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VSLP 1135MW POWER PLANT RAJASTHAN PROJEDCT

Client: SEPCO ELECTRIC POWER CONSTRUCTION CORPORATION


No.

26-W9-YX-01

Total 151 Pages

TURBINE OPERATION RULES (A)

Operation Instruction

SEPCOIII

Drafted by:
Reviewed by:

Approved by:

Name of Change Sheet

No.

1
2
3

CONTENTS

Time of Approval

TURBINE OPERATION RULES

PART 1 Overview
Chapter 1 Specification of Main Equipment 5
Chapter 2 Specification of Auxiliary Equipment
14
PART 2 Unit Start-up
Chapter 1 Cold Start of the Unit .26
Chapter 2 Warm & Hot Start of the Unit ...38
PART 3 Unit Operation
Chapter 1 Operating Parameters of Steam Turbine
42
Chapter 2 Operating Modes of the Unit ....47
Chapter 3 Regular Works and Requirements ..49
PART 4 Unit Shutdown
PART 5 Treatment of Unit Accidents
Chapter 1 Treating Rules of Accidents ..60
Chapter 2 Condition of Steam Turbine Tripping ...
61
Chapter 3 Condition of Unit Fault Shutdown 61
Chapter 4 Condition of Emergency Shutdown..62
Chapter 5 Procedure of Emergency Shutdown....63
Chapter 6 Procedure of Unit Fault Shutdown ..63
Chapter 7 Decreasing of Vacuum ..64
Chapter 8 Water Hammer of Steam Turbine 65
Chapter 9 Increasing of Axial Displacement ....66
Chapter 10 Steam Turbine Oil System Catching Fire ....67
Chapter 11 Abnormity of Steam Conditions .68
Chapter 12 DEH Failure .71
Chapter 13 Abnormity of Steam Turbine Lubricating Oil System 71
Chapter 14 Abnormal Vibration of the Unit .75
Chapter 15 Generator parallels off, while turbine does not trip ...77
Chapter 16 Generator parallels off, and turbine trips 77
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TURBINE OPERATION RULES

Chapter 17 Turbine trips, while the generator does not parallel off 78
Chapter 18 Failure of Thermodynamic Power Supply 78
Chapter 19 High Bearing Temperature of Turbine-generator Unit 79
Chapter 20 Burning out of Turbine-generator Bearing Bush .79
Chapter 21 Steam Turbine Shaft Bending 80
Chapter 22 Steam turbine Overspeed ..82
Chapter 23 Feed water pump set outlet check valve is untight and rotates
reversely.83
Chapter 24 Turbine-generator unit operates at abnormal frequency
83
Chapter 25 Boiler Fire Extinction 84
Chapter 26 Treatment of Accidents & Abnormity of the Motor ..85
PART 6 Auxiliary Equipment & Common Service System
Chapter 1 General Operating Rules of Auxiliary Equipment..
89
Chapter 2 Industrial Water System.92
Chapter 3 Oil Purification System of Steam Turbine94
Chapter 4 Lubricating Oil System of Steam Turbine
98
Chapter 5 Circulating Water System ...102
Chapter 6 Shaft Sealing and Vacuum System of Steam Turbine ...108
Chapter 7 Condensate Water System ....111
Chapter 8 Feed Water Deaerating System ...117
Chapter 9 DEH System ....131
Chapter 10 Bypass System ..136
Chapter 11 Turbine Proper Water Drain System ..138
Chapter 12 Quick Cooling System of Steam Turbine ..139
Chapter 13Air Cooling System ..143

Appendix 1: Comparison Table of the Temperature & Pressure of Saturated Water &
Steam .......147

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TURBINE OPERATION RULES

PART 1: Overview

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TURBINE OPERATION RULES

Chapter 1 Specification of Main Equipment


1.1 Specification of steam turbine equipment
Model: N135-13.2/535/535
Type: super-high pressure, primary reheating, double cylinder, double-flow, single shaft,
extraction and condensing steam.
Rated power: 135MW
Initial steam pressure: 13.24Mpa (a)
Initial steam temperature: 535
Reheat steam temperature: 535
Exhaust pressure: 5.4kPa (a)
Rated speed: 3,000r/min
Rotating direction: clockwise (as viewed from the governor side to generator)
Manufactured by: Shanghai Turbine Co., Ltd.

1.2 Main technique parameters


Max power:

146.822MW

Rated power:

135MW

Rated pressure of the steam before initial steam stop valve:

13.24Mpa (a)=132 kg/cm2

Rated temperature of the steam before initial steam stop valve:


Rated pressure of the steam before reheat steam valve:

535 C

2.238 Mpa (a)

Rated temperature of the steam before reheat steam valve: 535


Rated cooling water temperature: 24
Rated backpressure:5.4kpa (a)
Rated speed:

3,000 rpm

Feed water temperature under rated condition: 244.4


Max back pressure at which the unit is permitted to operate: 18.6kpa (a)
Regeneration stages: 2 HP heaters, 4 LP heaters & 1 deaerator
Length of the last blade of LP cylinder: 660mm
Critical speed of shafting: 1850r/min for HP & MP rotor
2116r/min for LP rotor

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TURBINE OPERATION RULES

1290r/min for generator rotor


Stages of flow path: total 39 stages:
HP cylinder: 1 governing stage + 8 pressure stages
MP cylinder: 10pressure stages
LP cylinder: 26 pressure stages

1.3 Description of turbine characteristics


1.3.1 This unit can carry the base load of power network, as well as can be used as two-shift or
peak regulation unit.
1.3.2 This units operating time at no load when rejecting load must not exceed 15 mins.
1.3.3 This units operating time without steam must not exceed 1 min.
1.3.4 This units idle time with full vacuum after trip is about 45 mins and that without vacuum is
about 15 mins.
1.3.5 This units blades can run safely at the grid frequency of 47.5~51.5hz for long; the units
characteristics also meet the requirements as follows:
Permitted Operating Time

Frequency (Hz)

Accumulated (min)

Every Time (Sec)

52.5

>5

>5

52.0

>30

>30

47.5~51.5

Continuous Operation

47

>60

>60

46.5

>10

>10

46

>2

>2

1.3.6 The peak to peak vibration amplitude measured near the bearing journal of turbine shall be
0.075mm during normal operation, which shall not exceed 0.25mm as critical speed passing in
speed rise;
1.3.7 The power load of the unit is permitted to reach 135MW when the HP heaters are cleared;
1.3.8 The unit is permitted to run continuously with low load when the exhaust pressure of turbine
increases to 0.0146Mpa (a). The alarm back pressure of turbine is 16.9kPa (a) and trip back
pressure is 20.3kPa (a).
1.3.9 The unit is permitted to run for long when the exhaust temperature of steam turbine is less
than 79. The max temperature at which exhaust is permitted to operate is 120 .
1.3.10 Permitted load variation rate of unit is:
1.3.10.1 From 100% to 50% MCR

5%/min

1.3.10.2 From 50% to 20% MCR and from 20% to 50% MCR 3%/min
1.3.10.3 Below 20%MCR

2%/min

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TURBINE OPERATION RULES

1.3.11 The pressure after the governing stage must not exceed 10.34Mpa (a) at different working
conditions.

1.4 General description of steam turbine


1.4.1 Brief introduction of steam turbine proper
1.4.1.1 Steam turbine type is: super-high pressure, primary reheating, double-flow and single
shaft arrangement, reaction extraction and condensing type, which characteristics include:
combination of HP and IP cylinder, reverse arrangement of through-flow parts, inlets of initial
steam and reheat steam centered on the middle part of HP & MP cylinder and radial diffusion
double-flow type of LP cylinder.
This units shafting is supported by three points: HP & MP rotor connected with LP rotor by rigid
coupling while the LP rotor connected with the generator rotor by semi-flexible coupling,
generator rotor expands and contracts forwards and backwards with the thrusting bearing in
middle bearing pedestal as the dead point, and HP & MP cylinder expands forwards based on the
cross point of longitudinal and traverse key of the middle bearing pedestal. There is an absolute
expansion indicator on the front bearing frame with total cylinder expansion of 20-22mm. and the
LP outer cylinder expands backward with the cross point of the longitudinal and traverse key in
the front of the LP outer cylinder as the dead point.

