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October 2008

UNIONE EUROPEA

Regione Puglia

Agenzia regionale
per la tecnologia
e linnovazione

Osservatorio
permanente
dellinnovazione

THE RESEARCH
AND INNOVATION
SYSTEM IN EGYPT

QUADERNIINTERNAZIONALIARTI

Scientific and technological


cooperation opportunities
with the Apulian innovation
system

UNIONE EUROPEA

Regione Puglia

Agenzia regionale
per la tecnologia
e linnovazione

Osservatorio
permanente
dellinnovazione

Attivit cofinanziata dallUnione


Europea attraverso il POR Puglia
2000-2006, Misura 3.13 Ricerca
e sviluppo tecnologico, Azione
E Costituzione dellOsservatorio
Permanente dellInnovazione.
Progetto grafico
Nino Perrone
Impaginazione
GrafiSystem snc - Modugno (Ba)
2007 ARTI
Agenzia Regionale
per la Tecnologia
e lInnovazione
S.P. per Casamassima km 3
70010 Valenzano (BA)
tel. 080/4670.576
fax 080/4670.633
info@arti.puglia.it
www.arti.puglia.it

LARTI, lAgenzia Regionale per la Tecnologia e lInnovazione


della Regione Puglia, stata creata con legge regionale nel
2004, con il compito di costruire il Sistema Regionale Pugliese
dellInnovazione (SIR). Questo significa:
a) migliorare le condizioni di contesto;
b) rafforzare i singoli attori (imprese e strutture di ricerca, in termini
di crescita dimensionale, innovazione, internazionalizzazione);
c) promuovere la collaborazione tra gli attori (pubblico-privato,
privato-privato, pubblico-pubblico).
In particolare nellambito dellOsservatorio permanente
dellinnovazione, lagenzia produce rapporti e analisi da diffondere
in Puglia e fuori per disseminare la conoscenza e favorire la
discussione.
Questo documento rappresenta il primo dei Quaderni Bianchi
ARTI, relativi alle analisi derivanti dalla attivit di indagine
dellOsservatorio ed dedicato alla prima significativa iniziativa
di rafforzamento dellofferta tecnologica in Puglia (Accordo di
Programma Quadro tra Stato e Regione Puglia per la Ricerca: Progetti
Strategici).

This report is based on a survey realized for ARTI by the


Center for Advancement of Post-Graduate Studies and
Research in Engineering Sciences (CAPSCU), Faculty of
Engineering, Cairo University, Egypt, in the person of Prof.
Adel M. El-Nadi.
Il presente Quaderno si basa su un ampio lavoro realizzato,
su incarico dellARTI, dal Center for Advancement of PostGraduate Studies and Research in Engineering Sciences
(CAPSCU), Facolt di Ingegneria, Cairo University, Egitto,
nella persona del Prof. Adel M. El-Nadi.

ARTI International Booklets


ARTI, Regional Agency for Technology and Innovation, in agreement with the
Mediterranean and Economic Development Assessorships of the Apulia Region, has
started an activity aimed at the promotion of the scientific and technological cooperation
among the regional actors, both research and university centers and innovative
enterprises, with their counterparts in foreign countries, with a special focus on the
Mediterranean and Balkan areas.
The ARTI International Booklets series reports the studies carried out on the research
and innovation systems in the target countries. The Booklets are quick consultation tools
that, besides presenting a general information picture about the innovation systems
structure and governance, highlight a limited number of excellent organizations that
represent the best candidates in terms of scientific competences, available research
results and attitude to international cooperation for setting up bilateral partnerships
with the Apulian scientific and technological actors, in those technological areas that are
of major relevance for the Apulia region.
In the first phase of this project, the considered countries have been: Morocco, Tunisia,
Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon and Palestinian Territories, Israel, Turkey, Greece, Western
Balkans (Serbia, Montenegro, Croatia, Bosnia-Erzegovina, FYROM-Macedonia, Albania,
Bulgaria), Romania, Slovenia, Argentina and Chile.

Quaderni Internazionali ARTI


LARTI, Agenzia Regionale per la Tecnologia e lInnovazione, in accordo con gli Assessorati
al Mediterraneo e allo Sviluppo Economico della Regione Puglia, ha avviato una attivit
rivolta principalmente ai Paesi dellarea balcanica e mediterranea, finalizzata alla
promozione della cooperazione scientifica e tecnologica tra gli attori regionali, siano essi
imprese innovative o istituti universitari e di ricerca, e i loro omologhi nei Paesi stranieri.
La collana Quaderni Internazionali dellARTI nasce per raccogliere i rapporti sui sistemi
dellinnovazione e della ricerca dei Paesi considerati. I Quaderni sono strumenti di rapida
consultazione che, oltre a presentare un quadro informativo generale sulla struttura
e i sistemi di governance dellinnovazione, individuano un numero limitato di enti e
organizzazioni eccellenti in termini di competenze scientifiche, risultati prodotti e
propensione alla collaborazione transnazionale negli ambiti tecnologici di maggiore
interesse per la Regione Puglia, in modo da facilitare lattivazione di contatti bilaterali e la
creazione di partnership.
Nella prima fase del progetto, i Paesi presi in esame sono: Marocco, Tunisia, Algeria,
Egitto, Giordania, Libano e Territori Palestinesi, Israele, Turchia, Grecia, Balcani
Occidentali (Serbia, Montenegro, Croazia, Bosnia-Erzegovina, FYROM-Macedonia, Albania,
Bulgaria), Romania, Slovenia, Argentina e Cile.

Fonte: CIA - The World Fatbook

THE RESEARCH AND


INNOVATION SYSTEM IN
EGYPT
Scientific and technological
cooperation opportunities
with the Apulian innovation
system

Index

PART ONE: GENERAL FRAMEWORK


1. Egyptian economy, 11
1.1 Introduction, 11
1.2 Reform Era, 12
1.3 Land, Agriculture and Crops, 14
1.4 Water Resources, 15
1.5 Main Industries, 15
1.6 Mineral and Energy Sources, 16
1.7 External Trade, 17
1.8 Public Finances, 17
1.9 Exchange Rate policy, 18
1.10 Investment, 18
1.11 Challenges, 20
1.12 Summary, 20
2. Industry in Egypt, 22
2.1 Introduction, 22
2.2 Industrial investment, 23
2.3 Industrial Sectors Structure, 24
2.4 Recent Industrial Programs, 25
2.5 Protecting the Environment, 25
2.6 The industrial Production Development, 25
2.7 Improving the quality of Egyptian industrial products, 25
2.8 Industrial exports, 26
2.9 Summary, 27
3. Education in Egypt, 28
3.1 Introduction, 28
3.2 Basic Education, 29
3.3 High School Education, 30
3.4 Modern instructural methods for basic education, 31
3.5 International cooperation projects for basic education,32
3.6 Higher education, 32
3.7 Modernization of higher education, 33
4. Science in Egypt, 37
4.1 Introduction, 37
4.2 Science centers, 37

5. Research, development and Innovation in Egypt, 44


5.1 Introduction, 44
5.2 The structure, 44
5.3 Egypts main innovation actors, 45
5.4 The governance system of R&D and Innovation in Egypt, 49
5.5 The performance indicators, 50
5.6 National policy of science and innovation, 50
5.7 Regional policy of science and innovation, 51
5.8 Governing norms & laws and funding of R&D and innovation, 52
5.9 International cooperation Projects, 53

PART TWO: RESEARCH CENTERS INVENTORY


6. Introduction, 59
7. Research centers forms, 60
7.1 Aerospace, 60
7.2 Agrofood, 66
7.3 Mechatronics, 71
7.4 Health, 80
7.5 Information and Communication Technologies, 82
7.6 Renewable Energy, 104
7.7 Other, 112

Part one:
general framework

1. Egyptian Economy
1.1 Introduction
Economic growth in Egypt has been held back by a severely limited amount of arable land (less
than 5% of the total area) as well as a large and rapidly growing population. After 1945, a large
proportion of funds and energy were devoted to preparing the country for regional warfare
and later rebuilding. The countrys industrial base increased considerably in the 20th century,
especially after 1952. The state owned much of the economy and played a decisive role in its
planning. However, in recent years Egypt has moved toward a more decentralized, marketoriented economy, and there has been an increase in foreign investments.
Table 1

Government Ministries of Egypt


Administrative Development

Information

Agriculture

Interior affairs

Civil Aviation

International Cooperation

Communication and Information


Technology

Investment

Culture

Irrigation and Water Resources

Defense and Military Production

Justice

Economic Development

Legal Affairs and Parliamentary Councils

Education

Local Development

Electricity and Energy

Manpower and Immigration

Environmental Affairs

Military Production

Finance

Petroleum

Foreign Affairs

Social Solidarity

Foreign Trade and Industry

Tourism

Health and Population

Transport

Higher Education and Scientific Research

Waqfs (Endowments)

Housing, Utilities, and Urban Communities


A series of International Monetary Fund arrangements, coupled with massive external
debt relief resulting from Egypts participation in the Gulf War coalition, helped Egypt
improve its macroeconomic performance during the 1990s. Egypt joined the World Trade
Organization (WTO) in mid-1995 and has since become one of the most open and free
markets in Africa and the Middle East.
Through sound fiscal and monetary policies, the Government of Egypt tamed inflation,
slashed budget deficits, and built up foreign reserves. Structural reforms, such as
privatization and new business legislation Egypts steps toward a more market-oriented
economy have prompted increased foreign investment. Hard currency inflows resulted
mainly from tourism, worker remittances, oil revenues, and Suez Canal tolls and by the
late 1990s external payments were not in crisis.

11

1. Egyptian economy

At the turn of the millennium, monetary pressures have eased more with the continued oil
price rise since 2002, increased natural gas exploration and production and a moderate
rebound in the sensitive sector of tourism. Egypts reform record has substantially
improved since Nazif government came to power in 1994. Egypt has made substantial
progress in developing its legal, tax and investment infrastructure. The reform programme
is still a work in Progress.
Four years into a robust economic expansion, this country has shaken off its history of
Arab state socialism and embraced the free market. A rush of construction is throwing up
office buildings. Sluggish state-owned companies from banks to department stores are
being sold to private investors, and foreign capital is flooding in, lured by the scent of
certain profit. Egypt today has all the earmarks of a gathering boom. Ambitious economic
reforms launched in 2004 have won plaudits from the business community. Economy
grows at an annual rate of about 7%. Egypts reformist prime minister, Ahmed Nazif,
remains committed to the transition from a bloated state-centric economy to a more
market-oriented one.

1.2 Reform Era


Under comprehensive economic reforms initiated in 1991, Egypt has relaxed many price
controls, reduced subsidies, reduced inflation, cut taxes, and partially liberalized trade
and investment. Manufacturing become less dominated by the public sector, especially in
heavy industries. A process of public sector reform and privatization has begun to enhance
opportunities for the private sector. Agriculture, mainly in private hands, has been largely
deregulated, with the exception of cotton and sugar production. Construction, nonfinancial services, and domestic wholesale and retail trades are largely private. This has
promoted a steady increase of GDP and the annual growth rate. The Government of Egypt
tamed inflation bringing it down from double-digit to a single digit. Currently, GDP is rising
smartly by 7% per annum due to successful diversification.
Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita based on purchasing-power-parity (PPP) increased
fourfold between 1981 and 2006, from US$ 1.355 in 1981, to US$ 2.525 in 1991, to US$
3.686 in 2001 and to an estimated US$ 4.535 in 2006. Based on national currency, GDP per
capita at constant 1999 prices increased from EGP (Egyptian Pounds) 411 in 1981, to EGP
2.098 in 1991, to EGP 5.493 in 2001 and to EGP 8.708 in 2006. Based on the current US$
prices, GDP per capita increased from US$ 587 in 1981, to US$ 869 in 1991, to US$ 1.461
in 2001 and to an estimated US$ 1.518 (which translates to about US$ 130 per month) in
2006. According to the World Bank Country Classification, Egypt has been promoted from
the low income category to lower middle income category. Average wages in 2007 hover
around $8-10 per day.
The reform programme is a work in progress. Noteworthy that the reform record
has substantially improved since Nazif government came to power. Egypt has made
substantial progress in developing its legal, tax and investment infrastructure. Indeed,
over the past 5 years, Egypt has passed, amended and admitted over 15 legislative pieces.
The economy is expected to grow by about 7%-8% in 2007/2008.

12

the research and innovation system in Egypt

Table 2

Egypts Summary of Budget Financing (Billions of Euros and Fiscal years)


2002

2003

2004

Revenues

18,01

14,17

12,94

15,3

20,87

22,21

22,9

34,19

Taxes

11,68

8,86

8,53

10,45

13,49

14,01

14,89

20,65

Grants
Expenditures
Wages and
Compensations

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

0,98

0,52

0,64

0,3

0,33

0,47

0,39

0,57

26,58

20,24

18,54

22,3

28,68

27,36

29,95

42,2

7,02

5,38

4,73

5,73

6,45

6,61

7,39

10,17

Interest

4,11

3,9

4,52

5,08

6,51

6,45

6,56

Subsidies and
Social Benefits

4,15

3,28

3,14

4,1

9,51

6,69

7,99

16,57

Cash Deficit

-8,56

-6,07

-5,6

-7

-7,8

-4,79

-7,05

8,02

Net Acquisition of
Financial Assets

-0,29

-0,89

-0,25

-0,12

0,85

-1,19

-0,24

Overall Deficit

-8,85

-6,96

-5,85

-7,13

-6,95

-6,34

-7,29

Net Borrowing

8,76

6,95

5,85

6,94

6,28

7,17

Proceeds from
Privatization

0,96

0,006

0,002

0,14

0,02

0,06

0,12

1,24

-10,20%

-10,50%

-9,50%

-9,60%

-8,20%

-6,70%

-6,90%

-6,40%

Deficit as % of
GDP

Source: Ministry of Finance (Figures for 2008 and 2009 are budget estimates)

Table 3

GDP per capita (EGP = Egyptian Pounds)

Indicator

1981

1991

2001

2005

2006

GDP (PPP) per capita


(US$)

1.354,81

2.524,99

3.685,98

4.316,59

4.534,82

GDP per capita at


constant prices (EGP)

3.121,85

4.075,47

5.138,36

5.519,09

5.692,24

GDP per capita at


constant prices (US$)

545,8

758,85

956,8

961,5

999,00

GDP per capita at current


prices (EGP)

411,20

2.098,71

5.493,28

7.890,65

8.707,88

GDP per capita at current


prices (US$)

587,42

869,30

1.460,98

1.315,75

1.517,85

Source: IMF WEO Online database


Surging domestic inflationary pressures from both economic growth and elevated
international food prices led the Central Bank of Egypt to increase the overnight lending
and deposit rates and the rates which currently stand at 10% and 12% respectively.
Reform of energy and food subsidies and inflation targeting are perhaps the most
controversial economic issues in 2007/2008 and 2008/2009.

13

1. Egyptian economy

Fig. 1

Distribution of GDP in Egypt in 2001


Hotels and
Restaurants
2%
Trade, Finance &
Insurance
21%

Transportation
9%

Government Services
7%

Social and Personal


Services
7%

Construction
6%
Electricity
2%
Petroleum &
Products
8%

Housing
and Real
Estate
2%

Agricolture
16%
Industry &
Mining
20%

Source: UNIDO

1.3. Land, Agriculture and Crops


Warm weather and plentiful water permit several crops a year. Land is worked intensively
and yields are high. Cotton, rice, wheat, corn, sugarcane, sugar beets, onions, and beans
are the principal crops. Increasingly, a few modern techniques are applied to producing
fruits, vegetables and flowers, in addition to cotton, for export. Further improvement is
possible. The most common traditional farms occupy one acre (4.000 m) each, typically in
a canal-irrigated area along the banks of the Nile.
Several researchers questioned the domestic (and import) policies for dealing with the socalled the wheat game since the former Minister of Agriculture Youssef Wali was in office.
In 2006, areas planted with wheat in Egypt exceeded 400 thousand acres (1.600 km)
producing approximately 8 million metric tons. The domestic supply price farmers receive
in Egypt is 1.200 (US$ 211) per ton compared to approximately EGP 1940 (US$ 340) per
ton for import from the USA, Egypts main supplier of wheat and corn. Egypt is, in fact,
the U.S.s largest market for wheat and corn sales, accounting for US$1 billion annually
and about 46% of Egypts needs from imported wheat. Other sources of imported wheat,
include Kazakhstan, Canada, France, Syria, Argentina and Australia. There are plans to
increase the areas planted with wheat up to nearly 3 million acres (12.000 km) by 2017 to
narrow the gap between domestic food supply and demand.
The Western Desert accounts for about two-thirds of the countrys land area. For the
most part, it is a massive sandy plateau marked by seven major depressions. One of
these, Fayoum, was connected about 3.600 years ago to the Nile by canals. Today, it is an
important irrigated agricultural area.

14

the research and innovation system in Egypt

Practically all Egyptian agriculture takes place in some 25.000 km (6 million acres) of
fertile soil in the Nile Valley and Delta.
Some desert lands are being developed for agriculture, including the controversial but
ambitious Toshka project in Upper Egypt, but some other fertile lands in the Nile Valley
and Delta are being lost to urbanization and erosion. Larger modern farms are becoming
more important in the desert.
The agriculture objectives on the desert lands are often questioned; the desert farm lands
which were offered regularly at different levels and prices were restricted to a limited
group of elites selected very carefully, who later profiteered retailing the granted large
desert farm land by pieces. This allegedly transforms the desert farms to tourist resorts,
hits all government plans to develop and improve the conditions of the poor, and causes
serious negative impact on agriculture and the overall national economy over time. One
company, for example, bought over 70 hectare of large desert farm for a price as low as
EGP 0,05 (US$ 0,01) per square meter and now sells for EGP 300 (US$ 66)per square
meter. In numbers, 70 hectares bought for about US$ 6.000 in 2.000 sells for over US$ 3,7
million in 2007. Currently, no clear solution exists to deal with these activities.
Agriculture biomass, including agricultural wastes and animal manure, produce
approximately 30 million metric tons of dry material per year that could be massively and
decisively used, inter alia, for generating bioenergy and improve the quality of life in rural
Egypt. Unfortunately, this resource remain terribly underutilized.

1.4. Water Resources


Egypt, wrote the Greek historian Herodotus 25 centuries ago, is the gift of the Nile.
The lands seemingly inexhaustible resources of water and soil carried by this mighty river
created in the Nile Valley and Delta. Without the Nile, Egypt would be little more than a
desert wasteland.
The river carves a narrow, cultivated floodplain, never more than 20 kilometers wide, as it
travels northward toward Cairo from Lake Nasser on the Sudanese border in front of the Aswan
High Dam. Just north of Cairo, the Nile spreads out to form a fertile delta about 250 kilometers
(150 miles) wide at the seaward base and about 160 kilometers from south to north.
Before the construction of dams on the Nile, particularly the Aswan High Dam (started in
1960, completed in 1970), the fertility of the Nile Valley was sustained by the water flow
and the silt deposited by the annual flood. Sediment is now obstructed by the Aswan High
Dam and retained in Lake Nasser. The interruption of yearly, natural fertilization and the
increasing salinity of the soil has been a manageable problem resulting from the dam. The
benefits remain impressive: more intensive farming on thousands of square kilometres
of land made possible by improved irrigation, prevention of flood damage, and the
generation of millions of gigajoules of electricity at low cost.

15

1. Egyptian economy

1.5. Main Industries


The main industries in Egypt are tourism, Iron and steel, cement, engineering industries,
petrochemicals, chemical industries (especially fertilizers and pharmaceuticals), plastic
products, military production, textiles, ICT and food industries. The ICT, Information and
Communication Technology, represents one of the newly emerging sectors in the Egyptian
industry. Egyptian Industry will be studied in a separate section.

1.6. Mineral and Energy Sources


Fig. 2

Oil Production and Consumption

Egypts mineral and energy resources include petroleum, natural gas, phosphates, gold
and iron ore. Crude oil is found primarily in the Gulf of Suez and in the Western Desert.
Natural gas is found mainly in the Nile Delta, off the Mediterranean Sea shore, and in
the Western Desert. Oil and gas accounted for approximately 14,8 % of GDP in the year
2006. Crude oil production has been in decline for several years since its peak level in
1993, from 941.000 bbl/d1 (149.600 m/d) in 1993 to 873.000 bbl/d (138.800 m/d) in
1997 and to 696.000 bbl/d (110.700 m/d) in 2005. (See Figure). At the same time, the
domestic consumption of oil increased steadily (531.000 bbl/d and 616.000 bbl/d (97.900
m/d) in 1997 and 2005 respectively. The Government of Egypt has been encouraging the
exploration, production and domestic consumption of natural gas. Natural gas output
continues to increase and reached 65,7 billion cubic meters in 2008. The main natural
gas producer in Egypt is the International Egyptian Oilfield Company (IEOC), a branch of
Italian ENI-AGIP. Egypts excess of natural gas will more than meet its domestic demand
for many years to come. The Ministry of Petroleum and Mineral Resources has established
expanding the Egyptian petrochemical industry and increasing exports of natural gas as
its most significant strategic objectives. Egypt and Jordan agreed to construct the Arab
1. billions of barrels per day

16

the research and innovation system in Egypt

Gas Pipeline from Al Arish to Aqaba to export natural gas to Jordan; with its completion
in July 2003, Egypt began to export 1,1 billion cubic feet (31.000.000 m) of gas per year.
Total investment in this project is about $220 million. In 2003, Egypt, Jordan and Syria
reached an agreement to extend this pipeline to Syria, which possibly could mean a future
connection with Turkey, Lebanon and Cyprus.
Gold mining is more recently a fast growing industry with vast untapped gold reserves
in the Eastern Desert. There is already a gold rush and gold production facilities are now
reality from the Sukari Hills, located close to Marsa Alam in the Eastern Desert
With respect to nuclear energy, Egypts President Mubarak on October 29, 2007, gave the go
ahead for building several nuclear power plants. Egypts nuclear route is purely peaceful and
fully transparent and hopefully should not face technical and financing obstacles in the future.
Egypt is a member of the IAEA and has both signed and ratified the Nuclear Nonproliferation
Treaty (NPT). Currently, a draft Law on Nuclear Energy is being reviewed by the IAEA and
expected to be passed by the Egyptian Parliament in 2008. Many other countries in the region,
including Libya, Jordan, Morroco, and Yemen aspire to build nuclear power plants.

1.7. External Trade


Egypts main exports consist of natural gas, and non-petroleum products such as readymade clothes, cotton textiles, medical and petrochemical products, citrus fruits, rice
and dried onion, and more recently cement, steel, and ceramics. Exports value rose to
$24,22 billion f.o.b in 2006. Egypts main imports consist of pharmaceuticals and nonpetroleum products such as wheat, maize, cars and carsspare parts. Export partners
were Italy 12,2%, US 11,4%, Spain 8,6%, UK 5,6%, France 5,4%, Syria 5,2%, Saudi Arabia
4,4%, Germany 4,2%. Egypts Balance of Payments made a surplus of US$ 4478 million
in FY22005 compared to a deficit of US$ 158 million in FY2004. Egypts trade balance in
goods and services was US$ (-3,87) billion in FY2006 (UN Data). In the Arab world, Egypt
has the largest non-oil GDP as of 2005. The gross external debt of Egypt, including the
total public and private debt owed to non-residents repayable in foreign currency, goods,
or services is estimated at US$ 29.898 million at the end of FY 2007.
One major Egyptian success grew out of a provision in U.S. trade law designed to promote
Arab-Israeli reconciliation. In 2004, the U.S. approved plans for Egypt to export to the
USA products made in special export zones. So long as the goods derived at least 11,7%
of their value from Israeli inputs, they could enter the USA duty-free. Annual sales and
workforce of related companies nearly doubled.

1.8. Public Finances


On the revenues side, total revenues of the government were EGP 78,32 billion ( 14,17 billion)
in FY2002 and are projected to reach EGP 184,7 billion ( 22,9 billion) in FY2008. Much of the
increase came from a rise in tax revenues, particularly personal income and corporate taxes
2

17

Fiscal year

1. Egyptian economy

which constituted the bulk of total domestic taxes, due to recent tax reforms. This trend is likely
to gradually widen the tax base in the forthcoming years. Revenues, however, have remained
more or less constant (about 21%) as a percentage of the GDP over the past few years.
On the expenditures side, strong expenditure growth has remained a main feature of
the budget. This is mainly a result of continued strong expansion of (1) the public-sector
wages driven by government pledges. Wages and Compensations increased from EGP
30,5 billion ( 7,02 billion) in FY2002 to EGP 59,6 billion ( 7,39 billion) in FY2008; (2) high
interest payments on the public debt stock. Interest payments rose from EGP 21,8 billion
( 5 billion) in FY2002 to EGP52,0 billion ( 6,45 billion) in FY2008. Importantly, dramatic
increase in domestic debt which is projected to be roughly 62% of GDP in FY2008 up from
58,4% in FY2002; and (3) the costs of food and energy subsidies, which rose from EGP
18,0 billion ( 4,15 billion) in FY2002 to EGP 64,5 billion ( 8 billion) in FY2008.
The overall deficit, after adjusting for net acquisition of financial assets, remains almost
unchanged from the cash deficit. The budgets overall deficit of EGP 43,8 billion ( 10,07
billion) or -10,2% of GDP for FY2002 has become 49,2 billion ( 6,35 billion) in FY2007, so
that is narrowed to -6,7% of GDP. Deficit is financed largely by domestic borrowing and
revenue from privatization sales, which became a standard accounting practice in budget
Egypt. The government aims at more sales of assets in FY2008.

