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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS, VOL. 42, NO. 4, APRIL 2006

703

Calculation of DC Current Distribution in AC Power System Near HVDC System by Using Moment Method Coupled to Circuit Equations

Bo Zhang , Xiang Cui , Rong Zeng , and Jinliang He State Key Lab of Power Systems, Department of Electrical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China Department of Electrical Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Hebei 071003, China When dc current is injected into the earth through the grounding electrodes of a high-voltage direct current (HVDC) system, trans- formers in ac system may be under dc bias if the dc currents ﬂowing through the transformers are large enough. In this paper, a nu- merical method coupling the method of moments (MoM) to circuit equations is presented to calculate the dc current distribution in ac power system caused by an HVDC system. The MoM is used to calculate the electric ﬁelds in complex earth structure caused by all the grounding systems including the dc grounding electrodes, the ac substation grounding systems and the long metal pipe lines. The circuit equations are coupled to the moment method to take account of the effects of the transmission lines. By using the method, the dc current distribution in an ac power system caused by an HVDC system is analyzed. Some useful conclusions are drawn from the analyzed results.

Index Terms—Current distribution, grounding electrodes, high-voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission, method of moments (MoM).

I. INTRODUCTION

T HE high-voltage direct current (HVDC) power transmis- sion constitutes an important technology in the develop-

ment of large interconnected power networks. However, when HVDC system uses earth as its current return path, great dc

current will ﬂow in the earth, which will bring great ground potential differences in a large area around the dc grounding electrodes . Thus, dc currents will ﬂow through the trans- formers in the ac substations if their neutral points are grounded, and the transformers may be under dc bias. The dc bias can cause acute vibration, great noise, high temperature of the trans- former, even make the protection miswork. In addition, a lot of harmonic waves will be produced which can lower the power quality . Although the transformers in the substations near the dc grounding electrodes have more possibility to be under

dc bias, dc bias does not always take place on them because the

transmission lines connected to the substations can also greatly affect the currents ﬂowing through the transformers. In order to avoid the transformers under dc bias, it is not only necessary to

investigate the tolerance level of transformer but also necessary

to analyze the dc current distribution in the ac system to esti-

mate where measures should be taken. Many papers have investigated the transformers under dc bias –. Because their dc biases are mainly caused by geomag- netism, few papers paid attention to the dc current distribution

in ac power system caused by HVDC system. The current distri-

bution is determined by many factors among which the ground potential rise at each substation is an important one. This ground potential rise is not only affected by the substation’s position,

but also the ground resistance of the substation. Because the dis- tance among the two grounding electrodes of an HVDC system

Digital Object Identiﬁer 10.1109/TMAG.2006.871460

and the ac substations is so far that much current maybe ﬂow in the deep layer of the earth , the ground resistance of each sub- station is determined not only by the structure of its grounding system but also by the deep layer of the earth. In order to an- alyze the dc current distribution in ac power system, both the structures of the grounding systems and the deep layer of the earth should be considered. In this paper, a method coupling the method of moments (MoM) to circuit equations is presented to calculate the dc current distribution. The method can take ac- count of the structure of the earth, the structure of ac power system, the dc resistances of the transmission lines, the rela- tive positions and the structures of the grounding systems all together. The effect of the buried long metal pipe lines can also be considered.

II. CALCULATION MODEL

The whole system is just like an electric ﬁeld under the ground combined with a resistance network in the air. The elec- tric ﬁeld is generated by the distribution of the leakage currents from the dc grounding electrodes, the substation grounding systems, and the buried long metal pipe lines which can also be regarded as grounding systems. The resistance network consists of the transmission lines. The key task to analyze the dc current distribution in ac power system is to obtain the distribution of the leakage currents, from which the potential of each substation can be obtained, and the current ﬂowing through the substation can be calculated. Because the areas of the substations are very large and their grounding systems are made of steel, the grounding material’s resistance can not be neglected and the potential on each grounding system is unequally distributed. In order to consider the effect of grounding material’s resistance especially those of the buried long metal pipe lines, MoM coupled to circuit equations is used to complete this mission.

