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A very low-loss coaxial transmission line has 30 pF/ft of distributed capacitance

and 75 nH/ft of inductance. What is its characteristic impedance?
- 50 ohms
2. The characteristic impedance of a transmission line does not depend upon its
3. What must be the ratio of outer conductor diameter to central conductor diamter,
for a 75 ohms. Teflon coaxial transmission line?
4. What is the voltage reflection coefficient for a 75 ohms line with a terminating
imepedance of 50 ohms
- -0.2
5.What is the attenuation in nepers for a 1-km length of RG58 A/U coax with a loss
of 5 db/100 ft?
- 18.88 Np
6. Find the input impedance in ohms, for a 50 ohms lossless transmisiion line, 3.5
long, if the load is 20 + j75 ohms.
- 20 + j75ohms
7. A type of transmission line whose conductors experience the same electrical
capacitance relative to the ground.
- Balanced Line
8. A type of transmission line consising of an inner conductor surrounded by, but
insulated from an outer conductor.
- coaxial cable
9. Power loss due to increased effective resistance of a conductor at microwave
frequencies due to skin effect.
- conduction loss
10. The ratio of incident and reflected voltage waves representing transmission and
reflection coefficients used to chracterize a linear microwave device.
- S Parameter
11. What is a short length of transmission line, shorted at one end and attached at
the appropriate distance from the load for the purpose of matching a complex load
to the transmission line?
- stub
12. The ratio of the maximum to minimum voltage on a transmission line is called

13. When does a transmission line have ab SWR equal to 1 ?

- Zd = Zo
14. When does a transmission line termited in a short look like a short to the
- at quarter-wavelength
15. When does an open transmission line look like a short to the source?
- at quarter-wavelength
16. How many cycles of a 1-MHz wave can a 6-mile transmission line accommodate?
-32.26 cycles
17. A transmission line has a capacitance of 25 pF/ ft and an inductance of 0.15
uH/ft. Determine the characteristic impedance of the line.
- 77.5 ohms
18. For a transmission line giving a maximum rms voltage reading of 50 V at one
point and a maximum rms voltage reading 25 V at another point. What is the VSWR
of the line?
19. What would be the SWR of a transmission line if power is being delivered to a
100 ohms load by a line with a chracteristic impedance of 50 ohms?
20. A transmission line consisting of two conductors that have equal resistance per
unit length.
- Balanced Line
21. Which of the following is not a common transmission line impedance?
-120 ohms
22. Name a use for a ciccular waveguide
- radar
23. In a waveguide , the TM mode means that the:
- magnetic field is perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation
24. The mode at which a waveguide operates is determined by the:
- method used to couple the signal into the waveguide
25. In waveguide, the TE mode means that the
- electric field is perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation

26. What is the guide wavelength if m = 1 for a 6-cm x 3-cm waveguide with a
fequency of 12 GHz?
- 2.55 cm
27. A 5-GHz signal to be propagated along a waveguide with a width of 3 cm. What is
the largest value of m that can be accommodated by the waveguide?
- m=1
28. A type of transmission line where the two conductors carry equal current.
- balanced
29. The standing wave ratio is euqal to ____ if the load is properly matched with the
30. What is the chracteristic impedance of twin lead?
- 300 ohms
31. Transmission line must be matched to the load to
- transfer maximum power to the load
32. A type of transmission line used in gamma match.
- coaxial
33. Would it be possible to produce a 70 ohms twin lead?
- yes
34. A flat transmission line delivers 5 kW at 10 A. What is its impedance?
- 50 ohms
35. What type of coupling is used between helical resonators?
- slot
36. A major and basic advantage for the used of a klystron.
- high power
37. What should be the SWR into a dummy antenna?
- 1:1
38. How wide must a waveguide be?
- over lamda/2
39. What is the name of the microwave transmission line that is used with printed
- microstrip