HP Governing Valves Layout


Generator End
Upper
Half

Lower
Half
MainStopValve(L)

MainStopValve(R)

Governing
Valve End

The turbine unit is 14 meters long in total and arranged on the 9m operation floor, with a
combination of HP initial steam stop valve and HP governing valve mounted on both sides in the
front which is supported on the holder of main stop valve, 4 flexible HP steam inlet pipes

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TURBINE OPERATION RULES

connected with the 4 governing valves and the HP cylinders upper and lower steam inlets
respectively, and governing valve controlled by oil servo-motor.
The high pressure nozzle section consists of four groups of nozzle segments, The unit can reach
rated power by 3 valves opening fully and the fourth group provides guarantee for the availability
of rated power in summer and at low parameters.
HP & MP cylinder is double-floor cylinder with 1 governing stage and 8 pressure stages in the HP
part. There is a section of steam extraction led to HP heater #1 after stage 7, and steam
exhausted by HP flows through lower cylinders exhaust port and HP exhaust check valve to the
reheater, a portion of which is led to HP heater #2 as regenerative extraction.
The reheated steam flows to MP part via MP combined valve through two rigid steam inlet pipes.
There are 10 pressure stages in MP part with a third stage extraction to deaerator after stage6
and a fourth extraction led to LP heater #4 after stage 8.
For MP exhaust part, the upper half is designed to exhaust steam upwards that flows into LP
cylinder through 2 flexible cross over pipes with compensation capacity; the lower half has a fifth
extraction led to LP heater #5.
The LP cylinder is double flow and has 26 stages, there are a 6th and 7th extraction openings set
in LP cylinder that lead extraction to LP heater #6 and LP heater #7 (built-in type) inside the
condenser respectively and led out after the stage 3 and stage 6 respectively.
This steam turbine has three bearing pedestals in all, in which 3 turbine journal bearings, 1
generator front bearing and 1 thrust bearing are mounted. All bearing pedestals are floor
mounted. Besides journal bearing in bearing pedestal #1, there are also main governing set,
including main oil pump and emergency governor etc.
Two MP combined valves are arranged on the left and right side in the middle of the unit
respectively, which may move freely on its bearing surface with expansion of the turbine, the MP
governing valve only operates for regulation at below 30% load and opens fully not to take part in
regulation in the case where the load is more than 30%.
The rotary equipment of steam turbine rotor is mounted on the back bearing pedestal and driven
by motor after speed reduction, rotor turning gear speed rotation is 7~8r/min, each bearing is
equipped with HP jacking oil system in order to lower the start-up power of rotary equipment and
protect all bearings from damage.
LP cylinder is equipped with atomizing nozzle type low-load spray regulator inside that may
operate to spray automatically in the case where the LP cylinder exhaust temperature is higher
than 80 so as to ensure normal operation of the unit.
1.4.1.2 Sliding key system
The sliding key system is the supporting and locating system of stator part, the steam turbine
proper supporting and locating mode is: front frame, middle frame and rear frame and exhaust
hood frame are fastened on the foundation by means of foundation bolts and back grouting and
are equipped with front bearing pedestal, middle bearing pedestal, rear bearing pedestal and LP

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TURBINE OPERATION RULES

outer cylinder thereon respectively. Longitudinal keys are arranged on the front frame along the
center axis, the front bearing pedestal can move on its frame along the axis. HP & MP outer
cylinder upper claws are supported on the front and middle bearing pedestal, the lower claws
transverse keys connect with the front and middle bearing pedestal, besides longitudinal keys,
there are also transverse keys on some position of the middle frame, and the cross point of
longitudinal and transverse key is the dead point of HP & MP stator part, the front bearing
pedestal HP and MP cylinder and middle bearing pedestal take this as the dead point to perform
axial expansion and contraction. There is a vertical key mounted on both upside and downside of
both ends of HP & MP outer cylinder with key way plate fixed on the neighboring bearing pedestal
for the purpose of smooth expansion and contraction and keeping cylinder center aligning.
1.4.1.3 Thrust bearing
The unit adopts the Michell thrust bearing. The thrust collar integrates with steam turbine, and
both its front and back sides are mounted with positive and negative thrust bearing pads with 12
pieces laid on the whole circle of each. And each pad is equipped with a RTD temperature
measuring device for measuring its metal temperature. The back of thrust bearing pad rests on
erection loop, and erection loop leans against the spheric seating, which gives self alignment
effect. Positive or negative thrust of steam turbine bearing operates on the operating pad or nonoperating pad separately, and the bearing displacement on thrust pad shall not be more than
0.4mm. The lubricating oil enters between thrust collar and thrust pad via oil inlets on both sides
for lubricating, and then flows out from thrust collar outer side, the return oil escapes from the top,
and there are two return oil adjusting screws mounted on return oil outlet, which can adjust the oil
return quantity to control return oil temperature.
1.4.1.4 Journal bearing
This unit adopts elliptic type journal bearing, which consists of a bearing bush cast with Babbitt
metal, bearing shell and spheric seating. The bearing is made into upper and lower, two halves
that are fixed and positioned by screws and taper pins, the bearing case matches with spheric
seating on spherical surface, which gives self alignment effect, and there are four set pieces on
the spheric seating for the use of adjustment. Lubricating oil flows into bearing through a hole at
lower part of bearing and then flows into bearing pedestal via the bearing end. There is a
platinum resistor mounted on the bearing bush that can measure the bearing metal temperature,
there is oil from return chute in the bore of locating pin in upper bearing half, which temperature
can be measured as that of bearing return oil, and there is HP jacking oil hold at the bottom of
bearing bush.
1.4.1.5 Shafting
The steam turbine proper shafting consists of HP & MP rotor and LP rotor. Connection between
HP & MP rotor and LP rotor relies on the rigid coupling integrated with main shaft forging, and the
shims in between two halves of coupling are connected with screws. As configured for the
purpose of meeting the requirement of rotor center aligning in assembly, in such a case, the

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TURBINE OPERATION RULES

center on both ends of coupling must keep correct and concordant in assembly so as to allow the
rotor center line to become smooth and continuous curve in operation. The rigid coupling is very
sensitive to the bearing load distribution because of high rigidity, thus its requirements for the
assembly technology and shafting aligning are much higher, but it has such advantages as high
strength, short rotor length, easy processing and reliable operation.
Semiflexible coupling is used in between LP rotor and generator rotor, such coupling has a
corrugated pipe joint on the end coupling connecting with generator rotor, which has certain
flexibility, and connects with an minor axis on the other end coupling, and the minor axis covers
the generator rotor to transmit the torque by means of interference and key, such semiflexible
coupling may allow the unit safety operation not to be affected by slight change in the steam
turbine and generator center in installation and operation.
1.4.2 Technical specifications of governing system
1.4.2.1 The governing system is able to keep idle running of steam turbine at rated steam inlet
condition, rated vacuum and full open main stop valve, with speed oscillation value 6r/min.
1.4.2.2 The governing system is able to guarantee stable parallel operation of steam turbine and
other units.
1.4.2.3 The governing system is able to control and guarantee the need of steam turbine
incorporating into network and adaptation to changes in speed and load.
1.4.2.4 For this unit operating at rated steam conditions and rated speed, the governing system is
able to control the turbine speed not to result in the trip of emergency governor as the unit rejects
load.
1.4.3 Technical specifications of steam turbine control system
1.4.3.1 This unit has three sets of governors:
Emergency governor handle to be tripped by operator manually for emergency;
Mechanical emergency governor to trip at overspeed;
Four governor solenoid valves controlled by ETS, which receive the governing signal of
important parameters of steam turbine.
1.4.3.2 System function:
1.4.3.2.1 Governing function:
The governor valve will trip to shut down the turbine for emergency trip as the following
parameter exceeds the specified value.
a. Speed rises to 110% of rated speed;
b. Axial displacement exceeds 1.2mm;
c. HP & MP cylinder differential expansion exceeds +8.0 or -3.0mm;
d. LP cylinder differential expansion reaches +7.5mm;
e. Lubricating oil pressure is lower than 0.06Mpa;
f. Back pressure of the condenser is lower than 20.3kPa;
g. Peak to peak vibration amplitude of the rotor is 0.254mm;

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TURBINE OPERATION RULES

h. Metal temperature of # bearing 1-3 reaches 112, the metal temperature of bearing #4 and
#5 reaches 80 or the temperature of thrust bearing reaches 107;
i. EH oil pressure decreases to 9.31Mpa;
j. Power failure to DEH system;
k. Exhaust temperature of LP cylinder reaches 121;
l. The oil level of the main oil tank is lower than 1245mm;
m. MFT of the boiler;
n. Main protection of the generator operates.
1.4.3.2.2 Oil injection test function
1.4.3.2.3 Emergency governor test function
1.4.3.2.4 Steam turbine reset function