1.9. Exchange Rate policy


The exchange rate policy is linked to US Dollar. With the turn of the new millennium, Egypt
introduced a managed float regime and successfully unified the Pound exchange rate vis-vis foreign currencies. Currency black markets do not exist anymore. The transition to
the unified exchange rate regime was completed in December 2004. Shortly later, Egypt
has notified the International Monetary Fund (IMF) that it has accepted the obligations of
Article VIII, Section 2, 3, and 4 of the IMF Articles of Agreement, with effect from January
2, 2005. IMF members accepting the obligations of Article VIII undertake to refrain from
imposing restrictions on the making of payments and transfers for current international
transactions, or from engaging in discriminatory currency arrangements or multiple
currency practices, except with IMF approval. Egypt thus assured the international
community that it will pursue economic policies that will not impose restrictions on the
making of payments and transfers for current international transactions unnecessary, and
will contribute to a multilateral payments system free of restrictions.
In the fiscal year 2004 and over most of the fiscal year 2005, the pound depreciated
against the US Dollar. Since the second half of the fiscal year 2006 until the present time,
the pound gradually appreciated to EGP 5,35 per USD.

1.10. Investment
Egypts location astride trade routes linking Asia, the Middle East and Europe is a key
selling point when officials meet with potential investors. So far, the government has done
well competing against nations such as Turkey for the right to host companies looking for
an export platform to serve consumers in Africa and the Middle East.
18

the research and innovation system in Egypt

From just $ 450 million five years ago, foreign direct investment rose to more than $ 10
billion last year. One key: Egypt has been among the principal beneficiaries of a torrent
of oil dollars coming from countries such as Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates.
The USA was the leading source of capital last year, though it ranks eighth in cumulative
investment. Major American corporations such as Citibank, General Motors and Procter &
Gamble have sizable stakes here.
A large share of foreign investment has originated with neighbouring Arab states that are
putting their petrodollars into speculative real estate projects.
The region is flush with money. Traditionally, this used to be destined for investments in
North America and Europe. Now, these investors are increasingly looking at opportunities
closer to home.
The largest U.S. investor is Apache Corp., a Houston-based energy company that first
began exploring for oil and gas deposits in 1994. About one-fifth of the companys $
3,2 billion in first-quarter production revenue came from beneath the Egyptian desert.
A continuing flow of foreign capital is critical for the governments hopes of boosting
investment economy wide. Investment now equals about 22% of total output, up from 17%
three years ago, but still well below the governments goal of about 27%. Egypts foreign
investment once heavily concentrated in oil and gas has grown more diverse as
investors have broken ground for factories producing fertilizers, chemicals and consumer
products. But last year, more than one-third of foreign investment went into privatizations
of large state-owned enterprises, such as the Bank of Alexandria and the Omar Effendi
department store. Such deals typically lead to substantial job losses as bloated state
payrolls are trimmed.
Turning to domestic investments, the Egyptian equity market is one of the most developed
in the region with more than 633 listed companies. Market capitalization on the exchange
doubled in 2005 from USD 47,2 billion to USD 93,5 billion, with turnover surging from USD
1,16 billion in January 2005 to USD 6 billion in January 2006.
Private Equity has not been widely used in Egypt in the past as a source of funding for
businesses. The government, however, has instituted a number of policy changes and
reforms specifically intended to develop internal private equity funds and to attract private
equity funding from international sources.
The major industries include textiles, hydrocarbon and chemical production, and generic
pharmaceutical production. Unemployment is high at about 10%.
Major fiscal reforms were introduced in 2005 in order to tackle the informal sector which
according to estimates represents somewhere between 30% to 60% of GDP. Significant
tax cuts for corporations were introduced for the first time in Egyptian history. The new
Income tax Law No 91 for 2005 reduced the tax rate from 40% to 20%. According to
government figures, tax filing by individuals and corporations increased by 100%.
Many changes were made to cut trade tariffs. Among the legislators goals were tackling
the black market, reducing bureaucracy and pushing through trade liberalization

19

1. Egyptian economy

measures. Amendments to Investment and Company law were introduced in order to


attract foreign investors. For example, the number of days required for establishing a
company was dramatically reduced.
Significant improvement to the domestic economic environment increased investors
confidence in Egypt. The Cairo & Alexandria Stock Exchange is considered among the best
ten emerging markets in the world. The changes to the policy also attracted increased
levels of foreign direct investment in Egypt. According to the UN Conference on Trade and
Developments World Investment Report, Egypt was ranked the second largest country in
attracting foreign investment in Africa.
Given the large number of amendments to laws and regulations, Egypt has succeeded
to a certain extent in conforming to international standards. Very recently the Cairo &
Alexandria Stock Exchange (CASE) was welcomed with full membership into the World
Federation of Exchanges (WFE) the first Arab country to be invited.
In April 2008, The IFC the private sector arm of the World Bank Group signed a
memorandum of understanding with Egypts Industrial Development Agency (IDA) that
seeks to streamline and decentralize the process of obtaining industrial licenses, reducing
cost and time needed to register a company. Over the next two years, the project will
help create an integrated platform for business start-up procedures at the national level.
Managed by the IFC, the project will involve the government as well as the private sector
in identifying issues that hinder processes for obtaining licenses and permits. IFC will
introduce international best practices, replicate pilot reforms at the municipal level, and
streamline approval procedures required by public entities.

1.11. Challenges
The development of the Egyptian economy is facing some challenges which must be dealt
with. Some of these challenges are:
Living conditions of the average Egyptian must be improved as government subsidies
are abolished. It is taking time before improvements in the macro economy reaches
the population. About 19,6% of the Egyptian population have some degree of poverty.
Metropolitan areas are the least poor (5,7%). The government is currently employing
recently completed poverty map as tool for geographic targeting of public resources.
The past five years, the official unemployment rate has declined from 11% to about 9%.
Investments and privatization influence employment. Egypt must produce more than
600.000 new jobs each year just to keep pace with new entrants into the labour force.
The global food crisis has a strong impact on the limited income group.
Training to produce qualified workers must be strongly encouraged to meet the demands
of the growing private sector.
The inflation rate must be controlled.
Business transparency must be increased and bribery and unfair practices controlled.

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the research and innovation system in Egypt

1.12. Summary
Year 2006/07 will remain distinct in terms of economic performance and development
in Egypt. This is not only because this year has witnessed the highest economic growth
rate ever achieved in recent years (7,1%), but also because of the sustainability of this
high rate for the second consecutive year, after reaching 6,8% in 2005/06; which implies
the possibility of sustaining the momentum of economic growth. Also, the continued
escalation of the pace of development is not the only hallmark of the year 2006/07, but
its accomplishment is also shaped by the leading role of the basic sectors. For instance,
the industrial sector (in abroad definition) grew by 7,3 % and contributed by 30% of
GDP increase; the construction and transport sectors contributed together by 16%,
and agriculture by 13%. These developments ascertain the diversity and the balanced
production structure that feature the Egyptian economy.
The above characteristics reflect the increased effectiveness and efficiency of current
economic policy in ameliorating the business climate, and raising confidence in the
economic potential and prospects of the country. A sum of LE 155 billion of investments
have been pumped into the economy, raising the investment rate from 18,7% to 21,2%.
Private sector investments accounted for the largest share; amounting to about LE
96 billion during the year, a figure which is 45% higher than that of last year. The
analysis of GDP components reveals a 4% increase in real household consumption in
2006/07. However, the real challenge remains in seeking ways of broadening the base
of beneficiaries from economic growth and consumption increase. The dynamic features
gained by the Egyptian economy during the last two years and which have grown
substantially during the fiscal year 2006/07 have contributed to the enlargement of
the absorptive capacity of the labor market. However, despite the large increase in the
number of employed persons and the slight reduction in unemployment rate; the most
difficult challenge that is still facing policy makers is how to speed up the growth of the
economy further to allow for the creation of 750 thousand jobs a year that would ensure
full eradication of unemployment.

21

1. Egyptian economy

2. Industry in Egypt
2.1. Introduction
Egypt was known for ages as an agricultural country and the governors never paid
attention to industry till the beginning of 19th Century. Egypt witnessed a huge industrial
revival when Muhammad Ali created a great industrial base including textile, sugar,
cooking oil squeezing, rice mills and the military industries flourished. A shipyard and
factories for preparation of chemical materials were established. The industrial revival
declined during the following periods till the end of World War I.
Misr Bank was founded in 1920 with Egyptian capital led a campaign to revive the Egyptian
industry. The bank succeeded in establishing an industrial base that included a chain of
great companies and factories which succeeded in establishing an advanced Egyptian
industry. The July 1952 Revolution launched a number of pioneering heavy industry
projects such as iron and steel, mining, petroleum, chemical, spinning and weaving and
food industries.
The period from 1967 to 1973 negatively affected the performance of the industrial sector
due to war and it was revived again after 1973 when the open-door economy policy was
actively embraced.
As peace prevailed, Egypt began a new stage of industrial development. By virtue of the
economic reform policy that started in 1990s of the past century, the role of the private
sector increased in achieving industrial development. The industrial sector enjoyed a wide
variety of privileges and incentives to investors.
At the early beginning of 21st century, Egypt has started a stage of reviving the Egyptian
industry and both industry and both foreign and internal Trade under one ministry in the
government. Modernization of Egyptian industry was essential for quality improvement of
products in order to provide a stronger competition within the World economy. Besides, an
atmosphere suitable for industrial and commercial activities was necessary to encourage
the private sector in assuming the main role in achieving economic development.

2.2. Industrial Investment


Egypt has recently witnessed a marked improvement in the atmosphere of investment
due to several elements topped by amending customs tariffs, issuing the new tax
law, launching the Great Free Arab Trade Zone beginning January 2005, issuing the
law of Investment No. 13 of 2005 that aims to facilitate the procedures of investment
through establishing the unified service centers, establishing the public Association
of Industrial Development that is in charge of the industrial developing policies and
responsible for developing the industrial areas which is qualified to attract industrial
investment.
More land was allocated to the Industrial Development Authority which reduced the price
of land and facilitated bank lending. Reduction of the price of land and energy combined
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the research and innovation system in Egypt

with a low labor cost help to attract foreign industrial investment into Egypt.
Egypt has 90 industrial areas which are considered attractive to investors due to the
offered privileges and incentives. The areas allocated to these cities reached about
657 km2 in 2005 spread all over the governorates. There are seven public free zones in
Egypt equipped with utilities and infrastructure. They enjoy good incentives, investment
privileges, guarantees and tax exemption. These zones are located near ports as 50
percent of their production must be exported.
Investment activity can be conducted in Egypt inside the private free zones provided
that the project has actually started its activity, will have satisfied rules specified by the
regulations and has generated exports of more than 50 percent of its production.
In 2005/06 the Industrial Development Authority agreed to allocate land for 120 industrial
projects with an investment cost of LE 2,7 billion providing about 70 thousand job
opportunities. 1,3 square kilometer was allocated to foreign investors who started 22
companies on 21 percent of the allocated area.
It should be noted that Egypt has a wealth of minerals. Copper, titanium, tin and
manganese, iron, gold, tungsten, chrome, phosphate, talc, sulphur, gypsum, potassium
and sodium salts, quartz, glass sand, precious stones and ornamental stones are present
at commercial levels.

2.3. Industrial Sectors Structure


The past five years have witnessed a rise in the total number of industrial facilities. They
reached more than 27 thousand facilities in 2005 against 24,5 thousand in 2000 with an
increase rate 10 percent. The newly registered facilities in the first half of 2006 reached
2.888 facilities.
The industrial sector structure is characterized by clear concentration on the micro
facilities. In 2005 there were 18.868 micro facilities at a rate of 70% of the total facilities
and 5.065 small facilities with a rate of 19 percent while the large facilities represented 6
percent of the total facilities.
Most of the working industrial facilities are specialized in weaving and textile, ready
made garments and leather with a rate of 22 percent. The tobacco, foods and beverages
industries with a rate of 20 percent for each.
The total of the investment costs in the registered industrial facilities reached LE 309
billion in 2005. The large industrial facilities netted 88 percent of the implemented
industrial investments, the average facilities 6 percent and small facilities 4 percent.
The industrial production amounted to LE 254,1 billion in 2005. The volume of the large
facility production reached LE 203 billion with a rate of 79,8 percent. The average facilities
production reached LE 25,4 billion with a rate of 10 percent and the volume of small
facilities production reached about LE 20 billion with a rate of 8 percent.

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2. Industry in Egypt

2.4. Recent Industrial Programs


2.4.1. The one thousand factories program


The program which will been carried out during 2006-11 aims at encouraging the
partnership between the private sector and the bank sector to build one thousand large
factories subject to international standards and expanding the present factories with
investments higher than LE 15 million.
The year 2006 has witnessed an involvement with 110 large factories with an
implementation rate of 122 percent within the period January September.
The number of new factories that began production reached 62 factories while 48 factories
have witnessed expansion with a rate of 43%. The investment costs reached LE 5.644
million. The cost of the new factories was LE 3.599 and the expansion cost was about LE
2.045 million. This activity provided 26.128 extra jobs with 17.197 jobs in the new factories.

2.4.2. Business market program


The program aims at financing 2000 small and overage projects in the fields of industry
and productive services that have the ability of quick operation. Their investments range
from LE 5 million to LE 15 million for the average project and less than LE 5 million for the
small one. The number implemented factories during the period January-September/2006
reached 436 projects.

2.4.3. The Egyptian industry modernization Program


In the framework of Egyptian European partnership, Egypt began to implement the
modernization program since the fiscal year 2002/03. The program aims at increasing
the competitiveness of Egyptian products to allow the country to be integrated within
the global economy. This will lead to the increase of the industrial export volume and the
creation of more jobs.
The modernization program costs 437 million EURO, the European Union contributed 250
million euros or 59 percent of the total cost. The program has benefited 430 industrial
facilities during the first three years. The Industrial Modernization Center (IMC) has
assumed the full supervision on implementing the program since 2005/06. The center
succeeded in implementing the program in 3.400 facilities within the modernization plan
with a financing volume of 146 million EURO during this year 145,6 million EURO were
allocated to finance the modernization program during 2006/07 to allow a total of 7.300
facilities to have benefited from the program.
The IMC, in cooperation with the Union of Industries and the banking system, plan to
pump LE 70 billion to finance the implementation of the 1000 factories program during
2005/2011. This will participate in raising the industrial growth rate from 5 percent to 9
percent within this period and will increase direct job opportunities by 1,5 million. The

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the research and innovation system in Egypt

job opportunities will thus increase from 2,4 million to 3,9 million. Industrial exports are
expected to increase from LE 18 billion to LE 42 billion within the mentioned period.

2.5. Protecting The Environment


In June 1997, the responsibility of Egypts first full time Minister of State for Environmental
Affairs was assigned as stated in the Presidential Decree no.275/1997. From thereon,
the new ministry has focused, in close collaboration with the national and international
development partners, on defining environmental policies, setting priorities and
implementing initiatives within a context of sustainable development.
According to the Law 4/1994 for the Protection of the Environment, the Egyptian
Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA) was restructured with the new mandate to substitute
the institution initially established in 1982. At the central level, EEAA represents the
executive arm of the Ministry. The Principal Functions of the Agency Include:
Formulating environmental policies.
Preparing the necessary plans for Environmental protection and Environmental
development projects, following up their implementation, and undertaking Pilot Projects.
The Agency is the National Authority in charge of promoting environmental relations
between Egypt and other States, as well as Regional and International Organizations.

2.6. The Industrial Production Development


In the framework of the efforts exerted by industrial sector to support the Egyptian industrial
products in occupying a suitable position in international markets, the productivity of a
number of basic industries was significantly increased during the past twenty five years. In
addition, such new hi-tech fields such as micro-electronic industries were introduced.
The industrial structure in Egypt is based on seven industries representing 80 percent
of the industrial facilities. The countrys three top industries are textiles, food and
beverages. Furniture, minerals, chemicals and metallurgy are also major industries.
In regard to the distribution of industrial production sector in 2005, it was remarkable
that the engineering, electronic and electric industries ranked first with 30 present of the
industrial production volume. Then tobacco, foods and beverage sector with 23 percent,
the chemical industries with 15 percent and the weaving and spinning, clothing and
leather products with 10 percent.
These are the most important four sector in the Egyptian economy in terms of the number
of industrial facilities, their participation in the total industrial production and their
capacity to absorb labor force and offered wages level. In 2005 they obtained 78 percent
of industrial investments and 79 percent of labor force.
The volume of production has been regularly growing in many industries. In 2005/06 the

25

2. Industry in Egypt

spinning and weaving industry produced 305 thousand tons and 315,1 million pieces of
ready-made garments. Construction and building material plants put out 33 million tons of
cement and fifty million tons of reinforcement steel. Considering the food industry, 1645
thousand tons of sugar were produced in the same fiscal year.
In the poultry area, fodder production was more than10 million tons. In the fertilizer
industry, 11 million tons of azotic fertilizers and about 1,4 million tons of phosphate
fertilizers were produced.

2.7. Improving The Quality of Egyptian Industrial Products


Ministry of foreign trade and Industry was mandated to emphasize the concept of
quality as a national motto to the next stage aiming to raise competitive capacity
of the Egyptian product, to standardize specifications of industrial products with the
international ones and identify the environmental specifications of such products for
international demand and for Europe in particular.
The ministry succeeded in putting and implementing an integrated plan to revive the
quality of the Egyptian products. The Egyptian standardized specifications were identified
with the international and European ones. Egyptian specifications were issued for food,
engineering, chemical spinning and weaving industries and covered 6.000 items.
Setting the first electronic map of quality in Egypt and Launching it on the Internet to
introduce all the companies that obtained the quality measures and European safety mark
to the world. A national institute for quality was established in cooperation with the Arab
Academy for Modern Technology.

2.8. Industrial Exports


The five years (2001/05) have witnessed a remarkable increase in the total Egyptian
exports. The total export volume increased from $ 4,2 billion in 2001 to $ 10,7 billion
in 2005 at a rate of 156 percent. The petroleum exports contributed the greatest share
in the volume of Egyptian exports reaching 49 percent of the total exports in 2005. The
volume of non-petroleum export increased from $ 2,3 billion in 2001 to $ 4,2 billion in
2005. Egyptian exports increased to about $ 8,5 billion in May 2006 at a rate of increase
46 percent from the targeted plan for the fiscal year 2005/06. This reflects the successful
development of new export methods which were laid by the councils of export and the
Council for the Developing of Export.
The foods industrial sector made a dramatic leap in its exports during the first half of the
fiscal year 2005/06 with an increase of 49 percent against the same period of the past year.
These exports reached LE 2,127 billion. The agricultural exports witnessed a remarkable
development reaching a growth rate of 54 percent during the last five years. Rice, potatoes
and orange make up 61 percent of Egypts agricultural exports (except of cotton). Non
petroleum Communities witnessed a remarkable increase during (2001/05), they increased
at a rate of 84 percent to reach $ 3 billion in 2005 against $ 1,6 billion in 2001.

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the research and innovation system in Egypt

Italy topped the importer list of Egyptian products. USA, Italy and Spain rank the first
of trade volume with Egypt. The European Union represents the most important bloc in
regard to trade with Egypt with a rate of 25 percent in 2005. The Asian Countries rank
second with a rate of 18 percent, the Arab Countries rank third with 17 percent and the
North American Countries rank fourth with a rate of 9.5 percent.

2.9. Summary
With the appointment of the current cabinet of ministries in July 2004, the Government
of Egypt has revived a stalled economic reform program which was initially introduced in
1991. As a result, the cabinet economic team has simplified and reduced tariffs and taxes,
improved the transparency of the national budget, revived stalled privatizations of public
enterprises, and adopted policies to improve competitiveness. Consequently a moderate
revival started in 2004 with a 4,1% GDP growth rate, followed by a very dynamic and
sustained economic expansion recording a rate of more than 7% for 2007. But inflation
and unemployment must be dealt with.
Despite the ongoing reforms, the economy is still hampered by government intervention,
substantial subsidies for food, housing & energy, and bloated public sector payrolls.
Moreover, the public sector still controls most of the heavy industry. Agriculture
contributes nearly 14% to the GDP and employs nearly one-third of the active population.
Warm weather and plentiful water (thanks to Nile river) permit several crops a year.
The main crops are cereals, cotton and sugarcane. In the manufacturing sector, food
processing industry has developed considerably and now contributes 17% to the GDP.
However, the Egyptian economy relies heavily on tourism, oil and gas exports and Suez
Canal revenues. Oil and gas sector accounts for approximately 12% of the GDP.
The Egyptian market has been opening up gradually, especially since the EU-Egypt
Association Agreement which came into force in June 2004. The top three export partners
are: Italy, the USA and Spain. Its top three import partners are: the USA, Germany and
China. Egypt mainly exports mineral fuels & oils, cotton, and iron & steel; while as it
mainly imports consumer electronic and capital goods, nuclear reactors and boilers,
cereals, food products, and Chemicals.

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2. Industry in Egypt

3. Education in Egypt
3.1. Introduction
Current educational philosophy in Egypt is the product of three cultural heritages: British,
secular (westernized) Egyptian, and Islamic (traditional) Egyptian. The British protectorate
in Egypt left an exclusionary, state-controlled education system structured to serve elite
(British) interests with little concern for the masses. The heritage was one of restricted
opportunity, unenforced limited education (generally of poor quality), and higher
education reserved mostly for the elite. Egyptians and non-English foreigners were left few
options but to expand private and religious education.
Muhammad Ali, regarded as the father of modern Egypt and its education system,
introduced a secular, modern, western educational philosophy complete with sciences.
Egyptian leaders since the bloodless revolution that ended the monarchy in 1952 have
espoused this approach, viewing it as essential to Egyptian development. Islamic
education remained in place and, eventually, the traditional Islamic and the western
educational tracks, with their differing orientations, created a dichotomized educational
culture that persists to the present.
The Islamic heritage provides an educational system, parallel to public education, that is
basically a system of transmitting culture. The Arab/Muslim heritage carries an orientation
that transcends national boundaries to include all Arabs and Muslims. From 1952 on, Nasser
offered free education, not only for Egyptians, but also for students from other Muslim
countries. At the same time, Egypt sent teachers and administrators out to the rest of the Arab
world where they set up and staffed schools and universities on a large scale.
Egypts educational system both reflects and augments the socio-economic status of its own
people. Historic conflicts between tradition and innovation, and between foreign and national
interests all influence contemporary Egyptian education. Education in Egypt has political,
social, and economic objectives, namely: education for strengthening democracy and
comprehensive development as a continuous process, within the framework of Arab culture.
Throughout the past 40 years, the strong autocratic government sometimes conflicted
with the democratization efforts in schools; nevertheless, the number of schools and
technical schools increased even in times of economic downturns.
There is an abiding belief in Egyptian education. It is viewed as vital to the transmission of
cultural values and as a critical force in individual development and in national Egyptian
development. Pre-university education reflects the dual secular and religious philosophies
as it aims to develop the learner culturally, scientifically, and nationally at successive
levels with the aim of developing the Egyptian individual who is faithful to his God, his
homeland, and to the values of good, truth, and humanity. Pre-university education
is supervised by the Ministry of Education while the Ministry of Higher Education and
Scientific Research is responsible for university and higher Institute level education.
The public education system consists of three stages: the basic education stage for
4-15 year-olds (kindergarten for two years followed by primary school for six years and

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the research and innovation system in Egypt

preparatory school for three years); the secondary school stage for three years, generally
for ages 15 to 18; and the university stage. Education is compulsory for 8 years between
the ages of 6 and 15. All levels of education are tuition-free at all government schools and
institutions. In 1993, more than 13,8 million people were enrolled in state education at
all levels. In five years, that figure grew by 5 million. Ninety-one percent of all school-age
children were enrolled in school in 1991. When this figure is adjusted for school dropouts
and students repeating grades, the enrollment figures drop to 70-84 percent. In 1996, the
total official enrollment in primary, preparatory, and secondary schools topped 14 million,
the equivalent of 88 percent of the school-age population (boys, 94 percent; girls, 82
percent). In 1998-1999, some 17 million students were enrolled.
Rural-urban inequities continue to persist; in 1991-1992, rural enrollments often did not
exceed 50 percent of the appropriate age group. Gender inequities also persist; fewer
female than male students are enrolled. Many girls drop out of school at the end of their
basic compulsory program either to work or to marry. A law prohibiting girls from marrying
prior to age 16 has slowly begun to affect the female dropout rates.
The planning process, especially at the basic education level, begins at the bottom as
governate officials submit new project proposals (schools, classrooms, equipment, and
teachers) and budget requests every year to the Ministry of Education.

