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SAP HANA Interview Questions and Answers


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10/28/2012

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*************************************************************************************************************************************************
BasedonVersion:SAPHANA1.0SPS05

(CurrentVersionisSPS08)

Note: If you have any questions in HANA, do not post it here. Please first do search and
thenpostinSAPCommunityNetwork(SCN)HANAspace.
Linkishttp://scn.sap.com/community/hanainmemory.

**************************************************************************************************************************************************
SAPLandscapeTransformation

1.Whatarethedifferenttypesofreplicationtechniques?
1.ETLbasedreplicationusingBODS
2.TriggerbasedreplicationusingSLT
3.ExtractorbaseddataacquisitionusingDXC
2.WhatisSLT?
SLT stands for SAP Landscape Transformation which is a trigger based replication. SLT replication server is the
replicationtechnologytopassdatafromsourcesystemtothetargetsystem.ThesourcecanbeeitherSAPornon
SAP.TargetsystemisSAPHANAsystemwhichcontainsHANAdatabase.

RajKumarSalla

Archives
October2012(/interview
questions/archives/102012)

3.Is it possible to load and replicate data from one source system to multiple target database schemas of HANA
system?
Yes.Itispossibleforupto4.
4.Isitpossibletospecifythetypeofdataloadandreplication?
Yeseitherinrealtime,orscheduledbytimeorbyinterval.
5.WhatisConfigurationinSLT?
The information to create the connection between the source system, SLT system, and the SAP HANA system is
specified within the SLT system as a Configuration. You can define a new configuration in Configuration &
MonitoringDashboard(transactionLTR).
6.Isthereanyprerequisitebeforecreatingtheconfigurationandreplication?
FortheSAPsourcesystemsDMISaddonisinstalledinSLTreplicationserver.UserforRFCconnectionhasthe
roleIUUC_REPL_REMOTEassignedbutnotDDIC.
For nonSAP source systems DMIS addon is not required and grant a database user sufficient authorization for
datareplication.
7.WhatisConfigurationandMonitoringDashboard?
ItisanapplicationthatrunsonSLTreplicationservertospecifyconfigurationinformation(suchassourcesystem,
targetsystem,andrelevantconnections)sothatdatacanbereplicated.Itcanalsouseittomonitorthereplication
status(transactionLTR).
StatusYellow:Itmayoccurduetotriggerswhicharenotyetcreatedsuccessfully.
StatusRed:Itmayoccurifmasterjobisaborted(manuallyintransactionSM37).

RSSFeed(/1/feed)

8.Whatisadvancedreplicationsettings?
AtransactionthatrunsonSLTreplicationservertospecifyadvancedreplicationsettingslike
Modifyingtargettablestructures,
Specifyingperformanceoptimizationsettings
Definetransformationrules
9.WhatisLatency?
Itisthelengthoftimetoreplicatedata(atableentry)fromthesourcesystemtothetargetsystem.
10.Whatisloggingtable?
A table in the source system that records any changes to a table that is being replicated. This ensures that SLT
replicationservercanreplicatethesechangestothetargetsystem.
11.WhatareTransformationrules?
A rule specified in the Advanced Replication settings transaction for source tables such that data is transformed
duringthereplicationprocess.Exampleyoucanspecifyruleto
Convertfields
Fillemptyfields
Skiprecords
12.Whathappenswhenyousetupanewconfiguration?
ThedatabaseconnectionisautomaticallycreatedalongwithGUIDandMasstransferid(MT_ID).
AschemaGUIDensuresthatconfigurationswiththesameschemanamecanbecreated.
TheMasstransferIDisusedinthenamingofSLTjobsandthesystemcanuniquelyidentifyaschema.

13.Whatfactorsinfluencethechange/increasethenumberofjobs?
NumberofconfigurationsmanagedbytheSLTreplicationserver
Numberoftablestobeloaded/replicatedforeachconfiguration
Expectedspeedofinitialload
Expectedreplicationlatencytime.Asaruleofthumb,oneBDGjobshouldbeusedforeach10tablesinreplication
toachieveacceptablelatencytimes.
14.WhentochangethenumberofDataTransferjobs?
Ifthespeedoftheinitialload/replicationlatencytimeisnotsatisfactory
If SLT replication server has more resources than initially available, we can increase the number of data transfer
and/orinitialloadjobs
Afterthecompletionoftheinitialload,wemaywanttoreducethenumberofinitialloadjobs
15.Whatarethejobsinvolvedinreplicationprocess?
1.MasterJob(IUUC_MONITOR_<MT_ID>)
2.MasterControllingJob(IUUC_REPLIC_CNTR_<MT_ID>)
3.DataLoadJob(DTL_MT_DATA_LOAD_<MT_ID>_<2digits>)
4.MigrationObjectDefinitionJob(IUUC_DEF_MIG_OBJ_<2digits>)
5.AccessPlanCalculationJob(ACC_PLAN_CALC_<MT_ID>_<2digits>)
16.WhatistherelationbetweenthenumberofdatatransferjobsintheconfigurationsettingsandtheavailableBGD
workprocesses?
Each job occupies 1 BGD work processes in SLT replication server. For each configuration, the parameter Data
TransferJobsrestrictsthemaximumnumberofdataloadjobforeachmasstransferID(MT_ID).
AmasstransferIDrequiresatleast4backgroundjobstobeavailable:
Onemasterjob
Onemastercontrollerjob
Atleastonedataloadjob
Oneadditionaljobeitherformigration/accessplancalculation/tochangeconfigurationsettingsinConfigurationand
MonitoringDashboard.
17.If you set the parameter data transfer jobs to 04 in a configuration SCHEMA1, a mass transfer ID 001 is
assigned.Thenwhatjobsshouldbeinthesystem?
1Masterjob(IUUC_MONITOR_SCHEMA1)
1MasterControllerjob(IUUC_REPL_CNTR_001_0001)
Atmost4paralleljobsforMT_ID001(DTL_MT_DATA_LOAD_001_01/~02/~03/~04)
Performance:Iflotsoftablesareselectedforload/replicationatthesametime,itmayhappenthattherearenot
enough background jobs available to start the load procedure for all tables immediately. In this case you can
increasethenumberofinitialloadjobs,otherwisetableswillbehandledsequentially.
For tables with large volume of data, you can use the transaction Advanced Replication Settings
(IUUC_REPL_CONT)tofurtheroptimizetheloadandreplicationprocedurefordedicatedtables.
18.WhathappensaftertheSLTreplicationisover?
TheSLTreplicationservercreates1user,4roles,2storedproceduresand8tables.

1User
1Privilege
4Roles
<REPLICATIONSCHEMA>_DATA_PROV
<REPLICATION_SCHEMA>_POWER_USER
<REPLICATION_SCHEMA>_USER_ADMIN
<REPLICATION_SCHEMA>_SELECT
2Storedprocedures
RS_GRANT_ACCESS,RS_REVOKE_ACCESS
8Tables
DD02L, DD02T, RS_LOG_FILES, RS_MESSAGES, RS_ORDER, RS_ORDER_EXT, RS_SCHEMA_MAP,
RS_STATUS
19.Whatarethedifferentreplicationscenarios?
Load,Replicate,Stop,SuspendandResume.
Beforeyouselectanyapplicationtable,theinitialloadofthetablesDD02L,DD02T&DD08Lmustbecompletedas
theycontainthemetadatainformation.
Load:Startsaninitialloadofreplicationdatafromthesourcesystem.Theprocedureisaonetimeevent.Afteritis
completed,furtherchangestothesourcesystemdatabasewillnotbereplicated.
Fortheinitialloadprocedure,neitherdatabasetriggersnorloggingtablesarecreatedinthesourcesystem.Default
settings use reading type 3 (DB_SETGET) with up to 3 background jobs in parallel to load tables in parallel or
subsequentlyintotheHANAsystem.
Replicate:Combinesaninitialloadprocedureandthesubsequentreplicationprocedure(realtimeorscheduled).
Beforetheinitialloadprocedurewillstart,databasetriggerandrelatedloggingtablearecreatedforeachtablein
thesourcesystemaswellasinSLTreplicationserver.
StopReplication:Stopsanycurrentloadorreplicationprocessofatable.
The stop function will remove the database trigger and related logging tables completely. Only use this function if
youdowanttocontinueaselectedtableotherwiseyoumustinitiallyloadthetableagaintoensuredataconsistency.
Suspend: Pauses a table from a running replication. The database trigger will not be deleted from the source
system.Therecordingofchangeswillcontinueandrelatedinformationisstoredintherelatedloggingtablesinthe
sourcesystem.
Ifyoususpendtablesforalongtimethesizeofloggingtablesmayincreaseandadjustthetablespaceifrequired.
Resume: Restarts the application for a suspended table. The previous suspended replication will be resumed (no
newinitialloadrequired).
20.WhathappensifthereplicationissuspendedforalongperiodoftimeorsystemoutageofSLTorHANAsystem?
Thesizeoftheloggingtablesincreases.
21.Howtoavoidunnecessarylogginginformationfrombeingstored?
Pausethereplicationbystoppingtheschemarelatedjobs.
22.WillthetablesizeinSAPHANAdatabaseandinthesourcesystemthesame?
NoasHANAdatabasesupportscompression.
23.Whentogofortablepartitioning?
If the table size in HANA database exceeds 2 billion records, split the table by using portioning features by using
Advancedreplicationsettings(transactionIUUC_REPL_CONT,tabpageIUUC_REPL_TABSTG).
24.Wheredoyoudefinetransformationrules?
ByusingAdvancedreplicationsettings(transactionIUUC_REPL_CONT,tabpageIUUCASSRULEMAP)
25.ArethereanyspecialconsiderationsifthesourcesystemisnonSAPsystem?
TheconceptoftriggerbasedreplicationisactuallymeantforSAPsourcesystems.Themaindifferencesare:
TherewillbeadatabaseconnectionbetweennonSAPsourceandSLTsysteminsteadofRFC.
Sourcemusthaveprimarykey
TablesDD02L,DD02Twhichcontainsmetadataarejustinitiallyloadedbutnotreplicated.
ThereadmodulesresideonSLTsystem.
Tableswithdatabasespecificformatsmayneedtransformationrulesbeforetheyarereplicated.
OnlySAPsupporteddatabases(withrespectiveDBSLforSAPNetWeaver7.02)aresupportedasnonSAPsource
systems.
26.Whatarethepotentialissuesinthecreationofconfiguration?
MissingaddonDMIS_2010insourcesystem
MissingtheproperroleofSAP_IUUC_REPL_REMOTEforRFCuser
(SAP_IUUC_USERforSLTsystem)
Logoncredentialsarenotcorrect