1.5 Heat calculation data of the steam turbine


Name

Unit

Rated
conditions THA

TMCR

VWO

Cutting off all


HP Heaters

Generator end power

kW

135,029

135,101

145,005

135,043

t/h

407.502

410.107

440.000

368.560

MPa/

13.24/535

13.24/535

13.24/535

13.24/535

HP cylinder exhaust pressure

MPa

2.533

2.534

2.724

2.677

HP cylinder exhaust
temperature

312.1

311.9

317.8

321.6

Reheat steam flow

t/h

335.397

335.701

360.968

354.820

Reheat steam pressure


/temperature

MPa/

2.33/537

2.332/537

2.506/537

2.463/537

Back pressure

kPa

5.4

5.4

5.4

5.4

Cooling water temperature

32.1

32.1

32.1

32.1

Feed water temperature

244.4

244.5

248.8

171.4

Make-up water flow

kg/h

Flow into condenser

t/h

284.081

282.090

303.577

298.143

Heat rate

kJ/kWh

8,402.9

8,363.9

8,355.9

8,630.8

Steam rate

kg/kWh

3.018

3.036

3.034

2.729

No.1 extraction steam condition

MPa/

3.552/354.9

3.56/354.9

3.832/361.4

No.1 extraction flow

t/h

22.14

23.051

24.681

No.2 extraction steam condition

MPa/

2.457/312.3

2.458/312.1

2.642/317.9

No.2 extraction flow

t/h

36.871

38.251

40.589

No.3 extraction steam condition

MPa/

0.73/377.9

0.729/377.6

0.784/377.5

0.769/377.1

No.3 extraction flow

t/h

8.066

8.47

9.124

9.863

No.4 extraction steam condition

MPa/

0.451/315.8

0.45/315.4

0.484/315.3

0.475/315

No.4 extraction flow

t/h

13.064

13.57

14.335

14.003

No.5 extraction steam condition

MPa/

0.251/248.4

0.25/247.8

0.269/247.8

0.264/247.5

Total steam inlet flow of


steam turbine
Initial steam pressure
/temperature

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TURBINE OPERATION RULES

Name

Unit

Rated
conditions THA

TMCR

VWO

Cutting off all


HP Heaters

No.5 extraction flow

t/h

22.097

22.912

24.148

23.568

No.6 extraction steam condition

MPa

0.067

0.0665

0.0718

0.0705

No.6 extraction flow

t/h

15.801

16.335

17.153

16.775

No.7 extraction steam condition

MPa

0.0143

0.0142

0.0152

0.015

No.7 extraction flow

t/h

2.905

2.95

3.977

3.621

Note: Turbine Heat Acceptance condition (THA): means the condition in which the unit can
operate safely and continuously with generators net output power of 135MW when the turbine is
under rated initial steam and reheat steam conditions, back pressure is 5.4kP, make-up water
percentage is 0%, and regenerative system is put into operation all normally and generators
efficiency is 98.4, which heat rate is not more than the acceptance value of 8,402.9kJ/kWh.
Turbine maximum continue rate (TMCR): means the condition in which the unit can operate
safely and output maximum power when the turbine is under rated initial steam and reheat steam
conditions, back pressure is 5.4kP, make-up water percentage is 3%, and regenerative system is
put into operation all normally and generators efficiency is 98.4.
Valve Wide Open condition (VWO): means the condition in which the turbines steam inlet flow is
440t/h when the turbines governing valves are wide open and the other conditions is the same
with 2.1.1, which output value is 145.822MW. This condition corresponds to the Boiler Maximum
Continue Rate (BMCR).

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TURBINE OPERATION RULES

Chapter 2 Specification of Auxiliary Equipment

2.1 Specification of heater


2.1.1 Specification of HP heater
Item

Unit

Model

HP heater #2

HP heater #1

JG-530-2-00CK

JG-530-1-00CK

Design pressure of shell side

Mpa

3.0

4.5

Design temperature of shell side

350/250

390/260

Design pressure of tube side

Mpa

20

20

Design temperature of tube side

250

260

Feed-water Inlet temperature

172.2

223.9

Feed-water outlet temperature

223.9

248.8

Working pressure

Mpa

Tube side 18

Tube side 18

Shell side 2.64

Shell side 3.8318

Working temperature

Shell side 317.9/180

Shell side 361.4/247.8

Manufacturer

Qingdao Qingli Boiler Auxiliary Equipment Co., Ltd.

2.1.2 Specification of LP heater


Item

Unit

Model

LP heater #7

LP heater # 6

LP heater # 5

LP heater # 4

JD-220-1-1

JD-300-1-3

JD-300-1-2

JD-300-1-1

Heating surface area

M2

200

300

300

300

Design pressure of tube side

Mpa

2.5

2.5

2.5

2.5

100

100

150

180

Mpa

0.05

0.4

0.4

0.5

Design temperature of tube


side
Design pressure of shell side

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TURBINE OPERATION RULES

Design temperature of tube

100

100

260

350

Working pressure of tube side

Mpa

1.724

1.724

1.724

1.724

Working pressure of shell side

Mpa

0.0152

0.07257

0.2693

0.454

55

69.45

109.05

138.25

55

90.63

129.9

150.6

side

Working temperature of tube


side
Working temperature of shell
side
Manufacturer

Shanghai Power Equipment Co., Ltd.

2.1.3 Specification of deaerator and deaerated water tank


2.1.3.1 Specification of deaerator
Class

Class I

Test pressure

1.374MPa

Model

GC-514

Pressure drop of nozzle

0.0588MPa

Design pressure

0.88Mpa (g)

Opening pressure of safety valve

0.85MPa

Design temperature

380

Operating mode

Max working pressure

0.78Mpa (a)

Rated output

514t/h

Oxygen content of outlet water

7PPb

147

Outlet water temperature

169.3

Inlet water
temperature
Manufacturer

Sliding pressure
operation

Corrosion allowance (tank

1.6/2.5mm

/deaerator)

Qingdao Qingli Boiler Auxiliary Equipment Co., Ltd.

2.1.3.2 Specification of dearated water tank


Class

Class I

Opening pressure of safety valve

0.85MPa

Type

GS-120

Test pressure

1.374MPa

Design pressure

0.88Mpa (g)

Effective volume

120m3

Design temperature

380

Total volume

140m3

Max working pressure

0.68MPa

Manufacturer

Corrosion allowance (tank


/deaerator)

1.6/2.5mm

Qingdao Qingli Boiler Auxiliary Equipment Ltd.

2.2 Specification of feed-water pump


2.2.1 Feed-water pump and booster pump
Equipment parameter

Unit

Model

Feed-water pump

Booster pump

FK5G32

QG500-80

Number of stages

stage

Inlet water flow

m /h

533.3

533.3

Outlet water flow

m3/h

497.8

533.3

Lift

1771.9

79.6

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TURBINE OPERATION RULES

Inlet water pressure

MPa

1.48

0.6837

Outlet water pressure

MPa

19.18

1.48

Shaft power

kW

2733.9

128.7

Rotating speed

r/min

4686

2982

Working temperature

166.7

166.7

Medium density

kg/m3

900.59

900.59

Intermediate bleed-off pressure (stage 2)

MPa

Intermediate bleed-off flow

m /h

35.5

Guarantee efficiency

81.32

80.84

Shanghai Power Equipment

Manufacturer

Maintenance Works Co., Ltd.

2.2.2 Specification of feed-water pump motor


2.2.2.1 Specification of feed-water pump motor
Item

Unit

Specification

Model

YKOS3700-2

Rated power

kW

3,700

Rated voltage

6,600

Rated current

370

Rated speed

r/min

2,982

Rated frequency

Hz

50

Connection type of stator


Insulation class

Y
Class

Power factor COS

0.9

Cooling mode

Air-cooled

Temperature rise

80

Manufacturer

Shanghai Motor Co., Ltd.

2.2.2.2 Specification of air cooler of feed-water pump motor


Item

Unit

Specification

Capacity of cooler

kW

160

Operating water flow

t/h

60

Circuit of cooling water

Group

Air pressure drop

kPa

0.32

Working water pressure

MPa

0.2-0.4

Max permitted water pressure

MPa

0.5

2.2.3 Specification of hydraulic coupling

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TURBINE OPERATION RULES

2.2.3.1 Parameters of hydraulic coupling


Item

Unit

Specification

Model

R17K.2-E

Motor speed

r/min

2,986

Output speed

r/min

4,783

Max output power

kW

3,000

Slip

Scope of speed governing

25-100

Efficiency

94.7

0.85

Capacity of oil tank

Manufacturer

Germany VOITH

2.2.3.2 Auxiliary equipment of coupling


Item

Unit

Working oil

Lubricating oil

cooler

cooler

CB-B125

LY54

LY16

30

17

Auxiliary oil pump

Model
Oil flow

m3/h

7.5

Pressure

MPa

0.25

Cooling surface area

54

16

Cooling water flow

m3/h

120

27

2.3 Circulating water system


2.3.1 Specification of circulating water pump
Specification of circulating water pump

Specification of circulating water pump

(double pumps in parallel operation)

motor

Model

44LBXA-23

Model

YLKK900-10

Shaft power

770.3 kW

Voltage

6,600V

Lift

23m

Current

98A

Rotating speed

595 r/min

Power

900kW

Flow

10,728t/h

Power factor

0.86

87.2%

Rotating speed

595r/min

Efficiency

Cooling water of bearing

90m /h, 0.3MPa

Mini submergence

3m

Manufactured by

Changsha Water
Pump Works

Manufactured by

Shangyang Electric
Machine Co., Ltd.