3.2. Basic Education


Preschool education: Within the Ministry of Education, a Higher Council for Childhood
supervises and coordinates preschool education with other concerned authorities. By
ministerial decree, preschool education is intended to aid mental, physical, social,
moral, and emotional development; develop language skills and numerical and technical
abilities, especially creativity and imagination; raise children in a better environment; help
children develop good personalities; and help children gradually accept formal school life
and discipline.
In 1995-1996 there were 2.060 preschools staffed by 10.913 teachers, enrolling 266.502
students. Preschool enrollment included 80 percent of the children in the relevant age group
(boys, 86 percent, and girls, 74 percent). There are no periods in the preschool day; days are
filled with activities and experiences to help children develop their spiritual, moral, physical,
social, and emotional domains. Homework or outside duties are strongly discouraged.
All preschool institutions, whether state run or privately operated, are under the Ministry
of Education, educationally, technically, and administratively. The Ministry selects and
distributes textbooks; the use of any additional textbooks is forbidden. Guidelines state
that each class is to have two teachers and a helper in addition to a music teacher. The
maximum class size is 45 students. No child less than 4-years-old is allowed in state
preschool classes or schools.
Primary Education: Primary school is also concerned with physical, social, moral, and
emotional development, as well as with giving children the knowledge and technical

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3. EDUCATION in Egypt

skills needed for a successful practical life. Students may attend non-government private
schools, religious schools, or government schools. Primary schools enroll 60 percent of
the total school population for all levels of schooling in Egypt. Approximately 45 percent
of the primary students are girls, and the majority of primary teachers are women. English
and French private schools are growing in popularity as bilingualism gives children
social and academic privileges and later lucrative employment. Primary schools served
7,5 million students in 1995-1996. In the same year, the Al-Azhar Moslem system served
704.446 students in 1.912 primary schools with another 147.762 students enrolled in 1.030
preparatory schools.
Preparatory Education: An important function of preparatory education is to provide a
safeguard against illiteracy as early school dropouts tend to lapse back into illiteracy. The
enrollments in preparatory schools in the 1990s totaled 3.679.325, less than half that of the
primary schools. Preparatory schools reflect the attrition occurring in the final primary year.

3.3. High School Education


The second tier of compulsory education (grades 7 through 9) lasts for three years.
Students completing the primary part of basic education can complete the second part
in general preparatory schools, in vocational training centers or schools, or in vocational
preparatory classes. Completion of this stage earns the Basic Education Completion
Certificate or the Certificate in Vocational Basic Education. There are two types of public
secondary education: general secondary education and technical secondary education.
To enter general secondary education, students must pass a national exam given at the
end of their preparatory stage. Secondary schools conduct examinations every month for
the first two years, and students take a national exam in the final year. Those who pass
receive the Certificate of General Secondary Education, a requirement for admission to the
universities (accompanied by a strong academic record). A wide range of social, cultural,
athletic, scientific, and artistic extra-curricular activities are available in secondary
schools, usually sponsored by the teachers. Enrollment expanded significantly between
1990-1991 and 1994-1995 in secondary school (47 percent in general secondary and 85
percent in technical-vocational secondary). In 1994-1995, general secondary enrollment
reached 894.400 students, while technical-vocational enrollment was more than twice as
high at 1.893.800 students. In 1996 secondary school enrollment included 68 percent of
the appropriate age group (boys, 71 percent; girls, 64 percent). In 1995-1996 there were
2.753 secondary schools with 6.142.651 students and 369.107 teachers.
In the parallel Islamic educational system, known as the Al-Azhar system, girls and
boys attend separate schools. In 1995-1996, the Al-Azhar Moslem system operated 57
secondary schools with 165.829 students. The curriculum is identical to the normal
public curriculum with additional study of the Quran and Islamic sciences. Graduates are
automatically accepted into Al-Azhar University.
Special Education: In the year 2000 approximately 10 to 12 percent of pre-university
students were special education students. Responsibility for the physically challenged
is shared by the Ministry of Education (concerned with the education of the blind and

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the research and innovation system in Egypt

partially sighted, deaf and partially deaf, and mentally retarded), the Ministry of Social
Affairs (provides rehabilitation services to all disabled persons), the Ministry of Health,
and the Ministry of Manpower. By 1994-1995, a total of 25 schools for the blind, 95 schools
for the hearing-impaired, and 107 schools for the mentally impaired students were
operating. Special schools and classes are provided at all levels, serving a total of 22.043
students in 1996-1997. English language study is part of the curricula in the preparatory
stage of basic special education.
Government-sponsored special education schools serve the gifted and talented and the
mentally retarded, as well as the physically challenged. Plans to identify gifted students
in the kindergarten stage and then to provide special learning experiences for them
were developed in 1996. In 1994-1995, some 699 new classrooms were established for
20.790 gifted secondary students. The Ein Shams University School for the gifted was
developed with 12 classes serving 261 children. Other special schools include private
schools in villages attached to mosques and private foreign schools where the language of
instruction is often not Arabic.

3.4. Modern Instructional Methods for Basic Education


In the early 1990s, The Center for Educational Technology was established within
the Ministry of Education. Technology equipment is considered as a medium for
developing scientific thinking, problem solving, new modes of learning, and training
and communication. New technology planned for pre-university schools includes
computers, projectors, television and video sets, and CDI sets. A five-year plan to equip
10,000 schools with this new technology was completed, and 2.000 computer instructors
were appointed to secondary schools. Advanced science laboratories were developed in
secondary schools (1.500 laboratories with 16.500 new computers).
By the mid-1990s, about 200 pre-university schools were linked to the Internet with
one pre-university school working on the Globe Project, which gathers environmentallyrelated global data for sharing with other schools. The Center, in collaboration with
the General Department for Educational Aids, is implementing an integrated plan to
enhance educational aids such as transparencies, colored slides, still films, models,
and microscopic and biological samples; to produce laser CDs for various topics in the
curriculum starting with the very early years; and to produce videotapes and audio tapes
especially in the language areas (Arabic, English, and French).
Training on the new equipment has been introduced in Cairo and will eventually take
place in educational technology centers closer to schools. In collaboration with Egyptian
Radio and Television, distance-training programs are being developed to assist teachers.
Six training centers throughout the country are being connected through a fiber optic
network to facilitate exchange of information and maximize the use of the technology.
Multi-media laboratories, the Internet, and language and computer laboratories are being
introduced in the colleges of education. The Egyptian Universitys Network (EUN) links
university computer centers and research institutes throughout Egypt and is the Egyptian
gateway to the Internet. Internet use is available to all universities, faculty members, and

31

3. Education in Egypt

graduate students (with about 1300 users in the mid-1990s). More than 80 organizations
throughout Egypt can also access it.

3.5. International Cooperation Projects for Basic Education


Extensive foreign influence is apparent throughout Egyptian education. Examples include
UNESCO and Fulbright support of overseas teacher training, World Bank engagement in
distance education and educational reform as part of loan programs, and technical and
scientific education aid using expertise, facilities, and equipment from Americans, French,
Germans, Italians, and Japanese. UNICEF aids in development of educational materials.
Teachers are sent overseas to the United States, the United Kingdom, and France for
training. The Egyptian-Swiss Fund for Development works to improve primary education.
Pan Arabic conferences set the aims and goals of education in Egypt and other nations.

3.6. Higher Education


Higher education is provided by universities and higher institutes of technical and
professional training, both public and private. Responsibility for higher education lies
mainly with the Ministry of Higher Education. Organization and administration, as well
as academic programs, are determined by laws, decrees and government regulations.
The State universities are under the authority of the Supreme Council of Universities.
Universities have full academic and administrative autonomy. They also carry out
scientific research. The higher institutes of professional and technical training award
qualifications equivalent to the first qualification conferred by the universities. Open
college education was introduced at the universities of Cairo, Alexandria and Assiut in
1991. Private universities are entitled to implement their own criteria of admission and to
set fees without intervention from the Ministry. Besides, Some Egyptian universities have
begun to establish certain modified curricula which can be joined by students paying their
own fees. This can represent and important source of funding as most of the students are
constitutionally granted free education.
The higher education system in Egypt is made up of 18 public universities with more than
2,4 million students, 12 public non-university institutions, and 22 private universities
providing technical and professional training. Of the 12 non-university institutions, 8 are
two year upper secondary-level technical institutes (MTI), and four or five year higher
education-level technical institutes. Those are joined by 115 private institutes giving the
same type of education. There are more than 63.000 teaching staff in the Egyptian higher
education.
The first stage of higher education consists of four to six years of multidisciplinary study in
basic subjects. They lead to the award of the Baccalaureate degree. In Medicine, studies
last for six years, with one additional year of practical work. The best graduates are usually
offered the positions of a teaching assistant.
The second stage is more specialized and comprises two to five years of training in individual

32

the research and innovation system in Egypt

research work culminating in the submission of a thesis. The degree awarded is the Masters
degree. Teaching assistants are required to obtain their Masters degree in Egypt to encourage
local research. They will then be promoted to the position of Assistant Lecturers.
The third stage leads to the Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) after at least two years study
following the Masters Degree. It is awarded for advanced research work culminating
in a thesis. In Medicine, the degree of a Doctor in Medical Sciences may be prepared
concurrently with the degree of a professional Doctor of Medicine.
Assistant lecturers are usually able to obtain the necessary fellowships which allow
them to study abroad in order to obtain the PhD degree and further to have adequate
postdoctoral training. Upon returning home they will be appointed as lecturers. They need
to attend some courses in education to learn how to be a good teachers. After five years
they will be eligible for the position of an associate professor if they produce enough
scientific publications. It will take five years more and more publications to obtain the
position of a full professor.
It should be mentioned that many assistant lecturers do not return back home, causing a brain
drain problem. To face a difficult financial situation after returning home, many university staff
members obtain temporary university positions in neighbouring countries, usually extending
for five years. This frequently has a negative effect on their research potential.
Non-university education is offered by industrial, commercial, and technical institutes that
provide two-year courses leading to diplomas in accountancy, secretarial work, insurance,
computer or health sciences and electronics. Technical education schools provide five-year
courses leading to advanced technical education diplomas in commercial, industrial, and
agricultural fields.
There are three bodies for the governance and control of higher education in Egypt: the
Ministry of Higher Education, the Supreme Council of Universities (SCU), and the Central
Administration of Al-Azhar Institutes. The Ministry of Higher Education has jurisdiction
over higher education through the supervision and coordination of all post-secondary
education, planning, policy formulation, and quality control. It also oversees teacher
training for basic education. The Supreme Council of Universities, founded in 1950,
formulates the overall policy of university education and scientific research in universities
and determines the number of students to be admitted to each faculty in each university.

3.7.

Modernization of Higher Education

Various projects were initiated to modernize the higher education system in Egypt.
Prominent among these projects are the Tempus and HEEPF projects.

3.7.1. The Tempus Project Fund


Since 2002, the EU Tempus project in Egypt, with most of the Egyptian Universities
participating in a total of 64 Tempus projects. The subject areas were: Urban and Regional

33

3. Education in Egypt

Planning, Microfinance, Health Care, Open and Distance Learning, European Studies,
Engineering and Technology, Electrical Engineering, Chemistry, Bio-Chemistry, Cultural
Heritage, Pharmacy, Translation and Interpreting, Management and Business, Information
Technologies, Interdisciplinary Studies, Mechanical Engineering, Medicine and Surgery,
Tourism and Leisure, Physical Education, and Biology. Though this project aims at encouraging
cooperation between Egyptian, regional and international higher education systems.
Tempus has had a strong influence on modernizing the Higher Education System in Egypt.
The program was very timely to accompany the implementation of the Higher Education
Enhancement Strategy that was introduced in 2000 and revised twice, in 2002 and
2004. The main objectives of this strategy were in line with the objectives of Tempus:
(modernization of curricula, Introduction of Quality Assurance in Higher Education, etc.).
Although the direct impact of Tempus projects on the Egyptian Higher Education system is
not directly visible, the programs long term involvement in the country and the introduction
of competitiveness in Higher Education have been the main direct outcomes.
One of the main elements of impact of Tempus in Egypt is the introduction of quality
education through partnerships with EU member states in different disciplines, with more
than 170 IMG (individual Mobility Grants) grants being awarded to staff members from Egypt.
Such a mechanism was one of the most demanded in the country, and shows the interest of
Egyptian staff members in retraining and building bridges for cooperation. Many JEP (joint
European projects) projects introduced new concepts and program in the education system
and were considered as self sustainable success stories for the modernization of Higher
Education in Egypt. Tempus has also been one of the main catalysts for the modernization.

3.7.2. The Higher Education Enhancement Project Fund (HEEPF)


Beside the Tempus project, the Higher Education Enhancement Project Fund (HEEPF) is
another mechanism within the national higher education enhancement strategic plan
(HEEP). HEEPF is part of the loan agreement dated April 2002, between the Egypt and the
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development to support and Finance priority
areas of the strategic plan of the higher Education Enhancement Project HEEP. The amount
of the loan allocated for HEEPF Grants equal to 12.000.000 USD that was increased to
13.000.000 USD. The project aims at an active participation in the implementation of
the strategic plan of continuous higher education enhancement through competitive
mechanisms to achieve distinction in Egyptian Education institutions and upgrade them to
reach the international standards.
By 2000, the universities generated 150.000 graduates a year. A two-semester system
for the school year was instituted in all universities in 1992. The university academic year
is 30 working weeks. Arabic is the medium of instruction in humanities, social studies,
education, law, commerce, economics and political sciences, information, social service,
tourism and hotels. English is widely used in the faculties of medicine, pharmacology,
dentistry science, and engineering.
Higher education includes non-university training in Egypt in engineering and
technological education institutes, education institutes, private institutes, technical

34

the research and innovation system in Egypt

industrial institutes, and commercial and hotel institutes. Since the late 1970s, the
government initiated policies to reorient postsecondary education toward technical
training programs in agriculture, commerce, and a variety of other fields. Student
subsidies were partially responsible for a 15 percent annual increase in enrollments in
the countrys five-year technical institutes. In 1993-1994, 49,703 students were enrolled
in commerce institutes (24.906 women) and 31.259 in technical institutes (9.401 women).
Female literacy in 1927 was only 5 percent; fifty years later it was 38 percent (male literacy
was 62 percent). The combined adult literacy rate is estimated presently at 57 percent.
Both men and women have equal opportunity in pursuing higher education. Given that
education is state-sponsored and that progression through school is dependent on
test scores, the number of women in science and engineering colleges has increased
remarkably. The female students in year 2002 reached 55,4% in pharmacology, 45,5%
in medical schools, 58,1% in dentistry, 45,4% in veterinary, 45,8% in science colleges
(physics, chemistry, mathematics, biology, and geology), 37,4% in computer science,
and 24,5% in engineering as shown in Fig.2. Women getting accepted into science and
engineering schools are not likely to drop out because they have reached this position
after a tough competition that screened all students and proved that they are capable of
pursuing these studies. Moreover, higher education in Egypt is free.

35

3. Education in Egypt

Table 4

Performance Indicators of the HEEPF University Education Project


HEEPF
Objectives

Output/Outcome

Performance Indicators

Create a
competitive
environment
to improve
and enhance
Higher
Education
Institutes

563 proposals have


been submitted
over 4 Cycles where
158 projects were
selected for fund in
Egyptian universities
are funded. (41 in
the 1st, 36 in the
2nd, 36 in the 3rd
and 45 in the 4th
cycle).
Contractual
budget for the
funded projects
=13.884.096 US$
83 projects have
been successfully
submitted.

HE Institutions participated in
the HEEPF projects

17 universities, 5 T/C &


MOHE.

Faculties participated in the


HEEPF projects

90

Direct beneficiaries

121.722 undergraduate
students and 100.915
other categories

Indirect beneficiaries

89.899 undergraduate
students and 209.747
other categories

Faculty members participated


in the HEEPF Projects.

3.540

New under-graduate programs

New postgraduate programs

35

Upgraded under-graduate
curricula

10

Upgraded post-graduate
curricula

44

Upgraded and developed


courses

509

Laboratories upgrading

122

Simulation/Virtual labs

71 Experiments

E-learning and on-line courses

519 electronic courses

Knowledge resources

IT projects

16

MIS, HMS & Database

Quality assurance systems

15

Management and reform of


higher education institutes.

Specialized/interdisciplinary
centers have been incorporated
with HEEPF projects.

57

Cooperation protocols with


community organizations have
been signed and activated.

39

Specialized units for


sustainability purposes

64

Increase
collaboration
with the
community

Establishment of
relations with the
community

Source: Ministry of Higher Education, Egypt

36

the research and innovation system in Egypt

4. Science in Egypt
4.1. Introduction
Egypt is aiming to achieve a high standard of academic achievement while maintaining
its cultural heritage. This ambitious aim is built on a well-founded research structure and
a vast manpower resource of critical mass. Historically, prior to the nineteenth century,
the ulama and Coptic clergy controlled Egypts traditional education. The countrys most
important institutes were theological seminaries, but most mosques and churches even
in villages operated basic schools where boys could learn to read and write Arabic, to
do simple arithmetic, and to memorize passages from the Quran or Bible. Muhammad Ali
established the system of modern secular education in the early nineteenth century to
provide technically trained cadres for his civil administration and military. His grandson,
Ismail, greatly expanded the system by creating a network of public schools at the
primary, secondary, and higher levels. Ismails wife set up the first school for girls in
1873. Between 1882 and 1922, when the country was under British administration, state
education did not expand. However, numerous private schools, including Egypts first
secular university, were established.

4.2. Science Centers


In the following lines a brief description of some of Egypt science facilities will be presented.

4.2.1. Cairo University


As detailed elsewhere in this report, Egypt at present has 18 state universities and twenty
two private universities. While offering students the opportunity of higher studies, they
play an important role as research centers. The presence of graduate studies in each
department allows faculty members to carry out research work while supervising Masters
and PhD degree student. Publishing in international journals is strongly encouraged. We
will offer more details regarding Cairo University, the oldest Egyptian University.
At the beginning of twentieth century, some Egyptian social thinkers called for the
establishment of an Egyptian University to act as a lighthouse of liberal thought and to be
the basis of a comprehensive academic revival in all the fields of knowledge in order to be
able to cope with the international scientific and academic advancement.
The university finally came into being and it was officially inaugurated on December 21,
1908. Study began at the university in the evening of the inauguration day in the form of
general lectures to be given in diverse places until an official location was found. The first
concern of the University was to send some of their distinguished students to Europe to
obtain their Ph.D. and then come back to teach at the university.
The University also established a library that contained invaluable books and treatises
that were authored by Egyptians and non-Egyptians alike. As a result of the Universitys
accomplishments, the government decided to establish a State University in 1917 and set

37

4. Science in Egypt

up committee to study the project. The committee suggested that the Higher Schools be
upgraded to the university level and annexed to the existing colleges. School of Law and
School of Medicine were thus annexed to the State University in February 12, 1923. It was
agreed that the old University would merge into new one, with the Faculty of Arts as the
core.
Fig.3

Percentage of female university students in science colleges (2000/2001)


70
60
50
40
30
20
10

Science
VeterinaryComputer

Agriculture

Computer

Dendistry

Veterinary

Engineering

Pharmacology

Science

Dendistry

Science

Medicine

Engineering

Medicine

Agriculture

Pharmacology

Source: Global Alliance for Diversifying the Science and Engineering Workforce3
Cairo University now has 20 faculties. These are: The Faculty of Agriculture, Archaeology,
Arts, Commerce, Computer and Information Sciences, Dar El-Ulum (Islamic Studies),
Oral Dental Medicine, Economics and Political Sciences, Engineering, Law, Mass
Communications, Medicine, Pharmacology, Physiotherapy, Regional and Urban Planning,
Science, Veterinary Medicine, Nursing, Kindergarten Education and Specific Education.
Besides, Cairo University has an open learning center and four institutes: The Institute
of African Studies and Research, The Institute of Educational Studies and Research, The
National Cancer Institute and The National Institute of Laser Enhanced Sciences. The
suggestions and advice of Dr. Ahmed Zewail, the Egyptian Nobel Prize Winner, played an
important role in establishing the Laser Institute. The Open Learning Center allows grown
ups who wish to obtain a university degree such an opportunity.
Each faculty allows student to choose from various specializations (departments). For
3

38

http://www.globalalliancesmet.org/egypt_education.htm

the research and innovation system in Egypt

example, the Faculty of Engineering of Cairo University has the following Engineering
departments: Aeronautical and Aerospace, Architectural, Biomedical, Chemical, Civil,
Computer, Electric Power and Machines, Electronics and Electrical Communication,
Mathematics and Physics, Irrigation and Hydraulics, Mechanical Design and Production,
Mechanical Power Mining Petroleum and Metallurgical, Public Works and Structural
Engineering.
The Faculty of Engineering of Cairo University, again as an example, has the following
research Centers and Laboratories: Architectural and Engineering Design Center,
Center for Advancement of Post-Graduate Studies and research in Engineering Sciences
(CAPSCU), Center for Advanced Software and Biomedical Engineering Consultations,
Center of Studies and Design for Water Projects, Center of Studies and training, Civil
Engineering Center, Concrete Research Laboratory, Engineering Center for Archeology
and Environment, Energy research Center, High Tech Design and Consultation Center
(ICT), Material Testing Lab, Soil Mechanics and Foundation Research Lab, Technical Center
for Job Promotion, Center of Manufacturing Studies, Highway and Airport Engineering
Research, Tribology and Spare Parts Center and The Unit for Production and Management.
University staff members are usually experienced researchers, having obtained their
PhD degrees from prominent international centers and having gone through the usual
postdoctoral research experience.
This was just one example of education and research scientific activities at on Egyptian
university. Other comparable activities can be also found at other universities such as
Ain Shams, Alexandria, Mansoura, Assiut, the American University in Cairo, The German
University in Cairo, etc.

4.2.2. National Research Center (NRC)


The National Research Centre is the largest multidisciplinary R&D Center devoted to basic
applied research within the major fields of interest. It is the largest of all institutions affiliated
with the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific research and employs about 70% of
all scientists working in research institutions. It was established as an independent public
organization at 1956, with the aim to foster basic and applied scientific research particularly
in industry, agriculture, public health and other sectors of national economy.
Between the sixties and eighties 6 divisions of NRC developed into independent research institutes:
The National Institute of Standards
Petroleum Research Institute
Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute
Theodore Bilharz Research Institute
Ophthalmology Research Institute
Electronics Research Institute.
Since its establishment, the NRC has evolved through 3 distinct stages. The initial stage
extending from 1956 to 1968, focused on man power development and building research

39

4. Science in Egypt

capacity in basic sciences. The second stage (1968-1973) was characterized by a growing
interaction with the national production and services sectors. The third stage (1973 till
now) concentrated on customer oriented research serving specific needs of end users. The
scientific fields of interest span over Textile, Food and Nutrition, Pharmaceutical, Organic
Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry, Mineral Resources, Engineering, Renewable Energies,
Agriculture, Biology, Veterinary, Environmental Sciences, Medical Sciences, Genetic
Engineering, Human genetics, Biotechnology, Physics, and New Materials.
The NRC is marked by a basic orientation of its activities to customer-oriented research
in order to address the national needs more effectively through scientific and technical
research. So, it organizes its development-related activities almost into 8 major
multidisciplinary programs, namely:
Environmental, Health, and Medical Research
Biotechnology Research
Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Industries Research
Chemical and Textile Industries Research
Material Sciences, Renewable Energies and Engineering Research
Food and Nutrition Industries Research
Agricultural and Animal Research
Natural & Basic Sciences

4.2.3. Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI)


CMRDI is a research center affiliated to the State Minister of Scientific Research. The
mission of the institute is to enhance the competitiveness of the Egyptian industry and the
welfare of the society through technological development and technology transfer. CMRDI
offers services to industry covering research projects, consultancy, technical services,
training, testing and certification.
Over almost three decades of collaboration with Egyptian industry, these services have
been focused on the actual demands of the client and application in the company, giving
the institute a profile of needs pull rather than technology push.
CMRDI has a longstanding and successful collaboration with many national and overseas
R&D institutions, which guarantees a sound scientific basis. As a matter of fact, CMRDI
cooperates frequently with Egyptian industry and universities to enrich research in
various disciplines. One such case was the cooperation with the National Institute of Laser
Enhanced Sciences and the General Company for Automobile Manufacturing in the area of
laser material processing and how it can be applied in the car industry.
CMRDI has also largely benefited from cooperation with international agencies such as
JICA (Japan), TNO (Netherlands) and SIDA (Sweden). Thanks to this support, CMRDI was
able to play an effective role in transferring many technologies to the Egyptian industries
as well as other African and Middle-East countries.

40

the research and innovation system in Egypt

4.2.4. National Cancer Institute (NCI)


The National Cancer Institute Cairo University (NCI) is fortress of cancer control in Egypt
through developing and maintaining integrated quality programs in patient care, research,
education and prevention.
The NCI mission could only be accomplished by building and maintaining government and public
trust and support, together with national and international cooperation to reach the state of the
art in application of health care. NCI is committed to the multidisciplinary approach in cancer
management in which different treatment modalities cooperate rather than compete. Professional
and public educations are vital to solve the problem of the late presentation of patients.
A network of cancer centers that covers all Egypts provinces was recently established.
The NCI extended its support to these cancer centers to recruit its wealth of trained
scientists in different disciplines of oncology diagnosis, treatment and prevention. The
NCI extended the support by sharing its specialized facilities, know-how, labs and centers
not only through conventional methods, but also through most advanced technologies
such as telemedicine. The Academic Program of the NCI offers advanced training and
professional degrees in different oncology disciplines. It is continuously being updated
and upgraded to satisfy the needs of the advancement in medical practice and the needs
of the Egyptian patients. The NCI views cancer as a disease that requires cost sharing
and proper management at cancer centers. The implementation of computerized hospital
management systems will be necessary to optimize the utilization and operation all cancer
centers in Egypt. Most patients are actually treated free of charge through government
subsidies and many generous public donations.

