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PROPOSED TWO-STOREY JAIME HILARIO INTEGRATED SCHOOL LA SALLE

DIVISION
31 - EARTHWORK
SECTION 31 22 00 - Grading
May 2013

Project

Location :

Proposed Two-Storey Jaime Hilario Integrated School La Salle


Banawang, Bagac, Bataan

DIVISION

31

SECTION 31 22 00

- EARTHWORK
-

Grading

PART 1 GENERAL
1.1

SCOPE
The work shall include the furnishing of all materials, tools and
equipment and the performance of labor.

1.2

a.

Site Grading

b.

Excavation and backfillling for drainage structures and


appurtenances.

c.

Trenching, backfilling and compacting.

UNIT OF MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT


By the cubic meter.

PART 2 PRODUCTS
2.1

DEFINITION
MATERIALS

AND

CLASSIFICATION

OF

EARTHWORK

The following definitions of earthwork materials shall apply.


a.

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Top Soil shall mean the top layer of soil that can support
vegetation.

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PROPOSED TWO-STOREY JAIME HILARIO INTEGRATED SCHOOL LA SALLE


DIVISION
31 - EARTHWORK
SECTION 31 22 00 - Grading
May 2013
b.

Suitable material shall comprise all that which is


acceptable for use in the works and which is capable of
being compacted to form a stable fill as indicated on the
drawings or required.

c.

Unsuitable material shall mean other than suitable


material and shall include:
1.

material from swamps, marches or bogs;

2.

peat, logs, stumps and perishable material;

3.

material susceptible to spontaneous combustion;

4.

clay of liquid limit exceeding 80 and/or plasticity


index exceeding 55;

5.

materials having moisture greater than


maximum permitted for such materials in
Contract, unless otherwise permitted by
Engineer.

the
the
the

d.

Rock fill shall consist of hard materials of suitable size for


deposition and compaction and may comprise rock as
defined in this Section, broken stone, hard brick, concrete
or other comparable hard inert material.

e.

Common material shall mean suitable material with the


exception of rock fill.

f.

Select fill material shall mean common material but shall


all pass a 75mm (3 in.) sieve. The fraction passing a
0.425mm (No. 40) sieve shall have the following
characteristics:

g.

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1.

Liquid limit not exceeding 35%.

2.

Plasticity index not exceeding 12%.

Select Backfill Material shall consist of sand, stone, gravel


or stone screenings, uniformly graded and free from an
excess of soft or unsound particles and other objectionable

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PROPOSED TWO-STOREY JAIME HILARIO INTEGRATED SCHOOL LA SALLE


DIVISION
31 - EARTHWORK
SECTION 31 22 00 - Grading
May 2013
material. When tested by laboratory sieve in accordance
with ASTM C136, the material shall conform to the
following gradation limits:

2.2

Passing 3/8 inch sieve -

100%

Passing No. 4 sieve

85 to 100%

Passing No. 100 sieve

0 to 100%

Passing No. 200 sieve

0 to 3%

SPECIAL CASES OF SUBGRADE TREATMENT


For some types of soil, special cases of subgrade treatment may
be employed as deemed necessary. The following are some
methods that shall be adopted in treating subgrade when the
indicated types of soil are encountered.
a.

Stiff, Pre-consolidated Clays


1.

Characteristics and Identification


These soils, normally classified as CH or occasionally
CL, may have greater strength in the undisturbed
condition that when reworked and compacted to
maximum density. Investigate comparative CBRs in
both these conditions. Check expansive tendencies.

2.

Recommended Subgrade Procedures


If undisturbed condition is stronger, do not attempt
to compact. Minimize disturbance as much as
possible. Make sure compaction requirements are
met.

b.

Silts and Very Fine Sands


1.

Characteristics and Identification


These soils, normally classified as ML, become quick
or spongy when compacted in presence of high water

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PROPOSED TWO-STOREY JAIME HILARIO INTEGRATED SCHOOL LA SALLE


DIVISION
31 - EARTHWORK
SECTION 31 22 00 - Grading
May 2013
table or when saturated. Occasionally, water may
move up into subbase or base course during
compaction.
2.

Recommended Subgrade Procedures


Lower water table and dry out if feasible. Otherwise,
do not attempt to compact. Remove and replace
existing subgrade or blanket with sand or wellgraded granular material. Do not open base or
subbase directly on these soils.

c.

Expansive Sands
1.

Characteristics and Identification


All clay soils have the potential for expansion under
moisture changes. If test in CBR molds shows swell
greater than 3 percent, special attention is
necessary. Certain clays, especially in arid areas are
highly expansive and require deep subgrade
treatment. These clays generally slake readily and
have liquid limits above 40, plasticity index above
25, naturally moisture close to the plastic limit, and
activity ratio of 1.0 or greater.

2.