27.HowcanyouensurethatdataisconsistentinsourcesystemandHANAsystem?
Since any changes in the source system is tracked in dedicated logging tables, the replication status for each
changed data record is transparent. A entry of logging table is deleted after a successful commit statement from
HANAdatabaseandthisprocedureensuresthedataconsistencybetweensourcesystemandHANAsystem.
28.DoesSLTforSAPHANAsupportdatacompressionlikeSAPHANAdatabase?
Yes,thisisautomaticallycoveredbytheRFCconnectionusedfordatareplicationfromtheSAPsourcesystem.
Questionsonlimits
1.Maximumnumberoftablesinaschema?
131072
2.Whatcanbethemaximumtablenamelength?
127characters
3.Whatcanbethemaximumcolumnnamelength?
127characters
4.Whatcanbethemaximumnumberofcolumnsinatable?
1000
5.Whatcanbethemaximumnumberofcolumnsinaview?
1000
6.Whatcanbethemaximumnumberofpartitionsofacolumntable?
1000
7.Whatcanbethemaximumnumberofrowsineachtable?
LimitedbystoragesizeRS:1TB/sizeof(row)
CS:2^31*numberofpartitions
8.Inwhichtableyoucangetthecurrentsystemlimits?
M_SYSTEM_LIMITS
9.MaximumnumberofjobsyoucanviewtheinformationintheCurrenttabofJoblog?
5

QuestionsonSQLScript
1.WhatisSQLScript?
ItisasetofSQLextensionsforSAPHANAdatabasewhichallowdeveloperstopushdataintensivelogicintothe
database.
2.WhenshouldbeSQLScriptused?
ItshouldbeusedincaseswhereothermodelingconstructsofHANAsuchasAttributeviewsorAnalyticviewsare
notsufficient.
3.ExplainhowSQLScriptprocedureisprocessedinHANAdatabase?
Whenausercreatesanewprocedure,theHANAdatabasequerycompilerfirst:
Parsethestatements
Checkthestatementsemanticcorrectness
OptimizethecodeforDeclarativeandImperativelogic
CodegenerationcreatesCalculationmodelsforDeclarativelogicandLnodesforImperativelogic
CompiledprocedurecreatesContentinthedatabaseCatalogandinRepository.
4.Whathappenswhenyoucompiletheprocedure?
Duringcompilation,thecalltotheprocedureisrewrittenforprocessingbythecalculationengine.

5.Whathappenswhenyouexecutetheprocedure?
Itbindstheactualparameterstothecalculationmodelsgeneratedinthedefinitionphase.
6.WhatarethedatatypessupportedinSQLScript?
SQLScriptallowsthedefinitionsoftabletypesandalsosupportsprimitivedatatypessuchasInteger,Decimal(p,q),
Varchar,Blob,Timestamp,etc.
7.Whatisatabletype?
Tabletypesareusedtodefineparametersforaprocedurethatrepresenttabularresults.
Example:
CREATE TYPE tt_publishers AS TABLE ( publisher INTEGER, name VARCHAR(50), price DECIMAL, cnt
INTEGER)
CREATETYPEtt_yearsASTABLE(yearVARCHAR(4),priceDECIMAL,cntINTEGER)
8.Whatisthegeneralsyntaxusedincreatingprocedure?

CREATEPROCEDURE<proc_name>[(<parameter_clause>)]
[LANGUAGE<lang>][SQLSECURITY<mode>]
[READSSQLDATA[WITHRESULTVIEW<view_name>]]AS
<local_scalar_variables>
BEGIN<procedure_code>END
9.Howtorecompileaprocedure?
ALTERPROCEDUREproc_nameRECOMPILE[WITHPLAN]
10.Canyouspecifyadefaultvaluewhilecreatingprocedure?Isthereanychangewhilecallingtheprocedure?
CREATEPROCEDUREmy_proc(INP1INT,
INP2INTDEFAULT1,
OUTout1DUMMY)AS
BEGIN
out1=SELECT:P1+:P2ASDUMMYFROMDUMMY
END
Whilecallingtheprocedure,weneedtopass'NamedParameters'withtoken(=>).
CALLmy_proc(P1=>3,out1=>?)
Ifyouwanttospecifyalltheinputfieldsthencallstatementwouldbe:
CALLmy_proc(3,4,?)
11.Whatisthepurposeofprocedure'Call...WithOverview'option?
Towritetheresultsofaprocedurecalldirectlyintoaphysicaltable.
CALLmy_proc(3,4,NULL)WITHOVERVIEW
12.Whatisthepurposeofprocedure'Call.....InDebugMode'option?
It creates the additional debug information during the execution of the procedure. This type of call has additional
runtimeoverheadhenceshouldbeusedfordebuggingpurposesonly.
CALLmy_proc(3,4,NULL)INDEBUGMODE
13.WhatisTablevariable?
These are variables with table type which are bound to the value of a physical table, SQL query or a calculation
engineplanoperator.Tablevariablesareboundusingequalityoperator.
14.Whatisascalarvariable?
WedefinescalarvariableasIN,OUT,orINOUTandcanbereferencedanywhereinaprocedure.
lt_expensive_books=SELECTtitle,price,crcyFROM:it_books
WHEREprice>:minPriceANDcrcy=:currency
Inaboveassignment,thevariablelt_expensive_booksisbound.Variable:it_booksreferstoanINparameterofa
Tabletype.:minPriceand:currencyrefertoINparameterofascalartype.
15.WhatisCEplanoperator?Whatarethedifferentcategories?
CE plan operator does the data transformation functionality internally and used in definition of functions. It is an
alternatetousingSQLstatements.
DataSourceAccessoperatorsthatbindacolumntableoracolumnviewtoatablevariable.(CE_COLUMN_TABLE,
CE_JOIN_VIEW,CE_OLAP_VIEW,CE_CALC_VIEW)
RelationaloperatorsthatallowausertobypasstheSQLprocessorduringevaluationanddirectlyexecutedinthe
calculationengine.
(CE_JOIN, CE_LEFT_OUTER_JOIN, CE_RIGHT_OUTER_JOIN, CE_PROJECTION,CE_CALC,
CE_AGGREGATION,CE_UNION_ALL)
Specialextensionsimplement,e.g.,crucialbusinessfunctionsinsidethedatabasekernel.
(CE_VERTICAL_UNION,CE_CONVERSION)
16.WhatisCE_COLUMN_TABLEoperator?
It provides access to an existing column table. It takes the name of the table and returns its content bound to a
variable.
Example:
ot_books1=CE_COLUMN_TABLE(BOOKS)
ot_books2=CE_COLUMN_TABLE(BOOKS,[TITLE,PRICE,CRCY])
ThisexampleonlyworksonacolumntableanddoesnotinvoketheSQLprocessor.Itissemanticallyequivalentto
thefollowing:
ot_books3=SELECT*FROMbooks
ot_books4=SELECTtitle,price,crcyFROMbooks
Thefunctionthatprovidedatasourceaccessdoesnotallowrenamingofattributes.
17.WhatisCE_JOIN_VIEWoperator?
Itreturnresultsforanexistingjoinview(alsoknownasAttributeview).Ittakesthenameofjoinviewandoptionallist
ofattributesasparameters.
Example:
out=CE_JOIN_VIEW(PRODUCT_SALES,[PRODUCT_KEY,PRODUCT_TEXT,SALES])