4.2.5. Agriculture Genetic Engineering Research Institute (AGERI)


The Agricultural Genetic Engineering Research Institute (AGERI) is a discipline - oriented
institute within the Agricultural Research Center (ARC) of the Ministry of Agriculture & Land
Reclamation (MALR) - Arab Republic of Egypt.
AGERI is the primary institute which deals with agricultural genetic engineering in Egypt. It aims at:
Broadening the research and development capabilities and scope of the Agricultural
Research Center in the public and private sectors (i.e., initiation of new program areas and
application to a wider array of crop species).
Expanding and diversifying the pool of highly qualified trained professionals in the area
of biotechnology.
Promoting opportunities for private sector development.
Enhancing cooperation with collaborative public and/or private projects with
established research units.
Providing opportunities for university- trained professionals (e.g. faculty, researchers
and teachers), the Ministry of Agriculture (professional researchers) and private venture
companies to cooperate in agricultural genetic engineering research.
Achieving the desired level of self-reliance and self-financing within AGERI to mobilize
the funds necessary for the running costs of laboratories.

41

4. Science in Egypt

Providing agricultural genetic engineering capabilities to meet Egypts current problems.


Advancing Egyptian agriculture using available genetic engineering capabilities.
Some of the main research areas are the enhancement of virus resistance, insect
resistance, fungal resistance and nematode resistance of plants beside enhancing their
stress tolerance. Other projects include genome mapping and bio-molecular engineering.

4.2.6. New and Renewable Energy Authority (NREA)


Development and efficient management of primary energy resources are considered
important pillars for sustainable development in Egypt. Energy sources are classified into
conventional sources such as oil, natural gas and coal as well as renewable sources such
as hydro, solar, wind and biomass sources.
The New & Renewable Energy Authority (NREA) was established in 1986 to act as a
national focal point to introduce and promote renewable energy technologies for
potential applications, particularly generating electricity on a commercial scale together
with implementation of related energy conservation measures. Accordingly, renewable
energy plays a significant role in saving fossil fuel, reducing green house gas emissions,
hence contributing to preservation of the environment. Currently, the strategy targets
at obtaining 3% of the local electric energy demand from renewable energy resources,
mainly wind & solar, by the year 2010, with additional contribution of other RE
applications.
NREA is entrusted to plan and implement renewable energy programs in coordination
with other concerned national and international institutions within the framework of its
mandate which includes:
Renewable energy resource assessment.
Research, development, demonstration, testing and evaluation of the different RE
technologies focusing on solar, wind and biomass.
Implementation of renewable energy projects.
Proposing the Egyptian standard specifications for renewable energy equipment
& systems, and conducting tests to evaluate their performance, under the Egyptian
prevailing conditions, hence issuing respective licensing certificates to that effect.
Rendering of consultancy services in the field of renewable energy.
Technology transfer and development of local manufacturing of Renewable Energy
equipment.
Education, training and information dissemination.

4.2.7. Mubarak City for Scientific Research and Technology Applications


Mubarak City for Scientific Research & Technology Applications is the newest addition
of research institutes in Egypt that was directed to the development and renovation of
industry.

42

the research and innovation system in Egypt

A decision to develop a science park in the Alexandria region was reached in 1993 in
order to acquire and improve scientific technologies in different areas of human life. The
City occupies 250 acres in the industrial area located at New Borg El Arab City, west of
Alexandria. This region also embraces about 40% of the Egyptian industry. The science
park comprises 12 research centers to be developed at different intervals.
The objectives of the City institutes were clearly categorized to serve the development and
renovation of industry in Egypt. These objectives can be summarized as follows:
Develop centers of scientific Excellence that can serve both economic and social
developments of the Egyptian society.
Develop new technologies and provide new scientific methods in different fields of
industry in order to link research programs to national development plans.
Provide training, consulting and technology transfer to different production and service
agents in Egypt.
Conduct applicable projects to ensure better performance in different areas that can
benefit the Alexandria region and the national economy.
Cooperation with different national and international institutes in the various areas of
technology.

4.2.8. The Information Technology Industry Development Agency (ITIDA)


ITIDA is a governmental entity that has been established through Law 15 of the year
2004. This agency aims at paving the way for the diffusion of the e-business services in
Egypt capitalizing on different mandates of the authority such as activating the Egyptian
e-signature law and supporting an export-oriented IT sector in Egypt.
The main objectives of the ITIDA are:
Increasing exports of ICT products and services.
Regulating the electronic signature related activities.
Supporting and encouraging e-business in Egypt, especially among the small and
medium enterprises.
Guiding and encouraging investments in the ICT sector.
Supporting R&D in the ICT sector and implementing its output.
The ITIDAs services include:
Issuing and renewing the licenses required for the certification service providers (CSPs)
in the field of e-signature services and electronic transactions.
Addressing complaints and assisting in resolving legal conflicts related to the use of
e-signatures and electronic transactions.
Offering technical counseling in disputes related to e-signatures and electronic
transactions.
Functioning as the registration center for original computer software put forth by organizations
or individual publishers and producers to protect intellectual property and other rights.

43

4. Science in Egypt

5. Research, Development and Innovation in Egypt


5.1. Introduction
The structure of research and innovation activities in Egypt is presently undergoing
significant changes. Until recently research funding suffered and strongly depended
on international grants. There was no clear national policy of research and researchers
usually continued to work along the same lines of research of their PhD advisors or group
leaders, with later being related to where and what the advisor studied himself more
than to a national plan. This resulted in research being considered by the community as
a luxury and by researchers only as a vehicle for foreign travel and promotion. The brain
drain problem was understandable. The lack of a national research policy whose objective
is to solve local industrial problems together with weak links between academia and
industry and limited funding were serious problems.

5.2. The Structure


Things began to change when new concepts such as the global marker began to emerge.
It became clear that research is the only means to compete. Besides, international funding
agencies donated grants for common research between Egyptian researchers and their
international counterparts, with strict measures for funding. Research was carried out in
Egypt and the brain drain problem was minimized. Egyptian research began to develop.
Some groups began to work on modernizing industry, some to develop ICT applications,
some began working on genetically-engineered agricultural products, etc. International
cooperation began to achieve positive results by working closely with different ministries
and industries. This describes the present phase.
The problem was only partially solved that way. Local planning and funding of research
were left for a later stage. The prime minister of Egypt will himself chair a new 18-member
S&T council, modeled on a similar panel in Japan. The Supreme Council for Science and
Technology will include six scientists, eight Cabinet members with research portfolios,
as well as representatives of industry and finance. The funding shortage had to be faced.
The planned restructuring would transfer most grant-giving functions of Egypts massive
Academy of Scientific Research and Technology to the new granting agency, which will be
called the Egyptian National Funding Agency. The academy will allow important topics to
be investigated, but its future role will not be in funding research.

44

the research and innovation system in Egypt

Fig.4

Structure of Egypts Innovation policy measures

Source: Medibtikar Programme4

5.3. Egypts Main Innovation Actors


The latest European charts on innovation shows that Egypt has an innovation policy
implemented via measures to stimulate investment, venture capital, business
incubators, industrial modernization, small and medium enterprises development and
entrepreneurship. There is no formal coordination body yet. The delivery of innovation
policy is carried out via the programs of related ministries often with assistance from
donor organizations. An important factor is the Social Fund for Development (SFD) which
finances business centers and incubators as well as the Industrial modernization Program
(IMP) and GAFI, the General Authority for Investment. The key drivers of innovation are
industrial modernization and privatization of state industry. The recent appointment of
4

45

http://www.medibtikar.eu/

5. Research, Development and Innovation in Egypt

ministers with strong private sector back grounds in the areas of finance, tourism and
industry is a positive step.
The main innovation actors can be divided into four groups:
Fig. 5

The four groups of Innovation Actors

Source: Medibtikar Programme5


Table 5

5.3.1. Groups of Innovation Actors


Group I Actors: Policy Development and Public Administration
Organization

Acronym

Ministry of Investment

Website
www.investment.gov.eg

The General Authority for Investment and Free Trade


Zones

GAFI

www.gafinet.org

The Industrial Modernization Center

IMC

www.imc-egypt.org

The Information Society Development Office


The Cabinet Information and Decision Support Centre

www.isdo.gov.eg
IDSC

www.idsc.gov.eg

The National Competitiveness Council

www.encc.info

Ministry for Communication & IT

www.mcit.gov.eg

Ministry of State for Administrative Development

www.ad.gov.eg

National Education Technology Programme

www.netp.gov.eg

The Ministry for Higher Education and Research

www.egy-mhe.gov.eg

Egyptian Studies Network

www.studies.idsc.gov.eg

The EU Delegation in Egypt

www.eu-delegation.org.eg

USAID in Egypt

www.usaidegypt.org

Ministry of Trade & Industry

www.mfti.gov.eg

National Telecommunication Regulatory Authority

46

http://www.medibtikar.eu/

the research and innovation system in Egypt

NTRA

www.tra.gov.eg

Table 6

Group II Actors: Industry and its Representatives


Organization
The Federation of Egyptian Industries
The Egyptian Capital Market Association
The Egyptian Investment Management Association
The Egyptian Businessmen Association
The Egyptian Association for Industrial Development
The Small Enterprise Development Organization
The Social Fund for Development
The E-learning and Business Solutions Union
Foreign companies
ALSTOM
Proctor and Gamble
Kraft
Chupachups
Public Companies
Egyptian Gas Company
Local Companies
Orascom
T-Shirt Egypt
Alfa-Electronics
IEC-Egypt
Gharably Engineering Co.
El Nasr Clothing & Textile Co. (KABO)

Table 7

Acronym
FEI
ECMA
EIMA
EBA
EAID
SEDO
SFD
eLabs

Website
www.fei.org.eg
www.ecma.org.eg
www.eima.org.eg
www.eba.org.eg
www.eaid.org.eg
www.sedo.org
www.sfdegypt.org
www.elabs.org.eg
www.alstom.com.eg
www.pg.com.eg
www.kraft.com
www.chupachups.com.eg
www.egas.com.eg
www.orascom.com
www.t-shirtegypt.co
www.alfa-electronix.com
www.iec-egypt.com.eg
www.gharably.com.eg
www.kabo.co

Group III Actors: Innovation Related Service Providers


Organization
The European Information Correspondence Centre

Acronym
EICC

Website
www.eicc.org.eg

The Egyptian Center of Intellectual Property and Information


Technology

ECIPIT

www.ecipit.org.eg

The Centre for Agricultural Technology Utilization and Transfer


The Technology Development Programme

www.atut.gov.eg
TDP
www.smartvillages.com

Pyramid Smart Village (MCIT)


Information Technology Industry Development Agency

ITIDA

www.itida.gov.eg

The Software Engineering Competence Center

SECC

www.secc.org.eg

Electronic Research Institute

ERI

Science and Intelligence Park (MCIT)


Sinai Technology Valley

47

5. Research, Development and Innovation in Egypt

Organization
National Telecommunication Institute
Egyptian National Committee on Irrigation and Drainage

Acronym
NTI
ENCID

Website
www.nti.sci.eg
www.encid.org.eg

Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute

CMRDI

www.cmrdi.sci.eg

Egyptian Centre for Economic Studies

ECES

www.eces.org.eg

Economic Research Forum for Arab Countries, Iran and Turkey

ERF

www.erf.org.eg

National Water Research Center

ICWH

www.icwh.gov.eg

The Central Laboratory for Agricultural Expert Systems

CLAES

www.claes.sci.eg

The Egyptian Studies Network


ACTIS

www.act.is

Averroes Finance

www.proparco.fr

EFG-Hermes

www.efg-hermes.
com.eg

Credit Guarantee Company for Small Scale Enterprises

www.cgc.org.eg

Egyptian Incubator Association

www.eia.org.eg

Egypts International Economic Forum

www.eieforum.org

Centre Dtudes Et De Documentation Economiques

www.cedej.org.eg

A system of 116 research laboratories in 12 universities in addition


to 70 R&D Centers

Table 8

Group IV Actors: Educators and Information Providers


Organization
The Egyptian University System
13 public Universities
8 private universities
Central Library of Alexandria University

Acronym

Website
www.frcu.eun.eg

www.auclib.edu.eg

5.3.2. The Supreme Council of Research Centers


In 2000 the Supreme Council of Research Centers was set up and meets once a month.
Its role is to improve the coordination of research efforts at national level and across all
ministries. It is co-chaired by the Minister for Higher Education and Scientific Research. It
brings together representatives from the following ministries:
Industry and technological development
Water resources and irrigation
Agriculture
Transport
Electricity and energy
Health and habitation
Communication

48

the research and innovation system in Egypt

Planning and International cooperation


National Defense and Arms.

5.3.3. The Academy of Sciences and Technology


The Academy of Sciences and Technology continues to play a key role. It represents Egypt
in WIPO (World Intellectual Property Organization) and manages research councils on:
Energy and Renewable Energy
Nuclear Sciences and Technology
Space Sciences & Technology
National Critical Technologies.
It has a team dedicated to Technology Forecasting. It finances the R&D activities
of university laboratories and research centers. Scientific research laboratories in
universities and research or technology centers depend mainly on ministries such as
the Ministry for Higher Education and Scientific Research, the Ministry for Industry, the
Ministry for Agriculture, the Ministry for Health and the Ministry for Transport. Although
many of these centers have a strong problem solving orientation and have e built
interfaces with industry but they have not yet had a great impact.

5.3.4. The incubator


The SFD or Social Fund for Development finances the Enterprise Development Programme
or EDP. Among other things this provides support for the setting up of technology
incubators. The incubator programme was launched in 1995. The first incubator to become
functional was the Tala Incubator in 1998. A total of 8 are planned for locations such
as Sixth of October City, Tabbin, Mansoura, Asiut, Aswan, Ain Shams and Sharqiya in
addition to that in Tala. The EIA or Egyptian Incubator Association was established in 1995
to serve as the executing agency for the SFD.

5.3.5. Mubarak Science City


This important science center, located in Alexandria, was established in 1993 with a
plan to house 12 research centers and institutes focused on domains such as IT, Genetic
Engineering, Fine Chemicals, Laser technologies, pharmaceuticals, new materials, small
scale industry development and engineering. The first four institutes were inaugurated in
August 2000. Mubarak Science City also hosts Biotechnology and Information Technology
Incubators that are managed in cooperation with the EIA.

5.3.6. The Industrial Modernization Center


Under the MEDA Program, the Industrial Modernisation Center was started though an

49

5. Research, Development and Innovation in Egypt

initial contribution of 250M from the EU supported by an Egyptian contribution. The


objective is to prepare the Egyptian Industry for the globalization era.

5.4. The Governance System of R&D and Innovation in Egypt


The governance system for research in Egypt at present is made up of four levels:
The funding program
The Institute to which the research group belongs
The ministry to which the institute belongs
The supreme council of research centers.
Usually there is no unified interplay between the four levels which applies to all research
projects. The governance of the funding program, which is usually based on various
performance indicators. The role of the supreme council is to bring together representatives
of different ministries to discuss research plans. The degree of governance exercised by the
institute and the ministry concerns the benefits gained from the reseach project.

5.5. The Performance Indicators


Previously research projects were judged by reviewers studing progress reports. Recently,
the importance of performance indicators was recognized the following performance
indicators are slowly being adopted:
Graduates of research oriented post-graduate programs having higher starting salaries,
more job offers, and shorter waits for first employment
Number and impact of academia-industry collaborations
Number and amount of external funding (such as from industry) and awards
Number of projects in progress
Number of Publications in Journals with Impact Factor
Annual Number of patents.

5.6. National Policy of Science and Innovation


Egypt has an innovation policy implemented via measures to stimulate investment,
venture capital, business incubators, industrial modernisation, better education, SME
(small and medium enterprises) development and entrepreneurship. Until recently there
was no formal coordinating body. The delivery of innovation policy was carried out via
the programs of the relevant ministries often implemented with assistance from donor
organisations. Important point of reference were the SFD (Social Fund for Development)
which finances business centres and incubators, the IMP or Industrial Modernisation
Programme and GAFI (the General Authority For Investment).
Recognizing the importance of improving science, technology and innovation to Egypts
competitiveness and development, Egypt is presently attempting to invigorate science
50

the research and innovation system in Egypt

and innovation through stronger political support. This has been reflected in the
announcement made by the Egyptian President indicating the period 2007- 2016 as the
Decade for Science and Technology.
In addition, a structural reform for the R&D sector is taking place where two presidential
decrees were passed in February 2007. The first was concerned with the establishment of
a Supreme Council for Science and Technology chaired by the Prime Minister. The second
decreed the establishment of a Science and Technology Development Fund (STDF) to
support the Egyptian innovation capabilities. In addition, several initiatives have been
taken as an attempt to strengthen the R&D system in Egypt and to lay the ground for
developing an innovation system. This includes the creation of science parks, incubators
and technology valleys. Egyptian Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research
has prepared a reform strategy for the next five years (2007-2012). It is related to the restructuring of science and technology governance, national initiative for the development
of human resources, priority of national projects, funding of science and technology,
national initiative for informal education, national initiative for innovation.
The national priorities will be: new and renewable energy, desalination and water
resources, nanotechnology, biotechnology, food and agriculture, biomedical sciences
(liver and kidney diseases and cancer) as well as information and communication
technology. Due to the very efficient network of FP7 focal points (involving key research
actors, i.e. universities, research centers, industry and other institutions) established
under the umbrella of the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research (HESR),
Egypt was able to significantly increase the participation of Egyptian researchers in
the European framework program of research. In addition, a national Joint ResearchIndustry Fund supported by the Ministry of HESR and the Ministry of Trade and Industry
was established and a number of projects funded with the objective of promoting links
between industry and the research community in Egypt.

5.7. Regional Policy of Science and Innovation


No formal structure is yet available for cooperation with countries of the region in which
Egypt is located. The benefits of cooperation with technologically advanced partners
usually overshadow cooperation with developing countries. External funding tends to
encourage such cooperation and the ICTI (International Center for Theoretical Physics,
Trieste, Italy) partially funded laser research and applications colleges at Cairo University
which was attended by many African and Arab researchers. JICA, Japan International
Research Agency, instituted a trilateral cooperation program with the Egyptian Central
Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI) to introduce metal processing
technologies (such as metal welding) to African countries. Many arab researchers spend
their sabbatical period in Egyptian Universities.

51

5. Research, Development and Innovation in Egypt

Fig. 6

Number of R&D Units in some Arab Countries in 1999

Source: ESCWA (1999) Science and Technology Policies in the XXI Century

5.8. Governing Norms & Laws and Funding of R&D and Innovation
While some local financial support is available through the Academy of Scientific Research
and Technology and the various government ministries, most research funding in Egypt is
available though international cooperation projects. Among the major foreign sponsors
are the United States of America, European countries, the European Union, Canada,
Japan, the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and the Food and Agriculture
Organization (FAO). Having a partner in an academic or an industrial collaborator is usually
necessary while some innovation projects require a local connection between academia
and industry. Egyptian scientists are presently allowed to apply for an FP7 grant on equal
footing with European researchers, which is a great advantage. A planned restructuring
would transfer most grant-giving functions of the Academy of Scientific Research and
Technology to a new granting agency, which will be called the Egyptian National Funding
Agency.

52

the research and innovation system in Egypt

Fig. 7

Percentage of budget for scientific research

Source: Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, Egypt

5.9. International Cooperation Projects


The development of a dynamic and modern knowledge based society is undoubtedly one
of the hardest challenges that Egypt will face. Since 2003, UNDP Human Development
Reports - both for Egypt and the MENA (Middle East North Africa) region- have underlined
this challenge and called for concrete actions and initiatives to facilitate the production,
accumulation, dissemination and utilization of knowledge in the region, notably through
effective R&D and Innovation systems. This was further confirmed in the recent Egypt
Human Development Report published in February 2006.

5.9.1. European Union Projects


Egypt has many scientific research bodies including several universities. Research activities
are overwhelmingly carried out in public sector institutions, several of which have participated
in EC Research Framework Program V and VI. Furthermore, an agreement for scientific and
technological cooperation between the European Union and Egypt was signed in June 2005.
Egyptian institutions will continue to participate on an equivalent basis with European
institutions in the actions of Framework Program. However, one of the most hampering factors
for the economy to innovate is the few direct links between research and industry. While one
can refer to a R&D system in Egypt, the same could not be said for innovation. There are few
innovative practices in industry and no systematic support for innovation.
In order to help Egypt in meeting the knowledge challenge, the EU, given its large
experience in designing and implementing common research and innovation policies
notably through the EC R&D Framework Programs, will provide support to the Egyptian
authorities. The progressive integration of Egypt into the European Research Area (ERA)
will be an integral part of this support. A special Innovation fund will be established that
aims at the diffusion of innovation practices by assisting pilot actions from research
output to industrial production.

53

5. Research, Development and Innovation in Egypt

The MEDA Program (Euro-Mediterranean Partnership) was the main component of the
Euro-Mediterranean Partnerships financial cooperation until 2007. It has been superseded
by the European Neighbourhood and Partnership Instrument (ENPI). This single funding
instrument will be given a budget of 12 billion euros for the 2007-2013 period (thus
representing a 32% increase in relation to the previous period). This new neighbourhood
policy is designed to foster cooperation and the gradual economic integration between
the European Union and partner countries, to the benefit of the latter, notably through the
implementation of partnership, cooperation and association agreements, etc. Egypt is
considered as one of the target countries of ENPI in the Mediterranean area.
The overall objective of the RDI program is to contribute to the development of an
innovation culture for the benefit of the Egyptian industry and to support the progressive
move of the economy from low to medium technology. This will include the strengthening
of the links between universities/research institutions and industry, the supporting of
progressive integration of Egypt into the European Research Area and boosting Egypts
invention and innovation efforts.
Another important project is the Grant Scheme 1, which is related to EEIF (Egypt
Environmental Initiatives Fund). The overall objective of the EEIF is to Support research
outputs, exploitation and innovation with closer links to national or European industries.
A key component of the program is to establish an Innovation Fund aiming at supporting
research outputs, exploitation and innovation and the creation of closer links between
and European industries.
The Innovation Fund through its Grant Scheme 1 will support projects on competitive
basis for applied research, with an emphasis on innovation. Grants will be awarded
to cooperative projects that aim at enhancing the innovative capabilities of industrial
companies and notably the privately owned small and medium sized enterprises
(SME). To be granted, project proposals must be submitted by a consortium that consists
of at least one partner from the industrial sector and one partner from the R&D sector
(university and/or non university). Applications and funding of large size projects will be
encouraged as well as those projects including an EU and/or MEDA partner from industry
or research sector. The financing institution is The EU Development Projects.
The specific objectives of Grant Scheme 1 are to:
Support initiatives and projects that contribute to the achievement of sustainable
development in Egypt.
Increase capital investment, enhance technological innovation and improve
competitiveness of the different economic sectors in Egypt.
Provide a sustainable and effective tool to raise and channel resources to Egypts
innovation priorities.
Strengthen cooperation with European and regional counterparts and hence enable the
transfer of technology, know how, and best practices to Egyptian institutions.
The main research areas are energy, water, biotechnology (with applications in agriculture
and pharmaceuticals, Information and Communication technology, food and agriculture,
manufacturing industries, space applications including communication and remote

54

the research and innovation system in Egypt

sensing. Environmental applications, materials (including nanotechnology applications


and new materials) and health related applications.

5.9.2. The Joint US-EGYPT Science and Technology Funds


Every year the U.S. - Egypt Joint Science and Technology Fund (Joint Fund) sponsors two
competitive grant programs - Joint Research Grants and the Junior Scientist Development
Visit Grants. These grants provide the opportunity to bring together American and
Egyptian scientists to work on a collaborative research project.
The Joint Fund was established under the U.S. - Egypt Science & Technology Cooperative
Agreement first signed in 1995, and then renewed in 2001 by the United States and the
Arab Republic of Egypt. The Joint Fund receives $3 million per year to distribute equally
between Egyptian and American scientists working together on Joint Fund activities.
The main goals of the Joint Fund: are the strengthening of the scientific and technological
capabilities of both countries., broadening and expanding relations between the scientific
and technical communities and the promotion of scientific and technological cooperation
in areas of mutual benefit for peaceful purposes.
Priority Areas for Research Grants are biotechnology, standards and metrology,
environmental Technologies, manufacturing Technologies, information technologies and
energy. Other Fields include geology, anthropology, new materials, nanotechnology,
economics, and other Social Sciences, etc.