40. Which of the following is not a method of coupling into or out of a waveguide?
- Slot
41. A type of semiconductor bolometer is called
- Thermistor
42. Which of the following is not a mocrowave vacuum tube?
- Gunn
43. A convenient method of dtermining antenna impedance.
- Smith Chart
44. A waveguide acts as a
45. Characteristic impedance of a transmission line is the impedance measued at the
_____ when its length is infinite.
- input
46. What is the length in centimeters of a quarter-wave stub, in free space at 4 Ghz
- 1.875 cm
47. What quarterwave transformer will match a 100 ohms line to an antenna whose
value is 175 ohms?
- 132.29 ohms
48. A quarter-wave stub shorted at the end has high impedance:
- lamda/4 back from the short
49. Two 2-mm-diameter wires held 6 cm apart center to center has a characteristic
impedance of
-491 ohms
50. To connect coaxial line to a paraller-wire, _______ is the best to use.
51. What is the impedance of most waveguide?
- 50 ohms
52. What is the function of a resistive pyramid or vane at the end of a waveguide
-dummy load
53. When a transmission line uses ground return, it is called _____ line.
- unbalanced

54. What is meant by a voltage node?

- voltage minima
55. Why is impedance matching of a transmission line to the antenna important?
- for maximum power transfer
56. What is meant by SWR of a transmission line?
- Standing Wave Ratio
57. Does minimum or maximum VSWR indicate best matching of antenna to
transmission line?
- minimum
58. How can SWR be minimized?
- using-stubs
59. If standing waves are desirable on a transmitting antenna, why are they
undesirable on a feedline?
- it increases power loss
60. If two towers of a 1100-khz array are seperated by 120, what is the tower
seperation in feet?
- 298
61. In a transmission line, if the maximum current to minimum current ratio is 2:1,
what is the ratio of the maximum voltage to minimum voltage?
- 2:1
62 Skin effect describes the tendency of:
-ac conductrors to carry the circuit current on their surface.
63. A wire conductor experiences the following characteristics:
- a and b
64. A 50 ohms circuited line is 0.1 in length, at a frquency of 500 MHz. What is its
equivalent inductive reactance?
- j36.33 ohms
65. A 300 ohms line is terminated in a load impedance of 100 + j200 ohms. What is
the reflection coefficient for this line?
- 0.632< 108 deg
66. In a transmission line, the characteristic impedance equals

67. What is the distance between a voltage maximum and adjacent current
maximum on a transmission line with standing waves?
- lamda/4
68. For a transmission line terminated with a load equal to its characteristic
impedance the reflection coefficient is
69. A matching stub should be placed
- nearest to the load
70. The use of stub-matching network eliminates standing waves on
- transmittes side of stub
71. What is the input impednce of a shorted lossless line of length lamda/4
- infinity
72. The characteristic impedance will ______, if the spacing between the wires of a
balanced transmission line is increased.
73. Transmission lines when connected to antenna have
- resistive load at the resonant frequency
74. In a coaxial cable, the characteristic impedance depends on the diameter of
- both a and b
75. What is the reflection coefficient if an open-circuited transmission line?
76. One of the following microwave diodes is suitable for very low power oscillator
- tunnel
78. The reflection coefficient on a transmission line is 1/3, what is the SWR?
79. Indicate the false statement. The SWR on a transmission line is infinity: the line
is terminated in a(n)
- complex impedance
80. if transmission line is terminated with a resistance equal to its characteristic
- the standing wave ratio will be minimum

81. Coaxial Lines are used on those systems operationg

- below 2 GHz
82. The ratio of the largest rms value to the smallest rms value of the standing
voltage along a transmission line is called
83. What is the SWR along a transmission line having a characteristic impedance of
75 ohms and a load impedance of 300 ohms?
84. The ____ is a measure of the mismatch between a load and the transmission line.
85. A waveguide can be considered as a
86. What is the dominant mode in a rectangular waveguide?
- TE 10
87. Which tester is used to measure SWR?
- Reflectometer
88. The aspect ratio of a standard rectangular waveguide is
- 2:1
89. Referred to the dielectric constant of a transmissio ine material.
- Velocity factor
90. Referred to as a ferrite device that can be used in lieu of a duplexer to isolate a
microwave transmitter and receiver when both are connected to the same antenna.
- Circulator
91. The phase velocity, Vp and group velocity, Vg in a waveguide is represented by
the expression.
- C= (VpVg)^1/2
92. A transmission line capable of handling high-powered signal is
93. Determine the dB gain of a receiving antenna which delivers a microvolt signal
to a tansmission line over that of an antenna that delivers a 2 microvolt signal under
identical circumstances.
- 6 db