2.3.2 Automatic back washing strainer


Item

Unit

Model

Specification
ASCS300

Working pressure

MPa

0.3

Max pressure

MPa

0.6

- 16 -

TURBINE OPERATION RULES

Inlet & outlet diameter

mm

Manufactured by

300

Shanghai Power Equipment Research Institute

2.3.3 Circulating water booster pump


Specification of circulating water booster pump

Specification

of

circulating

water

booster pump motor

Model

10Sh-9A

Model

Y250M-4

Shaft power

40 kW

Voltage

415 V

Lift

30 m

Current A

Rotating speed

1,480r/min

Power

Flow

420 t/h

Power factor

Efficiency

80%

Rotating speed

1,480 r/min

Manufactured by

Xian Motor Works

Shijiazhuang Kingda Pump

Manufactured by

Co, Ltd.

55 kW

2.3.4 Indoor circulating sump pit blowdown pump


Specification of indoor circulating sump pit

Specification of indoor circulating

blowdown pump

sump pit blowdown pump motor

Model

40PV-SP

Model

Y112M-2

Shaft power

3.1kW

Voltage

415V

Lift

15m

Current A

Rotating speed

1,800 rpm

Power

Flow

25t/h

Power factor

Efficiency

34%

Rotating speed

2900 r/min

Manufactured by

Xian Motor Works

Shijiazhuang Kingda Pump

Manufactured by

Co., Ltd.

4 kW

2.3.5 Trash remover of circulating water pump house


Specification of trash remover of circulating water

Specification of trash remover motor

pump house

of circulating water pump house

Model

ZSB-3500

Model

BWD5-87-5.5

Water head in operation start

300mm

Max design water head

600mm

Voltage

415V

Mesh size

3.553 mm

Current A

6~7 m/min

Power

Total Number of scrubbing brush

Power factor

Rotating speed of round brush

20.33 r/min

Rotating speed

Travelling speed of scrubbing


brush

Manufactured by

Jiangsu Yihaun
Group Co., Ltd.

5.5 kW

87 rpm

Manufactured by

2.4 Shaft seal system


2.4.1 Shaft seal
HP & MP seal ring are high & low-tooth labyrinth structure and LP seal ring is flat tooth structure;
HP & MP cylinder diaphragm seal is embedded seal, the sealing strip is riveted into the

- 17 -

TURBINE OPERATION RULES

diaphragm with fillet; the seal ring of LP diaphragm seal is mounted in the septalium and fixed
with spring leaf.
2.4.2 Shaft seal heater
Item

Unit

Specification

Model

JQ-50-1
2

Heating surface area

50

m3/h

Total flow, 300 minimum

Design pressure

MPa

Tube side 3.1, shell side 0.1

Working pressure

MPa

Tube side 2.00

Test pressure

MPa

Tube side 3.9, shell side 0.125

Design temperature

Tube side 100, shell side 100

Working temperature

Tube side 60, shell side 100

Net weight

2.23

Design flow of main


condensate flow

2.4.3 Shaft seal fan:


Specification of shaft seal fan

Specification of the motor

Model

AZY-09.32-020.0-01

Model

132S

Full pressure

9.32kPa

Power

7.5kW

Speed

2,900r/min

Speed

2,900r/min

Flow

20m3/min

Voltage

415V

Manufactured by

Zhejiang Yuyao Blower


Plant

Manufactured by

Wannan Electric
Machine Co., Ltd.

2.5 Condensate and steam extraction system


2.5.1 Specification of condenser
Model
Type
Total active cooling
surface area
Design pressure of tube
side
Design pressure of shell
side

N-9000
Single shell, bisection, double
passes and surface type
9,000 m2
0.25MPa
0.1MPa/Vac

Test pressure of tube side

0.375MPa

Cooling water flow

20,200m3/h

Manufactured by

Shanghai Power Equipment


- 18 -

Cooling water
temperature
Number of pass
Velocity in cooling
water pipe
Outer diameter of
cooling water pipe
Water resistance
of condenser
Total number of
copper tube
Net weight

32.5
2
2m/s
25mm
<45kPa
12,760
211t

TURBINE OPERATION RULES

Co., Ltd.
2.5.2 Specification of condensate pump
Specification of condensate pump

Specification of the motor

Model

7LDTNB-6PJS

Model

YLKK400-4

Flow

350m3/h

Power

280kW

Lift

190m

Voltage

6,600V

Npsh

2.2m

Current

31A

Shaft power

223kW

Rotating speed

1,487r/min

Rotating speed

1,487r/min

Insulation class

Shenyang Pump Co.,

Manufactured by

Shenyang Electric

Manufactured by

Ltd.

Machine Works

2.5.3 Vacuum pump


Specification of vacuum pump

Specification of the

Specification of

motor

vacuum pump cooler

Model: Y315M-8

Model: M16

Model: 2BW4 253-0EK4


Min. suction pressure (min. vacuum degree):

Heat exchange surface

Voltage: 415V

3.3kpa (a)

area: 9m2

Pumping capacity 44kg/h (as inlet pressure

Cooling water inlet

of 8.83kpa and cooling water temperature of

Power: 75kW

temperature:

32.5)

38 max

Rotating speed:740 r/min

Rotating speed:

Working water flow:

740r/min

10.2m3/h
Working water inlet

Shaft power: 54kw max; 42kw at 8.83kp;

temperature: 44.5,

Rated current: A

46.5kw at 11.8kpa

outlet pressure: 39.5


3

Make-up water flow of separator: 0.5m /h,

Cooling water flow:

Insulation class: F

temperature<50
Manufactured by: Foshang Pump Works

20~22 m3/h

Manufactured by:

Manufactured by: AF

Xiangtan Motor Works

LAVAL

2.5.4 LP heater drain water pump


Specification of LP heater drain water pump

Specification of the motor

Model:150NW55-190000

Model: Y280S-2

Flow: 55 m3/h

Power: 75 kW

Lift:190m

Voltage: 415 V

Rotating speed: 2,970 r/min

Current: A

NPSH: 1.8m

Rotating speed: 2,970 r/min

- 19 -

TURBINE OPERATION RULES

Efficiency: 61

Insulation class: F

Manufactured by: Shanghai Hualian Pump Co.,

Manufactured by: Jiamusi Electric Machine

Ltd.

Works

2.6 Specification of steam turbine lubricating oil system


2.6.1 Main oil tank
Dimension (lengthdiameter)

5,8103,020 mm

Maximum volume

40 m3

Working volume

24 m3

Operating oil level

1,808mm

Maximum oil level

2,616mm

Minimum oil level

1,245mm

Suction level of oil injector

1,045mm

2.6.2 Oil cooler


Model

GX-64P

Cooling surface area

240m2

Working temperature

Above 0

Flow

80l/min

Test pressure

21bar

Empty weight

1,803kg

All-up weight

2,283kg

Manufactured by

SWEP PHE AB

2.6.3 Main oil pump


Type

Centrifugal type

Capacity

4.5m3/min

Outlet pressure

1.18Mpa (g)

Rotating speed

3,000r/min

2.6.4 Oil injector


Oil injector
Outlet oil pressure

II

0.098Mpa (g)

0.197Mpa (g)

2.6.4 Jacking oil pump


Specification of jacking oil pump

Specification of the motor

Model: 25SCY14-1B

Model: Y160L

Flow: 25L/min

Voltage: 415V

Outlet pressure: 32.0MPa

Power: 15kW

Rotating speed:1,500r/min

Rotating speed:1,500r/min

Operating value of overflow valve: 12.25 Mpa (g)

Insulation class: B

- 20 -

TURBINE OPERATION RULES

Manufactured by: Shanghai HP Oil Pump Works

Manufactured by: Shanghai WUYI Electric


Company

2.6.5 AC lubricating oil pump


Specification of AC lubricating oil pump

Specification of the motor

Model: YS150-50B

Model: YB180M-2

Water head: 36m

Power: 22kW

Flow: 133m /h

Voltage: 415V

Rotating speed: 2950r/min

Current: 42.2A

NPSH: 4.5m

Insulation class: F
Manufactured by Shanghai Wuyi Electric

Manufactured by: Shanghai Pump Works

Machine Works

2.6.6 DC lubricating oil pump


Specification of DC lubricating oil pump

Specification of the motor

Model: YSI50-50B

Model: Z2-62

Lift: 36m

Power: 22kW

Flow:133m /min

Rotating speed: 3,000r/min

Rotating speed: 2,950r/min

Current: 114.2A

NPSH: 4.5m

Insulation class: B
Manufactured by Hangzhou Hengli Electric

Manufactured by: Shanghai Pump Works

Machine Manufactory

2.6.7 Exhaust blower of main oil tank


Specification of the exhaust blower

Specification of the motor

Model: GXP-155

Model: Y100L-2

Air flow: 0.32m3/s

Power: 3kW

Total pressure: 4.5kPa

Voltage: 415V

Matched power: 3kW

Current: 6.4A

Rotating speed: 2,960 r/min

Insulation class: B

Manufactured by: Mudanjiang Aidi Electric Power

Manufactured by: Hebei Chengde

Technology Co., Ltd.

