we, as a country,

should invest in relevant technology which

can be utilized to process the natural

resources including raw materials to convert such resources and raw materials into sellable products both locally and internally and competitively.

As engineers we are expected to address the challenges of raising the standard of living

empower Kenyans so that they can compete in the knowledge economy by equipping them with capacity to manage the latest technology including the ICT. Given the important role ICT is playing in everyday life of Kenyans, it is imperative that special attention be given to ICT to ensure that its education and training is comprehensively structured. In this respect the universities must rise to the occasion and provide the necessary leadership.

This paper addresses briefly the roles of the

various actors in the exercise of addressing

the issues of industrialization of the counties

in the realization of the Kenya Vision 2030

whose three pillars include the economic pillar, the social pillar and the political pillar.

The economic pillar aims at improving the prosperity of Kenyans through an economic transformation programme covering all the regions of Kenya and aiming at achieving an average Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth rate of 10% per annum.

The social pillar seeks to create and build a just and cohesive society with social equity in a clean and secure environment.

The political pillar aims at realizing a

democratic political system that nurtures issue-based politics, respects the rule of law, and protects all the rights and freedoms of every individual in the Kenyan society.

• An Artist’s impression of Konza City
• An Artist’s impression of Konza City
FEATURE Role of Universities
Role of Universities

For us, as a country, to achieve the desired

economic status as envisioned in the Vision 2030, we need to invest both in

the development of strategic industries and in human resources, that is to say that Kenyans must be trained to empower them to manage the type of technology that is relevant to the knowledge economy. Since engineers are the key actors in infrastructure development, it will be necessary to ensure that they are trained comprehensively, i.e. their training must incorporate basic

scientific and technological knowledge and

accompanying structured practical training in industry.

With the above in mind, universities must rise to the occasion by offering well structured academic courses relevant to the demand of the industry now and into the future for those undergoing degree programmes. Universities must also encourage research and development and innovation activities for lecturers in partnership with their counterparts in industries. Again universities should encourage the lecturers to undertake research and consultancy work with

industries in their areas of specialization.

Additionally universities should get actively

involved in organizing continuing education

in form of seminars, short courses, holiday

courses, evening classes etc in order to empower practicing engineers including graduate engineers with relevant knowledge especially new techniques of addressing emerging engineering problems.

Universities, as the main actors in research, should be encouraged to invest heavily in research areas which are relevant to the economic growth of the nation. In this respect, it is known that those countries that have invested heavily in research have reaped the benefits in terms of

industrialization and accompanying socio-

economic growth. Universities are indeed expected to carry out research aimed at developing suitable models and pilot

projects which can be adopted by industries for full-scale development. To buttress the system of industrial transformation, we must engage in research and development activities to develop relevant knowledge for

utilization by our industries. Again


universities are expected to develop science and technological parks to incubate projects and release the same to the industries for full-scale development.

Additionally, universities are mandated to come up with extension services to the community as a social responsibility with the aim of participating in the development of the necessary industrial base nationally and at county levels.

Role of Industries

For Kenya, and indeed our counties, to

accelerate economic growth through

industrialization, there is urgent need to

create new and efficient industries. There is

also need to rehabilitate existing industries

to enable them adopt efficient technologies.

This is so because our industries must be made to produce high quality manufactured goods which are capable of competing successfully with products from other countries not only in Kenya but also in the global market.

When one looks at the industries in Kenya, it is observed that little collaboration takes place between the industries on the one hand and the universities and research institutions on the other hand in the country. Yet we know that until the linkages between universities and industries are structured and strengthened, the rate of growth in the manufacturing sector will continue to be elusive and thereby adversely affect our journey towards Vision 2030. It is therefore important for us engineers to address this factor with a view to

introducing structured systems that protect the interests of both the universities and the industries, but with an over-arching goal of harnessing the technological knowledge generated in universities for the purpose of enhancing efficiency in production processes in industry. The important point

to note is that with efficiency in production

processes, industries achieve higher

outputs with accompanying higher profits

and consequent higher socio-economic growth through job creation for Kenyans. The industrialists and entrepreneurs in our country should be encouraged, through incentives by the government, to collaborate with universities and research institutions so that the knowledge developed and available from such institutions, can be transferred to industries.

It is desirable that our engineers undertake

to persuade industries to have significant

input in the development of curricula in universities and polytechnics. In addition industries should be encouraged to offer opportunities to university staff and students

to familiarize themselves with the world of

work in industries.

Role of Government

Th e r o l e o f g o v e r n m e n t i n t h e

industrialization of counties for vision

2030 is critical. We must acknowledge

that development of industries at county level is important as that is what will inspire economic growth. In this respect the Government would be of great service to

the industries (and hence industrialization of counties) if it catalyzes university-

industry linkages. The Government needs to take an active role in facilitating the collaboration between universities and the industries including formulating such policies and legislation as would enhance the collaboration. In the area of entrepreneurship the Government is expected to encourage the development of local contractors who will participate in the implementation of development projects thereby creating jobs for Kenyans in the country as envisioned the Kenya Vision 2030. We know that entrepreneurship is generally associated with development of businesses, trade, industry and production of goods and services at competitive prices in the global market. And the major motivating factor for the entrepreneur is the desire to succeed in creating wealth.

The Government should therefore encourage universities to carry out detailed studies to establish threshold levels for various types

of small scale and medium size businesses

and industries in counties so as to determine the optimal levels of investment which will

result in significant job creation for Kenyans.

Role of the Institution of Engineers of Kenya

The engineer is known more because of his

role in the development of infrastructure. The IEK should encourage the engineers to play their rightful role in the infrastructure development with the aim of enhancing the image of the profession by demanding that engineers must abide by the Code of Ethics in their professional duties.

Engineers are key actors in the achievement

FEATURE universities are expected to develop science and technological parks to incubate projects and release the

of the Kenya Vision 2030 because they plan, design, construct, maintain and

operate infrastructure for the benefit of the society. The IEK must demand that engineers should deliver, in the various areas of development and operations of infrastructure, to the expected levels of professional performance. The IEK should

undertake to influence policy development

in the building industry in order to make it

more engineer friendly both at the engineer training level and in engineering practice.

The Way Forward

For Kenya to rise to the next orbit of

development level, comparable to the middle-income countries in the world, it is important to give research and development and innovation special attention. We should be futuristic by investing in high level technology so as to make our industries more efficient where they can produce products sellable in the international market competitively. We need to put more effort in ensuring that research findings which are relevant to our economy are used to produce useful products by users like farmers, entrepreneurs etc. In this respect use of competent extension workers should

be addressed so that the required impact of

research findings is realized.

As an example we need to increase

scientific and technological input in the Jua Kali sector so as to achieve higher efficiency

in the production processes and enable the entrepreneurs to produce products which can compete not only in a given county but locally and in the international market. Currently there is tendency for Jua Kali and small scale enterprises to continue applying outdated technology with the consequence that their products are non-standard and

lack uniformity.