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Due to the complex current distribution on each grounding system, MoM is used. Based on the idea of the MoM, for the complex conductor networks like the substation grounding sys- tems, the dc grounding electrodes, and the buried long metal pipe lines, it is necessary to divide them into conductor segments . Let us assume that the longitudinal current of each seg- ment is centralized on the axis, and the leakage current ows out from the central point of the segment. (This means that there are two longitudinal currents in each segment, one ows from the segments start point to its central point, the other ows from its central point to its end point.) Fig. 1 shows these currents on the th segment. Suppose that there be segments and nodes. The column matrix of the potentials at the central points of segments and the column matrix of the leakage currents have following relation:

(1)

where is a matrix with order of whose entry is equal to the potential at the central point of segment caused by a unit current leaking from segment . Based on the boundary condition that the potential difference on the inner surface of the conductor must be equal to that on the outer surface, the entries of can be regarded as voltage sources and a circuit model can be set up. Fig. 2 shows the equivalent circuit at nodes and . Applying the nodal analysis approach to the equivalent circuit, following equation can be obtained:

(2)

where is a column matrix of potentials at the nodes, is a column matrix of the injected currents at the nodes whose en- tries are usually zero except those of current injected nodes on the dc grounding electrodes, is a relational matrix reecting the connection relationship between nodes and segments, whose entry is 1 if node is connected to segment , otherwise is zero, is a diagonal matrix with order of whose entries at the diagonal are two times of the self-conductances of corresponding segments, and is a nodal conduc- tance matrix of the nodal potential equations whose entry is two times of the sum of all self- conductances of the segments connected to node , if there is a transmission line connected to the node should also plus the transmission lines conduc- tance, and should be as in the equation at the bottom of the page. Substituting (1) into (2) yields                          (3)

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS, VOL. 42, NO. 4, APRIL 2006 Fig. 1.

Two grounding systems connected with a transmission line.

At the same time, the currents owing through the segments

two ends

(4) at the bottom of the page, where is a relational matrix re-

ecting the connection relationship between the nodes and the start points of the segments, whose entry is 1 if the start point of segment is connected to node , otherwise is zero; and is also a relational matrix reecting the connec- tion relationship between the nodes and the end points of the segments, whose entry is 1 if the end point of segment is connected to node , otherwise is zero. and can be obtained from and , shown in        The leakage currents and the currents owing through the two ends of the segments have following relation: (5)
Substituting (4) into (5) gives the following equation:
(6)

where is an identity matrix. By solving (6), the leakage cur- rents can be obtained. From the leakage currents, the potential of each grounding system can be calculated and the currents owing through the transmission lines and transformers can be determined. From this section it can be seen that the structure of the earth, the structure of ac power system, the dc resistances of the trans- mission lines, the relative positions and the structures of the grounding systems are all embedded in the method.

III. PRACTICAL APPLICATION

In this section, the dc current distribution in an ac power system caused by an HVDC system will be analyzed, from which the validity of above method is also testied.

A. Effect of Ground Wires on dc Current Distribution

Because the ground wires connect the substation grounding systems with the tower grounding systems, currents will not ZHANG et al.: CALCULATION OF DC CURRENT DISTRIBUTION IN AC POWER SYSTEM NEAR HVDC SYSTEM

705 Fig. 2.

Equivalent circuit of Fig. 1. Fig. 3.

Analyzed transmission line.

only ow in the phase conductors but also ow in the ground

wires and the tower grounding systems. Although the currents

in the ground wires do not ow through the transformers, they

ow through the substation grounding systems, which may af- fect the ground potential rises of the substations and then affect the currents owing through the transformers. Thus, before the

dc current distribution in ac power system is analyzed, the cur-

rent distribution along a transmission line shown in Fig. 3 is cal- culated to nd the effect of the ground wires on the dc currents owing through transformers. If the effect is great, both the ground wires and the tower grounding systems should be added

 in the calculation of dc current distribution in ac power system, or else the ground wires and the tower grounding systems can be neglected and the calculation will be greatly simpliﬁed. In Fig. 3, the phase conductors connect the two substation

grounding systems via the transformersneutral points. Two ground wires connect the substation grounding systems with the tower grounding systems. The areas of the two substation grounding systems with depth 0.8 m are all 150 150 m . The grounding system of each tower with depth of 1 m is a criss-

cross with length of 7.5 m in each direction. The dc resistance

of the three phase conductors in parallel with unit length is 0.02

/km. The dc currents through the dc grounding electrodes are 1500 A. The earth structure shown in Table I is determined ac- cording to the composition of gross layering of the earth and the practical situation in China . Fig. 4 shows the potential distribution along the transmission line. Table II shows the dc current distribution on the transmission line under different dc resistance of ground wire. From Fig. 4 it can be seen that although the transmission line is 50 km away from the dc grounding electrode, the potential difference between the substations is still tens of volts due to the existence of the layer with very high resistivity in the earth. The    Fig. 4. Potential distribution along the transmission line. Note that the dc resistance of each ground wire with unit length is 2.50 /km.