94. The cut-off frequency in a waveguide signifies

- longer wave will not propagate signifiacantly
95. The transmission line parameter that represents the decrease in the signal
strength is
- attenuation constant
96. The graphical solution of transmission line problems involve the use of
- Smith Chart
97. Who developed the Smith Chart?
- Philip H. Smith
98. A 50 lossless transmission line is terminated with a load impedance of 25 + j75.
What is the input impedance at a distance of 0.5 from the load?
- 25 + j75 ohms
99. Transmission lines are either balanced or unbalanced with respect to
- ground
100. What is the velocity factor of non-foam 50 or 75 ohm flexible coaxial cable such
as RG 8, 11, 58 and 59?
101. A shorted transmission line less than lamda/4 in length will exhibit _____
- inductive
102. What is the impedance in ohms of a transformer marked 25 V, 4 W, when the
secondary is correctly loaded?
- 156 ohms
103. An open circuited line greater than lamda/4 but less than lamda/2 in length
will exhibit _____ reactance.
- inductive
104. What is the longest waelength that a 2.5 cm wide waveguide will support in the
dominant mode
- 5 cm
105. What determines the velocity factor in transmission line?
- dielectrics in the line
106. What physical length corresponds to 0.25 lamda at 500 MHz for cable with a
propagation velocity of 0.68C?
-0.102 m

107. What is the SWR for a 100 omhs characteristic line and a 300 ohms load?
108. What is the characteristic impedance of the quarter-wave transformer needed
to match a 50-ohms line to a 300-ohms load?
- 122 ohms
109. For a coplex impedance z=150 j50 ohms with Zo of 50 ohms, what is the
normalized value of Z?
- 3 j1
110. A single conductor running from the transmitter to the antenna.
- Single line wire
111. What is the effect of standing waves on a transmission line?
- decrease in the power fed to antenna
112. Best choice of transmission line component to couple a coaxial line to a parallel
wire line.
- Balun
113. What is the main frequency determining element of a klystron?
- resonant cavity
114. Energy that has neither been radiated into space nor completely transmitted.
- Standing waves
115. To couple a coaxial line to parallel line, it is better to use a
- balun
116. An electronic equipment used to measure standing wave ratio.
- Reflectometer
117. What is the meaning of the term velocity factor of a transmission line?
- the velocity of the waves on the transmission line divided by the velocity of light in
a vacuum
118. Which of the following determine the characteristics of a transmission line?
-Physical dimensions
119. For an ideal transmission line, the best possible conductor to use is
- Silver
120. A flat line is also called _____ because it is terminated in its characteristic
- Non-resonant

121. What is the phase shift corresponding to lamda/4 in standing wave pattern?
- 90 deg
122. For a parallel- resonant circuit, a lamda/4 stub must be at the ends
- shorted
123. What is the cutoff wavelength of a 6-cm x 3-cm wave guide?
-12 cm
124. Distance traveled by a wave in the time of one cycle.
- Wavelength
125. Termination means
- load connected to the output edn of a transmission line
1. What is the resistance of a lossless Hertz antenna in free space? 73 ohms
2. A form of unwanted radiation working against the main beam caused by
feeding a parabolic reflector with an isotropic source. Backlobe Radiation
3. The angle measured between the 3 dB down points on the major lobe of an
antennas radiation pattern. Beamwidth
4. It is an array of simple dipoles fed in phase and having a radiation pattern
whose maximum directivity is along the axis normal to the plane of the array.
Broadside Array
5. A type of microwave antenna in which the feed-point is located at the vertex
of the parabola and is directed against a secondary hyperbolic reflector.
Cassegrain Antenna
6. A microwave antenna formed from a circular waveguide. Conical Horn
7. What is the bridge circuit used in conjunction with a turnstile antenna for the
purpose of feeding two separate signals to a single antenna? Diplexer

8. A type of antenna array consisting of a linear arrangement of simple dipoles

fed 90 degrees out of phase and having a radiation pattern of maximum
directivity in the plane of the array. End-Fire Array
9. Used to measure the absolute signal strength defined as the voltage induced
in a one-meter antenna by a radiated TEM wave. Field Strength
10. A type of antenna capable of transmitting (receiving) a TEM wave polarized
in any direction. Helical Antenna
11. What is the electromagnetic field that surrounds an antenna but does not
radiate? Induction Field
12. It is a non-resonant antenna several wavelengths long, but not cut to any
particular wavelength. Long-Wire Antenna
13. The region within the influence of the induction field of an antenna. Near
14. A measure of the distribution of radiated power over a given area is called
____. Power Density
15. Any finite, usually small, local area of a spherical wavefront is called ____.
Plane Wave
16. What is the orientation of the electric field of an antenna relative to the
earths surface and antenna structure? Polarization
17. What makes an antenna physically long but electrically short? Adding C in
18. A type of antenna whose resonant properties cause standing waves to exist
along the antenna elements. Resonant Antenna