55

5. Research, Development and Innovation in Egypt

Part TWO:
Research centers inventory

6. Introduction
In Part 2 we will present profiles of 29 Egyptian research organizations who showed a
strong interest in cooperation with their counterparts in the Region of Apulia. We begin by
presenting the profile of the National Research Center (NRC), the main Egyptian research
organization. Consisting of 13 divisions and 106 departments, it covers many areas in
industry, health, environment, agriculture, basic science and engineering including the
areas of agro-food (Food Technology Department) and renewable energy (spread over
different Departments). Work in these two areas will be specially marked within the
presented NRC profile. The Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute
(CMRDI) and the Electronics Research Institute, whose profiles are incorporated in this
study, were former divisions of the NRC before becoming independent. The profile of the
NRC will give a general idea to researchers in Apulia about some of the main research
activities in Egypt.
We then present the profile of Food Technology Research Institute, the main Agro-food
Institute in Egypt. As agro-food biotechnology is gaining in importance, we included the
profile of the national Agricultural Genetic Research Institute.
As mentioned in the first part of this study, Information and Communication Technology
is presently the main growing industry in Egypt. The profiles of twelve related research
centers are included in the third section. It should be mentioned here that the Prime
Minister of Egypt was a Computer Engineering professor at Cairo University ! The fourth
section includes five centers working on renewable energy, including a private industrial
enterprise which produces Photovoltaic panels.
The fifth section deals with research on Mechanical Engineering and includes centers
working on mechatronics, combustion, new materials and manufacturing technology. We
mention in passing that the profile of Professor Habibs group, the eminent mechatronics
researcher at the American University in Cairo leads this section.
The following section deals with aerospace research activities. The Aeronautical
Engineering dept. of Cairo University has a heritage of a strong involvement with the
Egyptian Aerospace Industry during its period of strong activity. The flow visualization
Laboratory is involved in research on weather prediction, wind farm and solar energy
among other fields. The former head of the National Authority for Remote Sensing and
Space Sciences is active in both groups. The third member of this group works in Helwan
University on space weather.
We finally included a very prominent medical professor who is both nationally and
internationally accredited for his research contributions. Professor M. Ghoneim
established the Urology and Nephrology Center of Mansoura University which is one of the
prominent medical research centers in Egypt having strong international ties. Cooperation
with Apulian medical counterparts is expected to be strongly rewarded.

59

6. Introduction

7. Research centers forms


7.1. Aerospace
Aerospace Department, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University
Organization Details

Aerospace Department
Faculty of Engineering
Cairo University, Giza 12613
Egypt
Contact Person
Atef O. Sherif
Professor, Department of Aerospace
Faculty of Engineering
Cairo University, Giza 12613, Egypt
aosherif@mailer.eun.eg
aosherif@eng.cu.edu.eg
(202) 35678643 - (202) 35678656
Year of establishment
About 50 years ago
Associated institutes/ bodies and stakeholders
Department of Mechanical Design and Manufacturing
Department of Mechanical Power
Department of Electric and Electronics
Department of Electric Power
Department of Computers and Information
Cairo University Center for Space Studies and Consultations
The National Authority of Remote Sensing and Space Sciences
Geographical area of competence
Local and Regional
Main areas of activity
Aerodynamics
Propulsion Systems
Analysis and Design of light structures (Air and Space Frames)
Flight Mechanics (Performance, Stability and Control)
Satellites and Space Technology
Current research areas and topics
Computational Fluid Mechanics for External and Internal Flows (Subsonic-transonic and
supersonic)
Weather and Climate Change Modeling and Prediction
Computational Fluid Mechanics Applications in Turbo - machinery (air-intakes, compressors,
reactive flows - turbines and nozzles)
Design and Testing of injectors, combustion related devices
Thermal and Modal analysis of Light structures (including satellite structures)
Analysis and Design of structures using composite materials
Orbit Determination and Satellite Tracking
Satellite Navigation and Control

60

the research and innovation system in Egypt

Number and qualification of the employed personnel


Over 30 Staff members (13 Professors 6 Associate Professors and 11 Assistant Professors) and 10
Assistants
Over 40 Students working on their post graduate degrees
Business model of the offered services
Training: Fees
Consultations: Consultation Fees and Contracts
Research Projects: Grants and Contracts
Industrial Support: Fees and Contracts
Participation to national and international networks
National Network of the Supreme Council of Universities
B&W University
Participation to international programmes and projects
NSF USA Research Project
NSF Co organizing International meeting
UNESCO/EU Educational Project (joint R$D)
ASME Co organizing International Conferences
AIAA Conferences and Meetings
IGARSS Conference
JIAFS/GWU visits
B&W University Canada Invited Professor
Several Staff members on leave to Foreign Universities
Funding Sources
Faculty and University Support
Academy of Scientific Research and Technology Grants
Government and Public Sector Consultations and R&D Contracts
Private Sector Consultations and R& D Contracts
International cooperation interests
Systems of Ground segment for Satellite Tracking and Observation.
Satellite Sensors design and Technology
Multi and Hyper Spectral Technologies
Satellite Guidance and Navigation
Technology of satellite propulsion
Weather and Climate Modeling and Prediction
High Performance Computing in Aerospace
Wind and Solar Energy (Assessment, Analysis, and Management of Operations)
General Description and Comments
The Aerospace department-Faculty of Engineering-cairo University started in late40s-early 50s as a
specialization within the Department of Mechanical Engineering to provide graduates to support the
expanding air transportation aand activities. Then in the mid 50s the Department of Aeronautics was
established with four specializations; - Aerodynamics, - Propulsion Systems, Analysis and Design of
light structures and Flight Mechanics. The Department name was changed to Aerspace Department
in the early 90s and a new specialization was then added namely Satellites and Space Technology.
The undergraduate program occupies 4 years (8 terms) after a preparatory year run by the faculty.
The department Staff is now over 30 members (13 Professors 6 Associate Professors and 11
Assistant Professors), assisted by about 10 teaching assistants and demonstrators. The average
number of students is 250 (4 * 60) in addition to about 40 Students working on their post graduate
degrees.
Interview Place and Date
Cairo University, Giza, Egypt, June 2008

61

7. Research centers forms

Flow Visualization Laboratory, Aerospace Department, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University


Organization Details

Aerospace Department
Faculty of Engineering
Cairo University, Giza 12613
Egypt
Contact Person
Atef O. Sherif
Professor, Department of Aerospace
Faculty of Engineering
Cairo University, Giza 12613
Egypt
aosherif@mailer.eun.eg
aosherif@eng.cu.edu.eg
(202) 35678643 (202) 35678656
Year of establishment
1997
Associated institutes/ bodies and stakeholders
Department of Mechanical Design and Manufacturing
Department of Mechanical Power
Department of Electric and Electronics
Department of Electric Power
Department of Computers and Information
Cairo University Center for Space Studies and Consultations
The National Authority of Remote Sensing and Space Sciences
Geographical area of competence
Local and Regional
Main areas of activity
Aerodynamics
Computational Fluid Mechanics (CFD)
High Performance Computing
Weather and Climate Modeling
MM Educational Courseware
Current research areas and topics
Computational Fluid Mechanics for External and Internal Flows (Subsonic-transonic and
supersonic)
Weather and Climate Change Modeling and Prediction
Computational Fluid Mechanics Applications in Turbo-machinery (air-intakes, compressors,
reactive flows- turbines and nozzles)
Flow visualization techniques
Effects of Land use on local Climate change
Thermal Inversion over Mega Cities

62

the research and innovation system in Egypt

Future research areas and topics


High Performance Computing in Aerodynamics
Wind and Solar Energy as related to weather and climate modeling
Large Scale image processing
Increasing Effectiveness of Operation Planning of Wind Farms via Utilization of Weather Prediction
models
Study Effects of Wind Farm energy Production on Network Load balancing
Study the Potential and Means for the Local Manufacturing of Wind Generation components and
systems
Air pollution in relation to thermal inversion over megacities
Number and qualification of the employed personnel
Staff members (3 Professors 2 Associate Professors and 3 Assistant Professors) and 3 Assistants Over 15 Students working on their post graduate degrees
Offered services
Training
Consultation services
Research and development Projects
Feasibility studies and technical reports.
Business model of the offered services
Training: Fees
Consultations: Consultation Fees and Contracts
Research Projects: Grants and Contracts
Industrial Support: Fees and Contracts
Participation to national and international networks
National Network of the Supreme Council of Universities
B&W University
Participation to international programmes and projects
NSF USA Research Project
NSF Co organizing International meeting
UNESCO/EU Educational Project (joint R$D)
ASME Co organizing International Conferences
AIAA Conferences and Meetings
IGARSS Conference
JIAFS/GWU visits
B&W University Canada Invited Professor
Several Staff members on leave to Foreign Universities
Funding Sources
Faculty and University Support
Academy of Scientific Research and Technology Grants
Government and Public Sector Consultations and R&D Contracts
. Private Sector Consultations and R& D Contracts

63

7. Research centers forms

International cooperation interests


Weather and Climate Modeling and Prediction
Multi and Hyper Spectral Technologies
Flow Visualization Techniques
Large Scale Computing using HPC
Large Scale image processing
High Performance Computing in Aerospace
Wind and Solar Energy (Assessment, Analysis, and Management of Operations)
Increasing Effectiveness of Operation Planning of Wind Farms via Utilization of Weather Prediction
models (In Cooperation with EE Department)
Effects of Wind Farm energy Production on Network Load balancing (In Cooperation with EE
Department)
Potential and Means for the Local Manufacturing of Wind Generation components and systems (In
Cooperation with Mechanical Power and Mechanical Design and Production Departments)
Air pollution in relation to thermal inversion over megacities
General Description and Comments
The Flow Visualization Laboratory was established in 1997 within the Aerodynamics branch of the
Aerospace department-Faculty of Engineering-Cairo University. Its main efforts are concentrated on
both computational and experimental flow visualization techniques.
Interview Place and Date
Cairo University, Giza, Egypt, June 2008

Space Weather and Monitoring Center of Helwan University


Organization Details

Helwan University, Faculty of Science, Ain Helwan, 11795 Egypt


Contact Person
Dr. Ayman Mohamed Mahrous
Helwan university, Faculty of Science,
Ain Helwan, 11795 Egypt
Fax: 002-022-555-2468
amahrous@helwan.edu.eg
ayman.mahrous@gmail.com
Year of establishment
1985
Associated institutes/ bodies and stakeholders
Helwan University
Faculty of Science
Physics Department
Geographical area of competence
National
Main areas of activity
Space and Satellite Monitoring
Ionosphere Monitoring
Geomagnetism Monitoring

64

the research and innovation system in Egypt

Current research areas and topics


Real-time monitoring of the ionospheric layer over Egypt.
Space weather predictions and now-casting.
High energy cosmic ray interactions with satellite detectors
Future research areas and topics
Water vapor monitoring with GPS satellites.
Accuracy modifications and corrections of GPS satellites.
Number and qualification of the employed personnel
Total Employment: 20
Professors: 5
Researchers: 17
Offered services
Monitoring stations for ionosphere and geomagnetism.
Simulation codes for space weather predictions.
Linux operating system.
Network and cluster service.
Business model of the offered services
Software (Commission)
Integrated Hardware and Software (Commission)
Training and consultation (Free)
Registered patents, licenses
Coherent Ionospheric Doppler Receiver (CIDR) Technique-Three stations Deployment License for
Middle East.
Participation to national and international networks
NASA (Peer reviewer member)
ESA (European Space Agency): Digisonde project
CEOS (Committee on Earth Observation Satellites)
Participation to international programmes and projects
US-Egyptian joint board, Chain of CIDR network over Egypt.
Cyprus-Egyptian joint board, Link of ionospheric networks over the Mediterranean.
European project TEMPUS for physics refinements.
Funding Sources
US- Egyptian Joint Board
Egyptian Academy of Science
US-NSF
Space Environment Research Center (SERC) of Japan
Helwan University (Egypt)
International cooperation interests
Systems of Ground Satellite Observation.
Global Positioning Systems GPS.
Space Weather forecasting.
Ionospheric Equatorial Anomaly monitoring
Geomagnetism monitoring

65

7. Research centers forms

General Description and Comments


The main objective of the center is supporting the Egyptian space program with proper information
about the now-casting and forecasting of space weather changes. This will be used also as a
warning system for Egyptian satellite EgyptSat1. The center includes several monitoring systems
and stations distributed in several locations in Egypt for detecting the ionospheric disturbance and
geomagnetism by several satellites and magnetometers respectively.
Interview Place and Date
Cairo, July 2008

7.2. Agrofood
Food Technology Research Institute (FTRI)
Organization Details

Food Technology Research Institute (FTRI)


Contact Person
Prof. Dr. Laila El-Mahdy.
Head of the institute
Tel: +202 35718324
Fax: +202 35684669
Mob: +2010 6688688
nlftri@ie-eg.com
Year of establishment
1992
Associated institutes/ bodies and stakeholders
Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation
Egyptian Universities and Research Centers
Geographical area of competence
The Institute operates mainly inside Egypt.
Main areas of activity
Food science and Technology
Current research areas and topics
Food Processing
Food Safety
Food quality
Solar energy
Nutrition
Biotechnology
Waste recycling
Food Additives
Future research areas and topics
Nanotechnology
Biotechnology
New trends in food preservation and processing

66

the research and innovation system in Egypt

Number and qualification of the employed personnel


Consultants: 20
Professors: 38
Ass. Professors: 66
Lecture : 103
Total: 227
Offered services
Training extension and consultation in the field of food science and technology
Technology transfer
R & D for SMEs. (Small and Middle-sized Enterprises)
Chemical and microbiological analysis
Manufacturing food products
Business model of the offered services
Research (Grants)
Training (Fees)
Consultation (Fees)
Services (Fees)
Registered patents, licenses
Dehydration of onion by solar energy.
High lycopene tomato powder and bioavailability of iron
Production of Balady bread (Main bread in Egypt) from 100% rice flour without yeast
Method for the production of new types of processed cheese with fruit flavors
Medical effects of jaws mallow stems.(pending)
Reusing of discarded deactivated bleaching earth in the bleaching of oils (pending)
Medical effects of mushroom as food additives mixture (pending)
Innovation technology for production of new snacks (pending)
Participation to national and international networks
National network of the Agricultural Research Center (ARC) that is linked to international networks
Participation to international programmes and projects
International Olive Council (IOC)
American Association of cereal chemistry (AACC)
Institute of Food Technology (IFT)
International soybean program (INTSOY)
Food & Agriculture Organization (FAO)
Ainia Center Technology Spain (AINIA)
Korean food technology research institute (KFTRI)
International Life Sciences institute (ILSI)
Georgia Agricultural Experiment (GAES)
School of public health (UCLA)
International conferences
International meetings
Projects
Funding Sources
National
Governmental

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7. Research centers forms

International cooperation interests


Food science and Technology
Food Processing
Food Safety
Food quality
Solar energy
Nutrition
Biotechnology
Waste recycling
Food Additives
Nanotechnology
Biotechnology
New trends in food preservation and processing
General Description and Comments
The institute has Eight departments, two research units, one information center, and a semi
commercial food manufacturing administration.
The Eight departments are :
bread and pasta
special food and nutrition
horticultural crops
field crops
fats and oils
fish and meat
milk and dairy products
food engineering and packaging
The two research units are :
economics unit for food processing
the experimental kitchen
The information center is :
Egyptian Food Safety Information Center (EFSIC)
The General Administration of food Manufacturing (GAFM) has the main objective of applying the
research results and also works on a semi commercial basis:
Soy bean products
Balady bread
Bakery products
Dairy products
Extraction and Distillation
Dehydrated Products
Juices & Jams
Olive oil Production & Pickling
Interview Place and Date
Cairo, June 2008

Food Technology Research Institute (FTRI)


Organization Details

Agricultural Genetic Engineering Research Institute,


9 Gamaa street, 12619 Giza, Egypt.
Tel: +202-35727831, FAX: +202-35689519.
Web: http://www.ageri.sci.eg

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the research and innovation system in Egypt

Contact Person
Prof. Ahmed Bahieldine -Director
bahieldin55@gmail.com
Prof. Osama Momtaz Deputy Director
omomtaz@hotmail.com
Agricultural Genetic Engineering Research Institute,
9 Gamaa street, 12619 Giza, Egypt.
Tel: +202-35727831, FAX: +202-35689519.
Web: http://www.ageri.sci.eg
Year of establishment
1990
Associated institutes/ bodies and stakeholders
- Agricultural Research Center (ARC)
- Ministry of Agriculture (MOA)
Geographical area of competence
The Institute operates nationally and internationally
Main areas of activity
Developing Genetically engineered economically important Crops.
Developing biotechnology products (biopesticides, biofertilizers, etc.)
Conducting basic and applied GMO (Genetically Modified Organisms) services including research
projects
Current research areas and topics
Molecular Virology
Microbial Molecular Biology
Molecular Entomology
Plant Tissue Culture & Transformation
Genome Mapping & Marker-Assisted Selection
Genomics (Structural - Functional - Comparative)
Proteomics
Bioinformatics
Signal Transduction
Gene Silencing
Immunology/ ELISA & Virus Diagnosis
Bioremediation
Fermentation
Future research areas and topics
Genomics (Structural - Functional - Comparative)
Proteomics
Bioinformatics
IPR (Intellectual Property Rights) implementation and dissemination
Implementation of Biosafety risk assessments
Number and qualification of the employed personnel
Total Employment: 191
Professors: 7
Associate and Assistant Professors: 7
Researchers: 70
Offered services

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7. Research centers forms

Software preparation
Integrated hardware and software
Consultation service
Research projects developments and implementation.
Business model of the offered services
Molecular technologies (Fingerprinting, primer synthesis, etc) (Commission)
GMO Detection (Commission)
Training courses, workshops, and conferences. (Commission)
Registered patents, licenses
Kitinase gene for fungal and insect resistance pending
Dehidrin gene for drought tolerant pending
Specific promoter for maize plants pending
Biopesticide for main insect pest approved
Biopesticide for grasshopper pending
Biopesticide and biofertilizer - pending
Participation to national and international networks
FAO Interregional cotton biotechnology Network
ARENINA Agricultural biotechnology network
International cooperation interests
Molecular Virology
Microbial Molecular Biology
Molecular Entomology
Plant Tissue Culture & Transformation
Genome Mapping & Marker-Assisted Selection
Genomics (Structural - Functional - Comparative)
Proteomics
Bioinformatics
Signal Transduction
Gene Silencing
Immunology/ ELISA & Virus Diagnosis
Bioremediation
Fermentation
General Description and Comments
AGERI is now a discipline oriented institute within the Agricultural Research Center (ARC) of the
Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation and is a center of excellence in biotechnology,
molecular biology and genetic engineering research and product development in Africa & the West
Asia-North Africa (WANA) region. The institute is located within the ARC site in Giza which facilitates
an interface with other ARC institutes.
The main building, with a total net area of 2261 m2, consists of the administration offices, 19
well-equipped laboratories including a new Genomics & Proteomics facility and a BioComputing &
Networks Unit, an Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) office, an auditorium and a conference room.
Recent expansion included the construction of a new 2-floors annex, adding a total net area of
585m2 with infrastructure and license to construct additional 5 floors in response to the internal
growth and development of AGERI. The library, a central laboratory facility, a supply and chemicals
repository using advanced bar-code system in addition to 9 controlled environment chambers are
now located in the new annex. The new annex also houses Egypt Biotechnology Information Center
(EBIC).
A containment facility, based upon a University of Arizona design and complying with the biosafety
and EPA (Environment Protection Agency) regulations has been constructed, adding 412m2 of stateof-the-art space which allows the safe handling of materials in experiments dealing with the degree
of gene expression in transgenic plants.
A conventional multispan fiberglass greenhouse (307m2) are used to host the transgenic plant
material for acclimatization. An adjacent 1.5 acres of land serve as an open field experimental
station for field testing of genetically engineered plant material.

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the research and innovation system in Egypt

Interview Place and Date


Giza, Egypt, July 08.

7.3. Mechatronics
The Mechatronics Group, Mechanical Engineering Department, The American University in Cairo
(AUC)
Organization Details

Prof. Maki K. Habib


Robotics and Mechatronics Group
Mechanical Engineering Department
School of Sciences and Engineering
The American University in Cairo
113, Kasr El Eini St.
P.O.Box 2511, Cairo 11511, Egypt.
Tel: +202 2797 5724,
Web:
http://www.aucegypt.edu/ (for the University)
http://www.aucegypt.edu/academics/dept/meng/faculty/Documents/
PdfWebsiteMechanicalMaki%20Habib.pdf (Personal)
Contact Person
Prof. Maki K. Habib
Mechanical Engineering Department
School of Sciences and Engineering
The American University in Cairo
113, Kasr El Eini St.
P.O.Box 2511, Cairo 11511, Egypt.
Tel: +202 2797 5724,
maki@aucegypt.edu
maki@ieee.org
Year of establishment
1919
Associated institutes/ bodies and stakeholders
Saga University,
Saga Prefecture, Japan.
Geographical area of competence
National, Middle East, Africa and Asia
Main areas of activity
Mechatronics and Robotics
3D vision and Navigation Strategies for Autonomous Robots
Biomimetics and smart sensors
Wireless sensor network
Information Technology and Ambient Intelligence
Humanitarian demining (Robotics and Sensors)
Distributed Teleoperation and Collaborative Control
Intelligent Control.
The head of the group has published 2 books (Ed), 7 book chapters, more than 37 International
Journals, and more than 130 papers at International conferences.

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7. Research centers forms

Current research areas and topics


3D Fiber Grating based smart sensors supporting robot navigation and human tracking
Multi Robotics Systems: strategies for reliable and robust Architecture, Communication,
Coordination, and Cooperation, Simulation of multi-robotic system.
Intelligent and Autonomous Mobile Robots: Control Architecture, Navigation, Learning and
Intelligence, Sensing and Perception, etc.
Flexible Mechanisms to enable robots to overcome difficult terrain and move on ground, wall and
ceiling surfaces. This includes Legged, wheeled, and Hybrid Mechanisms.
Autonomous demining robots with collective navigation strategies.
Wall climbing robots with flexible mechanisms.
Behavior based autonomous navigation system for intelligent mobile robots.
Microprocessor based adaptive control
Telecooperation as new paradigm for cooperation and efficient utilization of resources beyond time
and physical constraints. Examples: Virtual Office, E-learning(University), Factory, and hospitals.
Distributed Teleoperation, Collaborative Teleoperation, Collaborative Control and Teleoperation
through Shared Integrated Intelligent and collaborative Environments supporting Mixed Realities
over Vast Distances.
Internet Based Smart House with Interactive Environment.
Data acquisition system development for solar energy research.
Traffic control based on a real time demand.
Logic based algorithms development for design with Programmable Logic Array (PLA),
Programmable Logic device (PLD), Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA).
Automatic recognition of hand written numerals.
Fuzzy logic based motion control
Sensor Fault Reconstruction Schemes on Real Physical Systems.
Nonlinear Control of Rigid Rotor in Active Magnetic Bearing.
Future research areas and topics
Biologically inspired control approaches based on central pattern generators (CPGs) with neural
oscillators.
Developing embedded and real time systems facilitated by the development of smart sensors for
real time tracking, monitoring Intelligent robots and new control architecture (Autonomous Mobile
Robots, Humanoid Robot:
Automate Chinese medical diagnoses
Developing new aspect of cooperation between people and machines including autonomous
systems over the open network.
Developing new strategies for Wireless Sensor Networks in relation to topologies, protocols and
power consumption and realizing new applications.
Machine Assisted Humanitarian Mine Clearance: Mechanization and Robotization.
Industrial Automation and Robotics. Analysis, modeling, design, economical justifications.
Number and qualification of the employed personnel
The Mechanical Engineering Department has
Professors: 8
Visiting and Part-time Professor: 6
Associate Professor: 5
Assistant Professor: 3
Research and teaching assistance: 20
Offered services
Continuous Education and Training
Integrated hardware and software (industrial projects)
Consultation service
Feasibility studies and technical reports.

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the research and innovation system in Egypt

Business model of the offered services


Research (Internal and External Grants)
Industrial Consultation (Fees)
Training and consultation (Free)
Integrated hardware and software (No Charge-cooperation with the Industry through student
projects)
Registered patents, licenses
Two patents (pending)
3D Fiber grating vision sensor
Automatic handwritten recognition
Participation to national and international networks
Technical Research Management Team member (representing GMD Japan) at the International
Collaboration project jointly with IBM Watson USA, IBM Japan and GMD SIT Germany
Member of the International Network of ExcellenceOn Mine Action Technologies (MAT)
Member of the Research Team, development of Intelligent City at Cyber-Jaya, Malaysia
Member of the International Advanced Robotics Program (IARP)
Steering committee member of the International network on Mechatronics Research and Education
Technical Advisor for Toyota group in Malaysia, (July 2001-2005)
Participation to international programmes and projects
Scientific and Professional Societies:
IEEE Industrial Electronics and Robotics and Automation Societies, IEEE (Senior Member), since
1988.
Robot Society of Japan, since 1988.
International Association of Unmanned-Systems (IAUS), since 1992.
New York Academy of Science, since 1999.
Intelligent and Autonomous Systems (IAS) since 2001.
Invited talks
Deliver invited professional talks, Keynotes at more than 30 international Universities.
Leadership and International Conferences
Chairperson, program co-chair and member of international program committees for many
international conferences (more than 40)
Developer of invited and organized sessions at international conferences
Organizing more than 20 invited and special sessions at international conferences.
Workshops and Tutorial organizer at international conferences
Organizing and delivering more than 10 international workshops and tutorials.
Session chair at international conferences
Chairing more than 30 sessions at international conferences
Funding Sources
AUC funding
External grants
International cooperation interests
Robotics and Automation
Bio-inspiration (Biomimetics)
Autonomous and Intelligent Robots (Service robots)
New Technologies and techniques for Humanitarian Demining
Development of New Mechatronics Systems
Intelligent Mechanism Design
Configurations and Applications of Wireless Sensor Networks
Development of Smart Sensors
Telecooperation and ICT supporting Collaboration among Distributed people/systems (E-Learning,
Virtual manufacturing, Virtual hospitals, etc.)
3D Vision Systems (development and applications)
Digital Logic Design and Minimization Techniques

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7. Research centers forms

General Description and Comments


Looking for closer and fruitful cooperation
Interview Place and Date
Cairo, July 2008.