TABLE

I

PARAMETERS OF THE EARTH STRUCTURE TABLE

II

DC CURRENT DISTRIBUTION potential with transmission line decreases slowly compared with that without transmission line. Also, the potential difference with transmission line is smaller than that without transmission line. However, this potential difference is still high enough to generate great currents owing through the transformers. From Table II it can be seen that the dc currents at the trans- formersneutral points hardly vary with the dc resistance of ground wires, even the ground wires do not exist, which shows that the effect of the ground wires on the dc currents owing through transformers is very small. Thus, the ground wires and the tower grounding systems can be neglected and the calcula- tion will be greatly simplied.

B. dc Current Distribution in an ac Power System

Recently, a kV HVDC system has been put into ser- vice in China. However, when the system uses earth as current return path, transformers in some ac substations are in abnormal state, especially the transformer in substation A shown in Fig. 5. When the dc grounding electrode leaks current, engineers nd that the transformer in substation A makes great noise. Mea- surement shows that the current owing through the transformer neutral point is 34.5 A when 1500 A current is leaked from the    706  Fig. 5.
Substations near a dc grounding electrode.
Fig. 6.
dc current distribution in the substations and transmission lines.

dc grounding electrode while the currents of the other two sub-

stations are not so great. In this section, the dc current distribu- tion near substation A is analyzed. The relative location of the

substations to the dc grounding electrode, the relationship of the substations, and the dc resistances of the transmission lines are shown in Fig. 5. The earth structure is the same with that shown

in Table I. The areas of the substation grounding systems with

depth 0.8 m are all 150 150 m . The dc grounding electrode consists of two concentric rings with radii 400 m and 300 m, respectively. Substation B and substation C are also connected with other substations which are not shown in Fig. 5 but have been taken into account in the calculation. The calculated dc current distribution is shown in Fig. 6. From Fig. 6 it can be seen that when 1500 A current is leaked from the dc grounding electrode, the current owing through the

transformer neutral point of substation A is much greater than those of the other two substations and reaches 31.2 A, which re- ects the same result with actual one and veries the validation

of the method presented in this paper.

Although substation B is more close to the dc grounding elec- trode than substation A, which makes the ground potential of

substation B high, the current owing through its transformer

is much smaller than that of substation A. This indicates that

the distance to the dc grounding electrode does not directly de-  IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS, VOL. 42, NO. 4, APRIL 2006

termine the current value. The current owing through a sub- stations transformer is determined by the currents in the trans- mission lines connected to the substation which are determined by the potential differences among the substations. The poten- tial differences have some relations with the distances to the dc grounding electrode. Because the current in the two transmis- sion lines connected to substation B is small, the current owing through its transformer is small. Although the current in the transmission line connecting substation C and substation A is great due to the long distance, most of it ows to other substa- tions from the corresponding transmission lines and the current owing through the transformer of substation C is not as great as that of substation A. This result will be useful for the future design and site selection of new dc grounding electrode and ac substations.

IV. CONCLUSION

A numerical method coupling the MoM to circuit equations is presented to calculate the dc current distribution in ac power system caused by an HVDC system. The effect of the ground wires on the dc currents owing through the transformers is an- alyzed. The dc current distribution in ac power system caused by an HVDC system is calculated. Results show that the effect of the ground wires on the dc currents owing through trans- formers is very small. The current owing through a transformer is determined by many factors such as the locations of the sub- stations and the dc grounding electrode, the interconnection re- lationship of the substations, and the dc resistances of the trans- mission lines. The method is useful to estimate the effect of the dc current from the dc grounding electrode on the ac power system.

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Manuscript received June 20, 2005 (e-mail: shizbcn@tsinghua.edu.cn).