19. It is a condition of excessive illumination caused by feeding a parabolic

reflector with an omnidirectional source. Spillover
20. Is an example of a parasitic array. Yagi-Uda
21. The structure made of plastic-like material used to enclose the complete
antenna assembly to protect the antenna from the weather and to reduce
wind or snow loading. Radome
22. A short horizontal section to the top of a Marconi antenna to add inductance,
thereby increasing its effective length. Top Loading
23. A type of dielectric lens shape used to reduce excess weight and attenuation
is called Zoned Lens
24. What is a dummy load? Simulates the transmitting antenna but doesnt
transmit any signal
25. It is the ratio of the antenna transmitting frequency to its bandwidth. Q
26. For an antenna with a radiation resistance of 50 ohms, how much power will
be radiated if the antenna current is 50 A? 125Kw
27. Determine the Q of an antenna with the bandwidth of 0.5 MHz that is cut to a
frequency of 20 MHz. 40
28. What should be the height of a Marconi antenna to transmit a 200 MHz
signal? Note: Use 95% rule 0.35625 m
29. What is the dB gain of an antenna that delivers a 100 microvolts signal over
that of an antenna that delivers 75 microvolts. 2.5 dB

30. What is meant by antenna gain? The numeric ratio relating the radiated
signal strength of an antenna to that of another antenna
31. To install an antenna with a line-of-sight transmission at a distance of 75
miles, determine the height of a receiving antenna if the transmitting antenna
is 250 ft. 1,385 ft.
32. Which radiowave is primarily transmitted along the surface of the earth?
Ground Wave
33. The major mode of propagation for antenna that are line of sight starts at
about what frequency? 30 MHz
34. A dipole antenna requires to be feed with 20 kW of power to produce a given
signal strength to a particular distant point. If the addition of a reflector
makes the same field strength with an input power if 11 kW. What is the gain
in dB obtain by the use of the reflector? 2.6
35. Which ionospheric layer is present at night? F
36. A ____ antenna is essentially an extension of the end of a waveguide. Horn
37. The antenna used at microwave frequencies to focus its wave is a(n) ____
antenna. Parabolic
38. What is another term used for dummy antenna? Phantom
39. At height about 180 km above the earth exist only during daylight. F1 Layer
40. Radiation characteristics of a dipole. Bidirectional
41. Determine the gain of a 6-ft. parabolic dish operating at 1800 MHz. 28.17 dB

42. An electromagnetic wave is ____ polarized when the electric field lies wholly
in one plane containing the direction of propagation. Linearly
43. The electrical field lies in a plane parallel to the earths surface. Horizontal
44. The product of the power supplied to the antenna and its gain relative to a
half-wave dipole in a given direction. ERP
45. Width measured in degrees of a major lobe between end of the lobe at which
the relative power is one half (-3db) its value from the peak of the lobe.
46. What is the relation in degrees if the electrostatic and electromagnetic fields
of an antenna? 90 degrees
47. Type of antenna which is normally used for satellite tracking service. Helical
48. What is meant by the term radiation resistance for an antenna? An
equipment resistance that would dissipate the same amount of power
as that radiated from an antenna
49. What happens to the wave velocity as it passes from air to ionosphere?
50. What wave is the same day or night? Ground wave
51. Scatter transmission Is used at what frequencies? VHF and UHF
52. What polarization is employed in AM broadcasting? Vertical
53. What is the length in feet of an antenna wire for a 4 MHz if the antenna is
3lambda/2 in length? 363 ft.