18.WhatisCE_OLAP_VIEWoperator?
ItreturnresultsforanexistingOLAPview(alsoknownasAnalyticalview).IttakesthenameofOLAPviewandan
optional list of key figures and dimensions as parameters. The OLAP view is grouped by dimensions and the key
figuresareaggregatedusingthedefaultaggregationoftheOLAPview.
Example:
out=CE_OLAP_VIEW(OLAP_view,[Dim1,kf])
Isequivalentto
out=SELECTdim1,SUM(kf)FROMOLAP_viewGROUPBYdim1
19.WhatisCE_CALC_VIEWoperator?
Itreturnsresultsforanexistingcalculationview.Ittakesthenameofthecalculationviewandoptionallyaprojection
listofattributenames.
Example:
out=CE_CALC_VIEW(CALC_view,[CID,CNAME])
Isequivalentto
out=SELECTcid,cnameFROMCALC_view
20.WhatisCE_JOINoperator?
Itcalculatesainnerjoinofthegivenpairoftablesonalistofjoinattributes.Eachpairofjoinattributesmusthave
identicalattributenameselseoneofthemmustberenamedpriortothejoin.
Example:
ot_pubs_books1=CE_JOIN(:lt_pubs,:it_books,[PUBLISHER])
ot_pubs_books2=CE_JOIN(:lt_pubs,:it_books,[PUBLISHER],[TITLE,NAME,PUBLISHER,YEAR])
Isequivalentto
ot_pubs_books3=SELECTP.publisheraspublisher,name,street,post_code,city,
country,isbn,title,edition,year,price,crcy
FROM:lt_pubsASP,:it_booksasB
WHEREP.publisher=B.publisher
ot_pubs_books4=SELECTtitle,name,P.publisheraspublisher,year
FROM:lt_pubsASP,:it_booksASB
WHEREP.publisher=B.publisher
21.WhatisCE_LEFT_OUTER_JOINoperator?
Itcalculatestheleftouterjoin.BesidesthefunctionnamethesyntaxissameasCE_JOIN.
22.WhatisCE_RIGHT_OUTER_JOINoperator?
Itcalculatestherightouterjoin.BesidesthefunctionnamethesyntaxissameasCE_JOIN.
23.WhatisCE_PROJECTIONoperator?
It restricts the columns in the table variable and optionally renames columns, computes expression, or applies a
filter.
Example:
ot_books1=CE_PROJECTION(:it_books,[TITLE,PRICE,CRCYASCURRENCY],'PRICE>50')
Isequivalentto
ot_books2=SELECTtitle,price,crcyAScurrency
FROM:it_booksWHEREprice>50
24.WhatisCE_CALCoperator?
Itevaluatesanexpressionandthenboundtoanewcolumn
Example:
with_tax=CE_PROJECTION(:product,[CID,CNAME,OID,SALES,
CE_CALC('SALES*:vat_rate',decimal(10,2))ASSALES_VAT],
''CNAME=':cname''')
Isequivalentto
with_tax2=SELECTcid,cname,oid,sales,sales*:vat_rateASsales_vat
FROM:product
WHEREcname=':cname'
All columns used in CE_CALC have to be included in the projection list. Another frequent use of CE_CALC is
computingrownumbers.
CE_CALC('rownum()',integer)AS"RANK"
25.WhatisCE_AGGREGATIONoperator?
Itgroupstheinputandcomputesaggregatesforeachgroup.
Supportedaggregatefunctionsarecount(column),sum(column),max(column),min(column).
Usesum(column)/count(column)tocomputetheaverage.
Example:

ot_books1=CE_AGGREGATION(:it_books,[COUNT(PUBLISHER)ASCNT],[YEAR])
Isequivalentto
ot_books2=SELECTCOUNT(publisher)ascnt,yearFROM:it_booksGROUPBYyear
26.WhatisCE_UNION_ALLoperator?
Itcomputestheunionoftwotableswhichneedtohaveidenticalschemas.
Example:
ot_all_books1=CE_UNION_ALL(:lt_books,:it_audit_books)
Isequivalentto
ot_all_books2=SELECT*FROM:lt_books
UNIONALL
SELECT*FROM:it_audit_books
27.Whatisspecialoperator?
CE_VERTICAL_UNION and CE_CONVERSION are the special operators which do not have any immediate SQL
equivalent.
28.WhatoperatorisusedtodebugSQLScriptprocedures?
TRACEoperaor.Ittracesthetabulardatapassedasitsargumentintoalocaltemporarytableandreturnitsinput
unmodified.ThenamesofthetemporarytablescanberetrievedfromtheSYS.SQLSCRIPT_TRACEview.
Example:out=TRACE(:input)
29.Howtosetuptracing?
FromtheAdministrationperspective,navigatetotabTraceConfiguration.Inordertochangesettings,youneed
tohavesystemprivilegesTRACEADMINandINFILEADMIN.
30.WhatisthedifferencebetweenBREAKandCONTINUE?
Breakmeansloopshouldstopprocessing,CONTINUEmeansloopshouldstopprocessingthecurrentiterationand
immediatelystartprocessingthenextiteration.
31.WhatisCursor?
Itisusedtofetchsinglerowsfromtheresultsetreturnedbyaquery.
CREATEPROCEDUREcursor_procLANGUAGESQLSCRIPTAS
v_isbnVARCHAR(20)
CURSORc_cursor1(v_isbnVARCHAR(20))FOR
SELECTisbn,title,price,crcyFROMbooksWHEREisbn=:v_isbn
ORDERBYisbn
BEGIN
OPENc_cursor1('9783868940121')
IFc_cursor1::ISCLOSEDTHENCALLins_msg_proc('WRONG:cursornotopen')
ELSECALLins_msg_proc('OK:cursoropen')
ENDIF
FETCHc_cursor1INTOv_isbn,v_title,v_price,v_crcy
IFc_cursor1::NOTFOUNDTHENCALLins_msg_proc('WRONG:cursorcontainsnovaliddata')
ELSECALLins_msg_proc('OK:cursorcontainsvaliddata')
ENDIF
CLOSEc_cursor1
END
32.Howtoloopcursoroverresultsets?
UsingFORloop.
CREATEPROCEDUREforeach_proc()LANGUAGESQLSCRIPTAS
v_isbnVARCHAR(20):=''
CURSORc_cursor1(v_isbnVARCHAR(20))FOR
SELECTisbn,title,price,crcyFROMbooksORDERBYisbn
BEGIN
FORcur_rowasc_cursor1DO
CALLins_msg_proc('booktitleis:'||cur_row.title)
ENDFOR
END
QuestionsonModeler
1.WhatarethetwodeveloperrolesinHANASPS05?
ThetwodeveloperrolesareModelerandApplicationProgrammer.
Modeler:modelerisconcernedwiththedefinitionofmodelandschemasusedintheSAPHANA,thespecification
and definition of tables, views, primary keys, indexes, partitions and interrelationship of the data, designing and
definingauthorizationandaccesscontrolthroughthespecificationofprivileges,rolesandusersandgenerallyuses
theperspectiveAdministrationConsoleandModeler.
ApplicationProgrammer:ProgrammerisconcernedwithbuildingSAPHANAapplicationswhicharedesignedbased
onMVC(modelviewcontroller)architectureandgenerallyusestheperspectiveSAPHANADevelopment.

2.ExplainHANAdatabaseArchitecture(SP05)?
ClientsconnecttothedatabasesystemwhichformsasessionwithinthedatabaseintheformofSQLstatements.In
theHANAdatabase,eachSQLstatementisprocessedinthecontextofatransaction.Newsessionsareassignedto
anewtransaction.
TraditionaldatabaseapplicationsusesJDBCandODBCinterfacetocommunicatewiththedatabasemanagement
systemoveranetworkconnectionandapplicationusesSQLtomanageandquerythedatastoredinthedatabase.
IntheHANAdatabaseIndexserveristhemaincomponentofdatabasemanagementwhichcontainstheactualdata
stores and the engines for processing the data. The index server processes incoming SQL or MDX statements in
thecontextoftransaction.
TheTransactionmanagercoordinatesdatabasetransactions,andkeepstrackofrunningandclosedtransactions.
When a transaction is committed or rolled back, the transaction manager informs the involved storage engines
aboutthiseventsotheycanexecutenecessaryactions.
The HANA database has its own scripting language called SQLScript that is designed to enable optimization and
parallelization.HANAsupportstheBusinessFunctionalLibrary(BFL)andPredictiveAnalysisLibrary(PAL)andcan
becalleddirectlyfromwithinSQLScript.ItalsosupportsthedevelopmentofprogramswritteninRlanguage.
SQL and SQLScript are implemented using a common infrastructure of Builtin functions. That have access to
various meta definitions such as definitions of relational tables, columns, views, and indexes, definitions of
SQLScriptprocedures.ThisMetadataisstoredinonecommoncatalog(rowstoreorcolumnstore).
The Persistence layer ensures that the database after a restart is restored to the most recent committed state. It
uses a combination of writeahead logs, shadow paging and save points. The persistence layer also contains
Loggerthatmanagesthetransactionlog.
TheIndexserverusesthePreprocessorServerforanalyzingthetextdataandextractingtheinformationbasedon
textsearchcapabilities.TheNameServerknowswherethecomponentsarerunningandwhichdataislocatedon
whichserver.TheStatisticsServercollectsinformationaboutstatus,performanceandresourceconsumptionfrom
otherserversinthesystem.