Electric Machine Works

2.6.8 Specification of the oil purifying equipment


Model:

HCP100 380 50 AS-SD

Power:

3.0kW

Voltage:
Max current:
Flow:

415V
8.2A
100l/min

- 21 -

TURBINE OPERATION RULES

System working pressure:

<1.0MPa

Operating temperature:

-10~60

Max viscosity of treating medium: 46cSt


Water discharge:

About 5 L/time

Manufacturer:

PaLL Filter Ltd.

2.6.9Turning gear
Model

horizontal

Motor capacity

37 kW

Rated voltage

AC 415V

Motor speed

1,480 r/min

Turning speed

7~8 r/min

2.7 Specification of sponge ball cleaning pump


Item

Sponge ball cleaning pump


Model

125JQ-15

Shaft power

11 kW

Lift

15 mH2O

Flow

90 t/h

Rotating speed

1,460 r/min

Manufacturer

Qingdao Huatai Electric Equipment Co., Ltd,

Model

Y160M-4

Voltage

415 V

Current

22.6A

Power

11 kW

Rotating speed

1,460 r/min

Manufacturer

Rongchen Daxing Electric Machine Works

Pump

Motor

2.8 EH oil system


Specification of EH oil pump

Specification of the motor

Specification of oil cooler

Code: 029-09941-5

Model: Y200L-4 B35

Model: GL02

Model: PV29 2R50 COO

Power: 30kW

Working pressure: 1.6MPa

Outlet pressure: 13.7MPa

Voltage: 415V

Working temperature:
100

Setting value of overflow

Current: 56.8A

Cooling surface area: 2.1m2

Rotating speed: 1,470r/min

Manufactured by: Shanghai

valve:16.2MPa

- 22 -

TURBINE OPERATION RULES

Lubricating Equipment Plant


Manufactured by Shanghai Wuyi
Electric Machine Works
2.9 Specification of rapid cooling device
Item

Unit

Specification

Model

YQL-150
3

Rated air flow

m /min

40

Voltage

415

Power

kW

150

Outlet temperature

400

Working pressure

MPa

0.8

Dimension

250018001900

Manufactured by

Jiangsu Yangzhong Huangneng Electric Power Equipment Plant

2.10 Specification of bypass system


Item

Unit

Pressure reducing
valve of HP bypass

Attemperating
water valve of
HP bypass

Pressure reducing
valve of LP bypass

Attemperating
water valve of
LP bypass

Rated flow

t/h

308

50.42

358

109.3

Design inlet pressure

MPa

14.29

21.2

3.03

2.5

Design outlet pressure

MPa

3.03

21.2

1.0

2.5

545

200

545

80

337

200

160

80

MPa

13.73

17.3

2.331

1.85

MPa

2.534

7.3

0.6

1.48

537

166.7

537

43.4

312.3

166.7

160

43.4

Design inlet
temperature
Design outlet
temperature
Inlet working pressure
Outlet working
pressure
Inlet working
temperature
Outlet working
temperature
Manufactured by

Shanghai CCI Power Control Equipment Co., Ltd.

The two-stage series connection bypass system is adopted, in which, the flow capacity of HP
pass is considered as 70% of steam flow under VWO condition and the flow capacity of LP
bypass is considered as the sum of HP bypass flow plus HP bypass attemperating water flow.
2.11 Specification of air cylinder:
Design pressure:

1.0 MPa

Design temperature:

100

Maximum working pressure: 0.98 MPa


Working temperature:

normal temperature
- 23 -

TURBINE OPERATION RULES

Working medium
Test pressure:
Volume:

air
1.25 MPa
1.0 m3

PART 2 Unit Start-up

- 24 -

TURBINE OPERATION RULES

Chapter 1 Cold Start of the Unit


1.1 General rules of start-up
1.1.1 Division of the start-up state
According to the inner wall temperature in upper half where HP inner cylinder governing stage is
located, the start-up state of steam turbine is divided into:
a. Cold state: below 150
b. Warm state:

150~300

c. Hot state: 300~400


d. Very hot state: above 400
1.1.2 The turbine is not permitted to start in any case as follows:
1) Eccentricity of rotor exceeds original value by 30m (original value is measured after
installation or overhaul).
2) Emergency governor operates abnormally or overspeed protection fails in operating reliably.
3) One of HP & MP automatic main stop valve, speed governing valve, steam extraction check
valve or HP exhaust check valve was choked and fails in closing tightly.
4) Emergency governor operates as a result of turbine governing system failure in maintaining
idle running or controlling the rotation speed after load rejection.
5) There is clear friction sound occurred to the rotating parts of turbine and generator or the
current of turning gear increases obviously and oscillates greatly.
6) The temperature difference between upper and lower part of cylinder exceeds 50 .
7) The differential expansion of turbine reaches limit value.
8) The monitoring function of main parameters fails (including rotating speed, vibration, axial
displacement, differential expansion, lubricating oil pressure, lubricating oil temperature, EH oil
pressure, bearing metal temperature, bearing return oil temperature, thrust bearing pad
temperature, pressure and temperature of initial steam and reheat steam, vacuum of condenser,
pressure switch of control system, metal temperature of main cylinders and etc.).
9) Any safety protection or system fails or unit protection operating values are not in accordance
with stipulation.
10) Any one of the following equipment has fault or the corresponding interlock protection test is
unqualified: starting oil pump, AC (DC) lubricating oil pump, jacking oil pump, turning gear, EH oil
pump.
11) The oil level of main oil tank and EH oil tank is lower than the limit value or the oil quality and
- 25 -

TURBINE OPERATION RULES

cleanliness are unqualified. Lubricating oil inlet temperature is abnormal and return oil
temperature is overhigh.
12) Water seeps through the turbine.
13) Quality of water and steam are not in accordance with requirements.
14) Heat preservation of the unit is imperfect.
15) Other auxiliary equipment or system fails in operation.

1.2 Preparations for start-up


1.2.1 Checking and preparations prior to unit start-up
1) All maintenance works were finished and all work sheets were reclaimed with detailed records
of maintenance;
2) The site is clean and the pass is unobstructed and lighting is good;
3) The unit is good through interlock protection test and test prior to start-up;
4) There is no jamming in the rotating parts of all auxiliary equipment. Bearing lubricating oil,
cooling water and sealing water system are normal;
5) All water and oil level meters are in operation;
6) Cooling tower and vacuum pump separator have been made up to normal water level;
7) The oil level of turbine main oil tank and EH oil tank is normal, oil circulation is good and oil
quality is qualified. The oil level of all power equipment is normal;
8) The industrial water system has been put into operation and is normal;
9) The rotating machine is normal through trial run part by part;
10) The compressed air system for instrument has been put into operation and is normal;
11) The feed water system is to be checked for normal and the auxiliary oil pumps of feed water
pump A and B are to be started;
12) Position of valve is to be checked for correct;
13) The condenser and deaerator have been filled with water and water quality is qualified
through test;
14) Instrument and tools used in operation are to be prepared and checked;
1.2.2 Tests prior to turbine start-up (after overhaul and minor repair of unit)
1) Static test of turbine governing system;
2) ETS test of turbine;
3) Major interlock test of the unit;
4) Interlock test of starting oil pump, AC lubricating oil pump and DC lubricating oil pump of
turbine, and interlock test of jacking oil pump and exhaust fan of main oil tank;
5) Interlock test of feed water pump;
- 26 -

TURBINE OPERATION RULES

6) Interlock test of circulating water pump;


7) Interlock test of vacuum pump;
8) Interlock test of condensate water pump;
9) Interlock test of EH oil pump;
10) Protection test of HP& LP heater and deaerator;
11) ON/OFF tests of all motor-operated valves, and pneumatical valves and hydraulic valves;
12) Interlock test of HP & LP bypass devices;
13) Interlock test of circulating water booster pump;
14) Interlock test of inner cooling water pump;
15) Interlock test of LP heater drain water pump;
16) Interlock test of shaft seal fan;
17) Interlock protection test of steam extraction check valves.