54. When waves bend away from straight lines of travel, it is called ____
55. Highest frequency that can be used for skywave HF communications between
two given points on earth. Maximum Usable Frequency
56. Electromagnetic radiation theory was profounded by ____. James Clark
57. What is the thickest layer of the ionosphere? F2
58. Which region of the ionosphere is mainly responsible for long distance night
time communications? F Layer
59. The polarization of a discone antenna is ____. Vertical
60. ____ is the horizontal pointing angle of an antenna. Azimuth
61. Which is properly terminated antenna? Rhombic
62. How much does the radiated power of an antenna increases if its current
increased by 3.3. 10.89 times
63. When testing transmitter to prevent interfering with other stations, which
type of antenna must be used? Dummy Antenna
64. A device that radiates electromagnetic
electromagnetic radiation. Antenna




65. The frequency of operation of a dipole antenna cut to length of 3.4 m. 42.9
66. What is the name of antennas that are grounded at one end? Marconi

67. An increase in the effective power radiated by an antenna in a certain desired

direction at the expense of power radiated in other directions. Antenna Gain
68. Where are the maximum voltage points on a half-wavelength antenna? Ends
69. What is the theoretical radiation resistance of a horizontal lambda/2 dipole a
lambda/2 high? 73 ohms
70. Which reactance would a dipole have if it is 0.6lambda long? Inductive
71. How is capacitive reactance compensated in an antenna? Add series
72. What is the advantage of drooping ground planes? Higher center
73. Why are small balls attached to whip antennas? To prevent corona
74. What are beams called if all elements are in line? Colinear
75. What is the phase separation of two antennas 3lambda/8 apart? 135
76. Which of the following gives more forward gain? Director
77. How much more feed-point impedance does a folded dipole have than a
normal dipole? Four times
78. With similar size, which of the following has the greatest gain? Parabolic
79. In what direction is the null of a small diameter loop in relation to the plane
of the loop? Right Angles

80. In what unit is field intensity measured? mV/m

81. When speaking of antennas, what is a bay? A section which would be a
complete antenna by itself
82. A method used in determining the feed-point impedance of a vertical
antenna. Impedance Bridge
83. What feed requirements must be met to produce a circular radiation pattern
when using two crossed dipoles? Feed 90 degrees apart electrically
84. What is the free space loss, in dB, between two microwave parabolic
antennas 38.9 kilometer apart operating at 7.0 GHz? 140.98 dB
85. Electromagnetic waves travel at ____ in free space. 300,000 km/sec
86. When electromagnetic waves are propagated through a waveguide, they Are
reflected from the walls but do not travel along them
87. How many receiving antenna(s) are used with frequency diversity? 1
88. An antenna ____ is a metal structure that substitute for earth ground.
89. A horizontal antenna provides a radio wave with ____ polarization.

90. An antenna loading coils is a series inductance used to make the antenna
electrically ____. Longer
91. ____ elements are antenna conductors not directly connected to the
transmission line. Parasitic

92. Radio waves are propagated by ____ through the ionosphere. Sky Waves
93. A horizontal antenna is Horizontally Polarized
94. How often does sunspot (short term) activity repeat? 27 Days
95. Why is a half-wavelength antenna always shorter that that computed by
lambda = v/f? End Effects
96. What antenna placement and feed produces a cardioid radiation pattern? 45
degrees apart and fed at 90 degrees
97. What is an inverted V antenna? Drooping Dipole
98. How must elements of a turnstile antenna be fed? 90 degrees out of phase
99. What is a disadvantage when using round rather than rectangular
waveguide? Polarization may rotate
Within what tolerance must antenna currents be held in directive
systems? 5%

What must be added between a 50 ohms coaxial line and the base of a
center-loaded vertical whip? L-pad

What produces residual signal in a loop antenna? Sky waves


EIRP stands for Effective Isotropic Radiated Power

What are the two fields that radiate from any antenna? Electric and

An antenna that is circularly polarized is the Helical


What is meant by radio-path horizon? 4/3 of the optical horizon

What are electromagnetic waves? A wave consisting of an electric
field and a magnetic field at right angles to each other.

What antenna has omnidirectional characteristics? Discone

What is meant by a driven element of an array? Directly connected
to the transmitter
A 500-kHz transmitter produces a field strength of 100 microvolts per
meter at 100 mi. What is the theoretical strength at 200 mi? 50 microvolts
per meter
Best description of a collinear and broadside antenna radiation
pattern. Bidirectional
A field of 25 mV/m develops 2V in a certain antenna. What is its
effective height? 80 m

What is an isotropic radiator? All of the above


The lowest layer in the ionosphere. D

What is the ERP if the output of a transmitter is 50 kW, the coax line
loss is 300 W, and antenna power gain is 3 dB? 99.4kW
When the transmitting and receiving antennas are in line-of-sight
with each other, the mode of propagation is ____ wave. Space or direct
The frequency normally used for ionospheric transmission is known
as ____. Optimum Working Frequency

