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OSTEOLOGY OF THE

SKULL
Bruce L. Manion, Ph.D.

OJECTIVES
Be able to identify the bones of the skull.
Be able to identify foramina transmitting
vessels and nerves mentioned in lecture.
Be able to describe the bones and
structure of the orbit.
Be able to describe the bones and
structure of the nasal cavity.
Be able to describe the bones and
structure of the cranial fossae and their
contents.

OJECTIVES
Be able to identify the major sutures of the
skull and the bones forming them.
Be able to describe the concept of
fontanelles in the developing skull and
know the landmarks in the adult skull
indicating the location of the anterior and
posterior fontanelles.

ANTERIOR VIEW OF THE SKULL

(I'm circling things I don't


already know on this slide)

Frontal Bone
Nasal Bone

Superciliary
Ridge

Supraorbital
Foramen
Zygomatic
Bone
Piriform
Aperture

Orbit

Maxillae

Infraorbital
Foramen
Mental
Foramen

Mandible

Mental
Protuberance

Mental
Tubercle

LATERAL VIEW OF THE SKULL

**actually, see
"skull osteology
guide" in exam 6
folder on Dropbox. It
details the bone
subparts we need to
know.

Greater Wing of the


Sphenoid Bone

Coronal Suture
Parietal Bone
Superior Temporal
Line

Frontal Bone

Inferior
Temporal Line
Lambdoid
Suture

Nasal
Bone
Zygomatic
Bone

Occipital
Bone

Maxillae

Mandible

Temporomandibular Joint

Mastoid
Process
Styloid
Process

Temporal Bone
External Acoustic
meatus

Temple. Bad to be hit here. This


area is called temple because of
the root: time. In time, hair
begins to gray. It usually begins
graying here.

Pterion

Zygomatic
Arch

Grooves for
meningeal
vessels
Created because growing bone will not
grow over a blood vessel or the like;
it grows around it

POSTERIOR VIEW OF THE SKULL


The 2 sutures we should know:

2 parietal bones

Sagittal
Suture

Foramen for
Emissary Vein

Lambdoid
Suture

Parietal
Bone

Parietal bones and


occipital bone

*
*
Mastoid
Foramen

Occipital
Bone
* Intrasutural bones

Mastoid
Process
External Occipital
Protuberance

External Occipital
Crest

Superior Nuchal line


Inferior Nuchal Line
Crests are raised where muscles pull
to reinforce bone.

SUPERIOR VIEW OF THE SKULL


Coronal Suture
Frontal Bone

Bregma

Superior and
Inferior Temporal
Lines
Sagittal Suture

Parietal Bone
Foramen for
Emissary Vein

Lambda

Lambdoid Suture
Occipital Bone

INFERIOR VIEW OF THE SKULL

Palatine
Bone

Temporalis m
passes deep to z
arch

Maxillae
Zygomatic
Bone
Vomer

Temporal
Bone
Stylomastoid
Foramen

***

Greater
Wing of
Sphenoid
Foramen Ovale
Foramen
Spinosum

Styloid Process
Jugular
Foramen
Occipital
Bone

* Pharyngeal Tubercle

Carotid Canal

Foramen Magnum
External Occipital
Crest

Pterygoid = "wing-like"

Lateral and
Medial
Pterygoid
Processes
Occipital
Condyle for
articulation
with Atlas
Vertebra

*
Hypoglossal
Canal

Calvaria is the "cap" part of the


skull. Soup bowl.

INTERIOR VIEW OF THE CALVARIA


Between 2 layers of dense bone

Frontal Bone

Parietal Bone

Dural venous sinuses

Coronal Suture

Diplo, cancellous
bone of the skull
Granular Pits
for Arachnoid
Granulations
Sulci for
arteries
and veins

Lambdoid
Suture
Sulcus for
Superior Sagittal
Sinus

Occipital Bone

INTERIOR VIEW OF BASE OF SKULL


More openings in bottom of skull
because so many nerves and blood
vessels are coming and going
between brain and rest of body

Crista Galli of Ethmoid Bone


Cribriform Plate of
Ethmoid Bone

These pictures (this entire


lecture) is only meant to
complement the osteology of skull
file in exam 6 folder on Dropbox.

Frontal Bone
Lesser Wing of
Sphenoid Bone

Optic Canal

Superior
Orbital Fissure

Greater Wing of
Sphenoid Bone

Body of Sphenoid
Foramen
Ovale

Parietal Bone

Foramen
Foramen
Magnum
Magnum

Foramen
Spinosum

Foramen
Rotundum
Petrous Portion
of Temporal
Bone

Jugular
Foramen
Internal Occipital Crest

Occipital Bone
Internal Occipital Protuberance

Anterior Clinoid
Process
Holds
pituitary
gland

Hypophyseal
(Pituitary)
Fossa
Carotid
Groove

Mastoid
Foramen

Posterior
Clinoid Process

Foramen
Magnum
Jugular

Foramen

Internal Acoustic
Meatus
Major path

Sulcus for
for venous
Sigmoid Sinus drainage

Clivus

Sulcus for
Transverse Sinus

INTERIOR LATERAL VIEW OF SKULL

One of the sinuses that an become


infected and give you sinus
headaches

Coronal Suture

Frontal
Bone

Parietal Bone

Ethmoid Bone

Frontal
Sinus

Lambdoid
Suture

Crista Galli
Cribriform Plate
Perpendicular
Plate
Vomer
Maxillae

Occipital
Bone
Sulcus for
Sigmoid Sinus
Hypoglossal Canal
Internal Acoustic Meatus

Palatine Bone

Hypophyseal Fossa
Sphenoid Sinus

The place where surgeons enter


skull to reach pituitary gland

Pituitary
Fossa

Splenoidal
Sinus

Mastoid
Air Cells

CRANIAL FOSSAE
"Make sure you remember what
parts of the brain are in each
fossa"

Anterior
Frontal lobes of brain,
olfactory bulbs and tracts
and cribriform foramina

Middle
Temporal lobes of brain,
pituitary gland, foramina
rotundum, ovale and
spinosum, superior orbital
fissure and optic canals

Posterior
Midbrain, pons and medulla of the
brain stem, cerebellum, foramen
magnum, jugular foramen, internal
acoustic meatus hypoglossal
canal, condylar canal and mastoid
foramen

FONTANELLES
Frontal Suture,
disappears in adult
Coronal
Suture

Anterior
Fontanelle,
future site of
bregma in adult

Sagittal
Suture

Do know these relationships

Lambdoid
Suture

Posterior
Fontanelle,
future site of
lambda in adult

FONTANELLES
Anterior Fontanelle