There is need to adopt policies which inspire university staff to participate in university- industry linkages in the areas of research and development and innovation as well as consultancies. There is need to address the need to harness and exploit our national resources (such as rivers, mountains, forests, wildlife, minerals e.t.c) including human

resource and determine how we can utilize

the same in our effort to achieve the Kenya

Vision 2030.


i) Essentials and Promotion of Linkages between Research and Development and Entrepreneur by F. J. Gichaga. National Workshop on Science and Technology Capacity in the Framework of Millennium Development Goals. A commemoration of the African Scientific Revival Day, Nairobi, December 2005. ii) Tr a i n i n g P r o f e s s i o n a l s f o r infrastructure Development: The Troika of Government, Industry and Academia by F. J. Gichaga. The Transformative and Effective

Infrastructure Conference, Nairobi. November 2010

iii) Kenya Vision 2030. Ministry of State for Planning, National Development & Vision 2030. iv) The Constitution of Kenya 2010. Kenya Law Reports. National Council for Law Reporting.

  • v) Educating a National Labour Force for Economic Recovery through Industrial Transformation by F. J. Gichaga, 35th Annual Tom Mboya lecture, Nairobi, 30th November,

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Does Project Management Success necessarily mean Project Success?

⌠ by Msafiri Seboru - GIBB Africa Ltd • Drawing a project mark up plan
⌠ by Msafiri Seboru - GIBB Africa Ltd
• Drawing a project mark up plan


T he role of different project

m a n a g e m e n t t e ch n i q u e s t o implement projects successfully

has been widely established in areas such as the planning and control of time, cost and quality. In spite of this the distinction between the project and project management is less than precise. It has been recognised that project management is an efficient tool to handle novel or complex activities. It is more efficient than traditional methods of management, such as the practice of functional divisions in a formal hierarchical organisation, for handling such situations. The success of project management has often been associated with the final outcome of the project. Over time it has been shown that project management and project success are not necessarily directly related. The objectives of both project management and the project are different

and the control of time, cost and progress, which are often the project management objectives, should not be confused with measuring project success. Experience has shown that it is possible to achieve a successful project even when management has failed and vice versa. There are many examples of projects which were relatively successful despite not being completed on time, or being over budget, e.g. the Thames Barrier, the Fulmar North Sea oil projector Concorde, all of which turned out to be relative successes, even though the project control aspect of them failed. Research conducted in the USA on

some 650 completed projects’ confirmed

the irrelevance of time and cost to the

perceived success of a project. It was found that cost and schedule overrun were not included in a list of 29 project management characteristics

significant to perceived project failure.

Conversely, good cost and schedule performance were not included in a list of 23 project management characteristics

significantly related to perceived success,

nor were cost and schedule performance included in the list of 10 project management characteristics found to be linearly related to both perceived success and perceived failure. These findings may be somewhat

difficult to accept by most project personnel

but it certainly explains why, for example, North Sea projects in the 1970s which suffered from substantial cost and time

overruns were considered to be successful. The enormous increases in the price of oil in 1973 and 1979 prevented disaster and

made them very profitable. In fact, many

large projects are saved from disaster by fortuitous circumstances. One frequently observes that a project


team gets credit for a successful project which it does not deserve and conversely, the team may be incorrectly blamed for a project failure.


In order to distinguish between the project

and project management it is necessary

to develop distinct definitions for the two

terms. A project can be considered to be the achievement of a specific objective, which involves a series of activities and tasks which consume resources. It has to be

completed within a set specification, having definite start and end dates.

In contrast, project management can be defined as the process of

controlling the achievement of the project objectives. Utilising the existing organisational structures and resources, it

seeks to manage the project by applying a collection of tools and techniques, without adversely disturbing the routine operation of the company. The function

of project management includes defining

the requirement of work, establishing the extent of work, allocating the resources required, planning the execution of the work, monitoring the progress of the work and adjusting deviations from the plan. Initially these two definitions may appear to overlap. Both are heavily

orientated to the achievement of the project. The important distinction lies in the

emphasis of both definitions. The project is

concerned with defining and selecting a

task which will be of overall benefit to the

company. This benefit may be financial, marketing or technical, but this will tend to be of a long-term nature, oriented towards the expected total life span of the completed project. In the case of a construction project the benefits could be extended over 50- 100 years, depending on the anticipated building life. In contrast, project management is orientated towards planning and control. It is concerned with on-time delivery, within- budget expenditures and appropriate performance standards. This is the context of the short-term life of the project development and delivery. Once delivery is achieved, the management, as it relates to planning and control of the development and delivery, will cease. A new, or different form of management, will then establish

the operation and control of the project use from this point on. The focus, therefore, of project management is distinct from that of the project because it is short term, until delivery of the project for use. In contrast the project itself is long term, based on the whole life rather than just the development cycle.

Project Success or Failure

The definition of a project has suggested

that there is an orientation towards higher and long-term goals. Important parameters within the goals will be return on

investment, profitability, competition and

market ability. The success of a project is dependent on having:

A realistic goal;

Competition; Client satisfaction; • A definite goal; • Profitability; • Third parties; Market availability; The implementation process; The perceived value of the project.

Only two of the items from this list would lie directly within the scope of project management as previously defined. These are the definitions of a goal and the implementation process. This would indicate that project management and its techniques are only a subset of the wider context of the project. Project management plays a role in project success but that role is affected by many other factors outside the direct control of the project manager. This would start to explain why projects can succeed or fail independently of the project management process.

FEATURE team gets credit for a successful project which it does not deserve and conversely, the

Project Management Success or Failure

The definition of project management

suggests a shorter term and more specific

context for success. The outcomes of project

management success are many. They would include the obvious indicators of completion to budget, satisfying the project schedule, adequate quality standards, and meeting the project goal. The factors which may cause the project management to fail to achieve these would include:

Inadequate basis for project; Wrong person as project manager; Top management unsupportive; • Inadequately defined tasks; • Lack of project management techniques; Management techniques mis-used; Project closedown not planned; Lack of commitment to project.

These factors would suggest that successful project management requires planning with a commitment to complete the project; careful appointment of a skilled project

manager; spending time to define the project adequately; correctly planning the activities in the project; ensuring correct

and adequate information flows; changing

activities to accommodate frequent changes on dynamics; accommodating employees’

personal goals with performance and rewards; and making a fresh start when mistakes in implementation have been


Good project management can contribute towards project success but is unlikely to be able to prevent failure. Broader decisions in selecting a suitable

project in the first place are more likely to

influence the overall success of the project

than can be achieved merely through the techniques of project management. The

techniques may help to ensure a successful

implementation of the project, but if the

project is fundamentally flawed from the

start it would be unlikely that techniques alone could salvage it. The techniques may help to identify the unfeasible nature of the project, and indicate that it should be abandoned or changed.