The virtual height of an ionospheric layer is ____ as the height a wave
actually penetrates. More

The number of lobes on each side of a 4lambda resonant antenna is 8

Whereas resonant antenna is bidirectional, non-resonant antenna is
A parasitic element of an array is one which Is not connected to the
transmitter output
What is the radiation resistance of a half-wave folded dipole? 292
Where does the maximum current and minimum voltage values on a
resonant Hertz dipole exist? Center of the antenna
What is meant by the term antenna efficiency? Efficiency = radiation
resistance / total resistance x 100%
Which of the following is not true about an end-fire array? It has a
dipole spacing of lambda
The ____ in a Yagi antenna is longer than the radiating element.

Lens antenna used for microwaves are usually made of Polystyrene


A parabolic antenna is commonly used at 3000 MHz


Gain of an isotropic antenna 0 dB


What is an application of loop antenna? Direction Finding


The polarization of a helical antenna is ____ Circular

Which of the following is a low gain but omnidirectional antenna?

Which is not a wide-band antenna? Marconi


The use of top-loading is to Increase its effective height

The main advantage of dielectric lens antennas over a parabolic
reflector is that they ____ Have no primary antenna mount to obstruct

Which is not a characteristic of a discone antenna? Unidirectional


Production of radiation by a radio transmitting station. Emission


What is the impedance of free space? 377 ohms

Any small element of space in the path of a wave may be considered as
a source of secondary wavelet. Huygens Principle

The electric field intensity of a dipole at a remote point varies as 1/r

An electromagnetic wave consists of Both electric and magnetic
_____ is the upper portion of the earths atmosphere, which absorbs
large quantities of suns radiation. Ionosphere
Which layer of the ionosphere mostly reflects the high-frequency
radiowaves? F2

The radio horizon for space waves is about ____ as far as the optical
horizon. 4/3
What is the gain of four identically polarized antennas stacked one
above the other and fed in phase? 6 dB over the gain of one antenna
Virtual height of an ionospheric layer is always ____ its actual height.
Greater than
Radio wave concentration in the direction of the signal emitted by a
directional antenna. Major lobe radiation

____ waves can propagate on piezoelectric substrates. Surface

Refers to a type of beam antenna which uses two or more straight
elements arranged in line with each other. Yagi Antenna
Anomalous propagation of radiowaves is caused by Metereological
The skip distance is the ____ distance up to which ionospheric
reflection is possible. Minimum

A V-antenna is a ____ antenna. Non-resonant

What is the power gain of a half-wave dipole with respect to an
isotropic radiator? 2.15 dB
In a turnstile antenna, the crossed dipoles are excited with voltages
90 degrees out of phase with each other

The approximate impedance of a half-wave folded dipole antenna is


During night time, the D-layer in the ionosphere Disappears

The beamwidth angle of a parabolic dish antenna ____ the dish
diameter. Decreases with increase in

Tropospheric scatter may be used in what frequency range? UHF

A helical antenna is used for satellite tracking because of ____. Circular

VHF radio signals are propagated Through the troposphere


The type of wave propagation in the UHF band Space Wave

A folded-dipole has ____ bandwidth than a single-dipole arrangement.

The lowest resistance grounding on earth. Surface loam soil


Tropospheric scatter uses the frequencies in the ____ band. UHF

The relative permittivity of air is much ____ that of empty space.
Greater than
The critical frequency is ____ the maximum usable frequency. Lower
The advantage of using cassegrain feed in a parabolic reflector is It
allows the feed to be placed at a convenient point

Top loading is used in an antenna to increase its ____ Effective height

Which of the following is not true abour parabolic reflector?
Omnidirectional Antenna

Which of the following has circular polarization? Helical

The atmospheric absorption of radiowaves depend on Their

Signals in the UHF range propagate by means of ____ waves. Space

When microwave signals follow the curvature of the earth, this is
known as Ducting

Antenna side lobes causes Reduction in gain of antenna

To increase antenna efficiency, the ____ must be increased. Radiation
For an earths station transmitter with an output power of 40 dB, a
back-off loss of 13 dB, a total branching and feeder loss of 13 dB, and a
transmit antenna gain of 40 dB, determine the EIRP. 54 dBw
It is the ability of an antenna to transmit and receive in a specific
direction while discriminating against transmission or reception from all
other directions. Directivity
A transmitting antenna is on a 50-ft. tower and the receiving antenna
is on an identical tower. How far apart is the potential distance between
them? 20 mi
It consists of a number of dipoles of equal size, equally spaced along a
straight line with all dipoles fed in the same phase from the same source.
Broadside array