Recommended Subgrade Procedures:


For normally expansive soils, determine optimum
water content, compaction effort and overburden to
control swell. Particular attention should be directed
to areas where soil profile is non-uniform. Field
control of compaction moisture is critical. For highly
expansive soils, consider (a) replacement to depth of
moisture equilibrium, (b) raising grade, (c) lime
stabilization, (d) prewetting or other.

PART 3 EXECUTION
3.1

SITE GRADING
a.

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31 22 00

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PROPOSED TWO-STOREY JAIME HILARIO INTEGRATED SCHOOL LA SALLE


DIVISION
31 - EARTHWORK
SECTION 31 22 00 - Grading
May 2013
Grading shall be in conformity with the typical sections
indicated and shall be finished within a tolerance of 25/100
feet of the grades indicated. Suitable excavated material
shall be transported to and placed in fill areas within work
limits. In the event that it is required to remove materials
to a greater depth than specified, an adjustment in the
contract price will be made in accordance with unit price
schedule. Surplus suitable and unsuitable excavated
materials not required for fill shall be disposed off in
designated waste or spoil areas. Excavation and filling shall
be performed in a manner and sequence that will provide
proper drainage at all times. Materials required for fill in
excess of that produced by excavation within the grading
limits shall be excavated from approved borrow areas.
b.

c.

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31 22 00

Borrow Pits 1.

Fill material which is required in addition to that


provided by the excavation in the works shall be
obtained from borrow pits. All borrow material shall
be subject to the approval of the Engineer.

2.

The Contractor shall provide all accesses, clear and


remove vegetation, rock, boulders and unsuitable or
oversized materials. The Contractor shall provide
adequate supervision in every borrow pit to ensure
that approved material is not contaminated with
unsuitable material.

Forming Cuts 1.

Cuts shall be excavated to the lines and dimensions


shown on the drawings or directed by the Engineer
and shall include the removal of material below
subgrade level. Except where otherwise specified
side slopes of cuts shall be excavated to a tolerance
of 100mm measured at right angles to the surface.

2.

Except where excavation is required below subgrade


level, any excess depth excavated below the
subgrade tolerance shall be made good by backfilling
with suitable materials.

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PROPOSED TWO-STOREY JAIME HILARIO INTEGRATED SCHOOL LA SALLE


DIVISION
31 - EARTHWORK
SECTION 31 22 00 - Grading
May 2013
3.

d.

The slopes of cuts shall be cleared of all rock


fragments move when pried by a crowbar. Where in
the slopes of cuts, layers of rock and softener
material alternate and the Engineer considers that
the slope, immediately after dressing, will not
permanently withstand the effects of weather, the
Contractor shall excavate any insecure material to an
approved depth and build up the resulting spaces as
shown on the Drawings with concrete or with
masonry butt-ressing using rock similar to the
adjoining natural rock so as to ensure a solid face or
as otherwise specified.

Compacting Pits The fill shall be evenly spread in horizontal layers


approximately 152mm (6) thick and each layer watered
and compacted by approved power rollers, machine or
hand tampers to a density of at least 95 percent of the
modified AASHTO method.

3.2

EXCAVATION AND BACKFILING


DRAINAGE STRUCTURES
a.

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FOR

MISCELLANEOUS

Excavation
1.

The Contractor shall perform excavation of every


description regardless of the character of the
material encountered, within the limits of the work,
to the lines and grades indicated on the drawings.
Grading shall be in conformity with the typical
sections shown on the drawing and shall be finished
within a tolerance of approximately 1/10 foot on the
grades indicated. Any unsuitable material within the
limits of the roadbed or area to be paved
encountered at or below the established subgrade
elevations indicated on the drawings shall be
removed and replaced with approved material.

2.

Excavation shall be performed to the depths


indicated, as specified. Fill materials suitable for
backfilling shall be stored a sufficient distance from

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PROPOSED TWO-STOREY JAIME HILARIO INTEGRATED SCHOOL LA SALLE


DIVISION
31 - EARTHWORK
SECTION 31 22 00 - Grading
May 2013
the banks or trenches to prevent slides cave-in.
water shall be removed by pumping or other
approved method and shall be discharged at a safe
distance from the excavation. Excavating shall be by
open cut.
3.

b.

Excavation for drainage structures and other


structures shall be sufficient to leave at least 30m
(1) clear between their outer surface and the
embankment or shoring which may be used.
Wherever unstable soil that is incapable of properly
supporting the structure is encountered at the
bottom of the excavation, such soil shall be removed
to the depth necessary to obtain proper bearing.
Unauthorized over-depths or over-depths in wet or
otherwise unstable soil shall be filled with select
backfill material or concrete as directed, at the
expense of the Contractor.