Individual Responsibilities

The completion of a project requires input from a variety of groups including the client,

FEATURE the project team, the parent organisation, the producer, and the end user. Each party has

the project team, the parent organisation, the producer, and the end user. Each party has a role in defining and determining success. They all have specific tasks and

responsibilities that they must fulfil in order

to achieve success. The client is expected to be the main party concerned about the success of the

project in the long term. In most cases, the project was instigated at the behest

of the client, and the financial and other

rewards for the client hinge on its successful implementation. The client cannot expect to abdicate responsibility by passing all duties to the project team. It has already been intimated that the team will be orientated towards objectives which are only a subset of the overall aims of the project. The

client must ensure that an emphasis on the subset does not threaten the achievement of the wider aims from which it is drawn. Facilitating the team is important for the

client, but in the final analysis the project

was not instigated to facilitate the team. The project originates from a requirement to meet a need that exists for the client.

That initial need must be kept in focus by all those involved on the project. The user is the group or individual who makes use of the completed project or product. In some situations this might be the client, but for goods sold on the open market, the end user and client may be two distinct groups. Project success will be considered by the users as the ability to satisfy their needs. These needs may take the form of practical requirements and be in vivid contrast to those of the client. The parent organisation will be involved in the project by providing resources. They

may also exercise a controlling influence

over the project in determining factors such

as profitability, market share, quality and

scope of service. Their responsibility towards the project is important and the commitment

and support of a parent organisation is a vital requirement to project success. Unless the parent organisation is willing to commit company resources and provide any necessary administrative support, project

management can be very difficult. In this

role they will have two differing interests in

the project. In allocating resources they will

have an interest in the efficient use of the

resources during development. The project team will be responsible for the planning and control of the use of these resources, consequently the parent organisation will be interested in the success of the project management process. The team will be accountable for their use of these resources, and if they fail to be effective they must expect to give an account for their actions. The parent organisation will have a second concern, because they will want a return on their allocation of resources to the project. There will be an interest in the success of the project as a whole as well as the project management aspects. The project team will shape the implementation of the project. It is important for the team to employ the correct management techniques to ensure that planning, controlling and communication systems are all in place. Without these systems the co-ordination and control of all individuals and resources within the team is difficult. The orientation of the project team will be towards the task rather than the people. This will be particularly true as deadlines for achieving work are stressed and become paramount in people’s

thinking. The scope of interest here will be the completion of work and delivery of the project. Any rewards for the team will

occur at the end of this management phase, therefore their primary concern will be to reach the end of this phase successfully. The context of the producer can be

viewed from two aspects. In the first instance

the producer will have a task-oriented view of the project similar to the rest of the project team. The producer’s commitment to the project will end once it is handed over to the client. The commitment is therefore

towards short-term rather than long-term goals. In the second instance, the producer is a user of the project in the sense that information generated by the project team is used to manufacture the end product. The producer will now be concerned with the

ease of final assembly, but again in the short-

term context of the project development and not the longer-term use. This discussion has highlighted how the various individuals involved in a project will have different orientations towards the final project outcome. Success will be viewed differently by each group because their expectations for the project will vary. It would seem inappropriate to place all the responsibility for integration on the project team. Because the involvement of the project team is concerned with only a small subset of the total project it would seem more logical to make an individual who has a wider view to be responsible for the project. The client has the longer-term and wider orientation and there is a logical argument for making the client responsible for the end project.


  • i) De Wit, A. 1988, Measurement of Project Success, International Journal of Project Management, Vol. 6 ii) Munns, A.K. and Bjeirmi, B.F. 1996, The Role of Project Management in Achieving Project Success, International Journal of Project Management, Vol. 14 iii) Ghasabeh, M.S. and Chabok, K. K. 2009, Generic Project Success and Project Management Success Criteria and Factors: Literature Review and Survey, Wseas Transactions on Business and Economics, Vol 6

  • 33 KENYA ENGINEER - January/February 2014



Quality of Broadband Internet Service

FEATURE INTERNET MEASUREMENTS Quality of Broadband Internet Service I nternet has become an integral part of
  • I nternet has become an integral part of our daily activities and enables both businesses, academia, students and

individuals a communication tool that enables them achieve education, marketing, social and other core goals of these entities. End users are also moving to real-time applications such as video conferencing, voice over IP and large data set transfers that expect seamless working of their applications irrespective of location.

With reduction in costs of Internet infrastructure as well as increase in affordability of end user equipment for Internet access and use of bandwidth- sensitive real-time applications, users are always looking at reliable ways to ascertain the actual bandwidth being provided by their service providers. Service providers are also judged by the perceived performance of the internet measurement results

obtained by users and in some countries, active measurement of internet links is used to enforce service level agreements between service providers and customers.

Most end users make Internet measurements without putting into consideration factors that may affect performance of their Internet connections or even interrogating the results obtained to understand why the results obtained vary from their subscriptions. On the other hand, service providers also use wrong metrics in marketing campaigns and this article will analyse some of the factors that affect Internet measurements as well as the metrics used in Internet bandwidth measurements. Finally, we look at a number of tools that can be used to measure end- to-end Internet bandwidth with specific focus on Measurement Lab that is used worldwide to give end users metrics over

time on performance of the Internet.

Bandwidth Metrics

Network throughput is measured in bits per second (bps) with magnitudes of Kilo (Kbps), Mega (Mbps), Giga (Gbps), Tera (Tbps) and so forth. This is different from

the measurement of data storage size that is

done using bytes and orders of magnitudes in the form of KB, MB, GB and TB. Thus, when conducting a data transfer, it is typical to see units like 12MB/s that indicate data transfer per second.

A typical network throughput of

100Mbps is capable of transferring data files

at 12.5MB/s while 1Gbps link throughput can transfer data files at 125MB/s. This

phenomenon is because data file storage is

measured in bytes which is equal to 8 bits. It is also worthy to note that a rated speed of 100Mbps link or hardware may not


achieve the theoretical 100Mbps but a lower throughput rate due to factors like transmission overheads, protocol overheads, network conditions, system limitations among others.

Access technology in place also impacts the throughput measured in an end-to-end test. Wired Ethernet connections can achieve full duplex throughput while wireless technologies may not necessarily achieve full duplex unless the implementation uses multiple transmitters to achieve duplex connectivity. As such, conducting a bi-directional test on a traditional wireless access link will achieve less than half the rated throughput of the hardware.

The Bandwidth Problem

Most applications in use today are either

TCP or UDP based ranging from Email, Web,

VOIP, file transfers and video conferencing

just to mention but a few. Some of these

protocols were designed when bandwidth was a limited resource but with time have been modified to enable them be more robust.