3.WhatisSAPXS(ExtendedApplicationService)?
SAPHANAXSprovidesendtoendsupportforwebbasedapplications.
4.WhatareDevelopmentobjects?
ThebuildingblocksofSAPHANAapplicationsarecalleddevelopmentobjects.
5.WhatisRepository?
TheHANARepositoryisstoragesystemfordevelopmentobjectsandisbuiltintoSAPHANA.
The repository supports Version control, Transport, and Sharing of objects between multiple developers. We can
add objects to the repository, update the objects, publish the objects, and compile these objects into runtime
objects.
6.WhatarethedifferentperspectivesavailableinHANA?
Modeler:usedforcreatingvarioustypesofviewsandanalyticalprivileges.
SAPHANADevelopment:Usedforprogrammingapplicationsforcreatingdevelopmentobjectstoaccessorupdate
datamodelssuchasServersideJavascriptorHTMLfiles.
Administration:Usedtomonitorthesystemandchangesettings.
Debug:UsedtodebugcodesuchasSQLScript(.procedurefiles)orServersideJavascript(.xsjsfiles).
Toopenaperspective,gotoWindowOpenPerspective.
7.Before starting development work in SAP HANA studio, What are the roles a user should have on SAP HANA
server?
Modeling,Content_Admin.
8.WhatisaDeliveryUnit?
Deliveryunit(DU)isacontainerusedbytheLifeCycleManager(LCM)totransportrepositoryobjectsbetweenthe
SAPHANAsystems.ThenameofDUmustcontainonlycapitalletters(AZ),digits(09)andunderscores(_).

9.Whatisaworkspace?
Theplacewhereyouworkonprojectrelatedobjectsiscalledarepositoryworkspace.

10.Whatisapackageanditstypes?
PackageisusedtogrouptogetherrelatedcontentobjectsinSAPHANAstudio.BydefaultitcreatesNonstructural.
TypeDescription
StructuralPackageonlycontainssubpackages.Itcannotcontainrepositoryobjects.
NonStructuralPackagecontainsbothrepositoryobjectsandsubpackages.
11.Whatarethedefaultpackagesdeliveredwiththerepository?
Sap
Systemlocal

Systemlocal.generated
Systemlocal.private
12.Whatcanbethemaximumlengthofapackagename?
190charactersincludingdots.Example:RajKumar.pkg123
13.Whatarepackageprivileges?
REPO.READ:Readaccesstotheselectedpackageanddesigntimeobjects(bothnativeandimported).
REPO.EDIT_NATIVE_OBJECTS:Authorizationtomodifydesigntimeobjectsinpackagesoriginatinginthesystem
theuserisworkingin.
REPO.ACTIVATE_NATIVE_OBJECTS: Authorization to activate/reactivate designtime objects in package
originatinginthesystemtheuserisworkingin.
REPO.MAINTAIN_NATIVE_PACKAGES:Authorizationtoupdateordeletenativepackagesorcreatesubpackages
ofpackagesoriginatinginthesysteminwhichtheuserisworking.
14.Howeachobjectisuniquelyidentifiedintherepository?
Eachobjectisuniquelyidentifiedbythecombinationofpackagename,objectnameandobjecttype.
15.Canmultipleobjectsofthesametypecanhavethesameobjectname?
Yes,onlywhentheybelongtodifferentpackages.
16.WhatarethedifferenttasksyoucanperforminsettingupthebasispersistencemodelforSAPHANAXS?
CreatingSchema,CreatingTable,CreatingView,CreatingSequenceandImportingtablecontent.
17.Whatarethedifferenttasksyoucanperforminmodelerperspective?
Import metadata, Load data, Create packages, Create information views, Create Procedures, Create Analytical
privileges,ImportSAPNetWeaverBWobjects,CreateDecisionTables,ImportandExportobjects.
18.Whatarethesupportedobjecttypesinmodelerperspective?
Attribute views, Analytical views, Calculation views, Analytical privileges, Procedures, Decision tables, Process
VisibilityScenario.
19.Whatarethedifferentmodelerpreferencesandhowdoyouset?
YoucansetthemodelerpreferencesbychoosingthemenuWindowPreferencesModeler(or)Quicklaunch
ManagePreferences.
20.WhytoconfigureImportserver?
InordertoloaddatadatafromexternalsourcestoSAPHANAweneedtoestablishaconnectionwiththeserver.To
connect, we need to provide details of Business Objects Data Services repository and ODBC drivers. Once the
connectionisestablished,wecanimportthetablesdefinitionandthenloaddataintotabledefinitions.
QuicklaunchConfigureImportServer
EntertheIPaddressoftheserverfromwhichyouwanttoimportdata
Entertherepositoryname
EntertheODBCdatasource,andchooseOK.
21.HowtoImporttabledefinitions?
Ifyouwanttoimportalltabledefinitions,Goto
FilemenuChooseImport
ExpandtheSAPHANAContentnode
ChooseMassImportofMetadataandchoosenext
Selectthetargetsystemwhereyouwanttoimportallthetabledefinitions,andchoosenext
IntheConnectionsDetailsDialog,entertheusernameandpasswordofthetargetsystem
SelecttherequiredsourcesystemandchooseFinish.
Note:IfyouwanttoimportselectivetabledefinitionsuseSelectiveImportofMetadata.
22.Howtoloaddataintotables?
QuickLaunchDataProvisioning
ChooseSource
ChooseLoad(forInitialload)orReplicate(fordatareplication)
Selecttherequiredtablestoloadorreplicate
ClickFinish.
23.HowtouploaddatafromFlatfiles?
FilemenuImport
In'SelectanImportSource'section,expandthe'SAPHANAContent'node
Select'DatafromLocalfile'andchooseNext
SelecttheTargetsystemtowhichyouwanttoimportthedatausingFlatfile,chooseNext
In'DefinePropertiesImportPage'browsethefilecontainingthedata
Select'New'option(Ifyouwanttoloadthedataintoanewtable)or
Selectthe'Existing'option(Ifyouwanttoappendthedatatoanexistingtable)
ClickFinish.
24.HowtocopystandardcontentdeliveredbySAP?
QuickLaunchMassCopy
Createamappingbetweensourcepackageandtargetpackage

ChooseNexttoviewthesummary
ClickFinishtoconfirmcontentcopy.
25.WhatisSchemamapping?HowdoyoudoSchemamapping?
Schemamappingisdonewhenthephysicalschemainthetargetsystemisnotthesameasthephysical
schemainthesourcesystem.
QuickLaunchSchemaMapping
ChooseAdd
CreateamappingintheTargetsystembetweentheAuthoringschemaandPhysicalschema
ClickOK.
Note:Schemamappingonlyappliestoreferencesfromrepositoryobjectstocatalogonjects.Itisnotintendedtobe
usedforrepositorytorepositoryreferences.
26.Inwhichconfigurationtable,themappingbetweenauthoringandphysicalschemaisstored?
SYS_BI.M_SCHEMA_MAPPING
27.What'sthepurposeofGeneratingTimeData?
If you model a time attribute view without generating time data, an empty view will be shown when you use data
preview.TogenerateTimeDatagoto
QuickLaunchGenerateTimeData
IfyourfinancialyearisfromJanuarytoDecember,Choose'CalenderType'asGregorianelseFiscal
ClickGenerate.
28.Inwhichconfigurationtablethegeneratedtimedatainformationwillbestored?
ForGregoriancalendartype(SYS_BI)
M_TIME_DIMENSION_YEARM_TIME_DIMENSION_MONTH
M_TIME_DIMENSION_WEEKM_TIME_DIMENSION
ForFiscal
M_FISCAL_CALENDAR
29.WhatisanAttribute?
Attributerepresentsthedescriptivedatausedinmodeling.Example:City,Country,etc.
30.WhatisaSimpleAttribute?
Simple attributes are individual analytical elements that are derived from the data foundation. For example
Product_ID,Product_NameareattributesofaProductsubjectarea.
31.WhatisaCalculatedAttribute?
Calculated attributes are derived from one or more existing attributes or constants. For example deriving the full
name of a customer (first name and last name), assigning a constant value to an attribute that can be used for
arithmeticcalculations.
32.WhatisaPrivateAttribute?
Privateattributesusedinananalyticalviewallowyoutocustomizethebehaviorofanattributeforonlythatview.For
exampleifyoucreateananalyticalviewandyouwantaparticularattributetobehavedifferentlythanitdoesinthe
attributeviewtowhichitbelongs,youcandefineitasaprivateattribute.
33.WhatisaMeasure?
MeasuresaresimplemeasurableanalyticalelementsandarederivedfromAnalyticandCalculationviews.
34.WhatisaSimpleMeasure?
SimpleMeasureisameasurableanalyticalelementthatisderivedfromthedatafoundation.
35.WhatisaCalculatedMeasure?
Calculated Measures are defined based on a combination of data from OLAP cubes, arithmetic operators,
constants,andfunctions.
36.WhatisaRestrictedMeasure?
RestrictedmeasuresareusedtofilterthevalueforanoutputfieldbasedontheuserdefinedrulesForexampleyou
canrestricttherevenuecolumnonlyforRegion=APJ,Year=2013.
37.WhatareCounters?
CountersaddanewmeasuretotheCalculationviewdefinitiontocounttherecurrenceofanattribute.Forexample,
tocounthowmanytimesProductappears.
38.WhatisanAttributeView?
Attribute views are used to model entity based on the relationships between attribute data contained in multiple
sourcetables.YoucanmodelColumns,CalculatedcolumnsandHierarchies.
AlsoyoucanfinetunetheattributesofanAttributeview:
Canapplyfiltertorestrictvalues
CanbedefinedasHiddensothattheycanbeprocessedbutnotvisibletoendusers
Canbedefinedaskeyattributesandusedwhenjoiningmultipletables