Backfilling At drainage structure and other structures, all forms, trash


and debris shall be removed prior to backfill. Approved
backfill materials shall be placed symmetrically on all sides
in 228mm loose depth maximum layers. Each layer shall
be moistened, if necessary, and compacted with
mechanical or hand tampers, care being taken not to injure
the structure by excessive tamping.

3.3

ADVANCE CONSTRUCTION OF DITCHES AND


DRAINS
The Contractor shall where applicable construct ditches (riprap/earth) and drains in advance of excavating cuts and forming
of embankments and pavement construction.

3.4

TRENCHING BACKFILLING AND COMPACTING


a.

Trench Excavation 1.

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General trenches shall be of the necessary width


for the proper laying of pipe or duct and shall be as
nearly vertical as practicable. Bottoms of trenches

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PROPOSED TWO-STOREY JAIME HILARIO INTEGRATED SCHOOL LA SALLE


DIVISION
31 - EARTHWORK
SECTION 31 22 00 - Grading
May 2013
shall be accurately graded to provide uniform
bearing and support for each section of pipe on
undisturbed soil at every point on its entire length,
except for portions of pipe sections where it is
necessary to excavate for bell holes and for proper
making of pipe joints. At the portion of the Contractor
and as approved, trench may be cut at an over-depth
of not less than 101mm including bell-holes, and
backfilled to required grade for bedding with select
backfill materials, to be backfilled to at least
midpoint of pipe. When unsatisfactory soil incapable
of properly supporting pipe is encountered at the
bottom of trench, remove such soil depth required.
Over-depth in unstable soil excavation and
unauthorized over-depths shall be backfilled to
proper grade with select backfill material satisfactory
to the Engineer and shall be thoroughly tamped.
Backfiling of authorized over-depths shall be at the
expense of the Contractor.
2.

b.

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Drainage lines Width of the trench at and below top


of pipe shall be of such as to provide adequate space
for workmen to place and join the pipe properly, but
the clear space between the barrel of the pipe and
trench wall shall not exceed 203mm in either side of
the pipe. Width of the trench above that level may be
as wide as necessary for sheeting and bracing and
proper performance of the work. Bottom of trench
shall be rounded so that at least the bottom
quadrant of pipe shall rest firmly on undisturbed soil,
select backfill material, or suitable material, as
approved by the Engineer, for as nearly the full
length of the barrel as proper jointing operation will
permit. This part of the excavation shall be done
manually only a few in advance of the pipe laying by
men skilled in the type of work.

Backfilling 1.
General Backfilling shall be coordinated with the
testing of utilities. Trenches shall be carefully
backfilled with suitable materials. Backfill shall be
brought up evenly on both sides of pipe for its full
length, and shall be thoroughly and carefully

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PROPOSED TWO-STOREY JAIME HILARIO INTEGRATED SCHOOL LA SALLE


DIVISION
31 - EARTHWORK
SECTION 31 22 00 - Grading
May 2013
rammed until pipe has a cover of not less than .60M
(2). Care shall be taken not to damage pipes or the
special coatings of pipes. The remainder of backfill
material shall then be deposited in the trench in .30M
(1) maximum layers and compacted by mechanical
means. Trenches and excavation pits improperly
backfilled, or where settlement occurs, shall be reopened to the depth required for proper connections
then refilled and compacted, with the surface
restored to the required grade and compaction.
2.

3.5

Under Streets. Backfill trenches across roads or other


areas to be paved as specified above except that
remainder of trench above .60M (2) cover over pipe
as specified herein before shall be backfilled with
suitable or select backfill material, in 152mm
maximum layers, and each layer moistened and
compacted to 95 percent of the maximum density
obtained at optimum moisture as determined by
ASTM D1557. Backfilling shall be accomplished in
such manner as to permit the rolling and compaction
of the filled trench with the adjoining material to
provide the required bearing value, so that the
paving of the areas can proceed immediately after
backfilling is completed.
UTILIZATION OF EXCAVATED MATERIALS

All suitable materials removed from the excavations shall be


used in so far as practicable, in the formation of subgrade,
slopes, backfill for structure, and for other purposes as may be
required. No excavation materials shall be wasted without the
authorization of the Engineer. Unsuitable or excess materials
authorized to be wasted shall be disposed as specified
hereinafter. No excavated material shall be deposited at any time
in a manner that may in any way be detrimental to the
completed work.
3.6

DISPOSAL OF EXCESS MATERIALS


Any excess material resulting from all earthwork operations not
required or unsuitable for fill or backfill operations shall be

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PROPOSED TWO-STOREY JAIME HILARIO INTEGRATED SCHOOL LA SALLE


DIVISION
31 - EARTHWORK
SECTION 31 22 00 - Grading
May 2013
deposited off by the Contractor at his expense in areas off the
site provided by the Contractor.
-oOo-

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END OF SECTION

-oOo-

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