Internet bandwidth throughput is affected by a number of factors that among others include:

Cross-traffic interaction


TCP flow control

TCP congestion control

The above factors generally mean that your bandwidth throughput can be affected

by other user traffic on the connection, the

delay on the network from the end user to the server as well as TCP window scaling capabilities of the systems in use. Other factors include system limitations and load on the end user or server infrastructure.

Connectionless protocols like UDP are neither affected by end-to-end latency nor

TCP receive window size. Unlike UDP, TCP

and other connection-oriented protocols that verify data integrity; latency as well

as TCP receive window size are crucial in

transfer of large data files or data transfer

over high latency connections.

Traditional internet connections were small in capacity and the TCP window

size did not have a large impact on the

end-to-end bandwidth. Currently, last-mile connections are on the scale of 1Gbps with some single trans-continental connections as high as 100Gbps. This poses a high challenge since latency is increased in trans-continental connections and high bandwidth connections to the end users.

Maximum Bandwidth (TCP Window 64kb)

Latency (ms)


  • 1 512Mbps

  • 4 128Mbps

  • 200 2.56MBps

  • 600 850Kbps

TCP was designed to detect delays and congestion on the end-to-end connection as well as adapt to the perceived network conditions. Thus, for TCP data transfers, end-to-end bandwidth is a factor of the end-

to-end delay and the TCP window size. For

high bandwidth, high latency connections; also referred to at LFN (Long Fat Networks) TCP window scaling was introduced to allow for high data transfer rates over high latency connections. Operating systems have default TCP

window sizes of 64Kbyte and a maximum allowable TCP window size. While some

allow for window scaling, others require

for user customized settings to be able to

adjust the maximum TCP window size up to

1Gbyte. Table 1 shows maximum bandwidth achievable under different latency values

without TCP window modifications.

Different access technologies exhibit different latency based on distance. Typical

data transfer is based on the speed of light and when testing mobile data access technologies, latency of 200ms to 600ms are typical. Thus, without TCP window

optimization or window scaling, bandwidth

as perceived by a single user cannot be

more than 2.56Mbps even if only one user is accessing the network. This problem is expounded when the last mile connections

are 1Gbps and latency of 20ms. Strategies have emerged to accelerate TCP Data Transfer. Some of these strategies include:

Data Compression • Increase window size • Caching - Reduce latency Parallel Data Transfer

The main strategies being pursued all

over the world is reduction of latency to the end user. This has led to use of caching and content delivery servers close to users in order keep content as close to the user as possible. Such strategies are employed

by big content companies like Google,

Akamai, Netflix among others.

Bandwidth measurement has not

been left behind by the need to reduce

the latency between the end-user and the test server. Online measurement tools like Measurement Lab and Speedtest have set up distributed test servers around the globe to ensure that the test results from the end user are as accurate as possible and not affected by latency and TCP window scaling challenges.

Bandwidth Measurement Tools

Two strategies are used to measure Internet

bandwidth to the end-user; passive measurements and active measurements. Passive measurements are non-intrusive

measurement of real utilization of user traffic on the connection. This is normally

done by collecting data from network equipment using protocols like SNMP. Active measurements on the other hand are intrusive in nature and send active

probes using bandwidth measurement tools. It is always advisable to conduct active measurements when other users

are not utilizing the connection to ensure

accuracy as well as minimal interruption of

user traffic.

A number of tools are available for testing internet bandwidth, some of these are online web-based tools while others are client-server based tools where a user runs an application when testing bandwidth. Some of the tools include iPerf, Pathtest,


• A bandwidth measurement tool

FEATURE • A bandwidth measurement tool NPAD, NDT, TTCP, Netperf, Speedtest, Perfsonar and Measurement Lab. Iperf

NPAD, NDT, TTCP, Netperf, Speedtest, Perfsonar and Measurement Lab.

Iperf has been a widely used bandwidth measurement tool using both TCP and UDP protocols and is based on a client-server model where both client and server run iPerf tool during the test. This tool can be used to measure an end-to-end connection both unidirectional and bi-directional. However, for high bandwidth and high latency connections TCP tests using iPerf may require TCP window tuning to improve on accuracy of the results.

For online web measurements, Speed test is widely deployed and can be used to measure speeds to the end user from a server that is closest to the user. Perfsonar is a web-based online measurement tool in the academic environment. This is an open- source collection of tools that can be set up anywhere and tests done to other local servers, to end users or to global servers. Some of these tests using Perfsonar can be scheduled to run during off-peak hours.

Measurement Lab is an open collaborative framework for testing Internet connections, sharing Internet measurements supported by various industry players, academia and interest groups. Measurement Lab makes use of open source tools in its framework as well as open collaboration for researchers to test Internet measurement tools and monitor net neutrality patterns.

Internet Measurements Lab

Measurement Lab is an online web- based distributed Internet measurement framework with nodes in the Americas, Europe, Middle East, Asia, Africa and Australia. Two nodes have been active in Africa with Nairobi, Kenya hosting one of the Measurement Lab nodes. Each of the nodes includes three (3) high end servers that patch on to a 1Gbps to the local

Most applications in use today are either TCP or UDP based ranging from Email, Web, VOIP, file transfers and video conferencing just to mention but a few.

Link congestion • Traffic shaping by service provider

With a locally hosted Internet Measurements Lab and a properly tuned test

computer, it is possible to test up to 1Gbps end-to-end from an end user’s perspective since the servers queue tests best on the bandwidth being tested and available

bandwidth they are configured to handle. The servers have also been optimized and

TCP window tuned for accurate results. Table 2 shows results top countries with measured broadband Internet. Data collected by Measurement Lab servers is openly available and can be interrogated by researchers and policy makers to gauge impact of broadband strategies being deployed.


Broadband Internet is essential for Internet measurement lab framework

Broadband Internet is essential for

Internet measurement lab framework

Internet exchange and 50Mbps Global

education, business and communication. In order to achieve accurate broadband

Internet traffic.

Measurement Lab makes use of open source tools including Network Diagnostic Tool (NPAD), Network Path & Application Diagnosis (NPAD), Mobiperf, Glasnost, Neubot, etc and is able to perform a wide range of tests on a user connection and give results that include:

Internet measurement results, factors that affect bandwidth measurements must be isolated, end-to-end latency reduced and TCP tuned.

is able to conduct bandwidth measurement tests and inform where the bottleneck is as well as detect best TCP tuning needed to

End-to-end bandwidth

achieve accurate results. Data obtained over

Duplex configuration problems

a time duration can also be used by policy

Last mile cable problems

makers to influence broadband penetration

TCP tuning problems

and/or future investment by companies.

TCP buffer problems

  • 37 KENYA ENGINEER - January/February 2014


How to curb road carnage on our Kenyan roads

by Eng. Jane Mutulili - Bsc. Reg. Eng, MIEK

• An overturned truck
• An overturned truck

O ver 3,000 lives are lost annually to

road accidents in Kenya, placing it

among the countries with highest

rate of accidents globally, despite its low

level motorization compared to other

developed economies. Worse still, for every death up to 50 people are injured or


It must be everyone’s concern to minimize

the road carnage, and to do this, everyone

must do what is possible within their own means without looking at the government and other external means.