Canbefurtherdrilldownby'DrillDownEnable'property.
39.WhatarethetablestobeimportedforcreatingattributeviewoftypeTime?
T009andT009B.
40.WhatisLabelMapping?
We can choose to associate an attribute with another attribute description. Label mapping is also called as
Description mapping. For example if A1 has a label column B1, then you can rename B1 to A1.description. The
relatedcolumnsappearsidebysideduringdatapreview.
41.WhathappenswhenoneofthetableinAttributeviewhasmodifiedcolumnwithdatatype?
It reflects the previous state of the columns, even if you remove and add it again. It is referring to the cache. To
resolvethisissueclosetheeditorandreopenit.
42.Whathappenswhenyouopenanattributeviewwithamissingcolumnintherequiredobject?
An error will be shown column is not found in table schemaname.tablename and the editor does not open. To
makeitconsistent
Opentherequiredobjectandaddthemissingcolumn/attribute/measuretemporarily
Nowopentheobjectwhichwaspreviouslygivingerror
Findallreferencestothiscolumn,Savetheobject
Nowgoaheadanddeletethecolumnfromtherequiredobject.
43.WhatisanAnalyticview?
Analyticviewsareusedtomodeldatathatincludesmeasures.Incaseofmultipletables,measuresmustoriginate
from only one of these tables (central table). You can model Columns, Calculated columns, Restricted columns,
Variables,andInputparameters.
AlsoyoucanfinetunetheattributesofanAnalyticview:
Canapplyfiltertorestrictvalues
CanbedefinedasHiddensothattheycanbeprocessedbutnotvisibletoendusers
Canbedefinedaskeyattributesandusedwhenjoiningmultipletables
Canbefurtherdrilldownby'DrillDownEnable'property
YoucanmodelAggregationtypeonmeasures
YoucanmodelCurrencyandUnitofMeasure.
44.CanweincludeAttributeviewsinAnalyticviewdefinition?
Yes
45.WhatdoestheScenariopanelofAnalyticvieweditorcontains?
DataFoundation:representsthetablesusedfordefiningthefacttableoftheview.Youcanspecifythecentraltable
byselectingavaluein'CentralEntity'property.
LogicalJoin:representstherelationbetweenfacttableandattributeviewstocreatestartschema.
Semantics:representstheoutputstructureoftheview.
46.Whatdoestheaggregationtype'CalculateBeforeAggregation'mean?
Ifyouselect'CalculateBeforeAggregation',thecalculationhappensaspertheexpressionspecifiedandthenthe
results are aggregated as SUM, MAX, MIN, or COUNT. If it is NOT selected, the calculation happens as per the
expressionspecifiedbutthedataisnotaggregatedbutshownasFORMULA.
47.Howtoactivatetheotherobjects(requiredorimpactedobjects)alongwithcurrentobject?
Byusing'SaveandActivateAll'optioninthetoolbar.
48.CanyouaddcolumnviewstoAnalyticviewandCalculationview?
WecanaddcolumnviewsinaCalculationviewbutnotintheAnalyticview.
49.Consider there is a table that contains product ID's with no product description and you have a text table for
productsthathaslanguagespecificdescriptionforeachproduct?Howcanyougetthelanguagespecificdata?
Createatextjoinbetweenthesetwotables.Therighttableshouldbethetexttableandismandatorytospecifythe
LanguageColumninthe'Properties'view.
50.Whataretherestrictionswhilecreatingthejoinbetweentheviewsandfacttable?
Atableshouldnotappeartwiceinanyjoinpath,i.e.Selfjoinisnotsupported.
WhilecreatingjoinbetweenAnalyticviewandAttributeviewthesametablecannotbeusedinboththeviews.
51.WhatisCalculationview?
Calculationviewismoreadvancedsliceofthedataandcanincludemeasuresfrommultiplesourceoftables,can
include advanced SQL logic. The data foundation of the calculation view can include any combination of tables,
columnviews,attributeviewsandanalyticviews.Wecancreatejoins,unions,projections,andaggregationlevelson
thesources.YoucanmodelAttributes,Measures,Calculatedmeasures,Counters,Hierarchies(createdoutsideof
theattributeview),VariablesandInputparameters.
52.Calculationviewsaremodeledbasedonwhat?
GraphicalviewsorScriptedviewsbutnotasSQLScript.Howeverthereareexceptionstothisrule.SQLScriptwith
thefollowingpropertiescanbeusedinCalculationview:

Noinputparameters
AlwaysReadonly(donotmakechangestodatabase)
Sideeffectfree.
53.Whataretheoptionavailablein'RunWith'whilecreatingcalculationview?
Definer'sRight,Invoker'sRight.
Definersright:Systemusestherightsofthedefinerwhileexecutingthevieworprocedureforanyuser.
Invokersright:Systemusestherightsofthecurrentuserwhileexecutingthevieworprocedure.
54.WhilecreatingaGraphicalCalculationview,whataretheoptionsavailableinToolspalette?
Union,Join,Projection,andAggregation.
Note:YoucanhaveonlyonesourceofinputforProjectionandAggregationviews.
YoucancreatefiltersonProjectionandAggregationviewattributes.
55.HowtocreateCountersinGraphicalCalculationview?
Forexampletogetthenumberofdistinctvaluesofanattribute:
GototheOutputpane,rightclickCounters
Fromthecontextmenu,chooseNew
ChooseAttribute
Clickok.
56.IsitmandatorytoincludemeasuresforCalculationview?
No.Calculationviewcontainingnomeasuresworkslikeanattributeviewandisnotavailableforreportingpurposes.
57.HowdoyoudebugtheCalculationviewwithlotofcomplexityateachlevel?
Bypreviewingthedataofanintermediatenode.
58.WhatisMappinginputparameterinCalculationview?
It is used for mapping the input parameters in the underlying data sources of the calculation view with calculation
viewparameters.
59.Incalculationview,Whatistheoption'AutoMapbyName'usedfor?
Itautomaticallycreatestheinputparameterscorrespondingtothesourceandperforma1:1mapping.
60.WhataretheoptionsavailableinSourceinputparameter?
CreateNewMap1:1
MapbyName
RemoveMapping
61.Consider there are two tables (Actual sales and Planned sales) with similar structures. I want to see the
combineddatainasingleviewbutatthesametimehowcanIdifferentiatethedatabetweenthesetwotables
Createaunionview(Graphical)betweenthetwotablesandhavea'Constantcolumn'indicatingconstantvalueslike
'A'forActualsalesand'P'forPlannedsales.ThedefaultvaluefortheconstantcolumnisNULL.
62.WhatisaConstantcolumnandhowtocreateit?
InaUnionview,aConstantcolumniscreatedfortheoutputattributesforwhichthereisnomappingtothesource
attributes.TocreateConstantcolumn:
Rightclicktheattributeinthetargetlist
ChooseManageMappings
Tomapthesourcetothetargetcolumn,selecttherequiredsourcefromthedropdownlist
Toassignadefaultvaluetotheconstantcolumn,enteravalueintheConstantvaluefield
Selecttherequireddatatype,lengthandscaleasrequired
Clickok.
63.WhatisthedifferencebetweenHANAVariableandInputparameter?
HANAVariablesdonotimpacttheexecutionandusedtofiltertheattributes,forexamplewecanfilteraresulttoa
specificcountryorproductandareappliedintheWHEREclauseoftheSQLquery.
HANAInputparametersusedtomanipulatetheexecutionoftheinformationmodel,forexamplecurrencycodesor
dateswhenexchangerateshavetobecalculatedandarepassedasPLACEHOLDERintheFROMclauseofthe
SQLquery.
64.Inwhichconfigurationtableyoucanfindthevariablesinformation?
Youcanfindin_SYS_BIschema
BIMC_VARIABLEBIMC_VARIABLE_ASSIGNMENT
BIMC_VARIABLE_VIEWBIMC_VARIABLE_VALUE

65.WhatarethedifferenttypesofInputparameterssupported?
Attributevalue/Column
Currency(AvailableinCalculationviewonly)
Date(AvailableinCalculationviewonly)
Staticlist
DerivedfromTable(AvailableinAnalyticandGraphicalCalculationview)
Empty