1.3 Start-up of auxiliary equipment and system of unit


1.3.1 Put the industrial water system into operation.
1.3.2 Put the circulating water system into operation.
1.3.3 Put the compressed air system into operation.
1.3.4 Put the auxiliary steam system into operation that is operating normally.
1.3.5 Put the condensate water system into operation.
1.3.6 Put the feed water deaerating system into operation, fill the deaerator with water and put
heater into operation.
1.3.7 Start the AC lubricating oil pump of turbine to make oil circulate until the oil quality is
qualified through test, start the starting oil pump and shut down the AC lubricating oil pump. Put
the AC and DC lubricating oil pump to Automatic position and increase the oil temperature to
above 35.
1.3.8 Put the EH oil system into operation to make oil circulate until oil quality is qualified through
test. Maintain the oil temperature inside the system within the range of 43~54.
1.3.9 Put the jacking oil system into operation and put continuous turning of unit into operation
after the jacking oil pressure of all bearings is normal through checking. The unit shall be put into
continuous turning operation for at least more than 4 hours prior to the turbine start-up.
1.3.10 Check the Air cooler system is ok.
1.3.11 Put the generators air cooling system into operation.
1.3.12 Start the vacuum pump to build up vacuum of condenser to 30kPa.
1.3.13 After warming up of shaft seal pipe by water drain is normal, start the shaft seal fan to put
the shaft seal system of turbine into operation. The LP cylinder shaft seal steam temperature
- 27 -

TURBINE OPERATION RULES

shall be within the range of 121~177. Inform the boiler staff to ignite the boiler when the
vacuum of condenser reaches 70kPa.
1.3.14 Ignite the boiler to increase temperature and pressure.
1.3.15 Put the bypass system (first the LP bypass and then HP bypass) into operation after
warming up the piping. Put the bypass automatic control into operation.
1.3.16 Start the feed water pump according to the water level of steam drum. The water goes via
bypass valve of the HP heaters. Adjust the water flow with feed water bypass (or conduct water
filling with condensate water-filling pipe). Close the recirculation valve of economizer in water
filling.
1.3.17 Timely open the water filling valve of HP heater after feed water pump start to ensure the
HP heater has the condition of put-in of water side.
1.3.18 The up rate of temperature and pressure shall be as per the requirement of boiler cold
start.
1.3.19 When the initial steam pressure reaches 0.1Mpa, check and confirm the drain valve before
the main stop valve is in open position, check the tightness of HP & MP main stop valves and HP
exhaust check valves to prevent cold water and steam from going into the turbine;
1.3.20 When the pressure rises to 0.5~1.0Mpa, advise the chemical staff to test the steam quality
to decide whether to put continuous blowdown flash tank into operation according to chemical
treatment requirement.
1.3.21 The turbine can be impulsed when the steam pressure rises to 1.5~1.6Mpa, initial steam
temperature to 360, reheat steam temperature to 300, the temperature difference between
initial steam side and reheat steam side is not more than 17, the steam quality is qualified
through test grade and all parts of boiler are normal.

1.4 Impulsing of turbine


1.4.1 Check if the turbine protection ETS system is put into operation normally.
1.4.2 Check if the display of DEH panel is normal.
1.4.3 Condition and preparation for unit impulsing
1.4.3.1 Steam conditions of turbine cold impulsing:
Initial steam pressure: 1.5~1.6Mpa;
Initial steam temperature: 360;
Reheat steam temperature: 300 (the temperature of the initial steam and reheat steam
shall have the superheat degree of 50at corresponding pressure);
Temperature difference between initial steam side and reheat steam side <17;
Vacuum: above 70 kPa;
Oil temperature: about 35 ~ 42.
- 28 -

TURBINE OPERATION RULES

1.4.3.2 Check the initial steam pressure and temperature on DCS and DEH that shall meet the
requirement of turbine impulsing;
1.4.3.3 The turbine is in turning state, turning gear current is normal and continuous turning time
is not less than 4 hours;
1.4.3.4 Water side of both HP and LP heater are into operation, HP and LP heater start along with
the turbine prior to turbine impulsing.
1.4.3.5 Make sure all drain valves from turbine proper to the drain water flash tank are opened,
water flows through HP and LP heater normally; heater drain water system adopts automatic flow
stage by stage, and all heater motor-operated emergency drain valves are on Auto condition;
1.4.3.6 Maintain the vacuum of condenser above 80kPa;
1.4.3.7 Check if the water spraying system of LP cylinder is on Auto position and the pressure of
condensate is normal;
1.4.3.8 Check if the recirculation valve of feed water pump is on Auto position.
1.4.3.9 Control of the drain valves of turbine proper and initial & reheat steam piping is on Auto;
1.4.3.10 Check if the turbine lubricating oil temperature is within 38~42;
1.4.3.11 Turbine lubricating oil pressure is 0.08~0.147Mpa, and oil pressure of EH oil system is
normal;
1.4.3.12 Check if the eccentricity of shaft is 0.076mm and exceed the original value by
0.03mm;
1.4.3.13 Check if the differential expansion of turbine is normal;
1.4.3.14 Check if the temperature difference between of upper and lower cylinder of turbine is
normal.
1.4.3.15 Check the Emergency governor handle on turbine head that shall have been pulled to
Reset position.
1.4.4 Operation of Operator Auto Mode impulsing
1.4.4.1 Put the Operator Auto on IN in Control Mode. Click the button MODE on the upper
left side of the DEN OVERVIEW picture, then the sub-picture CONTROL MODE will appear.
Click the button OA and click button IN within 3 seconds to put in the Operator Auto Mode.
1.4.4.2 Reset the low pressure safety oil emergency governor on the head of turbine and check if
the low pressure safety oil is normal;
1.4.4.3 Click LATCH button of hand-controlled panel on control panel DEH MAN PANNEL to
reset the unit. After turbine reset, check the indicator of governor TRIPPED that shall change
into LATCHED reset indicator.
1.4.4.4 Open the Limit Value picture to input valve limit value 120% and click button GO, check
if the valve limit value is set normally and locally check if safety oil pressure is normal. Click the
- 29 -

TURBINE OPERATION RULES

main stop valve opening button TVOPN on the control panel DEH MAN PANNEL, and locally
check if HP & MP main stop valves are wide open and check if the HP & MP governing valves are
closed after the picture displays that HP & MP main stop valve are wide open.
1.4.4.5 Set the target speed at 500rpm and speed up rate at 50rpm/min on the set value subpicture CTRL SP, press button GO, here the turbine starts to impulse and speed up, check the
turbine speed that shall rise step by step.
1.4.4.6 Check the turning gear that shall trip automatically to stop turning motor when the speed
is > 60r/min.
1.4.4.7 Check and open the high pressure exhaust check valves, extraction check valve 1, 2, 4
and 5, open steam extraction motor-operated valve 1, 2, 4, 5 (1 and 2 may not be opened when
HP heater does not start along with the turbine) and put interlock into operation.
1.4.4.8 Press the button HOLD hold the speed when turbine speeds up to 500r/min, check the
operating condition of turbine in an all round way and warm the turbine for 4 min at a low speed:
a. Listen to check if the sound of rotating parts of the turbine-generator unit is normal;
b. Check if all bearings temperature and return oil temperature, vibration and oil flow are normal,
and pay attention to checking and governing lubricating oil temperature within the range of
38~42;
c. Check if the water spray valve of LP cylinder has been opened really, the control switch is on
Auto and LP cylinder exhaust temperature is < 80;
d. DEH & check locally to confirm:
Rotor eccentricity <0.076mm;
Rotor Vibration <76m;
Axial displacement within 1.0mm;
Indication of absolute expansion of cylinder is normal;
Temperature difference between the upper and lower HP cylinder < 50
Superheat degree of initial steam is 50.
1.4.4.9 Continue to set the target speed at 2,500 r/min and speed up rate at 40rpm/min. Jacking
oil pump A and B shall stop automatically when the speed reaches 1,500r/min, otherwise stop
them manually;
1.4.4.10 Time of turbine speed up and warming is distributed as follows:
Rotating speed

Time (min)

Temperature of HP

Overall expansion

Vacuum of

stator lower carrier

of cylinder

condenser

( )

mm

Mpa (a)

r/min

Speed up

Stay

Hold 300~500

10

60

0.0347

From 500 to 2,500

50

130

3.5

0.0213

From 2,500 to 2,960

10

Above 150

5~6

Full

- 30 -

TURBINE OPERATION RULES

vacuum
Up to 3,000 to

10

incorporate into

Above 150

5~6

network

Full
vacuum

It requires about 90 min from impulsing to full speed.