It is a common and misplaced belief that

skill and knowledge about driving is all that is needed for one to be safe on the roads. However, one of the most important

influences on driving ability is the attitude

towards driving and the resultant behavior on the road. A lot of those things that happen on the road are caused by attitude and behavior.

Change of behavior and attitude on our roads is what everyone can and must do! Everyone must develop a culture of decent behavior on the road, and must take responsibility

of, not only their own lives, but of the lives of those who are in the vehicle with them. They must also take responsibility of other drivers and pedestrians, and respect animals and other features on the road. This will ultimately save their lives and that of others. Most important, the driver should put safety above everything else while driving, and should always be on the alert and give 100% attention to the road as much as possible. There are lots of distractions on the

road but if safety is prioritized, everything else will work out fine.

There has been a lot of talk about police bribery, bad roads, even the devil getting blamed for the accidents. Whereas some or all the above might be true, that attitude removes any sense of responsibilities from the driver and the passengers and all have accepted it as fate, whatever happens, happens.

There has been much talk about changing people’s behavior and attitude towards driving but little is ever done about it. It is common knowledge that a good percentage of the road accidents are caused by driver error. And carelessness! And arrogance! And

recklessness! And speed! And overloading! And foolish competitiveness! All of these are avoidable.

We have come to the point where we must walk the talk. The campaign must be to change the attitude and the behavior on the roads and save lives!

What to do?

To realize this paradigm shift in behavior

and attitude, it requires men and women that point to us the reality of our situation and one that can build a culture that is responsive to the common good. There is a need for discipline and an understanding that when accidents happen, we all lose as a society. Such reasoning would lead us, perhaps, to behave more responsibly and in many respects avert the kind of loss incurred daily in this county.

The cumulative costs to the country, generally, and the families of victims,

specifically, must be immense considering

that many accident victims are active and economically productive. Long term care for those maimed cost a lot both emotionally and economically, lose of

income generating individuals leaving families in dire strait and emotional costs

which are difficult to quantify. The agony

caused to families, and dependents losing their loved ones, is immeasurable while the subsequent destitution that dependents (especially orphaned children) have to face can be colossal. Other costs include taking up already stretched medical facilities and personnel, escalating insurance costs premiums, the time and resources used up during the funerals etc.

We know that the quickest way to make people change their attitude as drivers, in an instant, is to saturate the roads with police vehicles. And make sure that these police take bribes that are very punitive and that the fines are very high and the jail terms for offenders are long and miserable and non-negotiable.

This proposal to try and change drivers’ attitude in this country at minimum cost and hopefully having maximum effect takes a different and more practical approach. Behavior and attitude change campaigns around the country. More like the having ‘Kick Polio’ campaigns, HIV awareness campaigns, Hand Washing Campaigns etc., using the jigger campaign hands-on approach, and the multilevel salesmanship.

Everyone has an idea of what good behavior and attitude is, otherwise Mr. Aggressive would not be getting offended when Mr.

Reckless drives badly. It is only that they believe it affects the other person, not

them. The campaign will set out to sensitize

everyone on how good attitude and behavior will make their journey much safer and more pleasant, by following simple rules:- Responsibility; Anticipation; Concentration;

Patience; Confidence and Positive attitude.

Other attributes of good road behavior and attitude will be developed as the campaign moves on.

How to carry out the campaign

Carry out an accident survey (study) for

the last few years on identified roads. This

survey shall include the one year where Michuki rules were effective: –

  • i) Nairobi-Mai-Mahiu Road, Mai Mahiu-Narok Road; Narok- Kisii Road:

FEATURE • An overloaded Matatu
• An overloaded Matatu

ii) Nairobi – Nakuru Road; Nakuru –Total Road, Total-Eldoret Road, Total- Kericho Road, Kericho- Kisumu Road,


Nairobi Nyeri Road


Nairobi Mombasa Road

In this survey the specific stretch of the road with the most accidents will be identified,

and the characteristics of the road at that point noted (steep, narrow, slippery, slopping) etc. The kind of accidents will also be noted (fatalities, time of most accidents,

etc). The type of cars that are involved in

the accidents will also be profiled (buses,

tracks, other public vehicles, personal cars etc). And finally, and as far as possible, profile the drivers on those cars and the owners of the cars.

This baseline survey will assist in:

  • i) Identifying the accident prone areas and trying to see if there is anything physical that can be done to the road, eg. Cautionary road signs, side rails and barriers or if the road design should be changed. ii) Inform on the kind of campaigns that should be done for that road and especially the kind of training these frequent drivers on that road should be given.

iii) Shall be used as a monitoring base for the performance of the exercise at the end of a period.

The campaigns

The campaign should take several dimensions such as; Media, Radio channels, Personal interaction using the multilevel marketing strategy, Mass training etc.

School pupils shall be sensitized, not

just because they are future drivers but because they shall be sounding warning to the parents and other drivers the when necessary.

The campaign shall not only target the drivers but also the passengers whose lives are endangered during these rides. They are normally left voiceless and only speak once the accidents happen. This is for fear for retribution, but if everyone in the vehicle is aware of their rights, this fear would be eliminated and passengers would be more proactive.

Vehicle Condition

A friend commented after the Narok accident that killed 42 persons and injured another 34 that he has noticed that nowadays all the buses that are involved accident have their roofs ripped off, unlike before where, after the accident, the vehicle

was left in one piece. This might be worthy investigating how the bus bodies, which are

locally assembled, are being fixed. He was

of the opinion that, had the roofs been left

intact, we would have had fewer fatalities. This kind of data will be captured during the baseline survey but it is worth investigating.



by Dr. Cyrus Njiru - Phd, Cbs, Ministry of Industrialization

• Magadi Soda plant in Magadi
• Magadi Soda plant in Magadi


The term “industry” refers mainly to

manufacturing activity. Agriculture, mining, and most other services are excluded from it.

The term, “industrialization” literally means

the growth of manufacturing industry. It is

thus a part of the much broader process of economic development, which involves the raising of standard of living, through a

steady increase in the efficiency of factors

of production.

Status of Kenya’s Industrial Sector

Since independence, Kenya has made several initiatives towards the development

and growth of the industrial sector.

According to the Industrialization Policy,

Kenya’s industrial sector is expected to function as the engine of economic growth and development in years to come. Industrial policies in Kenya have evolved through three distinct policy orientations, namely; import substitution, Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAPs), and export- led policy orientation. The export-orientation policies have over the years been expounded to respond to global market structures through various Sessional Papers and Economic Blueprints that include; Sessional Paper No.1 of 1986 on Renewed Economic Growth; Sessional Paper No. 2 of 1992 on Small Enterprises and Jua Kali Development in Kenya; Sessional Paper No.2 of 1996 on

Industrial Transformation to the Year 2020; the Economic Recovery Strategy (ERS) for Wealth and Employment Creation 2003- 2007; Master Plan for Kenya Industrial Development (Industrial Master Plan); and the Kenya Vision 2030.