A type of array antenna which consists of one half-wave driven dipole,
one reflector and one director Yagi-uda
What is the FSL in dB at 300 MHz between the earth station and a
satellite at 37,000 km? 173.4 dB
An antenna which is not resonant at particular frequencies and so can
be used over a wide band of frequencies is called ____. Periodic
____ occurs when the microwave beam is at point of gazing over an
obstacle. Diffraction
What is the term for the ratio of the radiation resistance of an antenna
to the total resistance of the antenna system? Antenna efficiency
What is the length of the director in a three-element Yagi for 100-MHz
operation using a 0.2lambda interelement spacing? 1.425 m

What is the gain of a dish antenna with D = 2lambda? 33.8 dB

It is the bending of radiowaves as they pass over the upper edge of a
hill or mountain. Knife-edge diffraction
____ of a directional antenna patter are those in which radiation is
maximum. Major lobes

In a half-wave antenna, the center impedance is equal to ____. 73 ohms


Theoretical gain of a Hertzian dipole. 1.76 dB

What will happen if a sky wave meets a ground wave at a receiver and
they are appreciably out of phase? Fading

Antenna which is not properly terminated Resonant

What is the ability of an antenna to concentrate radiated energy in a
desired direction? Directivity
It is a measure of the microwave power radiated from an antenna as a
function of angular direction from the antenna axis. Beamwidth
What is the driven element of an antenna? The element fed by the
transmission line
What do you mean by the outward flow of an energy from any source
in the form of radio waves? Radiation
Which of the following is an example of a travelling wave antenna?

What is the unit of magnetic field strength? Ampere/meter

An antenna structure consisting of three end-fed lambda/2 dipoles
coupled in series. Franklin Antenna
The electric field lies in a plane perpendicular to the earths surface.
Vertical Polarization
A type of antenna designed to receive or radiate electromagnetic
waves with orthogonal polarizations. Dual Polarized Antenna

Radiation pattern of a discone. Omnidirectional


Unity gain antenna Isotropic

It is an array of metallic conductors buried beneath the antenna,
which is used to improve the conductivity of the natural earth. Earth Mat


Which is the non-resonant antenna? Rhombic Antenna


It is described as the MUF factor. Sec theta

Known as the technique for adding a series inductor at or near the
center of an antenna element in order to cancel the capacitive reactance of an
antenna. Loading coil
What is meant by the term antenna bandwidth? The frequency
range over which an antenna can be expected to perform well

Where does the voltage node of a half-wave antenna exists? At center


____ is a major cause if the sporadic-E condition. Sunspot


Ground waves will propagate best over ____. Saltwater

At the ends of a half-wave antenna, what values of current and voltage
exist compared to the remainder of the antenna? Maximum voltage and
minimum current
What is meant by referring to electromagnetic waves as horizontally
polarized? The electric field is parallel to the earth
A dipole antenna is used to receive a horizontally polarized
transmission. What should be the antenna orientation for maximum
reception? Horizontal
Calculate the exact length of a typical dipole antenna to receive a 108MHz FM transmission. 1.32 m
The standard reference antenna for the directive gain is ____. Isotropic

If a receiver could use an ideal isotropic antenna, it could receive -40
dBm. How much could be received if an ideal half-wave dipole were used?
164 nW
In what region of the world is sporadic-E most prevalent? The
equatorial regions
The input current to a well-designed Marconi is 10 Arms. Determine
the input power. 3.7 kW
The 3dB beamwidth of a 70% efficient microwave dish antenna is 0.1
degrees at 4 GHz. Compute the gain in dB. 65.3 dB
How high must a receiving antenna be to receive a signal directly from
an over-the-horizon transmitter whose antenna is 30 ft. high? The distance
between antennas is 15 mi. 26.3 ft

What layer of the ionosphere occurs only during daytime? D

The reflector and director of an antenna array are considered as
Parasitic Elements
What type of HF antennas are usually used on small vessels? Baseloaded
What is the minimum recommended distance for antenna separation
in a 2-GHz space-diversity receiving system? 0.9 m