DirectType(AvailableinAnalyticview)
66.Howcanyoucheckwhetheraninputparameterismandatoryornot?
FromthepropertiesofInputparameterinthePropertiespane.
67.WhatisHierarchy?
We create hierarchies between attributes to improve analysis by displaying attributes according to their defined
relationships.Therearetwotypesofhierarchies:
LevelHierarchy:Therootandchildnodesareaccessedonlyinthedefinedorder.Itconsistsofoneormorelevels
ofaggregation.
Example:WecandrilldownfromCountrytoStateandtoCityetc.
Parent/ChildHierarchy:Thishierarchycontainsaparentattributeandconstructedfromasingleparentattribute.
Example:Employeemaster(employeeandmanager).
68.HowtocreateanhierarchyforAnalyticview?
HierarchyisnotsupportedinAnalyticviewbutcanbeusedonlyinAttributeviewandCalculationview.
69.Whilecreatinghierarchy,whatdoestheoption'AggregateAllNodes'mean?
ForexamplethereisamemberAwithvalue100,A1withvalue10,A2withvalue20whereA1andA2arechildren
ofA.Bydefaulttheoption'AggregateAllNodes'issettofalseandyouwillseeavalueof30forA.Whenthisoption
issettotrue,youwillcountthepostedvalue100forAaswellandseearesultof130.
70.How can you generate a Sales report for a region in a particular currency where you have the sales data in a
databasetableinadifferentcurrency?
CreateanAnalyticviewbyselectingthetablecolumncontainingthesalesdataandcurrencyandperformcurrency
conversion.Oncetheviewisactivated,wecanuseittogeneratereports.
71.Whatarethefactorsthataffectcurrencyconversion?
Currency conversion is performed based on source currency, target currency, exchange rate, and date of
conversion. You can select currency from the attribute data used in the view. Currency conversion is enabled for
AnalyticviewandCalculationviews.
72.Whatistheprerequisitefordoingthecurrencyconversion?
YouneedtoimporttablesTCURC,TCURF,TCURN,TCURR,TCURT,TCURV,TCURW&TCURX.
73.WhatistheprerequisiteforUnitofMeasure?
YouneedtoimportthetablesT006&T006A.
74.Whathappenswhenyouactivateanobject?
Theobjectisexposedtorepositoryandforanalysis.
75.WhatisthedifferencebetweenActivateandRedeploy?
ActivateItdeploystheinactiveobjects.
RedeployItdeploystheactiveobjects.Youdothiswhenruntimeobjectiscorruptedordeletedandyouwantto
createitagain.ORwhentheobjectgoesthroughclientlevelactivationandserverlevelactivationbutfailsatMDX,
andtheobjectstatusisstillactive.
76.Whatarethesupportedactivationmodes?
ActivateandIgnoretheinconsistenciesinimpactedobjects
Stopactivationincaseofinconsistenciesinimpactedobjects.
Irrespective of the activation mode, if even one of the selected objects fails (either during validation or during
activation),thecompleteactivationjobfailsandnoneoftheselectedobjectswillbeactivated.

77.Canyouexplainthebehaviorofactivationjob?
Thestatusoftheactivationjobindicateswhethertheactivationoftheobjectsissuccessfulorfailed.
Incaseoffailure(statusiscompletedwitherrors)theprocessisrolledbackandnoneoftheobjectsareactivated
Inthesummarypartthejoblogshowssuccess,eveninthecaseoffailure.Thisistohelptheusertoindicatethat
thoseobjectsweresuccessfullyactivatedwithoutanyissues.
Whenyouopenthejoblog,thesummarylistonlyshowsthoseobjectsthataresubmittedforactivation.Itdoesnot
listalltheaffectedobjects.Theyarelistedindetailsection.
78.WhatisaDecisiontable?
It creates related business rules in a tabular format for automating the decisions. It helps in managing business
rules, data validation, data quality rules without any language knowledge. The active version of the decision table
canbeusedinapplications.
Youcreatedecisiontableinapackagejustlikeanyattributeview.Youcancreatefromscratchorfromanexisting
decisiontable.
79.Wheretoseethedetailedreportofthedecisiontable?
Inthe'JobLog'sectionyoucanseethevalidationstatusanddetailedreportofthedecisiontable.

80.Howtoexecutethedecisiontable?
Thedecisiontableisexecutedbycallingtheprocedure.
CALL<schemaname>.<procedurename>
CALL<schemaname>.<procedurename>(<INparameter>,...,<INparameter>,?)
forConditionasparametersandActionasparameters.
On execution of the procedure, if no parameters are used then physical table is updated based on the data you
enterintheformofconditionvaluesandactionvalues.
81.ArethereanyrestrictionsonDecisiontabletopreviewthedata?
Datapreviewissupportedonlyif:
Decisiontableisbasedonphysicaltableandhasatleastoneparameterasaction
DecisiontableisbasedonInformationviewandparameter(s)asaction.
82.Howcanyouchangethelayoutofadecisiontable?
Youcanchangethelayoutbyarrangingtheconditionandactioncolumns.Bydefaultalltheconditionsappearas
vertical columns in the decision table and you can mark a condition as a horizontal condition under the Decision
tableeditor,choose'ChangeLayout'.
83.Canyouswitchownershipofobjects?
We can take the ownership of objects from other user's workspace only if it is inactive version of the object
Authorization required is Work in Foreign Workspace. The active version is owned by the user who created and
activatedtheobject.
84.WhatisthedifferencebetweenSwitchOwnershipandTakeOver?
SwitchOwnership:Totakemultipleinactiveobjectsfromotherusers.
TakeOver:Totakesingleinactiveobjectfromanotherworkspace.
85.Youareworkingonainactiveversionofaobject.Howcanyouviewchangesmadetotheactiveversion?
Selecttherequiredobjectinapackageyouareworking
Fromthecontextmenu,choose'open'
Intheeditorpane,choose'ShowActiveVersion'
Comparetheactiveandinactiveversionsoftheobject.
86.Howcanyouviewtheversionhistoryofcontentobjects?
Selecttherequiredobjectfromthepackage
Fromthecontextmenuchoose'History'.
87.WhatisRefactoringObject?
RestructuringtheContentobjectswithoutchangingtheirbehavioriscallRefactoring.
88.WhataretheobjectseligibleforRefactoring?
Packages,Attributeviews,Analyticviews,GraphicalCalculationviews,andAnalyticalPrivileges.
89.Howdoyouvalidatemodels?
QuicklaunchmenuValidate
Fromthe'Available'list,selecttherequiredmodelsthatsystemmustvalidate.
ChooseAdd
ClickValidate.
90.Howdoyougeneratethedocumentationfortheobjectsyoucreated?
By using 'Auto Documentation' which captures the details of an information model or a package in a single
document.Processtocreateis:
QuickLaunchAutoDocumentation
In'SelectContentType'choose'ModelDetails'OR'ModelList'
AddtherequiredobjectstotheTargetlist
Browsethelocationwhereyouwanttosavethefile
Clickfinish.
91.Howtoidentifywhetheraninformationmodelisreferencedbyanyotherinformationmodel?
Wecancheckthemodelreferencesbyusing'WhereUsed'.Processis:
Gotothepackage
Selecttherequiredobject
Fromthecontextmenu,choose'WhereUsed'.
92.WhatisthedifferenceamongRawData,DistinctvaluesandAnalysiswhiledoingtheDataPreview?
RawData:Itdisplaysallattributesalongwithdataintabularformat.
DistinctValues:Itdisplaysallattributesalongwithdataingraphicalformat.
Analysis:Itdisplaysallattributesandmeasuresingraphicalformat.
93.Whatarethedifferenttypesoffunctionscanbeusedinexpressions?
Conversion,String,Mathematical,DateandMiscfunctions.


if(SCORE>7,SELECTED,IF(SCORE>4,ONHOLD,REJECTED))
returnsREJECTEDiftheSCOREis<=4.
case(CODE,1,'NEW',2,'VENDORREBUILT',3,'SHOPREBUILT','INVALID')
ifthevalueofCODEisotherthan1/2/3thenadefaultvalueof'INVALID'willbeselected.
94.HowtosearchTables,Models,andColumnviews?
IntheModelersearchfield,entertheobjectyouwant
Selectthesystemindropdown
Clicksearch.

Thematchingobjectsarelistedinresultspanewith3tabpages:Tables,Models,andColumnviews.
95.IsitpossibletoImportSAPNetweaverBWobjects?
YesitispossibletoimportSAPBWobjects.
96.HowtoImportBWmodels?
TheprocesstoImportBWmodels:
FilemenuImport
ExpandSAPHANAContentnode,choose'ImportSAPNetWeaverBWModels'
In'SourceSystem'enterBWcredentials
Selectthetargetsystem
SelectBWInfoProviders
If you want to import selected models along with display atributes for IMO Cube and IMO DSO, select 'Include
DisplayAttributes'
WecanselectanalysisauthorizationsassociatedwithInfoProviders/Rolebased.
Clickfinish.
QuestionsonHANAHardware
1.WhatisthereasonforgoingInmemory?
One reason is the number of CPU cycles per second is increasing and the cost of processors is decreasing. For
managingthedatainmemory,thereisfiveminuterulewhichisbasedonthesuggestionthatitcostsmoretowait
forthedatatobefetchedfromdiskthanitcoststokeepdatainmemorysoitdependsonhowoftenyoufetchthe
data.
Forexamplethereisatableandnomatterhowlargeitisandthistableistouchedbyaqueryatleastonceevery55
minutes, it is less expensive (in hardware costs) to keep it in memory than to read it from memory and if it is
frequentlyaccesseditislessexpensivetostoreitinmemory.
2.WhatisaFiveminuterule?
Itisaruleofthumbfordecidingwhetheradataitemshouldbekeptinmemory,orstoredondiskandreadbackinto
memorywhenrequired.Theruleisrandomlyaccesseddiskpagesofcachearereusedevery5minutes.
3.WhatismulticoreCPU?
MultipleCPUsononechiporinonepackageiscalledmulticoreCPU..