The sector has been inward-looking and has had low value addition especially to the available agricultural and natural resources. Similarly, weak institutional support for the development and growth of the local Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs), which have great potential to create employment and wealth has resulted into slow industrial growth of enterprise. The sector’s GDP contribution has remained

stagnant for the last two decades at about 10 per cent. Kenya’s exports have also remained predominantly primary commodities with low value addition with manufactured exports accounting for only 36 per cent of total exports.

Manufacturing Sector


and narrow export base;

iii) High cost of infrastructural services leading to high cost of doing business; iv) Inadequate skilled industrial human resource;

  • v) Limited access to affordable long- term finance;

the advancement of industrial development.

The implementation of the Sessional Paper

No. 9 of 2012 on Industrialization is

premised on the guiding principles namely;

  • i) Productivity and competitiveness; ii) Market development;

Manufacturing of goods include the

vi) High cost of industrial land;

iii) H i g h

v a l u e

a d d i t i o n

a n d

conversion of the raw materials to usable

vii) Limited industrial sub-contracting



products. Manufacturing is therefore


iv) Regional dispersion;

integral to industrialization. The role of

the manufacturing sector in Kenya’s Vision 2030 is to contribute to the socio- economic

development of the country by creating jobs, generating wealth and encouraging both local and foreign investors. Indeed most developed countries and emerging economies have recorded rapid economic

d e ve l o p m e n t t h r o u g h e m b ra c i n g

industrialization. It is for this reason that the

Vision 2030 aims at making Kenya a newly

industrializing, “middle- income country

providing high quality life for all citizens

by the year 2030”.

Target: 30,000 Engineers by 2030

In order to enable the country to effectively

achieve the Vision 2030 goals, human resource development, especially scientific and industrial skills, need to

be enhanced. It is envisaged that by year 2030, approximately 30,000 engineers will be required. Best practices, based on

lessons learnt from newly industrialized

countries, indicate that for every engineer, 3 technologists are required and for every technologist, 4 technicians are required. For every technician, 5 craftsmen are required. This translates to a ratio of 1:75 for every engineer vis-à-vis support staff.

In this regard considerable efforts should be made to upgrade existing technical and technology training institutions and develop others to ensure the availability of requisite human resource. It should be noted that since independence Kenya has produced about 10,000 engineers.


The challenges and weaknesses affecting

Kenya’s Industrial sector include:

  • i) Low value addition;

ii) Inadequate market information resulting to limited market access

viii) Influx of counterfeit, dumping and substandard goods thereby reducing production capacities; ix) Limited technology transfer; and

  • x) Low attaction of local and foreign direct investment.

The other major challenge is youth unemployment! The Kenyan labour market is estimated at 21.7 million, whereby 10.8 million are employed. Of those employed, only 2 million are in the formal sector whereas 8.8 million are in the informal sector. Of the 10.9 million Kenyans who are unemployed the majority are the youth. The problem of unemployment can be addressed by implementing policies that are geared towards job creation. Knowledge- enabled business processes are therefore key to empowering the youth to start or improve their businesses and above all to be innovative.

Strategic Inventions

Policy Priorities

The main function of the Ministry of

Industrialization is to develop elaborate policies on industrialization and provide

a supportive environment under which a

private sector-led economy can flourish. The National Industrialization Policy (NIP)

This policy framework has identified twenty

one (21) industrial development sub-sectors,

which can be relied upon to spur and

invigorate the national industrialization

process to contribute to national industrial

growth and overall economic development. These include:-


Iron and Steel

ii) Machine tools and spares

iii) Biotechnology and Nanotechnology Industries.

As earlier stated a coherent National

Industrialization Policy is a prerequisite for

  • v) Technology and innovation;

vi) Fair trade practices; vii) Growth and graduation of MSMIs; viii) Employment creation;

ix) Environmental sustainability;

  • x) Compliance with the current

Constitution; and xi) Education and human resource


Policy Interventions

The broad policy intervention areas are focused on addressing the factors affecting the industrial sector, exploiting the

strengths and opportunities arising from the

regional integration and globalization. The

interventions will therefore be centred on

ten (10) broad areas namely;

  • i) Creating an enabling environment;

ii) High value addition to harness the

agricultural, mineral, natural and foresty resources; iii) Development of priority industrial sub-sectors; iv) Enhancing human resource skills through development of technical, entreprenuerial, production and managerial skills for industrial development;

  • v) Measures for atrracting local and foreign direct investment;

vi) Local and export market expansion

and diversification for manufactured

products; vii) Enhancing standards, quality infrastructure and intellectual property rights regime;

viii) Strengthening industrial research,

development and innovation; ix) Facilitating the growth and graduation of the MSMIs for industrial expansion; and

  • x) Provision of access to affordable and appropriate financial services for industrial growth and expansion.


National Industrial Development Commission.

To facilitate effective coordination, policy implementation, monitoring and evaluation, the Sessional Paper proposes the establishment of a National Industrial Development Commission. The Commission will provide a broad engagement framework within which all stakeholders, including the public and private sector and development partners’ participation in industrial development process.

Public Private Partnerships (PPPs).

Due to the huge financial requirements for

implementation of industrial enterprises, public and private sector funding both at respective sector levels and through Public

-Private -Partnerships (PPPs) financing will

be embraced. PPPs are expected to support industrial and infrastructure development and will be through a combination of various approaches that include; Build-

Operate Transfer (BOT); Corporatization;

lease and/or management contracts and concessions. PPPs arrangements are also expected to support the development of strategic industries and other initiatives such as: incubation, venture capital, technology development and transfer and sub-contracting. The Policy framework proposes the establishment of an Industrial Development Fund (IDF).

Other Policy Frameworks

The Ministry is in the process of finalizing

three other equally important national policy frameworks namely:- National Sub-contracting Policy National Business and Technology Incubation Policy and The National Intellectual Property Rights Policy.

Training of Engineers and Technicians as a Flagship Project

The Ministry is in the process of developing a Marshal Plan for the training of engineers, technologists and technicians with the aim of improving the skills and competencies, increasing the number of engineers in the country. The other projects are:-

Development of five (5) Small and

Medium Enterprises (SME) Parks and

the D e ve l o p m e n t

o f

M i n i -

a n d

Integrated Iron and Steel Mills;

Already two strategy papers on the training of Engineers and Technicians and the development of Iron and Steel mills have been developed and validated.

