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Explain the main differences between the utilitarianism of Jeremy

Bentham and that of John Stuart Mill.


Bentham and mill shared and believed in the idea of utilitarianism.
Mill believed in rule utilitarianism, this is the general rule that everybody
should follow to bring about the greatest good for that community.
Moreover, we should vote on the best possible results for the whole
community, which produces the most happiness and that should become a
rule for society to live by.
On the other hand, Bentham believed in act utilitarianism this maintains
that whenever possible the principle of utility should be directly applied
for each individual circumstance. For example, if lying to someone will
produce the greatest pleasure / happiness then they should lie.
The theory of the hedonic calculus plays a large part in both mill AND
Bentham theory of utilitarianism. Bentham believed that the hedonic
calculus was needed as a quantity assessment of a situation, which looks
at the quantity of pleasure it produces. The hedonic calculus measures the
different factors of pleasures in a situation.
Intensity
Duration
Certainty
Propinquity
Frequency
Purity
Extent
Mill, however, rejected the theory of the hedonic calculus and instead
introduced the idea that as Bentham quotes the greatest good for the
greatest number is purely quantity, what would stop one person from
being destroyed by the majority? Therefore distinguishing between higher
and lower pleasures. Mill explains that higher pleasures are qualitatively
better and more important that lower pleasures. Mill quotes that a
happiness which does not include a higher pleasure was not a considered
a pleasure by human beings higher pleasures should be considered better
even if we find ourselves unhappy because we have forgone quantity.
If both mill and Bentham were presented with the situation of gang rape,
Bentham would use the rule of the greatest good for the greatest number
of which is based on quantity therefore Bentham would say that gang
rape produces a greater good for the perpetrators, as there is a higher
quantity of pleasures. However, Mill would act against this in favour of
quality over quantity and argue that the happiness of a gang rape victim
is so low that it overrules the happiness of the perpetrators and is
therefore not considered a higher pleasure and as a result is not

considered happiness by a human being. This leads to the absolute theory


that gang rape is always wrong. However it must be considered that
Bentham and mill produced these ideas eras ago and that arguments have
changed in time.
Several differences between mills and Benthams theory of utilitarianism
arise as Jeremy Bentham believed that the act that produces the most
happiness is the most moral, for example abortion may lead to the
happiness of one person, but for another to believe that this act is wrong.
This is the idea of the utility principle the rightness or wrongness of an
action is judged by its utility or usefulness to produce pleasure. Mill
disagreed with Benthams opinion and claimed Human beings have
more than animal desires and, once we know that, we do not regard
anything as true happiness that includes satisfaction of those desires.
Mill also spoke about the idea of it being better to be a human dissatisfied
than a pig satisfied. [Pleasures of the mind are higher than those of the
body, for example, bodily pleasures such as food, drink, and sex are those
that do not have a higher pleasure than those that are intellectually
demanding.
Throughout Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mills theorys of
utilitarianism it is clear that both have contradicting and challenging
views against one another, however the final difference between one
anothers theory is that Benthams theory is constantly changing, adapting
to certain situations and may even be affected by emotions. However It is
very clear that Mills theorys stay consistent and do not contradict each
other.