1.4.4.11 Make speed up to 2,500 r/min by the operating procedure above-mentioned and warm
up the turbine for 4 min:
a. Reinforce the checking and adjustment of all parts of the turbine during the whole speed-up
process, press the button HOLD on the DEH picture if any control value approaches the
upper limit and warming up is required during speed-up process, but it is prohibited to warm up
in the resonance region. The operator shall closely monitor the vibration of the unit;
b. Check if the pressure and flow of cooling water of generators air cooler are normal, if the
cold air temperature of steam end is essentially the same with that of slip ring end of generator
in idle running.
1.4.4.12 Continue to make speed up until 2,960r/min at a speed up rate of 50rpm/min by the
operating procedure above mentioned and perform checking. Pay attention to checking the
operating condition of main oil pump and confirming it is operating normally when the speed is up
to 2,800 r/min.
1.4.4.13 If everything is normal thorough check, continue to make speed up until 3000rpm, after
all parts of turbine are normal through an overall check, locally check the high pressure exhaust
check valves that shall be opened;
1.4.4.14 Perform oil injection test, valve leak test and electric overspeed test to the turbine as
required, it is required to ensure the unit is qualified through oil injection test and local & remote
trip test and operates on load for more than 4 hours.
1.4.4.15 Perform local and remote trip test to the turbine.
1.4.4.16 Check the main oil pump locally if its outlet oil pressure of is 1.18Mpa, inlet oil pressure
is 0.098~0.3Mpa and operation is normal.
1.4.4.17 Check if AC and DC lubricating oil pump interlock are on Auto position, after main oil
pump operates normally through check, stop the starting oil pump and confirm the starting oil
pump interlock is on Auto position.
1.4.4.18 Check if lubricating oil pressure, EH oil pressure and temperature are normal.

1.5 Unit incorporation into power network & initial load on


1.5.1 Generator synchronous paralleling
Hold the speed of unit at 3000rpm and perform an overall check, if everything is normal, advise
the electric personnel to parallel in the generator. After the electric test ends and the automatic

- 31 -

TURBINE OPERATION RULES

synchronization conditions are fulfilled (with speed at 2950~3050rpm) and upon receiving the
signal ASPERM from electric personnel, press the button MODE on the upper left of DEH
control picture, then MODE sub-picture will appear, press the button and click button IN within 3
seconds to put AUTOSYNCHRONIZATION control mode into operation, the main picture will
display enter the mode AS at the same time.
1.5.2 Checking after generator paralleling in and precautions in load on
1) After paralleling in, the generator is to have 5% active load and to a certain amount of inactive
load on to maintain the generator voltage and warm up the unit.
2) After paralleling in, gradually close the high and low pressure bypass according to the pressure
and temperature of steam.
1.5.3 Unit is to have initial load on for 5-10 min for warming up.
1) After paralleling in, the unit is to have initial load on 6~7MW load (5% of rated load), hold the
steam conditions for 5 min to observe if the unit system is normal as having little load on.
2) Put the primary FM control circuit into operation as the case may require.
3) Checking & operation during warming up with initial load:
A. The unit can operate with initial load for 5-10 min stably as the case may require;
B. Warm the steam extraction # 3 to make preparation for steam supply of auxiliary header;
C. Check if the temperature of generator stator core and coil are normal;
D. Check if the turbine vibration, differential expansion, cylinder expansion, axial displacement,
each bearing metal temperature, return oil temperature, lubricating oil pressure and differential
temperature between upper and lower wall of cylinder are normal.
E. Put the water level control into Auto after the water level of deaerator becomes stable.
F. Check if the HP and LP heater operation are normal.

1.6 Load up
1.6.1 After warming up with initial load ends, check if the turbine cylinder expansion is normal
without jamming;
1.6.2 Put the governing stage pressure circuit into operation as the case may require in the
process of load up;
1.6.3 Make the load up to 13.5MW (10% of rated load) by means of valve position at a load up
rate of 0.6MW/min.
1.6.4 Check if the auto operation of bypass system is normal, bypass valves close gradually with
rise of unit parameters.
1.6.5 When the load is up to 13.5MW (10% of rated load), steam pressure to 2.0~3.5 Mpa, initial
steam temperature to 450, reheat steam temperature to 400 and the temperature of HP
- 32 -

TURBINE OPERATION RULES

stator lower carrier to 390, check if the drain valve at upstream of MP combined valve closed
automatically, if not, close it manually.
1.6.6 When the load reaches 27MW (20% of rated load), check if the water spray device closed
automatically according to LP cylinder exhaust temperature, if not, close it manually. It may put
the unit power control circuit into operation at this time.
1.6.7 When the load reaches 27MW (20% rated load):
A. Check if the initial steam pressure is 4~5 Mpa, temperature is 470 and reheat steam
temperature is 430;
B. Check if the drain valve at downstream of MP combined valve closed automatically, if not,
close it manually;
1.6.8 When the feed water pump flow is >280t/h, confirm the recirculation motor-operated valve
of feed water pump closed by interlocking;
1.6.9 Open the sub-picture controlling set value on DEH control picture to set the target load at
60MW and load up rate at 1.3MW/min, press the button GO to make load of unit continue to go
up.
1.6.10 When the pressure of extraction #3 is > 0.25Mpa, open the extraction #3 to the motoroperated valve of deaerator; and close gradually the auxiliary steam header to deaerator, here
the deaerator operates in sliding pressure mode;
1.6.11 When the steam side pressure of No.2 HP heater is 0.3 MPa higher than that of deaerator,
change the water drain of HP heater into the deaerator; close the water drain of HP heater valve
to condenser valve, slightly open the HP heater No.1 and No.2 to the air valve of deaerator.
When the pressure of steam extraction #3 is > 0.3 Mpa, change the steam supply of the auxiliary
header into the steam extraction #3 of this unit.
1.6.12 As the load reaches 54MW (40% rated load), initial steam pressure to 7Mpa and
temperature to 470 and reheat steam temperature to 450 , start one LP drain water pump
according to the water level of LP heater, close water drain of LP heater to drain valve of
condenser, and put the auto control of drain into operation when the water level is adjusted to be
normal.
1.6.13 When the load reaches 121.5MW (90% of rated load), steam conditions shall be up to
nominal parameters in which initial steam pressure is 13.24Mpa, initial and reheat steam
temperature are 535:
1.6.13.1 From warming up with initial load to 90% of rated load, the time of steam conditions
reaching the ratings shall be controlled at 120 min;
1.6.13.2 Put the Initial Steam Pressure Control into operation on the DEH panel as the case
may require after initial steam pressure reaches the rating;
- 33 -

TURBINE OPERATION RULES

1.6.14 Change the control mode of valves from Single Valve Control to Sequence Valve
Control after the unit load reaches over 50MW, and pay attention to the change in load in
changeover.
1.6.15 Continue to make load up until 135MW, perform an overall check and report the check
results to the unit supervisor.

1.7 Precautions in unit start-up


1.7.1 Pay attention to the operating condition of all automatic governing devices, change into
manual governing control if any fault or poor governing, and contact the thermodynamic
personnel to treat.
1.7.2 Pay attention to listening if the unit sound is normal.
1.7.3 Pay attention to checking if water level of condenser, deaerator and HP&LP heater are
within normal range.
1.7.4 In load up, monitor if the generator air temperature is normal and adjust the rotor water inlet
pressure to normal in time.
1.7.5 As vibration over critical speed exceeds 0.254mm, but protection refuses to operation, trip
to shut down the turbine manually, put continuous turning into operation, measure shaft
deflection, find out cause and remove fault, restart the unit, the duration of continuous turning
operation shall be > 4hours.
1.7.6 If the initial steam temperature rises or lowers by over 50 within 10 min in start-up, it is
required to trip to shut down the turbine immediately.
1.7.7 During turbine speed up, if it is required to hold the speed of turbine, press the button
HOLD on DEH control panel. If the turbine is within the range of resonance speed, reduce the
speed quickly to below the range of resonance speed and then hold it.
1.7.8 Rotor eccentricity: as the turbine speed is lower than 600r/min, monitor the rotor eccentricity
which value shall be <0.076mm, turbine impulsing is not permitted as the rotor eccentricity
reaches this value.
1.7.9 Vibration: when the speed reaches over 600r/min, monitor the bearing vibration. It can be
regarded as qualified if bearing vibration 0.076mm. When the speed is lower than 1300r/min, it
shall be regarded as qualified if pad vibration 0.03mm, it is necessary to trip to shut down the
turbine in excess of 0.03mm. It is necessary to trip to shut down the turbine as the pad vibration
exceeds 0.1mm over critical speed (or vibration increases suddenly with abnormal noise if not up
to 0.05mm).
1.7.10 Differential expansion:
Positive differential expansion of HP & MP cylinder must not exceed +8mm, and it is necessary to
- 34 -