Industrial Research, Development and Innovation

Industrial Research and Development

(R&D) as well as innovation play an important role in a modern economy where new knowledge is central on boosting wealth creation, enhancing social welfare, and ensuring product and labour competitiveness. These activities are essential in building innovative capacity

for enterprises to increase efficiency and

productivity. The limited linkages between industries, research institutions and

training institutions; low funding and weak institutional mechanisms for promoting collaborative research have constrained

the commercialization of research findings

in Kenya.

Policy Statements to enhance Industrial Research, Development, and Innovation

In order to enhance industrial research and

development as well as innovation, the Ministry is spearheading the; Development of a policy framework to support commercialization of research findings; • Strengthening of the linkages between Universities, polytechnics and other training institutions in pursuit of a curriculum that supports

the national industrialization

process; Formulation of mechanisms to facilitate collaboration with the private sector in research, technology transfer and development; Establishment a funding mechanism for Research and Development that will facilitate innovation as well as the acquisition of strategic and relevant technology for industrial development;

High quality Engineering Education Concern has been expressed by some employers over the quality of education and training of engineers in Kenyan universities. Measures to mitigate these concerns include; Adoption and continuous updating

of high quality engineering syllabus

to produce highly qualified graduate

engineers; E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f s t a n d i n g mechanisms for continuous dialogue on curriculum development between trainers, alumni and employers; Explore ways of getting intellectual and technological contributions from industry practitioners to engineering education; Development of strategies for funding of academic programmes and research; Review of pre- and post- graduation on-job training of Engineers in industry


For the first time since independence, Kenya has the best opportunity to address the challenges facing the industrial sector

and the entire industrialization process.

The approval and implementation of the

Sessional Paper on Industrialization is

expected to provide multiple benefits to the

country that include:

Contributing to the envisaged

annual GDP growth rate of 10 per cent per annum; Reduction of the current estimated unemployment levels from 53.5 per cent to single digit levels by 2030; Transforming the country into a middle-income nation offering high quality of life through increased incomes and quality service from

industrialization; • Maximization of natural resources

exploitation through high value addition, increased competitiveness and productivity; Growth of the other sectors of the economy because the sector has forward and backward linkages with many other sectors of the economy, such as agriculture, service industry, ICT, education, and tourism; and

C o n s i d e ra b l e d e ve l o p m e n t of Science, Technology and Innovation leading to significant increase in registered patents and

commercialization of research findings.

Engineer’s Luncheon IEK • I.EK Chairman - Eng. J M Riungu presenting an award to Eng.

Engineer’s Luncheon

• I.EK Chairman - Eng. J M Riungu presenting an award to Eng. S M Kamau
• I.EK Chairman - Eng. J M Riungu presenting an award to Eng. S M Kamau during the I.E.K Luncheon

E ngineers in the country came together in an luncheon organised by the Institution of Engineers of

Kenya (IEK) in November last year. The

event hosted at the Sarova Panafric brought together engineers from Engineers Board of Kenya, Consulting engineers among other long serving engineers in the country.

The event which allows engineers to meet and discuss on matters of national interest touching on engineering kicked off with a welcome speech by the current IEK chairman, Eng.J.M Riungu. Riungu recognised the presence on particular engineers some of whom have been key leaders in the engineering sector. He noted the increase in number of engineers attending the luncheon as compared to others in the past and urged the engineers to participate more in such events among others involving engineers.

In his remarks, Eng.Riungu also urged engineers to exercise high level of professionalism as they practice so as to

produce quality standards in the country. The welcome speech was later followed by awards presentation as is customer for the institution to award outstanding engineers. The fist award was given to Eng.A.A McCorkindale after a read out citation of him by Prof,Gichanga.The award was presented to the engineer by S.K Kamau, who was also the chief guest of the event in honor of his excellent services that he had rendered to the institution.

One of the significant awards given during

such events is the Engineer S.M Kaburu memorial award which is given to an engineer who has given remarkable service to the engineering industry. The award was handed to Eng.S.M.Kamau by Eng.D.M Wanjau.Another award given is Kano Bridger which is awarded to an outstanding

young engineer.

The awards which are given every year are awarded to selected engineers from a list of nominated engineers. Engineers are encouraged to submit their names or

nominate candidates by forwarding their names to the council.

Other awards were given to Eng.Magit ,Eng. Musonick and Eng.Joseph Njoroge for their appointments in the government.

This then followed a speech by Eng.S.M Kamau who spoke on the different sectors that involved engineering in the country and what was happening. He urged engineers to get involved in investments and take on the chances that the new developments in the country were offering. He pointed that engineers had a major role to play in regard to the country’s Vision 2030 as most of the major projects would require engineer’s involvement.

To mark the closure of the luncheon, the institution had prepared a birthday cake for Eng.McCorkindale to commemorate his 90th birthday. He was supposedly the eldest engineer in the room.gThe event was sponsored by Kenya Power.


“With Kenya’s strategic position, the auto

industry’s going to boom”
industry’s going to boom”
PROFILE “With Kenya’s strategic position, the auto industry’s going to boom” Kenya Engineer, courtesy of the
Kenya Engineer, courtesy of the AWEsome team filed the following profile of General Motors East Africa,
Kenya Engineer, courtesy of the AWEsome team filed the following profile of
General Motors East Africa, a key player in the manufacturing industry after an
interview with the CoMpAny’s MAnAGinG DiRECToR, RiTA KAVAsHE.

Who is GM?

GM East Africa is a joint venture company

between General Motors Asia Pacific with

58% share. Itochu Corporation is our Japan

trading partner 4% share, ICDC which is our local investment company owned by the Government of Kenya at about 20%, Centum Investment at about 17-18%.

How did GM East Africa come to set up shop in Kenya?

GM coming into the Kenyan manufacturing sector was a result of the joint venture between the government of Kenya after independence they were looking for opportunities to develop industries in our region. This was a classic opportunity for Kenya to get into the manufacturing operations and that’s how we started this Company in 1977. The majority shareholder by that time was GM USA and the Government of Kenya. The idea around that was for GM to bring the much needed technical expertise, engineering capability to develop the industry so that the local assemblers can begin to come up. Having GM as the biggest motor manufacturing company in the world, it had a lot of capacity and know-how to bring to our region.

What Role have you (as GM) been able to play in region in the motor industry?

I think we have played a very significant role

especially in the manufacturing operation. We are a member of the Kenya Vehicle Manufacturers Assemblers; as you know we have three main assembly operations in Kenya. We have GM, AVA in Mombasa and KVM in Thika with the installed capacity to do close to 20-25, 000 vehicles per annum. So, in terms of capacity to assemble and manufacture in Kenya, we have the capacity to actually meet the demands of the entire East Africa market. Right now, almost all of us are operating below our installed capacity. The last time the figures were computed, the entire Vehicle Manufacturing Assembly in the region was operating at about 22 percent of its installed capacity.