Mechatronics Group, Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams


University, Cairo (Egypt)
Organization Details

Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University


1 El-Sarayat St., Abdou-Pasha Square, Abbassia
Cairo, Egypt, Postal Code: 11517
Web: http://eng.shams.edu.eg
Contact Person
Prof. Dr. Farid A. Tolba
Prof. Dr. Magdi M. Abdel-Hameed
Email: magdyma@gmx.net
Tel: +202-2682-1800
Fax: +202-2685-0617
Year of establishment
1950
Associated institutes/ bodies and stakeholders
Clausthal University, Germany
Dresden, Germany
Hanover University, Germany
Drexel University, USA
McMaster University, Canada
Average yearly turnover
US$ 0.7 millions
Geographical area of competence
National
Main areas of activity
Mechanical Eng. (Production, Power, Automotive and Mechatronics)
Current research areas and topics
Mechanical Engineering
Mechatronic Systems
Robotics and Automation
AI and Image Processing
Automatic Control
Design of Embedded Systems

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the research and innovation system in Egypt

Future research areas and topics


Nano-mechatronics Systems
Nano-systems (Sensors and actuators)
Development of Flexible manufacturing Systems (FMS) and Computer Integrated Manufacturing
(CIM)
AI and Image Processing
Automatic Control
Design of Embedded Systems
Implementation of wave energy extraction system
Implementation of direct steam generation system using solar energy
Number and qualification of the employed personnel
Total: 25
Professors: 6
Associate Professors: 2
Assistant professors: 9
Research Assistants: 8
Offered services
R & D in all Engineering activities
Consultation services including feasibility studies
Training courses
Business model of the offered services
Projects with industry through contracts
Technical Assistance agreements through agreements
Collaboration with Research Centers & groups
Quality certifications obtained
Under final approval and accreditation
Participation to national and international networks
Academy of Scientific Research & Technology, Egypt
Participation to international programmes and projects
US Egypt Science and Technology Board
Tempus projects
Many partnerships and collaborations with European and American Universities
Funding Sources
Industry Modernization Center, Ministry of Industrial & International Trade
Research project funding
Ministry of Higher Education.
International cooperation interests
Smart sensors and actuators
HW and SW of ASIC, FPGA and IP
Mobile robots and Autonomous systems
MEMS and NEMS
General Description and Comments
The vision of the Faculty of Engineering is to attain excellence in engineering education, scientific
research and community services through an integrated TQM linking with different national and
international institutions.
Interview Place and Date
Cairo, Egypt, July 2008.

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7. Research centers forms

The Combustion Institute, Egyptian Section


Organization Details

Mechanical Engineering Department


Cairo University
Giza, Egypt
Contact Person
Prof. Mohy Mansour,
mansour@niles.edu.eg
Dean, National Institute of Laser Enhanced Sciences, NILES
Cairo University, Giza, Egypt
Year of establishment
1970
Associated institutes / bodies and stakeholders
Cairo University
Ain Shams University
Alexandria University
Helwan University
8 other Egyptian universities
Individuals from the industrial sector
Geographical area of competence
International
Main areas of activity
Combustion
Current research areas and topics
Combustion science and technology
Fire prediction and control
Explosion prediction and control
Combustion systems (Engines, boilers, furnaces,)
Future research areas and topics
Environmentally clean combustion systems
Fuel Cells
Renewable Energy
Number and qualification of the employed personnel
Total: more than 50
Professors: 30
Assistants: 15
Researchers: 15
Offered services
Training of Engineers (Public and Private sectors)
Design of Industrial Combustion systems
Monitoring Pollutant levels
Adjustment of Combustion systems to meet environmental regulations
Consultations

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the research and innovation system in Egypt

Business model of the offered services


Training (Fees)
Government Services (Free)
Consultations (charge)
Design (charge)
Registered patents, licenses
Individual members have local patents
Examples are: Bread oven design, Burner design
The Institute provides certificates to industry in the field of combustion (quality of performance and
environmental effects)
Participation to national and international networks
The Combustion Institute Network, USA
Participation to international programmes and projects
Mediterranean combustion Symposium (co-organized by Egypt, Turkey and Italy). It is a biannual
event, Started 1999.
Participation in International Combustion Symposium (Report Submission)
Funding Sources
Private Sector
International cooperation interests
Combustion research
Combustion system development
General Description and Comments
The Egyptian section of the combustion institute is an international organization. The members are
staff members from Egyptian universities and research centers. The aim of this organization is to
provide a link between several research groups in Egypt and the international community in order to
improve the quality research and technology in Egypt.
Interview Place and Date
Cairo, July 2008

Mechanical Engineering Department,


British University in Egypt
Organization Details

El Sherouk City, Misr-Ismailia Road, Cairo, Egypt.


Website: <www.bue.edu.eg>
Contact Person
Iman Salah El Din El Mahallawi
Prof. of Metallurgy and Material Engineering;
Department of Mechanical Engineering;
British University, El Sherouk City, Misr-Ismailia Road;
Cairo, Egypt, Postal code: 11837, P.O. box 43.
International: +202-2687-5890 / 1 / 2 / 3 or 2689-0000
Fax: +202-2687-5889 / 97; Cell: +2010-604-4661
Year of establishment
2005
Associated institutes/ bodies and stakeholders

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7. Research centers forms

Centre for Advanced Materials (CAM), Faculty of Engineering, British University in Egypt, BUE
The Centre for Advancement of Post-Graduate Studies and Research in Engineering Sciences
(CAPSCU), Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University
Geographical area of competence
National
Main areas of activity
Advancements in developing new materials and new technologies for manufacturing.
Energy related areas (renewable-alternative).
Basic sciences and physics.
Current research areas and topics
Development of innovative materials and manufacturing methods in the field of nano-structured
materials.
Future research areas and topics
Energy related areas (renewable-alternative).
Number and qualification of the employed personnel
2 professors + 5 assistant professors + 10 researchers.
Offered services
Technical consultation
Industrial research.
Business model of the offered services
Collaborating bodies: free.
Industry: payment.
Registered patents, licenses
3 patents (pending).
Micropipette puller
Wet spinning system for nano-fiber production
New technology for producing nano-composites by casting.
Participation to international programmes and projects
Multi-lateral project on nano-fibers for water treatment (to start soon): (Partners: 1.Royal Institute
of Technology (KTH) Sweden,2. Masaryk University (MU) Czech Republic, 3. Universitat Autnoma
de Barcelona (UAB) Spain, 4 National Institute of Chemistry (NIC) Slovenia, 5 The British University
in Egypt (BUE) Egypt, 6 Nottingham University, (NU) United Kingdom, 7 LIFETECH Ltd. (LT) Czech
Republic, 8. EGMASA Spain)
Bilateral project on nano-wires (awaiting funding approval) (Wright State University, USA).
Multilateral project on development of Nano-metal-matrix composites (NMMCs) for energy
saving applications (awaiting funding approval). (with Freiberg Technical Institute, Germany, Cairo
University).
Funding Sources
Project funding: NSF for project number II, FP7 for project I.
International cooperation interests
Advancement in materials and manufacturing technology in the following areas:
Solar Energy
Fuel Cells
Nano-materials and nano-composites
Water purification and waste water treatment
Ergonometric
Robotics.

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the research and innovation system in Egypt

General Description and Comments


Though this is a new organization, almost all the BUE staff has a previous history of research
involvement with other national and international universities. That research is emphasized to be
the main educational tool is evidenced by current research budget mounting up to a sum of about
200,000 and $ 120,000 in different projects.
Interview Place and Date
Cairo, July 2008

Manufacturing Technology Department, Central Metallurgical R & D Institute (CMRDI)


Organization Details

P. O. Box: 87 Helwan, Cairo, Egypt


Contact Person
Prof. Dr. Eng. Abdel-Monem EL-BATAHGY,
Head of Manufacturing Technology Department, CMRDI
elbatahgy@yahoo.com
abatahgy@cmrdi.sci.eg
Year of establishment
1983
Associated institutes / bodies and stakeholders
National Institute for Laser Enhanced Science, Cairo university
Geographical area of competence
National & International
Main areas of activity
Fusion welding (arc and laser beam welding)
Friction stir welding
Laser materials processing
Current research areas and topics
Arc and laser welding of ferrous and non-ferrous alloys
Friction stir welding of non-ferrous alloys
Laser surface hardening of tool steels
Future research areas and topics
Laser beam welding of non-ferrous alloys including aluminum and titanium alloys
Friction stir welding of non-ferrous (aluminum) and ferrous (steel) alloys
Laser surface modification of ferrous and non-ferrous alloys
Laser cutting of ferrous and non-ferrous alloys
Number and qualification of the employed personnel
Total: 10
Professors: 3
Researchers: 7
Offered services
Applied research
Technical support
Technology transfer
Consultations

79

7. Research centers forms

Business model of the offered services


Applied research: payment
Technology transfer: payment
Technical support: payment
Consultations: free/payment
Participation to national and international networks
National Networks:
Egyptian Society for Laser Industrial Applications (ESLIA)
Academy of Scientific Research and Technology (ASRT)
Participation to international programmes and projects
Cooperation project with Fraunhofer IWM [ Institute for Mechanics of Materials ] (project concluded
in the field of repair welding strategy of aluminum structures used in transportation; e.g. train
vehicles, yachts)
Cooperation project with Penn State University in USA (project in progress in the field of fusion
welding of titanium alloys)
Funding Sources
Ministry of scientific research
Concerned industries
Project funding (DAAD in Germany, NSF in USA)
International cooperation interests
Laser welding of non-ferrous and ferrous alloys
Friction stir welding of non-ferrous and ferrous alloys
Laser surface modification of ferrous and non-ferrous alloys
Laser cutting of ferrous and non-ferrous alloys
General Description and Comments
Research activities in the field of welding engineering at CMRDI began in 1985 with an initial activity
in the area of arc welding of ferrous and non-ferrous alloys.
Since 1994, research moved into new area concerned with laser materials processing including
welding, cutting and surface modification. Recently (Since 2003), friction stir welding of different
ferrous and non-ferrous alloys included in our activities.
Interview Place and Date
Cairo, Egypt July 2008

7.4. Health

Urology and Nephrology Center, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt


Organization Details

Gomhoria Street, Mansoura, 35516, Egypt


Mansoura, EGYPT.
Phone: +20 (50)2262222, Fax: +20 (50) 2263717
http://www.unc.edu.eg
Contact Person
Mohamed A Ghoneim
Urology and Nephrology Center, Mansoura, Egypt
Year of establishment
1983
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the research and innovation system in Egypt

Associated institutes / bodies and stakeholders


University of Mansoura
Minyet Samanoud Hospital
Geographical area of competence
Regional
Current research areas and topics
Urologic oncology
Urinary diversion
Stem cell research
Future research areas and topics
Stem cell research in the treatment of diabetes
Genomics of carcinoma of the bladder
Number and qualification of the employed personnel
34
Offered services
Medical treatment
Training
Research
Business model of the offered services
Medical treatment (Mostly Free Partial Fees)
Training (Fees)
Research (Grants)
Registered patents, licenses
The new Patient Information System (PIS), carried on a fiber optic local network
Quality certifications obtained
WHO corresponding center
Participation to national and international networks
The new Patient Information System (PIS), carried on a fiber optic local network
Participation to international programmes and projects
In the Urology and Nephrology Center training is not less important than treating patients. Over 100
master degrees and 48 MD degrees were presented by the urology department. Since 1993 and until
now, the center is well-known as WHO collaborating for the training of junior urologists from all over
the world. Through WHO, SIU and direct communications with other urology departments worldwide,
the Center has offered more than 145 scholarships for Arab and International trainees. Over 300
publications in reputable journals are the harvest of the intense research and academic activities
Funding Sources
Government support
Donations
Research grants
International cooperation interests
Stem cell research in the treatment of diabetes
Genomics of carcinoma of the bladder
General Description and Comments

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7. Research centers forms

In May 1983, the Urology & Nephrology Center was officially inaugurated. The establishment of
the center was an exemplary work of Dr. M. A Ghoneim and two of his fellow urologists: Dr. A.
Ashamallah and Dr. S. Hammady.
The Center between 1983 and 1998 provided 122 beds for the urologic service. 82 % of surgeries
are completely free and the rest is partially covered. Until 2002, over 75000 cases were surgically
treated in-wards. Over 14000 cases outpatients. The outpatient department has been visited by
more than 1.765 million patients.
Interview Place and Date
Cairo, July 2008

7.5. Information and Communication Technologies (ICT)


Information Technology Institute (ITI)
Organization Details

Ministry of Communications and Information Technology (MCIT)


Contact Person
Dr. Mohamed Salem, Chairman
Information Technology Institute (ITI)
241 El Haram St., Giza, Egypt
Tel: +2 02 33868420; Fax: +2 02 33868429
msalem@mcit.gov.eg
Dr. Rada Hussein, Deputy for R&D
Information Technology Institute (ITI)
241 El Haram St, Giza, Egypt
Tel: +2 02 33868420; Fax: +2 02 33868429
rahussein@mcit.gov.eg
Year of establishment
1993
Geographical area of competence
The Institute operates mainly inside Egypt.
Main areas of activity
Information and Communication Technology (ICT)
Current research areas and topics
Software Engineering
Geographical Information Systems (GIS)
Multimedia.
Computer networks
Mechatronics
Digital VLSI Design & Embedded Systems
Biomedical Informatics
Future research areas and topics

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the research and innovation system in Egypt

Software Engineering
Software Development
Quality Assurance
Main Frame
Unix
Java
Mobile Application Development
Enterprise Application Development
EBusiness
E-Business
E-Learning
Database
Oracle DBA
Oracle Business Suite, ERP
SAP
Geographical Information Systems (GIS)
Multimedia
Multimedia
Computer Graphics for Media Production.
Computer networks
Computer Networks
Media convergence
Information Security
Mechatronics
Digital VLSI Design & Embedded Systems
VLSI
Embedded Systems
Biomedical Informatics
Bioinformatics
Imaging Informatics
Number and qualification of the employed personnel
Total Employment: 152
Professors: 4
Researchers: 100
Offered services
ICT training
Software applications
Consultation service
Technical reports.
Business model of the offered services
Software applications (Payment)
Training and consultation (payment)
Quality certifications obtained
ISO 9001
Participation to national and international networks
Collaboration activities include applied research through MSc and PhD studies, as well as,
internship programs with the following academic partners:
IT(Inc) (Egypt), Sunderland University (UK), Nottingham University (UK), Leipzig University (Germany),
Paderborn University (Germany), Lund University (Sweden), Joseph Fourier University (France),
Bergen University (Norway), Calgary University (Canada), Oregon Health and Science (OHSU) (US),
Institute of Health Carlos III (Spain)

83

7. Research centers forms

Participation to international programmes and projects


Holding an annual conference under the title of International Conference on Information &
Communications Technologies (ICICT) in cooperation with IEEE-Egypt (2003-09).
Applying for support from the EU programs (such as FP7, RDI, etc.) in different ICT research sectors
with various international networks.
International cooperation interests
- ICT
- Biomedical Informatics
General Description and Comments
Established in 1993, ITI provides specialized software development programs to distinguished
university graduates, as well as professional training programs and IT courses for the Egyptian
government, ministries, and business professionals.
Over the past 14 years, ITI has supplied the local, regional and international markets with highlytrained professionals in various IT domains, following the 9-month intensive training program.
Those graduates make up the backbone of the IT workforce in Egypt.
In April 2005, the affiliation of ITI was transferred to the Ministry of Communications and
Information Technology (MCIT), and since then, ITI is stepping forward towards several achievements
and accomplishments addressing state-of-the-art ICT areas and fields.
Interview Place and Date
Cairo, June 2008

Computer Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University


Organization Details

Computer Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt 12613
Contact Person
Prof. Samir Shaheen, Dean of the Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University
sshaheen@eng.cu.edu.eg
Prof. Nevin Darwish
ndarwish@ieee.org
Year of establishment
1990
Associated institutes / bodies and stakeholders
The department has many relations with the Multi-national companies in the Computer industry;
namely; IBM, Cisco, Oracle, Microsoft, Intel, hp. These companies provide training and job
opportunities for graduates, as well as, Research and Development projects.
Moreover, the department has been granted several projects with the European union through
the Tempus project. Currently, an E-learning project is being conducted with Rheinisch-Westflische
Technische Hochschule Aachen.
The departmental labs provide full software support for the E-government program conducted by
the Egyptian Government.
Geographical area of competence
In Egypt the department has relations with many of the national research centers, e.g. Remote
sensing Authority, National Academy of Science, Egyptian Standards organization, and the industrial
development agency.
In the Middle East we have research and E-learning projects with Emirates, Yemen, and Sudan
The department has research projects and protocols with Germany, Sweden, France, and UK.
Main areas of activity

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the research and innovation system in Egypt

Machine Intelligence
Machine learning and Time series forecasting
Neural networks and Pattern classification
Evolutionary Algorithms and their applications
Image Processing
Software Engineering
E-Learning
Parallel Processing
Reconfigurable Computing and Compiler Optimization
VLSI: Architectures and Design Tools
Computer Networks
Computer Vision
Current research areas and topics
Intelligent Agents
Natural Language Processing
Neural Networks
Pattern Classification
Machine learning
Time series forecasting
Evolutionary Algorithms
Software Engineering
E-Learning
Parallel Processing
Reconfigurable Computing
Compiler Optimization
Formal Verification
Networks on Chip
Electro-mechanical Modulators and the associated Decimation Filters
Routing
Mobile networks
Sensor Networks
Performance analysis and quality of service issues
3D Object Reconstruction
3D Object Recognition
Future research areas and topics
Video Editing
Image Annotations
Shape Classifications
Document Digitization
GeoVisualization
Data Mining
Trusted Computing
Vision-based Driver-Assistant
Sensor Networks applications
Motion Analysis
Computer networks and robotics lab under establishment
Number and qualification of the employed personnel
8 professor (2 are currently Egypt prime minister and minister of administrative development, the
faculty Dean, and the Assistant to Minister for Communication and Information Technology)
2 Associate professors
6 Assistant Professors.
25 Research and Teaching assistants

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7. Research centers forms

Offered services
Education
Training
Research
Consultations to various government ministries (ICT, Health, Etc) and to the business community.
Business model of the offered services
Protocols and contracts through faculty centers
Direct financial requests from governmental bodies.
Registered patents, licenses
None
However two educational software packages are our propriety
Quality certifications obtained
Peer review by national bodies.
Cairo University is the top ranked university in Egypt and is among the top 500 universities in the
world on the 2007 Shanghai Jaio Tong rankings
Participation to national and international networks
Member of Egypt university network
PROLEARN in France
Participation to international programmes and projects
Currently the department is responsible for an EU TEMPUS project with Germany and France
The department organizes every year an International IEEE conference on Computer Engineering.
Strong cooperation with International Universities and Companies as described above.
Funding Sources
Ministry of Higher Education
Contracts and services with the community
Research grants
Two years ago, a credit- hour, interdisciplinary B.Sc. program (with the Electrical Communication
Department) started. Students pay their fees (which was new in Egypt) allowing a better funding
situation within the department.
International cooperation interests
E-Learning
Computer networks
Computer vision
Computational intelligence
General Description and Comments
As mentioned above, some Faculty members of the Computer
Engineering Department hold key positions in the current government.
Graduates of the department usually work with multi-national
IT companies (e.g. IBM, Microsoft)
Interview Place and Date
Cairo, July 2008

Faculty of Computers and Information Cairo University


Organization Details

5 Dr. Ahmed Zewail Street, Postal Code: 12613, Orman, Giza, Egypt
webadmin@fci-cu.edu.eg
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the research and innovation system in Egypt

Contact Person
Prof. Aly Fahmy
Dean
Faculty of Computers and Information
Cairo University,
5 Ahmed Zoweil St., Dokki
Giza, Egypt
Tel: (+202) 3350107 (+2012) 3420162
Fax: (+202) 3350109
Email: a.fahmy@fci-cu.edu.eg>
Website: http://www.fci-cu.edu.eg
Personal e-mail: aly.fahmy@gmail.com
Year of establishment
1996
Associated institutes / bodies and stakeholders
Ministry of Communication and Information Technology (MCIT)
Geographical area of competence
The Institute operates mainly inside Egypt
Main areas of activity
Information Technology
Current research areas and topics
Data and Text Mining
Natural Language Processing
E-Governance
E-Learning
Tutorials for Handwriting
Speech Recognition
Future research areas and topics
Mobile Computing,
Software Testing
Virtual Reality
Information and Network Security
Grid Computing
Optimization (Decision Support)
Futuristic Studies
Number and qualification of the employed personnel
Staff members: > 30
TA Researchers: >100
Offered services
Software development
Consultation service
Feasibility studies
Training
Business model of the offered services
Through special entities, the institute provides:
Software development (Commission and/or IPR)
Consultation service (Commission)
Feasibility studies (Commission)
Training (Commission)
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7. Research centers forms

Quality certifications obtained


CMMI (application for Level2)
Participation to national and international networks
Ministry of Communication and Information Technology
Ministry of Administrative Development
Norwegian Center of Excellence
Monterey Institute of International Studies, Monterey, CA, USA
Institute for Futures Studies and Technology Assessment (IZT) Berlin
Faculty of Science and Engineering, York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Systems Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland
University Paris-1 Pantheon Sorbonne, France
VSB-Technical University of Ostrava, Czech Republic
Imperial College Work place London University, London - UK
Participation to international programmes and projects
Cooperation Program with ULM University, Germany
Cooperation Program with Koeln University, Germany
Cooperation Program with Charles University, Czech Republic
E-Learning Project supported by UNISCO and EU
International cooperation interests
Data and Text Mining
Natural Language Processing
E-Governance
E-Learning
Tutorials for Handwriting
Speech Recognition
Mobile Computing
Software Testing
Virtual Reality
Information and Network Security
Grid Computing
Optimization (Decision Support)
Futuristic Studies
Interview Place and Date
Cairo, July 2008

National Telecommunication Institute (NTI)


Organization Details

National Telecommunication Institute, Smart Village /Building 147 B/ Cairo - Alexandria Desert Road
Cairo/ Egypt
Contact Person
Dr. Omayma Abdel Mohsen
Switching Department
National Telecommunication Institute
5 Mahmoud El Melighy street, Nasr City, Cairo,Egypt
omohsen@nti.sci.eg
oabdelmohsen@yahoo.com
phone: 02 22640156 / 02 24030657
Year of establishment
1983

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the research and innovation system in Egypt

Associated institutes / bodies and stakeholders


NTI cooperates with most of the Egyptian universities and scientific and Research Institutes. Also NTI
has good contacts with Industrial organizations
Geographical area of competence
Egypt Arab Countries Africa
Main areas of activity
NTI is a main educational, training and research institution in the field of telecommunications. It
also provides consultancy services and support to the telecommunications sectors in Egypt and
neighboring countries.
Current research areas and topics
Communication Systems
Mobile Communications (CDMA, 3G, LTE)
Microwave and Optical Communications
Microwave Devices
Optoelectronics
Switching Systems
VoIP, MPLS
Networking
Wireless Network
Network Security
Future research areas and topics
Next Generation Networks architecture, protocols and services
Wireless Networks.
Information and communications Network Security
VLSI design
Number and qualification of the employed personnel
The academic and technical support staff comprises
3 Professors
5 Associate Professors
15 Assistant Professors
25 Teaching assistants and Researchers
20 Engineers
25 Technicians
Offered services
NTI grants two years post graduate diploma in communications and information engineering
NTI offers more than 30 short-term telecommunication training course annually. These courses
are designed to upgrade the technical knowledge and skills of professional engineers and include
both theoretical lectures and practical hands-on exposure to telecommunications, computers and
electronics.
The institute also offers customized training courses to major companies, where course contents
are designed to meet companies needs.
Consultancy Services to the telecommunications sectors in Egypt and neighboring countries
NTI manages and supervises the execution of the professional training program, offered to new
university graduates in the information and communications technology (ICT) fields. This program is
sponsored by the ministry of communications and information technology (MCIT) in cooperation with
a group of national and international companies. This program aims at annually preparing 5000
professionals skilled in information and communications technology fields.
Business model of the offered services
NTI is a governmental organization with independent budget. Most of the education and training
programs are at low or reduced fees.
NTI charges other services according to the nominal rates.