Traditionaldatabasesforonlinetransactionprocessing(OLTP)donotusecurrenthardwareefficiently.
4.WhatisStall?
WaitingfordatatobeloadedfrommainmemoryintotheCPUcacheiscalledasStalls.
5.WhatisSAPInMemoryAppliance(SAPHANA)?
HANAisaninmemorytechniquetostoredatathatisparticularlysuitedforhandlingverylargeamountsoftabular,
orrelational,datawithextraordinaryperformance.Commondatabasesstoretabulardatarowwise.Reorganizing
thedatainmemorycolumnwisebringsatremendousspeedincreasewhenaccessingasubsetofthedataineach
tablerow.
6.WhatarethecomponentsorproductsofHANA?
SAPHANAcontainsthefollowingcomponents.

SAPHANADATABASE
SAPHANAStudioSAPHANACLIENT
SAPHOSTAGENT7.2
SAPHANAINFORMATIONCOMPOSER
DIAGNOSTICAGENT7.3
SAPHANAclientpackageforMSexcel
SAPHANAUIforInformationAccess(INA)
SAPHANAAFL1.0
SoftwareUpdateManagerforSAPHANA
SAPLTReplicationAddOn
SAPLTReplicationServer
SAPHANADirectExtractorConnection(DXC)
SAPDataServices4.0

7.WhatarethedifferenteditionsavailableinHANAappliancesoftware?
PlatformandEnterpriseedition.

Platform edition is intended for customers who want to use ETLbased replication and already have a license for
SAPBODataServices.
Enterprise edition is intended for customers who want to use either triggerbased replication or ETLbased
replicationanddonotalreadyhaveallofthenecessarylicensesforSAPBODataServices.
8.WhatiscolumnarandRowBasedDataStorage?
Fig:RowandColumnbasedstorage
A database table contains data in the form of rows and columns. However Computer memory is organized as a
linearstructure.Tostoreatableinlinearmemory,therearetwooptions.Arowbasedstoragestoresatableasa
sequenceofrecords,eachofwhichcontainsthefieldsofonerow.Inacolumnarstoragetheentriesofacolumn
arestoredincontiguousmemorylocations.
The SAP HANA database allows to specify whether a table is to be stored columnwise or rowwise. It is also
possibletoalteranexistingtablefromcolumnartorowbasedandviceversa.
Searchoperationsintabulardatacanbeacceleratedbyorganizingdataincolumnsinsteadinrows.
9.WhataretheadvantagesofColumnbasedtables?
Calculationsaretypicallyexecutedonsingleorafewcolumnsonly.
Thetableissearchedbasedonvaluesofafewcolumns.
Thetablehasalargenumberofcolumns.
Thetablehasalargenumberofrowsandcolumnaroperationsarerequired(aggregate,scan,etc.).
High compression rates can be achieved because the majority of the columns contain only few distinct values
(comparedtonumberofrows).
10.WhataretheadvantagesofRowbasedtables?
Theapplicationneedstoonlyprocessasinglerecordatonetime(manyselectsand/orupdatesofsinglerecords).
Theapplicationtypicallyneedstoaccessacompleterecord(orrow).
Thecolumnscontainmainlydistinctvaluessothatthecompressionratewouldbelow.
Neitheraggregationsnorfastsearchingarerequired.
Thetablehasasmallnumberofrows(e.g.configurationtables).
11.Inwhichcasethedatatobestoredincolumnarstorage?
To enable fast onthefly aggregations, adhoc reporting, and to benefit from compression mechanisms it is
recommendedthattransactiondatatobestoredinacolumnbasedtable.
12.Isitpossibletojointablesofrowbasedwithcolumnbasedtables?
Yes
13.Arecolumnbasedtablesalwaysthebetterchoicethanrowbasedtables?
No.Therearealsosituationsinwhichrowbasedtablesareadvantageous.
14.WhataretheadvantagesofColumnartables?
HigherDataCompressionRates
HigherPerformanceforColumnOperations
EliminationofAdditionalIndexes
Parallelization
EliminationofMaterializedAggregates
15.WhatarethedifferentCompressionTechniquesyouknow?
Runlengthencoding
Clusterencoding
Dictionaryencoding
16.Whymaterializedaggregatesarenotrequired?
Withascanningspeedofseveralgigabytespermillisecond,inmemorycolumnstores,makeitpossibletocalculate
aggregatesonlargeamountsofdataontheflywithhighperformance.Thisisexpectedtoeliminatetheneedfor
materializedaggregatesinmanycases.
17.WhataretheadvantagesofEliminatingmaterializedaggregates?
Noadditionaltablesforstoringaggregateresultsmeans:
Simplifieddatamodel
Simplifiedapplicationlogic
Higherlevelofconcurrencyand
WiththeflyAggregationwehaveaggregatedvaluesuptodate
18.Whatisparallelization?
Columnbasedstoragemakesiteasytoexecuteoperationsinparallelusingmultipleprocessorcores.Inacolumn
store data is already vertically partitioned means that operations on different columns can easily be processed in
parallel. If multiple columns need to be searched or aggregated, each of these operations can be assigned to a
different processor core. In addition operations on one column can be parallelized by partitioning the column into
multiplesectionsthatcanbeprocessedbydifferentprocessorcores(core3and4below).

ThankYou
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63Comments(http://rajkumarsap.weebly.com/interviewquestions/saphanainterviewquestions#comments)

GOR

11/29/20128:44pm

Verygoodquestions....doyouhaveanswersforthem..IamanewbeetoSAPHANA..Iwouldreallyappreciateitifyou
canemailmetheanswersforthis
Emailidgopalnreddy@gmail.com
Reply

Deepak

12/19/20125:18am

Thesequestionsareveryhelpfulcanuplsprovidemetheanswersforthesequistionsindetail.....
Reply

Suresh

01/27/20133:24am

Superquestionaire.Canyoupleasesendmetheanswersfortheabovequestions?
Reply

sandeep

02/03/20139:32pm

Verygoodquestions....doyouhaveanswersforthem..IamanewbeetoSAPHANA..Iwouldreallyappreciateitifyou
canemailmetheanswersforthis
Emailidsap4sandeep@gmail.comorsandeep_0536@yahoo.com
Reply

sarav

02/05/20138:20am

Couldyoupleasesendmetheanswerstothesequestion?
Reply

nagesh

02/12/20139:21pm

HiRaj...
IreallyappreciateyoutoprovideaHANAquestionsandanswers...Thankyouverymuch..iwillwaitforyournew
questionsandanswers..
Reply

saravjeet

02/13/20135:24am

thanksalotRaj.Theyareverynice
Reply

Rambabu

02/27/20139:17am

youdonegreatjobforus.thanks.
Reply

pk

02/27/20139:24pm

greatInfomustbeworkingforSapProductDevitself
Reply

RajKumar
IamjustSAPHANAConsultant.Thankstoallforlikingmyblog.

03/04/20134:53am

Reply

RamGoli

02/11/20144:22pm

HiRaj.
ThisisRam,IamanSAPOTCconsultantandIamplanningtogiveHANAcertification.Canyou
shareyouremailidwithme?
IhaveneedadviseonHANA.
ramcgoli@yahoo.com

Babu

03/28/201311:29am

itwasgreathelpforme
Reply

Raghavendra

04/01/201311:13pm

ThanksalotRajforyourvaluablequestionsandanswers.
Regards,
RaghavendraG.
Reply

NAGENDAR

04/03/20135:02am

Raj,youareawesome,
wearewaitingforyourremainingquestionsifpossiblepleasesend..thx
Reply

Mahesh

04/03/201311:20am

ThanksRaj,thisisofbighelp.Canyousendanyrelatedmaterial,answersetc?
Reply

RajKumar

04/05/20131:35am

Justclicksecondtab(HANAQuestions)inthesameblog
Reply

PratikJain

06/16/20134:38am

Thisisjustawesomestuff.
Thankyouverymuchsir.
Appreciablejob!
IwouldliketogetintouchwithpeoplelearningSAPHANA(orthosewhohavealreadydonethat).Emailme:
jainpratik.dr@gmail.com
ASAPHANAtrainee.
Reply

Jay

07/23/20138:22pm

verycreative&highlyknowledgeable,thanksforputtingforus.keepupthenicework.
Reply

SKumar

08/02/20134:01am

hiRaj,
Greatwork.
Coupleofquestions:
1.IncaseofSLT,wheredowedefinethetablesthatneedstobereplicated.IsitinSLTsystemorindataprovisioning
inHANAstudio.

