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Matsumoto 1

Children who have worked by adults

~ The Things that We Can Do Right Now ~

Mari Matsumoto

Temple University
Academic English Program
Graduate Prep Academic Skill 2
Kristofer Kent
March 4, 2012

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There are many problems contradictory to the wealth in capitalism. The
issues are often neglected because there are many people who make a
profit by perverted capitalism and liberalism. Slavery is one of those
problems which need to be solved immediately.
The history of slavery is lasting extremely long and it exists in the modern
times. It is said that slavery started during ancient ages. Aristotle said slaves are living
tools and defense the thought of slavery. In the modern times, slavery is banned in many
countries starting with prohibition by the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human
Rights and the 1956 UN Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, the
Slave Trade and Institutions and Practices Similar to Slavery. Slavery is sometimes
thought the relic of the past. However, it still exists in the present day in an ingenious
manner. Despite slavery is prohibited, it is overlooked and doesnt come into light.
CNN defines the meaning of slavery, in their website, that Slavery occurs
when one person completely controls another person, using violence or the threat of
violence to maintain that control, exploits them economically, pays them nothing and
they cannot walk away. (CNN, para. 2) Slavery of children or the exploitation of child
labor is still a controversial issue. These problems should be solved immediately for
human rights although it takes tolerably a lot of time and effort. This paper discusses
what we can do or need to do for this problem, and try to search the clue to a solution.
The paper divided into three aspects; Modern slavery and the actuality, the importance
of NGO and international organization, and governments approach.
Modern Slavery and the Actuality
It is necessary to reveal the actuality and what modern slavery is so that it helps

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to understand that the problem is complicated and perseverant to solve. It is said that, in
the modern-day slavery, many enormous companies are involved in slavery even though
they are in a position to return the wealth to society.
Children are often picked up as the victims of forced labor by the traffickers. In
particular, in the countries where the poverty is the main problem, for example, some of
the South Asian and African countries, the trafficking and child slavery is a serious
problem. According to professor Shimoyama, there are many international companies
which operate with the forced labor of underage children. (p.92) Child labors are forced
working for a long time and living in the poor environment. In Shimoyamas research,
there are many companies in various fields that are related to child slavery. Cited as
follows, the cacao plantation is the one of the typical and well-known examples. The
slavery in cacao plantations already started in 16th century. In Ivory Coast, Ghana or
Nigeria, the children, who were sold and brought from Mali or Burkina Faso, are still
forced to harvest the plants in servitude. In connection with this cacao slavery, the route
of trafficking was organized and it still exists in 20th century (P.116-117). This issue was
sometimes raised as a world problem in some media. CNN is also broadcasting the
documentary, Chocolates Child Slaves in their project, the CNN freedom project, in
January, 2012. (CNN, Chocolate Childs Slavery, 2012) CNN also show in the
documentary, the children are continuing to work without knowing chocolate is
produced by cacao. It is said that two of American chocolate companies, Hersheys and
M&M master foods, monopolize the most of this enterprise. The fact that the children
received the wealth cannot be shown despite they invest and operate their factories
around the Ivory Coast (p.128-129).
The Importance of NGO and other Activities

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Although the situation of child slavery is critical, it should be researched and the
clue of solution should be found immediately. For the solution, non-governmental
organization (NGO), non-profit organization or international activities play important
roles in recent years. Referred to the multinational companies, similar to the chocolate
giants, it is said that they often have a connection with the government. Therefore the
governmental help cant be easily expected. For these reasons, it is important that NGO
and the international organization, for example, UNICEF, Amnesty international,
International Labor Organization (ILO), and some other organizations, work to the
government and society. In addition, some companies show approbation and take action
to help the related organization or for fund. According to CNN, Google Inc. is providing
$11.5 million to 10 organizations which working for anti-slavery and trafficking.
(Google joins fight against slavery, 2011)
Governments Approach
Often the government turns a blind eye to the reality because it is said the
authorities have connections to the trafficker. In fact, governments dont recognize the
problem is serious unless there is NGO or other organizations persevering action. The
government hasnt taken action until the problem was pointed out. In the case of girls
trafficking in India and Nepal, Hasegawa is writing with her research that the Indias
government doesnt have contract with other organizations or governments for the
human trafficking. The NPO, Laligurans Japan said, the number of Nepalese girls who
are sold to India run to 7,000 from 5,000 in a year. ( In addition, due to the lack of
education or understanding for the crime in the society and the people, the victims tend
to be tormented with engagement in the prostitution. At the same time, there is
discrimination to the victims who were forced to work for prostitution even among the

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Indias police or governmental office. For the solution, the government may have to
change their current law and invest the system to support the victims.
What We Can Do for the Problems


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Shimoyama, A. (2009, March 20). Sekai shohin to kodomo no dorei (Worlds goods and
Child slavery) (pp. 56-258), Tokyo: Minerva Shobo.
Hasegawa, M. (2007, November 30). Shojo Baibai (Girls trafficking). (pp. 100-104),
Tokyo: Kobunsha.
CNN, the CNN freedom project: Chocolate Childs Slavery (2012, January 20)
The Facts: Slavery, human trafficking definitions (2011, April 20), Google joins fight against slavery (2011, December 14)
Laligurans Japan, Overview of human trafficking in Nepal, Tokyo.