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7. Research centers forms

Participation to national and international networks


NTI participates in a large number of research and developing committees nation wide. Also NTI
participates in several International events and activities
Participation to international programmes and projects
NTI has scientific and training protocols, agreements and cooperation programs with several
universities, research centers, international companies and organizations working in the
information and communications technology field.
NTI signed memorandums of understanding (MOU) with different universities and institutes to
cooperate in research activities and exchange of teaching staff and researchers.
For Example:
Thales Technological University- France.
Balearic Islands University - Spain
Tashkent university for information technologies, Uzbekistan
International telecommunication union (ITU).
Japan international cooperation Agency JI
Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA)
Also NTI signed MOUs with
CISCO
Siemens
Alcatel
Nortel
ZTE
HP
Ericsson
Cadence
Mentor Graphics
To cooperate in developing the professional skills of recent graduate engineers and young
researchers.
Funding Sources
NTI is funded by the government. NTI has its own budget as a governmental entity. Part of the budget
is self- generated through NTI activities (consultancy services, education and training)
International cooperation interests
Projects, Training, Consultation in the Information and Communications
Technology fields
Research and Development
Exchange of Experts
Exchange of Professors and Teaching staff
Developing education and training programs
General Description and Comments
NTI Scientific Departments
Computer and System Department.
Network planning Department
Transmission Department
Electronics Department
Switching Department
NTI Specialized Labs
CDMA, Computer networks, Network Management (14 Labs)
Interview Place and Date
July, 2008

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the research and innovation system in Egypt

Center for Wireless Studies (CWS), Electronics and Electrical Communications Department.
Organization Details

Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Giza 12613, Egypt


Web: http://eng.cu.edu.eg
Contact Person
Dr. Mohamed Khairy
Electronics and communications Dept,
Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University
Giza 12613, Egypt
Email: mkhairy@ieee.org
Dr. Mohamed Abdallah
Electronics and communications Dept,
Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University
Giza 12613, Egypt
Email: mabdalah@eng.cu.edu.eg
Year of establishment
2007
Associated institutes / bodies and stakeholders
Cairo University
The NTRA (National Telecommunication Regulatory Authority)
The Nile university
Qatar university
Geographical area of competence
National, Regional and International, as the CWS in involved in IEEE Standards committees taking
place all over the world.
Main areas of activity
Telecommunications with the focus on next generation OFDMA-based system e.g. WiMAX.
Wireless sensor networks.
Information technology
Digital design
Antenna design for wireless applications
Current research areas and topics
Active participation in the IEEE 802.16m standards meeting through contributing to the standard
by submitting contributions for physical layer specifications.
Implementation of Wireless Communication systems
Physical layer design and implementation
Channel estimation algorithms for Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA)
systems
Turbo decoder implementation
Multiple Antennas system design and implementation
Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiplexing (SCFDM) systems design
Physical layer algorithms for wireless sensor networks.
Future research areas and topics
Software Defined Radio and Cognitive Radio systems
Long term Evolution (LTE) systems for future mobile systems
Wireless sensor networks with the focus on health and body monitor applications.
Number and qualification of the employed personnel
Professors: 8
Graduate students: 5

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7. Research centers forms

Offered services
Design and implementation of Communication systems
Integrated Hardware and Software
Feasibility studies and technical reports
. Research projects
Business model of the offered services
Research grants
Training and consultation
Industry collaboration
Registered patents, licenses
Applied for 2 patents :
Guard Band Reduction in Mobile WiMAX systems via overlapped Windowing
A novel frequency offset estimation techniques in Mobile WiMAX
Preparing 1 more patent.
Quality certifications obtained
Participation to national and international networks
Consultants to the (National Telecommunication Regulatory Authority) NTRA of Egypt
Cooperation with Qatar university.
Participation to international programmes and projects
Attending and contributing to IEEE 802.16 standards meeting since May 2007
Funding Sources
National Telecommunication Regulatory Authority (NTRA) of Egypt
Qatar university (funding graduate student research and studies)
International cooperation interests
Collaborating with European universities and companies to design and implement communication
standards
Field programmable field array (FPGA) and Application Specific ICs (ASIC) design for
Communication systems
Research and development of different Mobile and fixed communication standards including
WiMaX, LTE and Zigbee
General Description and Comments
CWS is interested in all aspects of communication systems design and implementation. One of the
centers goal is to spin off companies in these different areas with the collaboration of European or
American partners.
Interview Place and Date
Cairo, July 2008

Communications & Electronics Systems Design Laboratory


Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University
Organization Details

Communications & Electronics Systems Design Laboratory,


Electronics & Communications Department,
Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University,
Giza, EGYPT 12613
Tel: +202 35678197 Fax: +202 35723486
Web: http://www.eng.cu.edu.eg/

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the research and innovation system in Egypt

Contact Person
Professor Magdi Fikri
Electronics & Communications Department,
Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University
Giza, EGYPT 12613
Tel: +202 35678888 +2010 295 5722
Fax: +202 35723486
Email: magdi.fikri@gmail.com
Professor Ahmed El Bialy
Systems & Biomedical Engineering Department,
Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University
Giza, EGYPT 12613
Tel: +202 35678942 +2010 123 4080 Fax: +202 35723486
Email : abialy_86@yahoo.com
Year of establishment
1930
Associated institutes / bodies and stakeholders
SCEU (Supreme Council of Egyptian Universities)
Egyptian Ministry of Higher Education
Geographical area of competence
The group operates mainly inside Egypt
Main areas of activity
- Digital Signal Processing
- Communication Systems
Current research areas and topics
Biometric Security System based on Human Iris Recognition
Medical Image Processing
Synchronization in Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM)and Orthogonal Frequency
Division Multiple Access (OFDMA)
Software Defined Radio (SDR)
Digital Protection Relays
Remote Meter Reading using Power Line Communications
Lossless Image Compression
Future research areas and topics
Object recognition and tracking in video streams
Security systems based on video monitoring
Wireless sensor networks
Number and qualification of the employed personnel
Total Employment: 16
Professors: 4
Researchers: 6
Engineers: 6
Offered services
Development of signal processing algorithms on DSPs (good experience with TI DSPs C6416 and
Davinci DM6446)
Development of real-time embedded prototypes, including hardware and software, based on
several microcontrollers & DSPs
Consultation services
Algorithm development and simulations using MATLAB/SIMULINK
Business model of the offered services
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7. Research centers forms

Contracting for well - defined jobs (Commission)


Partnership in research with financial support from research agencies
Registered patents, licenses
Egyptian Patents on:
Digital Over-current Protection Relay
. Automatic Meter Reading System using PLC
Participation to national and international networks
National Supreme Council of Universities Network
Participation to international programmes and projects
International conferences
Cooperation with Schlumberger SCRC in Seismic Signal Processing project Multi-channel Blind
Deconvolution
Funding Sources
ITIDA (Information Technology Industry Development Association)
Research Grants
Income from contracting and business
International cooperation interests
Biometric Security Systems.
SDR
Medical Image Processing
Wireless Sensor Networks
Interview Place and Date
Cairo, October 2008

Signal Processing Group, Dept. of Computers and Systems, Electronics Research Institute (ERI)
Organization Details

Electronics Research Institute


National Research Center Buildings
El Tahrir street, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.
Contact Person
Samia Mashali
Electronics Research Institute
Computers and Systems Dept.
Signal Processing Group
El Tahrir st., Dokki, Cairo, Egypt
Tel (202)33351631, (202)33310502
Fax (202)33351631
samia@eri.sci.eg
smashaly@mcit.gov.eg
Year of establishment
1989
Associated institutes / bodies and stakeholders
Academy of Scientific Research
Ministry of Education and Scientific Research
Egyptian Universities

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the research and innovation system in Egypt

Main areas of activity


Information and Communication Technology (ICT)
Current research areas and topics
Optical Character Recognition(OCR)
Biometrics
Data Mining
Image and Video Processing
Bioinformatics
Future research areas and topics
Handwritten Arabic OCR
Fingerprint and Iris Recognition
Data Mining in Telecommunication and Medical fields
Video on Demand
Early Detection of Breast Cancer
Secondary Protein Structure Prediction
Number and qualification of the employed personnel
Total: 200
Computers and Systems Dept, Professors and Researchers: 50
Signal Processing Group, Professors and Researchers: 15
Offered services
Consultation Services
Feasibility studies
Research Projects
Business model of the offered services
General University Research groups; payment
Collaborating University research groups: free
Industry: payment
Consultation Services: payment
Participation to national and international networks
Egyptian Universities Network
Participation to international programmes and projects
Video Compression, NS, USA (project concluded)
Remote Sensing, Ukraine (project in progress)
Funding Sources
ERI
Project Funding (NSF, Scientific Research Fund)
International cooperation interests
Optical Character Recognition(OCR)
Biometrics
Data Mining
Image and Video Processing
Bioinformatics
Interview Place and Date
Cairo, October 2008

95

7. Research centers forms

Electronics and Electrical Communications department Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams


University.
Organization Details

Electronics and Electrical Communications department, Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams


University1 El-Sarayat St., Abdou-Pasha Square, Abbassia, Cairo, Egypt.
Postal Code: 11517
Web: http://eng.shams.edu.eg
Contact Person
Prof. Dr. Wagdi Anis
Prof. of Communications Eng.
Email: wagdianis@asunet.shams.edu.eg
Tel: +202-2682-1800
Fax: +202-2685-0617
Year of establishment
1990
Associated institutes / bodies and stakeholders
Clausthal University, Germany
Dresden, Germany
Hanover University, Germany
Drexel University, USA
McMaster University, Canada
Average yearly turnover
US$ 3.2 millions
Geographical area of competence
National
Main areas of activity
Electrical Eng. (Computer and Control Systems, Communication and Electronics)
Current research areas and topics
Photovoltaic solar systems
VLSI, analog and digital design
Wireless communication systems.
Future research areas and topics
Photovoltaic solar systems
VLSI, analog and digital design
Wireless communication systems.
Number and qualification of the employed personnel
Total: 78
Professors: 23
Associate Professors: 4
Assistant professors: 7
Research Assistants: 44
Offered services
R & D in all Engineering activities
Consultation services including feasibility studies
Training courses
Business model of the offered services

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the research and innovation system in Egypt

Projects with industry through funding contracts


Offered Technical Assistance agreements with public and private sectors
Collaboration with Research Centers & groups and funding through agreements
Quality certifications obtained
Accreditation project for the Faculty (under final approval)
Participation to national and international networks
Academy of Scientific Research & Technology, Egypt
IEEE
Participation to international programmes and projects
US Egypt Science and Technology Board
Tempus projects
Many partnerships and collaborations with European and American Universities
Funding Sources
Industry Modernization Center, Ministry of Trade
Research project funding
Ministry of Higher Education.
International cooperation interests
Photovoltaic powered electric cells.
Photovoltaic solar pumping systems for water pumping in rural areas.
Photovoltaic powered small refrigerators for vaccines and medicament reservation in rural areas.
Photovoltaic powered lighting for roads in rural areas.
General Description and Comments
The vision of the Faculty of Engineering is to attain excellence in engineering education, scientific
research and community services through an integrated TQM linking with different national and
international institutions.
Interview Place and Date
Cairo, Egypt, July 2008.

Laboratory for lasers and optical communication (LLOC)


Organization Details

Faculty of engineering, Ain Shams University, 1 Sarayat street, Abbassia, Cairo, Egypt, P.C. 11517
Contact Person
Prof. M. H. Ahmad
mhahmed00@yahoo.com
Prof. D. A Khalil
diaa.khalil@ieee.org
Dr. A. H. Morshed
ahmorshed@ieee.org
Year of establishment
1975
Associated institutes / bodies and stakeholders
Ain Shams University, National telecommunication Authority, Higher Education Enhancement Project
Fund, Information Technology Industrial Development Agency

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7. Research centers forms

Average yearly turnover


68.000 Euros
Geographical area of competence
International
Main areas of activity
Optoelectronics and optical engineering
Current research areas and topics
Optical fiber amplifiers and oscillators, Integrated optics/optical MEMS
Future research areas and topics
Optical fiber sensors, Optical MEMS, FT spectroscopy
Number and qualification of the employed personnel
3 Professors
2 Associate Professors
2 Assistant Professors
5 Assistants
1 Technicians
Offered services
Consultations, R&D projects
Business model of the offered services
Center of Excellence
Registered patents, licenses
5 patents+ 1 PPA
Optical switching Matrix and its manufacturing method
Publication info:JP2004004713-2004-01-08
Micromechanical based variable optical attenuator having moving walls with sloped V shaped wall
stops outside central optical fiber section
Publication info:FR2849217-2004-06-25
Optical telecommunications switching having five optical switch connections providing input
intermediate outputs from four switches and fifth connection providing remaining outputs
Publication info:FR2849015-2004-06-25
Matrix of optical switches
Publication info:FR2838527-2003-10-17
Variable optical attenuator and a matrix of such attenuators, comprises a mobile structure and a
coupling device linked to a detector for a higher precision control
Publication info:FR2837578-2003-09-26
Participation to international programmes and projects
Institut de Microlectronique, Electromagntisme et Photonique IMEP- INPG France. MOU
agreement with INPG and cooperation in research.
Group ESIEE Paris, France. Research cooperation in Optical MEMS.
Ottawa University, MOU agreement and research project on ROADM (Reconfigurable Optical add
drop Mux.)
Funding Sources
Governmental and private institutions
International cooperation interests
Development of optical fiber sensors
Development of Optical MEMS Spectrometer
Development of 40 GB/s optical network
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General Description and Comments


The laboratory for laser and optical communications LLOC has begun its activity at the Faculty
of Engineering, Ain Shams University in late seventies with the objective of promoting scientific
research and building the technical background required for both the educational as well as
industrial levels in the field of optical communications and optoelectronics. We believe that this is
a field of strategic as well as economic interest of Egypt and it has a very strong potential in the near
future.
Our mission in the Lab is thus to be the leaders in the field of optical communications and
optoelectronics working in a centre of excellence in this domain that can serve regional and
worldwide industry, education and research.
Interview Place and Date
Cairo, July 2008

Microstrip and Microwave Engineering group.


Electronics Research Institute (ERI)
Organization Details

National Research Center Buildings


El Behouth Street, Dokki
Zip code 12622
Cairo, Egypt
Contact Person
Prof. Esmat Abdel- Fattah Abdallah
Former President of Electronics Research Institute (ERI).
RF Communication, microwave engineering
Tel. +202 3337 4998 (Home), +202 3331 0506 (Office)
Fax +202 3336 8584, Mobile +2012 3290 406
esmataa2@hotmail.com
Year of establishment
Since 1963, the ERI was a part of the National Research Center (NRC) and since Jan. 1989, it became
an independent institute.
Associated institutes / bodies and stakeholders
The ERI is a governmental institute affiliated with the Ministry of scientific Research.
Electronics and Electrical communication Depts., Faculties of Engineering at both Cairo University
and Ain Shams University
Ministry of Communication and Information Technology
Remote Sensing Organization
The Holding Company for biological Products and Vaccines (VACERA) (Design and calibration of the
measuring instruments for virus detection in blood).
Geographical area of competence
Egypt Middle East
Main areas of activity
Microwave and Microstrip Engineering
RF Communications

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7. Research centers forms

Current research areas and topics


Antennas (conventional and compact)
Transceivers
Passive and Active Microwave components
Nonreciprocal devices,
Communication systems
Future research areas and topics
Embedded antennas
Compact and wide band microwave components
MEMS
Ultrawide band antennas
Smart antennas
EM bandgap structures
Number and qualification of the employed personnel
Prof. 2
Ass. Prof. 4
researchers 7
Assistant Researchers 20
Offered services
Training for both the service and production sectors in Egypt
Development of Local Industry
Research
Consultations
Business model of the offered services
Some projects with the private and public sectors in the field of industry is funded by the Academy
of Scientific Research and Technology (ASRT)
Cooperation with other departments in the ERI (free)
Research other with universities and other research centers (free)
Research Projects (research grants)
Training courses for engineers (charge)
Services to public and private sector (charge)
Registered patents, licenses
A patent was licensed in Egypt and in the process of licensed it in Europe in the field of Holography
Participation to international programmes and projects
Through the International cooperation agreement between USA (National Science Foundation) and
Egypt (ASRT). Examples of these projects are:
Development of Three dimensional Human computer Interface System Using Holography, with the
University of California at Irvine (ended 2003).
Miniaturization for Broadband Chip Size Antennas Using EBG Techniques for Wireless
Communications and Biomedical Applications, with the University of Hawai (in progress).
Joint research with the Fraunhofer Institute of Biomedical Engineering (IBMT), Germany through
a project Funded by the EU (FP6) entitled Rapid SPR for parallel detection of pathogens in blood,
etc.
Funding Sources
Government (Ministry of Scientific research) joint projects
Training in the field of analysis, design and fabrication of microwave components circuits and
antennas for different private and public sectors
International cooperation interests

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the research and innovation system in Egypt

Embedded antennas
Wearable antennas
Electromagnetic bandgap antennas
Smart antennas
General Description and Comments
Electronics Research Institute (ERI) was established in 1989 and before that it was a part of the
National Research Centre. It now consists of seven departments namely, Power Electronics and
Energy Conversion, Computers and Systems, Microstrip, Microwave Engineering, Microelectronics,
Solar Cells and Informatics. The working force is made of about two hundred research members
(Professors, Associate and Assistant Prof., Researchers and Assistant Researcher).
Interview Place and Date
Cairo, July 2008

Faculty of Computers and Information, Helwan University


Organization Details

Helwan University, Faculty of Computers and Information


Ain Helwan, Helwan, Egypt
Tel: + 20 2 25481035 - +20 2 25481039
FAX: +20 2 25547975
Mobile: +20 10 5000 702
URL: www.helwan.edu.eg
Contact Person
Prof. A. Sharaf Eldin
profase2000@yahoo.com
Prof. Y. Helmy
ymhelmy@yahoo.com
Year of establishment
1996
Associated institutes / bodies and stakeholders
Cooperation with the University of Connecticut, USA (Joint PhD Supervision)
Cooperation with University of Bolton, UK (research and course delivery to be implemented)
Geographical area of competence
Mainly Greater Cairo, Egypt
Main areas of activity
IT Research, Training, and Consultation
Current research areas and topics
Medical and Bio Informatics
Digital Image Processing
Data and Text Mining
Computer Arabization
Future research areas and topics
Mobile Computing
Medical and Bio Informatics
Information Storage and Retrieval
Neuro-computing

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Number and qualification of the employed personnel


18 Staff members and 16 technical staff
Please divide into Professors, Associate professors, Assistant professors and Teaching and Research
Assistants.
Offered services
Software Research, Development and Implementation
Consultation services in IT (Information Technology)
Technical Translation in IT (Arabic/English and vise versa)
Business model of the offered services
Contractual
Participation to international programmes and projects
Tempus Projects (EU)
Project SCM-M024A04-2004, The Development of QA Systems within Selected Universities in Egypt
Project CD_JEP-31053 2003, Medical and Bio-Informatics Master Program in Egypt
Funding Sources
Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific research.
Research Grants
International cooperation interests
Medical and Bio Informatics
Mobile Computing
Information Storage and Retrieval
Software Development
General Description and Comments
The Faculty of computers and Information, Helwan University (FCI-HU) is actively involved in
research and development projects. We initiated the QA system in HU, introduced medical and bio
informatics in Egypt. Two of the staff members are among the board of the National Committee for
Informatics in Egypt. Some staff members and students won international prizes.
Interview Place and Date
Cairo, July 2008

Cairo University Faculty of Engineering


Organization Details

Faculty of Engineering Cairo University Giza - Egypt


Contact Person
Dr. Ahmed El-Bialy
abialy_86@yahoo.com
Dr. Ahmed Kandil
ahkandil_1@yahoo.com
Year of establishment
1976
Associated institutes / bodies and stakeholders
Systems and Networks Lab. (SysNet Lab.)
Center for Advanced Software and Biomedical Engineering Consultations (CASBEC)
Geographical area of competence
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the research and innovation system in Egypt

Egypt Middle East Africa


Main areas of activity
Biomedical Engineering
Health care services
Software Development
Pattern Recognition
Current research areas and topics
Development of pattern recognition techniques for the Arabic language [Optical Character
Recognition(OCR)].
Computer Assisted Learning using multimedia.
Conversion of Arabic Text into Speech (to help persons with visual impairment). This can be
integrated with Speech Verification System for correcting the pronunciation of people suffering from
speech impairment. It can also be used to teach illiterate people and to teach Arabic to foreign
people.
Robotics and Nonlinear control for Dynamical Systems.
Current research includes a joint research project with the Dental School in the field of
Cephalometric analysis
Automation of health care services Medical Imaging and Visualization Rehabilitation based on
speech and OCR techniques.
Future research areas and topics
Dental Information System: A system that could provide dentists with their patients information,
their Examination, their medical images and the financial management of the clinic. Information
system is not only what automation could support dentists with but also it may support them in
taking decision about patients treatment plans. The major objective of this project is to present a
vision to computerize an Egyptian dental clinic. In order to achieve such an objective, an Orthodontic
Information System (OIS) is established. The OIS includes the patient personal information, his
medical history, his complaints, and his photos (face) from different views and the X-RAY images.
This data is received over the treatment period to monitor the progress. The OIS is followed by a
Cephalometric analysis to extract a set of features (points, angles and distances) from the X-RAY
images. Such features are essential for the Orthodontic surgeon to decide the set of points
displacements to get a final required face shape for the patient. A pre-operative module is the
Orthomorphing visualization to get a predictable shape based on the decision of the surgeon. This
module enables the surgeon to evaluate his pre-planed actions before performing the operation. 3D
Cephalometric Analysis.
Design an integrated Hospital Information System which complies with the international standards
and that can be applied in the Egyptian Hospitals.
Number and qualification of the employed personnel
Total: 19
Professors: 3
Researchers: 16
Offered services
Software development
Development of integrated hardware and software
Consultation service
Feasibility studies and technical reports
Development of Hospital / clinic Information system
Clinical Engineering Information Systems (devices and equipment)
Monitoring and Evaluation of Maintenance tasks for medical equipment performed by companies
and agents
Training and continuous education for students and professionals in the field of medical devices,
information systems, medical standards and software packages
Business model of the offered services

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Software development (Commission)


Integrated Hardware and Software development (Commission)
Training and consultation (Fees)
Enhancement of hospital / clinic services using Information Technology and quality assurance of
medical equipment performance(Commision).
Participation to national and international networks
National Network of the Supreme Council of Universities.
Participation to international programmes and projects
Project to develop a prototype for a myoelectric arm with its training kit (US Aid Program)
Funding Sources
Cairo University.
Information Technology Industry Development Agency (ITIDA)
Center for Advanced Software and Biomedical Engineering Consultations (CASBEC)
International cooperation interests
Design an integrated Hospital Information System which complies with the international
standards.
Development of a Dental simulation system able to predict the final appearance of the patient
after the treatment. This system will get its data from CT scans and will extract automatically all the
necessary data. Such a system will consider the properties of the bones and skin and the effect of
any operation on these materials.
Automatic Speech Verification System for correcting the pronunciation of people suffering of
speech impairment. It can be used to teach Arabic to foreign people.
General Description and Comments
The Systems and Biomedical Engineering Department in Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University.
This department was established in 1976, starting with three dedicated staff members and 35
students. The department nowadays includes over 30 staff members, 800 under graduate students
and over 100 postgraduate students. The research scope in the department ranges from artificial
limbs, medical image processing, medical signal processing, speech processing, OCR, virtual
orthodontic clinic and finite element simulation of implant/bone interface.
Interview Place and Date
Cairo, August 2008

7.6. Renewable Energy

Department of Power Electronics and Renewable Energy Systems.


Electronics Research Institute (ERI)
Organization Details

National Research Centre Buildings


El- Behouth Street
Dokki, 12622
Cairo, Egypt
Contact Person
Prof. Aziza Mahmoud Zaki
Power Electronics & Renewable Energy Systems
Chair of Power Electronics & Energy Conversion Dept., ERI
azizazaki@hotmail.com
aziza@eri.sci.eg

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the research and innovation system in Egypt

Year of establishment
Since 1963 as a part of the National Research centre (NRC) and as an Independent institute since Jan
1989.
Associated institutes / bodies and stakeholders
Governmental institute affiliated to the Ministry of scientific Research.
Power and Machines dept, faculty of engineering, Cairo Univ. & Ain Shams University-Power Eng.
Dept, Helwan University- Remote sensing organization Scientific cooperation agreement with many
foreign countries in Europe, Africa & Asia
Geographical area of competence
Egypt - Middle East
Main areas of activity
Power Electronics
Energy Conversion
Renewable Energy systems
Power Systems
Current research areas and topics
Power Electronics Applications
Electrical Drives
Renewable Energy systems
Power Quality
Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS)
Motion control in Industrial and Mobile Robots
Future research areas and topics
Fuel Cells
Hybrid systems
Electrical Vehicles
New Drive systems
Intelligent Control in Machine drives & power Systems Micro electro
Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)
Number and qualification of the employed personnel
11 Professors
5 Associate Professors
21 Assistant Professors
19 Researchers
Offered services
Consultations
Training courses for service & production sectors engineers - Joint projects through the cooperation
agreement between Egypt and USA (NSF)
Joint research with the Electrical power & Electrical machines Depts., faculty of engineering, Cairo
University, Ain Shams University and Helwan University.
Business model of the offered services
Service to any department in the institute (ERI) is offered free of charge, also joint research
activities with universities in Egypt are free.
Projects to the private and public sectors in the field of industry through the Academy of Scientific
Research and Technology (ASRT) or through direct contract with production or service sector or
consultations are offered for suitable fees. Also, training courses to engineers in the industry or
service sector are with fees.