2.IncaeofSLTwedefinetransformationrulesinAdvancedreplicationsettings.IsitbywayofcodinginSE38or
somethingelse?
3.CanyouplsthrowmorelightifposisbleonFORloopanditsusage.
Reply

Raj

08/07/20131:54am

Hi,
1.InSLTafteryoucreateconfiguration,inHANAstudioyoucanfindentryforalltablesofsourcesystemin
DD02Ltableofyourreplicationschema.Noneedtoexclusivelydefinetablenames.
2.WedefineadvancereplicationsettingsusingIUUC_REPL_CONTENTjustlikeweuseLTRforcreatingconf.
3.IfyouhavegoodknowledgeonABAPthenyoumayfamiliarwithFORusage.Youcangoogleonforthe
same.
Regards
Raj
Reply

Subramanyam

08/05/201310:28am

GreatjobRaj!!!itsreallyhelpfulforwhoarenewtoSAPHANA
Reply

james

09/12/20132:37pm

ThumbswayupRaj!!Thanksfortheexcellentblog.
Reply

Rash

09/30/20138:37pm

Hi,
DoyoualsotrainSAPHANAandSAPBusinessObjects?I'mveryinterestedinbothmodules.Pleaseletknowmeif
you'reorhaveanysuggestions,ormaterialsthatcanhelpmetodoselfstudy.
AreyoulocatedintheStates?
Thanksmuch!
Reply

Balaji

10/10/20131:54am

HiRaj,
ThanksforletusknowaboutSAPHANA.
MuchAppreciated.
Reply

suri

11/25/201311:12pm

Goodjobdude,
Reply

Geetha

01/03/20141:22pm

Awesome!!ThanksRajkeepupthegoodwork!
Reply

Rajesh

01/28/20144:00pm

GreatJob..Thanks
Reply

Venu

02/11/20145:43am

GoodWork!!
Reply

RaviChandra

03/01/20149:09pm

HeyReallyitawesome..!!!
IfpossiblecanyoupleaseprovidethepossiblequestiononSP07bycomparingpreviousversionswehavesomany
newfeaturesinthatright!AndItishelpfulifyouprovideonreportingalsobecauseHANAwillsupportonBO4.0
onwardsandinBO4.1onwardswecanuseHANAModelingobjectsdirectlyonreportingtoolsnoneedtocreate
models(Universe).
HeyReallyAwesomeIappreciatedyourwork,..PleaseuptodatethissitewithlatestfeaturesrelatedtoHANA,itwill
helpfulforustocracktheinterviewright!.Wecanalsodosomeresearchandhelpinthisifneed(butnotrealtime
scenarios,untilgetintoHANAplatform)..SharingIdeas/Experiencesisgoodtoimprovingtheknowledge..
Reply

Raj

03/04/20148:01am

Ravi,
Iwilltrytokeepupdatemyblogasthetimepermitsmetodoso.
Regards
Raj
Reply

RaviChandra

03/08/20148:19am

ThankYou..VeryMuch!

Avijit

03/25/20147:21pm

HelloRaj,
nicearticle.couldpostsomeinfo'sonreportingaswell.?
thanks
Avi
Reply

ram

04/24/20149:17am

AreyougivinganytrainingonHANAAdministration?
Reply

(http://vakansiyainjenerpouchetu
yenergoresursov.rabotavakansii.com)

*Nicepost.Ilearnsomethingfarmorechallengingondifferentblogseveryday.Itwillalwaysbe
05/14/201411:18pm
stimulatingtoreadcontentmaterialfromotherwritersandpracticeabitsomethingfromtheirstore.Id
prefertousesomewiththecontentmaterialonmyblogwhetheryoudontmind.NatuallyIllgiveyou
alinkonyourwebweblog.Thanksforsharing.
Reply

Raj

06/18/20143:48am

Yesyoucan.
Reply

Orlando

05/29/201410:01am

HiRaj,Ihopeyouareverywell,
Iwouldliketodoabackupinhana,butspecifyingthedatabaseasascheduledjobfromhdbsqlorhanastudio.
Thankyou
Reply

Rajiv

05/30/20149:54pm

hiRaj,yourpostingishelpingus,ineedonehelpfromyou,isitpossible
meanssharesomelinkforcalculationviewcreationsusingsqlscripting.
Reply

araniconsulting(http://www.araniconsulting.com)

06/23/201411:06am

wearelookingforhanaadmintrainer,contactusifyouareinterested.
Reply

amol

07/08/20144:33am

Hi...
IamworkingonSAPHANA64bitonlinux,MyDTWwasunabletoinstallthere,Thereisalso32bit&64bitDTW
installed&
WhenIwastryingitfor64bit,ItonlyshowsSQL2008/SQL2012butIwana"HANADB"there.WheneverItrytoinstall
it,showsnothing.
ThenIwasalsotriedSAPHANAStudiotoImportdatafromcommadenominatedcsv&Commanexcelfiles.ButThere
istomuchlimitationsindatamapping&NonEditabledatainSAPHANASTUDIO,SoIwasunabletodoanysingal
entrythroughIt,
Iwasgoingtomanualentrywheremysystemdidn'tshowscompaniesaddressforsaphanamanytimes&Itisvery
timeconsuming
Iwantapropersolutionindetails,Whichwayismorecomfortableandsuitablefornovicelikeme.
Thanks/Regards
Amol.
Reply

Krishna

02/10/201511:07pm

Hi,
Youcaninstallstudiotoaccessdatabase.ButtoinstallHANADByouneedSAPcertifiedhardware
vendor.AnditsinstallonLinuxSUSEonly.
Reply

Pooja

07/22/20143:45am

veryniceRajgoodwork
Reply

KrishnaPunuru

08/05/201411:32pm

Amazingstuff!!!ThanksatrillionRaj...:)
Reply

Sathish

08/21/20145:56am

Hi,
Reallyappreciableforthequestions.pleasesharethatforme,itwillhelpmetoclarifymydoubtsandhelpfulformy
interviews
Reply

Kranti

09/01/20141:17am

ThisisreallyaveryGoodstuffforbeginners.
Reply

Raju

09/05/201412:23am

HiRaj,
Itwasawesomework.Thanksyousomuch.Welldone.ActuallyAmSAPBODSconsultantandnewlystartedHana.
HowIcancontact.CouldyoupleaseletmeknowPLease.

Reply

sarov

09/08/20145:19am

hairajreallygrtjob...coulduplsshareurmailID..ihavetonsofdoubt...iknowurhanawikipedia..
Reply

Raj

10/30/201411:28pm

HiSarov,
YoucanpostanyHANAdoubtinSCNforumhttp://scn.sap.com/community/hanainmemory.
Manyexpertswillanswerbesidesme.
Regards
Raj
Reply

MahmoudSoliman(http://www.yahoo.com)

09/08/201411:44am

Hi,
Keepupthegoodwork.Thisisverygoodquestionsandthankyouforsharingitwitheveryone.
Reply

subbareddy

09/09/20145:10am

HiRajgaru,Howru,Iamsubbareddy,workedincognizant,Irememberyouifiamnotwrong,youalsoworkedin
cognizantinmainframe.Pleasegivemeyourcontactnumber.
Thanks,
Subbareddy.B
Reply

Anand

09/17/20147:16am

HiRaj,
Icameacrossyourblog,itreallygoodandIreallyappreciateyourwork.Ifyoucouldpostsomeinterviewquestionson
HANAsecurityside&Backup.Itwouldbeagreathelpforpeoplelikeme.
Rgds,
Anand
Reply

Raj

10/30/201411:23pm

HiAnand,
Iaddedtomylist.Willaddwhenifindthetime.
Regards
Raj
Reply

Raj

10/30/201411:26pm

HiSubbaReddy,
Dropmeyouremailsothaticansendmynumber.
Regards
Raj
Reply

SAPGRCONLINETRAINING(http://sapgrconlinetraining.in/)

09/25/20142:22am

hisir,niceinfoonsapInstitutes,thanks.BestPostaboutSAPCoursesandtheTraining.Helpstheperuserstoimprove
informationonCurrentSAPTechnologies.

Reply

SimhaNagaraj

10/01/201412:01pm

HiRaj,
ThanksforpostingSAPHANAFAQ'S,Canyoupleaseprovidemethebothquestionandanswers,soitwillbehelpme
totakethemockinterviewsformyconsultant.
pleasecanyouhelpmeonthis!!

Thanks,
Ricky
Reply

Raj

10/30/201411:22pm

HiRicky,
Alreadyquestionsandanswersareprovidedinthisblog.
Regards
Raj
Reply

MadhusudanaRao

12/21/20145:25am

verynice,ithelpalot
Reply

Sankar

01/13/20153:53am

HANAques
Reply

Nabi

01/29/20154:37am

canuplzuploaddoconcalculationview(sqlprocedureformat)
Reply

sudarshan

02/03/20159:33pm

HIRaj,
itsreallyawonderfulstuffandyouhavegivenagreatinfoinyourblog
Couldyoupleasesharemecontactdetails,sothatIcantouchbasewithyouforqueries
Reply

MuralidharReddy

02/08/20159:31pm

HiRaj,
WhatisthewayofcreatingrowtablewithdefaultvaluesofcolumnsinHANA?
Iamnotabletocreateorgatheranyinformationonthis.
thanks
Murali
Reply

raj
HiRaj,
canyousendmerealtimesapBIQ&A?

Thankyou

02/21/20158:59am

Reply

raj

02/21/20159:00am

HiRaj,
canyousendmerealtimesapBIQ&A?

Thankyou
Reply

sreenureddy

03/09/20159:34pm

Couldyoupleaseadvisewhythekeymeasureswewillgiveinattributeviews.

Reply

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