Tell us about your Vehicle manufacturing plant

Our vehicle manufacturing plant is situated here (at the GM factory along the Nairobi- Mombasa Highway). We get a lot of support in terms of technology and development again from General Motors and our main supplier, ISUZU, Japan. As you are aware, Japan is the leading Auto industry

in the world and we get a lot of support in developing the capacity of the plant,

improving the efficiency so that we can be

able to be more affordable to our customers so there’s a lot of know-how transfer from General motors to our employees. In turn, we’ve used that to develop secondary suppliers like those of body materials; we train them on best practices as far as body construction is concerned. We work with the local supplier base to develop their

capacity to be able to supply our industry.

How do you keep up with the new technology that comes up in the market?

New Technology especially in the area of emission control, that has not hit our market, we are still at very low emission levels because of the quality of fuel that

has been coming from our refinery here in

Kenya. So Kenya has not been able to enjoy in technology because of our fuel quality. This new technology comes with a lot of opportunities for our customer; better fuel

efficiencies, smaller engines that we can be

able to service and help customers save on fuel, all that has not been coming to our market. We were still operating at a below standard production capability but now we’re seeing the government is changing; our fuel is becoming cleaner, and therefore, the auto industry can be able to supply the market with higher quality products. Globally, right now there are vehicles that are meeting up to Euro 5 emission standards while Kenya is still operating at maximum Euro 2. So, there’s a lot we’re missing as a country and we need to work with the government to accelerate the need for clean fuel so that we can be able to bring this new

technology to our market.

What are some of the biggest challenges you have faced in the industry?

Our biggest challenge is the size of the

market; so when you look at opportunities to invest in more technology, work force and all that, the market is very small. Kenya alone, we are only playing in a new market segment of below 15,000 vehicles, that is a very small market to attract serious investment that brings in the much needed

technology which is going to help us improve the secondary sector; suppliers of parts, suppliers of materials and high quality bodies for bus application. That in itself is a big challenge as I see it because no serious investor would want to come to play in such a small market with three (3) already existing assembly operations.

The presence of second-hand vehicles is also a big challenge because it’s not that the market is not big enough; the market can be substantial to be attractive and we can serve the entire region. You see, where economies have developed, in their auto industry, there are no second-hand vehicles. A classic example in Africa is Egypt which does not allow importation of second-hand vehicles. South Africa is also one we can copy in, which also does not allow such imports which makes its auto industry vibrant with over half a million vehicles sold annually. That’s a big market opportunity that becomes very attractive and can create jobs. We need to create jobs but we require a market to support that.

Our expectation as an auto industry operating in Kenya, and being the only area with assembly capability in East Africa, was to be able to serve the regional markets. However, the process of regional integration has been slow which is also another challenge.

We were expecting to attract a 130million market but that has not been the case because of purely the challenges of integration. We hope that we have a new government we’re going to expedite that process so that we can have more access to a wider region, and then we can bring in the technology and the capacity we need to be able to serve the market.

How do you deal with competition given there are other players in this game?

(Laughs) Competition is good, we are quite

a number. Interestingly, in the last five years

there have been more and more serious players coming in the market. We have the

Chinese- who are coming in very strongly, the Indian automakers setting shop in the market, and the traditional players like ourselves, who have been in the industry for a long time. We believe there’s opportunity

to be more efficient, to cut cost to be able

to give this product to our customer; so what we do as GM is basically look at the customer and what we need to do to add value to that customer. We focus more, not on who is coming in to the market but what we are going to do to ensure that our customer is getting high quality service. That has enabled us to really be an important player in this industry.

What have been the milestones in the sector?

The market at the auto industry has

evolved quite significantly, because of the

technology that has come up in the industry. One to note would be the Public Service Vehicle (PSV) body fabrication which has been a challenge in the past given the quality of material used was not so good and there is a very strong effort coming from the local fabricators of bodies to come up with more safe bus bodies. That is using technology, improving the quality of seats that we have, improving the quality glass finish and trim which is very important to customers because when they come to buy a product, they don’t challenge the engineering work that has been employed

to make the vehicle, bus or truck. They look

more at the fit and finish.

So our local body fabricators did not have that capability for really outstanding

imported class fit and finish but they have

invested and formed strategic partnerships and alliances with other international players who are good in the area of body construction to strengthen their capability and come up with quality standard. There’s a lot of work going around there to give quality to the customer.

Comment on the future of the motor industry

This industry will evolve quite significantly

because the economic prospects are looking up and when the economy is growing, the auto sector is going to grow. Looking at our vision 2030, and the economic pillar being a very important pillar for us to achieve our 2030 goals, the auto industry will play a very important aspect of that growth. So,

we see significant growth in the next five

to ten (5-10) years in the auto industry by looking at the players. The structure of the industry is changing quite significantly;

there’s attraction into our region from major suppliers, automakers- coming in to form


partnerships with local players; that tells you the prospects are big.

Again, the whole issue of East Africa’s integration, the assembly manufacturing capability, there could be some products that can be manufactured in Kenya; looking at the trading blocks and the opportunities that they provide and the need for manufacturers to set up operations in locations that will be able to serve the market. Kenya’s a very central location, which is quite strategic for Central African Countries. So, I see a big opportunity for the industry just because of Kenya’s location to serve the emerging markets. I see Kenya serving the entire East Africa, part of Southern Africa, Somalia and through the LAPSSET project which is a big opportunity which opens up linkages to Ethiopia and South Sudan. So the auto industry is gonna (going to) boom.

What other projects is GM involved in?

In the last one year we’ve seen a gap in terms of skill. The people we attract into our

business from the university we find that

there’s a gap in terms of their capabilities. So

last year, we started a Graduate in Training programme set as part of our CSR. We’ve started with 10 best students from different universities more focused in the engineering sector of our business. We bring them here and they go through a one year training in different aspects of our business, and the ones we need we absorb in the company and release the others into the market if there’s no opportunity for absorption at the time.

We also have our bus technology centre that we just launched which is looking at improvement of the quality of bus bodies that are manufactured locally. So, we’ve partnered with GB Polo (Egypt), to develop the capability of our local body fabricators. The technology centre is a learning centre to determine what materials we need to use in bus construction, what the level of trim that we need to have so that we can be able to tap into the regional market as I’ve articulated, there’s a big market coming into the region and governments are concerned about mass transportation. How can they decongest cities? So they’ll be looking for high occupancy vehicles. If Kenya can lead in that transition then that gives the auto industry in Kenya a big opportunity.

IEK COUNCIL NAME POSITION Chairperson 1st vice Chair 2nd vice Chair Hon Secretary Hon Treasurer Retiring
1st vice Chair
2nd vice Chair
Hon Secretary
Hon Treasurer
Retiring Past Chairperson

J Riungu

R K Kosgei


E Okonji



R K Chepkwony


M W Maina



A Ogut

H S Amaje

R Kungu


G Juma

G L Apiyo E Mwangi

J Mutulili


E Okonji