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7. Research centers forms

Participation to international programmes and projects


Joint projects funded from National Science Foundation (NSF) in the topics of power electronics
components cooling, Electrical machine analysis.
Proposal submitted to the European Union (EU) in the field of energy sustainability in public
buildings.
Funding Sources
Government
Joint projects (National and International)
Training courses in power electronics, microprocessors, sensors, electrical drives, renewable energy
International cooperation interests
Ready for wide and deeper cooperation in the fields of power electronics applications, electrical
drives control, renewable energy systems & energy sustainability
General Description and Comments
ERI is the Electronics Research Institute. It was established in 1989 and before that it was a part of
the National Research Centre. It consists of 7 departments namely:
Power Electronics & Energy Conversion
Computers & Systems
Informatics
Microwave Engineering
Microstrip circuits
Solar cells
Microelectronics
About 200 research members (Prof., Assoc. Prof., Assistant Prof., & Assistant Researcher) are
affiliated to ERI.
Interview Place and Date
Cairo, July 2008

SunPrism For Energy Technology


Organization Details

Factory address: Ismailia public zone


Mailing address: 9 Maarouf St. Kasr El Nile, Cairo 11522 Egypt
Contact Person
Sherif Bahnas
Tel : (202) 25798334
Fax : (202) 25795744
e-mail : sb@sun-prism.com
Year of establishment
2005
Associated institutes / bodies and stakeholders
Private Sector
Joint R&D with Cairo University
Geographical area of competence
Egypt
European Union
Light presence in Middle East and Africa

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Main areas of activity


Production of PV panels
System integration
Providing solutions for various applications in Egypt and the Middle East (e.g. Telecom, Oil and
Gas, Rural Electrification,)
Current research areas and topics
Improvement of system cost efficiency, through product innovation and testing
Seeking cheaper complete reliable energy solutions
Future research areas and topics
Solar Thermal systems
Collector production
Grid connected systems
Thin film solar cells.
Number and qualification of the employed personnel
8 Engineers
74 Technicians
Offered services
Manufacturing PV modules
Installing PV Systems
Business model of the offered services
The company is a profit making organization, and services are provided for a fee. However, the
company does provide free training for selected individuals, subsidize components and systems for
students and research purposes.
Participation to international programmes and projects
Freiburg Exhibition 2007, Germany
Freiburg Exhibition 2008, Germany
Regular attendee of the European PV conference
Funding Sources
Private Sector
International cooperation interests
To cooperate with companies with the purpose of joint manufacturing in the PV production field, or
any of the future interests of the company.
General Description and Comments
Sun-Prism is a private enterprise specialized in the production of PV cells and in providing full
system integration
Interview Place and Date
Cairo, June 2008

Electrical Power Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)
Organization Details

Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University


1 El-Sarayat St., Abdou-Pasha Square, Abbassia
Cairo, Egypt, Postal Code: 11517
Web: http://eng.shams.edu.eg/
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7. Research centers forms

Contact Person
Prof. Dr. Ahmed El-Baz
Prof. of Power Engineering
Email: elbaz@link.net
Tel: +202-2682-1800
Fax: +202-2685-0617
Year of establishment
1950
Associated institutes / bodies and stakeholders
Clausthal University, Germany
Dresden, Germany
Hanover University, Germany
Drexel University, USA
McMaster University, Canada
Average yearly turnover
US$ 0.4 millions
Geographical area of competence
National
Main areas of activity
Renewable Energy.
Current research areas and topics
New techniques for utilization of wave energy
Direct steam generation using solar energy
Development of efficient wind turbines
Future research areas and topics
Implementation of wave energy extraction system
Implementation of direct steam generation system using solar energy
Number and qualification of the employed personnel
Total: 64
Professors: 19
Associate Professors: 8
Assistant professors: 13
Research Assistants: 24
Offered services
R & D in all Engineering activities
Consultation services including feasibility studies
Training courses
Business model of the offered services
Projects with industry (contracts)
Technical Assistance agreements (Fees)
Collaboration with Research Centers & groups (Grants)
Quality certifications obtained
Under final approval and accreditation
Participation to national and international networks
Academy of Scientific Research & Technology, Egypt
IEEE
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the research and innovation system in Egypt

Participation to international programmes and projects


US Egypt Science and Technology Board
Partnerships and collaborations with European and American Universities as mentioned earlier
Funding Sources
Industry Modernization Center, Ministry of Industry & International Trade
Research project funding
Ministry of Higher Education.
International cooperation interests
Solar energy related topics:
Computational modeling of heat transfer and fluid flow in horizontal pipes used for direct steam
generation
Development of new design of linear (Fresnel) solar collectors
Modeling of a new receiver design for DSG system
Wave energy related topics
Wave energy surveying along northern coast
Development of a new wave energy extraction device.
Optimization of wave energy extraction device for northern coast conditions in Egypt
General Description and Comments
The vision of the Faculty of Engineering is to attain excellence in engineering education, scientific
research and community services through an integrated TQM linking with different national and
international institutions.
Interview Place and Date
Cairo, Egypt

Electrical Power Engineering Dept.,Faculty of Engineering, Helwan University.


Organization Details

1 Sherief Street, Helwan, Egypt


Contact Person
Power Electronics
Prof. Dr. Amr Amin
Vice Dean, Faculty of Engineering
amrmaamin@yahoo.com
Renewable Energy
Ass. Prof. Dr. Said Elmasry
Faculty of Engineering, Helwan, Cairo, Egypt.
saeedee@hotmail.com
Year of establishment
1960
Associated institutes / bodies and stakeholders
Egyptian Renewable Energy Authority
Ministry of Higher Education
Geographical area of competence
Helwan and Cairo

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7. Research centers forms

Main areas of activity


Photovoltaic solar systems
Photovoltaic solar system applications in rural areas
Power electronic equipment used with renewable energy systems
Energy storage systems
Current research areas and topics
Hybrid renewable energy systems :
PV/diesel system
PV/wind systems
Future research areas and topics
Wind energy system with compressed air energy storage
Grid connected photovoltaic solar system
Number and qualification of the employed personnel
Total of 7
Professors 2
Researchers 5
Offered services
Consultations
Training
Simple Assembly and manufacturing
Business model of the offered services
Regular salaries are paid by the government.
Services are paid by the service- requesting organization.
Participation to national and international networks
Sothwest Phalia University of Applied Science, Germany
Brunel, UK
Participation to international programmes and projects
Conferences
Workshops
Funding Sources
Ministry of Higher Education
TEMPUS, EU
DAAD, Germany
International cooperation interests
Photovoltaic Solar Systems
Wind Energy Systems
Energy Storage Systems
Power electronics
General Description and Comments
Research activities start in 1990 with an initial activity in the area of solar system applications in the
rural areas of Egypt.
Later the research included the power electronics used with renewable energy systems and their
storage elements.
Interview Place and Date
Cairo, July 2008

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the research and innovation system in Egypt

Research group Materials for Renewable Energy, Material Science Department, Institute of
Graduate Studies and Research, Alexandria University
Organization Details

163 Horrya Avenue


Postal Code 21526 Shatby
Alexandria, Egypt
Contact Person
Prof. Moataz Solioman
Material Science Department
Institute of Graduate Studies and Research, Alexandria University
msolinam2@yahoo.com
Tel +2-0106773366
Year of establishment
1983
Associated institutes/ bodies and stakeholders
Faculty of engineering, Alex. University
Faculty of Pharmacy, Alex. University
Faculty of Science, Alex. University
Medical Research Institute, Alex. University
Mubarak City for Applications of Scientific Research and Technology
Geographical area of competence
National
Main areas of activity
Conducting and Bio Polymers
Buliding Materials
Corrosion Control
Composite, Biomaterials - Recycling of Materials - wastewater treatment
Current research areas and topics
Selective coating for solar collector
Thin films solar cells
Polymer solar cells
Dye sensitized nanocrystalline solar cells
Preparation of nanomaterials for drug delivery systems
Sensing and photovoltaic applications
Future research areas and topics
Materials for hydrogen Storage
Fuel cells
Biomaterials and biosensors
Materials for water Desalination
Number and qualification of the employed personnel
5 Professors
2 Assistant Professors
2 Engineers
3 Chemists
Offered services
Research
Training
Consultations

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7. Research centers forms

Business model of the offered services


Research (Grants)
Training courses (Fees)
Consultations (Fees)
Quality certifications obtained
Senior Member IEEE
Certified Energy Management Engineer from AEE American Energy Engineer Association
Participation to national and international networks
National Network of the Supreme Council of Universities
Participation to international programmes and projects
Sixth Framework Programme, FP6, EU Project Acronym: Termisol, New low-emmissivity, and Long
lasting paints for cost-effective Solar collectors Proposal no. 031880
Proposal for funding by Seventh Framework Programme, High solar Concentration on Splitted
cells By Moth-Eyed Fresnel Lenses (Passed Second Evaluation).
Funding Sources
Sixth Framework Programme, EU
Alexandria University Research Enhancement Program
International cooperation interests
Fabrication of Thin films solar cells by electrochemical deposition.
Photovoltaic Training Center for training engineers on the installation, design, and maintaining of
photovoltaic systems
Polymeric photovoltaic cells
Dye sensitized nanocrytalline solar cells.
Preparation of nanomaterials for sensing devices
Preparation of nanomaterials for optoelectronic devices
Materials for water desalination
General Description and Comments
At the Materials Science Department, we a have multidisciplinary staff Engineers, Physicists,
Chemists. We have a central lab for material characterization. Study of the effects of preparation
parameters of materials on the device performance (mainly solar cells and sensors) and tailoring the
properties of the prepared materials are our main interests.
Interview Place and Date
Cairo, July 2008

7. 7. Other
National Research Center (NRC)
Organization Details
National Research Center
El-Buhouth St., Dokki, Cairo, Egypt
Email: www.nrc.sci.eg
Contact Person

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the research and innovation system in Egypt

Professor Dr. Esmat Abd El-Ghaffar


Vice president of NRC for Research.
Tel: +202 37482251
Fax: +202 33371718
E-mail: esmat_nrc@yahoo.com
Year of establishment
1956
Associated institutes / bodies and stakeholders
Ministry of State for Scientific Research Ministry of Trade and Industry
Ministry of Health and Population
Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation
Ministry of State for Environmental Affairs
Egyptian Universities and research Institutes
Geographical area of competence
International (Africa-Middle East-Asia-Europe-Canada-USA)
Main areas of activity
NRC Is the largest multidisciplinary R&D center in Egypt devoted to basic and applied research within
the major fields of interest. It includes the following Divisions, with each division including up to 17
departments :
Medical Sciences
Genetic engineering and biotechnology
Human Genetics and Genome
Environmental Sciences
Agriculture and Biology
Veterinary research
Physics
Engineering research (mechanics, ICT, renewable energy, aerospace)
Textile industries
Food industry and nutrition [ Fats & oils, Food Sciences and Nutrition, Flavoring Agents, Toxins and
Food pollutants, Food technology (Agro-food) and Dairy Sciences]
Pharmaceutical industries
Organic chemical industries,
Inorganic chemical industries and mineral resources.
Current research areas and topics
Biotechnology
Nanotechnology
Water desalination
Renewable energy
Food industries
Engineering
Agriculture Textile
Health
Future research areas and topics
Biotechnology
Nanotechnology
Water desalination
Renewable energy
Mechatronics
ICT
Number and qualification of the employed personnel
2500 Ph.D. holders (Professors-Associate Professors- Researchers).

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Offered services
To conduct research in different fields of natural sciences and advanced technologies to serve the
national economy and developmental plans.
Provide services and scientific technological consultations to productive units to solve their
problems and develop their capabilities.
Guide the national economy sectors to the requisite of technology and stimulate efforts in the rapid
assimilation and transfer of imported technologies.
Train young researchers in various scientific fields as a basis for balanced growth of national
technological capabilities.
Contribute to the national efforts for upgrading of science and dissemination of knowledge.
Strengthen scientific linkages and cooperation through agreements with local and international
organizations.
Business model of the offered services
Research contracts:
Academic (grants)
Industry (Fees)
Industrial services (Fees)
Consultation (Fees)
Registered patents, licenses
PC = Physical Chemistry; OC = Organic Chemistry; T = textile; F = Food Industry and Nutrition; A =
Agriculture; CE = Chemical Engineering; CiE = Civil Engineering; CE = Ceramics; ME = Mechanical
Engineering; V = Veterinary science; P = Pharmacy, G = Genetics; R = Renewable Energy; E =
Environmental Studies; M = Medicine; IC = Inorganic Chemistry; Ph = Physics
The recently accepted patents
1. A Method for Preparation of Molybdenum Doped Alumina as Anticorrosive Pigment (PC)
2. A new method for regeneration of nickel catalyst used for hydrogenation of edible oil (PC)
3. Isolation of Soya oil from the crude commercial lecithin and decolourisation of the pure lecithin
using simple and economic method (OC)
4. A simple efficient and generally applicable method for grafting of vinyl monomers onto nylon-6
fibers (T)
5. Novel free formaldehyde adhesive system for production of environmentally friendly
composites from agricultural waste (Artificial wood) (F)
6. Preparation of Na-A Zeolite from Egyptian kaolin (PC)
7. Preparation of Na-Pzeolita form Egyptian kaolin (PC)
8. Preparation of (Na-Faujasite) Zeolite from Egyptian kaolin (PC)
9. New method for preserving fresh cuts of potatoes, onion and carrots during storage and
marketing (A)
10. A Process for improvement of rheological and physical properties of natural rubber by adding a
filler comprised of molybdenum-doped alumina (PC)
11. New classes of environmentally friendly scale inhibitors (OC)
12. Production and application of environmental friendly biopolymers from toxic formaldehyde of
wood product adhesive (OC)
13. Preparation for polyamide membranes via casting technique (CE)
14. Developing a multi-function apparatus for reinforced earth testing (CiE)
15. Low fusion opaque porcelain for coating chromium- nickel containing alloys (Ce)
16. Air lift pump (ME)
17. Synthesis of PH papers (T) Injection fertilization as full nutrition technique for trees and shrubs
(A)
18. Method and equipment for detection of helminthes eggs in human and animals (V)
19. Low fusion translucent porcelain with novel composition and good mach inability for dental
crown application (C)
20. A textile cationic softener contain urethane groups (T)
21. A New method for preparation of Ni catalyst used in Hydrogenation of edible oils (PC)
22. Oxygen evaluation electrode (PC) Anode for electrochemical reaction (PC)
23. A novel approach for the control of the red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (f) using
mirosporidia (A) Production of natural herbal white cheese (F)
24. A new way to extract Alstrovansidin for the treatment of congestive heart drop seeds mallow (P)
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the research and innovation system in Egypt

Quality certifications obtained


Center of excellence by the COMSATS.
Interim regional hub in biosciences for North Africa by NEPAD.
Islamic bank award for being the institute that realizes scientific achievement or prominent
technical development of the country.
4 Mubarak prizes for science and advanced technology.
8 State Merit prizes for basic sciences.
4 Superiority prizes for science and advanced technology.
22 State prizes for basic & applied sciences.
12 Organizations prizes.
2 Environmental prizes
Participation to national and international networks
Consortia of FP7
Partnership in USA, Spanish, Italian, Greece, Swedish projects
Participation to international programmes and projects
FP6 projects:
Tailored strategies for the conservation and restoration of archaeological value Cu-based artifacts
from Mediterranean countries. EFFESTUS. (Project partner Prof. Dr. Venus Kamel Gouda, former)
Innovative conservation approaches from monitoring and protecting ancient and historic metals
collections from the Mediterranean basin. PROMET (Project partner Prof. Dr. Venus Kamel Gouda).
Mediterranean conservation alliance. MEDAL (Project partner Prof. Dr. Venus Kamel Gouda).
Cost effect renewable energy for rural areas in the Mediterranean region. MEDRES (Project partner
Prof. Dr. Kamel Abed). (R)
Sustainable Concepts towards A Zero flow Municipality (Zero-M) (Project Partner Dr. Hussin Abed EL
Shafey).
Promotion and Focusing of current Research Activities of membrane Technology in water treatment
in the Mediterranean region.
(Pro-Membrane) (Project Partner Dr. Hussin Abed EL Shafey).
European Projects:
Micro-Nutrients and Plant Nutrition Problem in Egypt Dr. Mohamed M. El Fooly, DSE, Germany
(1977)(A)
Trace Elements with Special Attention to Zink and Copper in Edible Vegetation As Related to
Egyptian Geographical Distribution And Environmental Surroundings, Dr. Mohamed M. El Fooly, GTZ,
Germany (1985)(A)
New DNA techniques for Identification of mutations in the Beta globin gene in Egyptian
betaThalassemia patients, Dr. Samia Temtamy Elunido Austria (1993-2001).(G)
Establishment of a germplasm collection of Mediterranean Pistacia, Dr. Nabiel A.M.Saleh
University of Gent Belgium (1995).(P)
Improving the Productivity of Grain Sorghum in Upper Egypt, Dr. Nabih Ashour, European
commission (1996-2001)(A).
In Vitro Multiplication Molecular Characterization and Sex Determination of Date Palm, Dr. Hamdy
Abdel-Aziz, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Italy (1997). (G)
Capacity Building on Wastewater Valorization for Agricultural Production in the Middle East Area
by using Low-cost Treatment Technologies, Dr. Fatma EL Gohary, Wageningen Agricultural University,
The Netherlands (1997-2006).(E)
Salination Control : Control of Salination and Desertification Effects in the Combating
Mediterranean Region, Dr. Mostafa M. El Fooly, European commission (1999-2003).(A)
Evaluation and Methods of Analysis for Determining Mycotoxins Contamination of Egyptian food &
feed, Dr. Hassan Amra, International Atomic Energy Agency Vienna Austria (1999-2003). (F)
Natural Products With Potential Cancer static Activity, Dr. Mohamed Hany El Gamal, DFG GTZ,
Germany (1999-2001).(P)
Development of Cost effective reclamation technologies for domestic wastewater and the
appropriate agricultural use of the treated effluent under arid climate conditions, Dr. Fatma EL
Gohry, European commission (2000-2005).(E)
Towards Transgenic Date palm Resistant to notorious pests Dr. Mahmoud M.Saker, International
Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Italy (2000-2003).(G)

115

7. Research centers forms

Novel Catalytic Technologies for the Treatment of Wastewater from Agro-Food and Industrial
Production in Med. Countries, Dr. Fatma EL Gohry, European commission (2003-2006). (E)
Medicina Genetica per I Paesi del Mediterraneo (Med Gen Med), Dr. Samia Temtamy, M. E. Italy
(2006-2008).(G)
Euro-Mediterranean Network for Genetic Services (Med Ge Net), Dr. Samia Temtamy, European
commission (2006-2008).(G)
A small Hybrid Power System for Nobareya Farm, Dr. Kamal Ahmed Abed, European commission
(2007-2010).(R)
Program Support Unit (PSU) Of the South Sinai Regional Development Program (SSRDP), Dr. Gamal
Abd El Nasser European commission (2007-2010).(M)
Development of Technologies to grow innovative cash crops and use of agricultural waste products
in South Sinai, Dr. Omima Sawaan, European commission (2007-2010).(A)
Preparation of Nanocellul.OSic fillers from Agricultural residues and their application in polymer
nanocomposites, Dr. Mohamed Lotfy Hassan Sweden (2007-2010).(IC)
A role of domestic animals in the contamination of water resources with zoonotic viruses, Dr. Waled
Morsy Sweden (2008).(E)
Quantitative detection of HAV and nor viruses in Egyptian agriculture products associated with
irrigated water., Dr.Waleed Morsy, Spain (2008).(E)
U.S. Egypt Partnership:
An Anchored Comparative Map of the River Buffalo Genon (V)
Improving Growth and Productivity of Bean and Soybean Using Biofertilizer Technology.(A)
Synthesis Characterization and Application of reactive size to cotton warps(T)
Material energy conservation and Waste reduction in pretreatment of cellulosic textiles (T)
Development of Innovative Technology for utilization of Tire Wastes of The Transportation and
Engineering Co.(En)
High Yield Pulping of Rice Straw and / or cotton Stalks (OC)
Salination Control : Control of Salination and Desertification Effects in the Combating
Mediterranean Region (E)
New Reclaimable size for Improved high Speed weaving and reduced pollution (T)
Development of a management system to treat waste water Effluent and use clean Technology for
Chromium recovery from the Egyptian leather company (E)
Design and Manufacture of Stitch Bonded Thermoplastic Textile Composites (T)
An Anchored Comparative map of the River Buffalo Genome (V)
Formulation and Evaluation of Environmentally Friendly paints (E)
Geo-physical Electromagnetic prospecting for Ground Water and Economic Minerals.(En)
Upgrading of Over Loaded Stabilization Ponds In Rural Areas(E)
Isolation and Characterization of Triazophos (Hostathion) Degrading From Egyptian Soil for the
Development of Biosensors (OC)
Feasibility of Electric Car Powered By Fuel Cell (R)
Development of a Multifunction Geosynthetic Testing Apparatus (IC)
Preparation and Evaluation of New Environmentally Friendly Lignocellulosic Composites from
Waste Agricultural Products (OC)
Development of Synthetic Core/Cotton Sheath Friction Spun Yams Suitable For Specialty
Industrial Fabrics (T)
Mechanism of Phototropism of Complexes Useful for Commercial Application (IC)
Investigation and Optimization of the Design Parameters in Photo catalytic Solar Hydrogen
Production System (R)
Polygene Mapping of Hormones that Control Potato Tuber Sprouting (A)
Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Detection and Development of New Therapies Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)
Detection and Development of New Therapies (M)
New Fibers through Spinning of Modified chitosan Modified Cellulose (T)
Evaluation Molecular Analysis and Development of Molecular Markers Linked to Pest Resistance
Genes in Barley Population (G)
Alternative Cap and Liner Systems for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills (E)
Production & Application of Novel Insecticide & Antimicrobial Textiles (T)
Synthesis of Nan crystalline sensing oxides (IC) Renewable Energy : Wind, concentrator
Technologies Photovoltaic, &Biomass (R)
Highly Durable, Sensitive and Selective Chemical and Optical Sensors on the Basis of Covalently
Attached Ionospheres (Ph)

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Effect of elevated temperature and Fire on Structural Elements Retrofitted by carbon Fiber
Reinforced Polymers(OC)
The Development of a Stationary Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM)Fuel cell Power System for
Buildings(R)
New Environmental Friendly Development for Reusing Currently and potentially Contaminated and
Toxic Bio fibers for production(OC)
Verification of oocytes and \Embryos for conservation of Animal genetic resources (V)
Preparation and Sintering of Nano-Sic from Waste Silica Fume via an Integrated Mechanical and
Thermal Activation Process(OC)
Modeling and Analysis of Geogrid- Reinforced Earth Structures under Earthquake loading(Ge)
Developing a basis for commercial biological control tactics for IPM in citrus (A)
The Improvement of fertility during heat stress season in cows and buffaloes(V)
Catalytic gasification of biomass For synthesis gas (R)
Influence of Structures on drainage patterns in the Tushka region south west Egypt (G)
Ionic Cross linking-A Novel Method for Fabric stabilization (T)
Synthesis of Benzoxazole Derivatives with Potential Antitumor and Antiviral Activity (P)
An Integrated Approach to Hydrogen Production and Seawater Desalination using renewable
resources (R)
Preparation of rice-waste reinforced urea-formaldehyde composites with improved moisture
resistance (OC)
Improving oocyte maturation and embryo culture by comparing global expression profiles of in
vivo and in vitro embryos in cattle and buffalo Improving oocyte maturation and embryo culture by
comparing global expression profiles of in vivo and in vitro embryos in cattle and buffalo (V)
Use of Gene transfer techniques for production of new tomato and strawberry variety tolerant to
nematodes Use of Gene transfer techniques for production of new tomato and strawberry variety
tolerant to nematodes (G)
Improving Healing performance by using chitosan/cellulose nanofibers (T)
A study of the flow structures near a stationary and an oscillating impingement plate in a semiconfined impinging jet (En)
Production of novel probiotic dairy products rich in conjugated linoleic acid (F)
Genetic transformation of some pathogensis related genes for fungal resistance into grain legumes
(fava bean and pea) (G)
Deliv ery of antioxidants with cancer-suppressing properties in Egyptian and American baked
goods (F)
Development and evaluation of grass sward filtration system (GSFS) for bio-remediation of
contaminated water (E)
Size effect of fire and heat exposure on structural concrete elements (CiE)
Studies of Xenorhabdus and photohabdus spp. Antibiotic activity against pathogens of medical
and veterinary importance (P)
The molecular basis for host range restriction and pathogenicity of avian influenza (H5N1) virus:
Approaches toward vaccine development (M)
Mapping and cloning of genes controlling insect resistance in barely (G)
Syntheses of novel nitrogenous heterocycles of potential biological and/or pharmacological
importance (Ph)
Formulating a Rule for Moding Optimal Application Strategies for IPM Citrus(A)
Development and optimization of pesticide industry effluent treatment system using Nanofiltration
(NF) and oxidation technologies(OC)
Size and shape dependence of exchange-bias in ferromagnetic/ antiferromagnetic nanoparticles
for high density data storage media (IC)
Functionalized membranes for acid catalysis Functionalized membranes for acid catalysis (OC)
Possible role of transcription factors in controlling development competence of in vitro produced
buffalo and bovine embryos Possible role of transcription factors in controlling development
competence of in vitro produced buffalo and bovine embryos (V)
Annual scientific missions to Europe and USA done by NRC staff.
Travel of young students to Europe, USA, and Japan to get their PhD degrees.
Funding Sources
National (Ministry of scientific research)
International cooperation.

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7. Research centers forms

International cooperation interests


Projects like FP7 or joint projects with Europe, USA, China, Korea and Japan.
Scientific mission exchange between NRC scientists and similar scientists of these countries.
General Description and Comments
NRC is the largest multidisciplinary R&D Center in Egypt devoted to basic and applied research
within the major fields of interest. It consists of 14 divisions and 106 departments covering the
major areas of industry, health, environment, agriculture, basic sciences and engineering. The
Center is headed by a president with ministerial status, assisted by two vice presidents, one for
research and the other for technical affairs. The minister of state for Scientific Research is the higher
president of NRC.
Interview Place and Date
Cairo, July 2008

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the research and innovation system in Egypt