TURBINE OPERATION RULES

shut down the unit immediately if so; negative differential expansion of HP & MP cylinder must
not be less than -3mm and it is necessary to shut down the turbine immediately if up to -3mm; in
the process of speed up, closely monitor the differential expansion, hold the speed if discovering
differential expansion alarm, and shut down the turbine as up to the shutdown value.
1.7.11 Absolute expansion of cylinder:
In start-up, pay attention to monitoring the absolute expansion of cylinder and compare with the
same in the first start-up to prevent cylinder expansion from being obstructed, cylinder shall
expands continuously with jamming, if expansion is abnormal, it is required to reinforce warming
up, find out and remove the cause.
1.7.12 Differential temperature between upper and lower part of the cylinder: must not be more
than 50.
1.7.13 Axial displacement: must not exceed 1mm. Shut down the turbine as up to 1.2mm.
1.7.14 LP cylinder exhaust temperature: must not exceed 80 (alarm value), shut down the
turbine as up to 121.
1.7.15 Metal temperature and return oil temperature of all bearings:
(1) Normally return oil temperature of all bearings shall be below 75; shut down the turbine as
up to 80;
(2) Outlet oil temperature of oil cooler is within 38~42;
(3) Metal temperature of journal bearing 1~3 shall be below 107; shut down the turbine as
up to 113; the metal temperature of journal bearing4~5 shall be below 75, shut down the
turbine as up to 80;
(4) Metal temperature of thrust bearing shall not be higher than 99 ; shut down the turbine
immediately as up to 107;
(5) Lubricating oil pressure is within 0.09~0.15Mpa.
1.7.16 Before the unit impulsing, adjust the initial and reheat steam parameters to meet the startup requirements by bypass, generally these is no need to adjust the parameters in the process of
unit speed up so as not to affect the rotating speed. After the unit paralleling in, check if the
automatic control of bypass is normal and pay attention to that the tracking of attemperating
water shall be normal; the adjustment of the opening extent of HP & LP bypass shall be based on
the need of boiler to prevent too acute oscillation of MP governing valve as a result of too high
steam pressure of boil side and too large opening of bypass, at the same time pay attention to
the pressure difference before and after HP exhaust steam check valve to prevent it from being
closed and causing chocking.
1.7.17 Strictly monitor the water level of HP & LP heater, deaerator and condenser in the process
of start-up.
1.7.18 Temperature rise & decrease rate

- 35 -

TURBINE OPERATION RULES

Temperature of initial steam

<2~2.5/min

Temperature
decrease rate
<1.5/min

Temperature of reheat steam

<3~3.5/min

<2.5/min

Outer wall of initial and reheat steam pipe

8/min

Outer wall of steam valve

4~6/min

Flange wall of cylinder

2~2.5/min

Name

Temperature rise rate

1.7.19 Temperature difference


Name

Unit

In temperature

In temperature

rise

decrease

Temperature difference between upper


and lower part wall of HP & MP outer

<30

<50

<50

40~70

<17

cylinder stator carrier


Temperature difference between upper
and lower par of HP & MP outer

<40

cylinder and flange


Temperature difference between upper
and lower part of HP & MP outer
cylinder
Temperature difference between initial
steam and reheat steam
Temperature difference between left
and right main reheat steam pipe

- 36 -

<40

TURBINE OPERATION RULES

Chapter 2 Warm & Hot Start of the Unit

2.1 Preparations prior to boiler ignition


2.1.1 Prior to boiler ignition, the check and preparation of turbine system are the same with
section 1.1 and 1.2 of Cold Start;
2.1.2 The systems to be put into operation prior to turbine start-up are the same with section 1.3
of Cold Start;
2.1.3 The following rules shall be observed in warm & hot start of unit besides the requirements
for Cold Start.
1) Supply steam to shaft seal while the turning gear is in operation, and then start the vacuum
pumps to vacuumize the condenser. Drain water sufficiently in the process of supplying steam to
shaft seal to raise the temperature of shaft seal to make the shaft seal steam temperature
approach the shaft seal housing temperature and its temperature difference with HP shaft seal
housing not exceed 30 to prevent bearing journal from cooling as supplying shaft seal steam
and resulting in bending of shaft.
2) The outlet oil temperature of oil cooler shall be maintained comparatively higher and generally
not lower than 40.
3) In order to prevent untight HP auto main stop valve, speed governing valve and MP combined
valve from resulting in automatic impulsing of turbine or high temperature parts being cooled
down, so it is inappropriate to maintain the vacuum of condenser and initial steam pressure too
high.
4) In the case where there is excess pressure in boiler, the extraction system must be put into
operation to set up the vacuum of condenser prior to boiler ignition so as to prevent the exhaust
rupture disk of LP cylinder from operating.

2.2 Boiler ignition


2.2.1 The start-up procedure of boiler follows that of Cold start and temperature & pressure rise
follows the Hot Start Curve of turbine.
- 37 -

TURBINE OPERATION RULES

2.2.2 For hot start, pay attention to maintaining the parameters stable as up to impulsing
parameters.

2.3 Impulsing speed up of turbine


2.3.1 Preparations prior to turbine impulsing
2.3.1.1 Keep continuous turning time more than 4 hours prior to impulsing with the shaft
eccentricity of less than 0.076mm.
2.3.1.2 Feed water pump shall be in good standby condition.
2.3.1.3 Drain water to warm up pipe sufficiently prior to supplying steam to shaft seal, it is strictly
prohibited to let cold steam and water in the shaft seal system of turbine, and adjust the
temperature of shaft seal to normal.
2.3.1.4 Check of DEH panel (procedures as Cold Start)

2.3.2 Fix impulsing parameters as per the following table according to cylinder temperature:
Item

Warm state

Hot state

Remarks

150~300

300~400

At least 50 higher than

At least 50 higher

With 50 superheat

the

than

degree

upperr half metal


temperature of HP
inner cylinder ()
Initial

steam

temperature ()

Reheat

steam

temperature ()
Time

lower

half

metal

the

lower

half

temperature of HP stator

metal

carrier

HP stator carrier

pressure

At least 30 higher

With 50 superheat

than the lower flange

degree

metal

corresponding

At least 30 higher than


the

lower

flange

metal

temperature of MP cylinder

temperature

temperature

MP cylinder

of

under

of

corresponding

under

pressure

from

impulsing

to

full

speed

in

50

10

speed (min)
Max

speed up (r/min)

450
100

Must not be more


than 500

2.3.3 Impulsing speed up of turbine:


2.3.3.1 Checking and tripping operation of DEH panel are the same with that of Cold Start;
2.3.3.2 Fix the impulsing time and speed up rate according to cylinder temperature;
2.3.3.3 Other operations and checking in the process of turbine speed up are the same with that
of Cold Start.
2.3.3.4 Because HP automatic main stop valve, speed governing valve, MP combined valve and
- 38 -

TURBINE OPERATION RULES

steam lead pipe, etc. parts can cool quickly after shutdown, pay attention to the temperature rise
rate of them in start-up to prevent excessive heating and pay attention to the vibration of unit.

2.4 Unit paralleling in & load on


2.4.1 Operator Auto mode:
2.4.1.1 Make load up to the rated value according to the load variation rate looked up in the Hot
Start Curve;
2.4.1.2 Other operations in the process of unit load up are the same with that of Cold Start.
2.4.2 Major operations in the process of load up shall be done after steam temperature, steam
pressure, load and water level of steam drum and deaerator become stable, and the parameters
in operation shall meet the specification.

2.5 Precautions in hot start


2.5.1 Slowly open the high and low pressure bypass to warm up pipe after boiler ignition in the
condition where the vacuum of condenser is definite, close the drain valve of LP reheat steam
inlet after warming up;
2.5.2 First put shaft seal into operation and vacummize the turbine then. After vacummization,
closely monitor the change in cylinder temperature and operation of turning gear to prevent over
high temperature difference between the upper and lower cylinder.
2.5.3 The lubricating oil temperature shall not be lower than 35 in impulsing and pay attention
to adjusting the oil temperature after implusing.
2.5.4 Check thoroughly and rapidly in the process of speed up of turbine, it is strictly prohibited to
over the critical speed blindly.
2.5.5 Closely monitor the units vibration, differential expansion and cylinder expansion in the
process of start-up;
2.5.6 Make the unit have initial load according to cylinder temperature as soon as possible after
paralleling in;
2.5.7 Reinforce water drain of the initial steam pipe and turbine proper in hot start to prevent cold
water or steam from flowing into the cylinder in impulsing.
2.5.8 In hot start, prevent overhigh HP cylinder exhaust temperature to parallel in quickly as up to
the rated speed. If necessary, open wider the low pressure bypass to lower the reheat steam
pressure and control the HP cylinder exhaust temperature to be lower than 360 .

- 39 -

TURBINE OPERATION RULES

PART 3 Unit Operation

- 40 -

TURBINE OPERATION RULES

Chapter 1 Operating Parameters of Steam Turbine


1.1 Monitoring of steam conditions in normal operation of turbine
Name

Unit

Initial steam pressure (a)

MPa

Normal

Max

value
13.24

Min.

Remarks
shut down the unit immediately

13.73

as up to 14.22 Mpa
Duration at 553 must not

Initial steam temperature

535

540

520

exceed 15min and trip the unit


immediately as exceeds 565

Reheat steam pressure

MPa

2.238

2.445

Reheat steam temperature

535

540

Initial steam flow

t/h

398.9

440

Reheat steam flow

t/h

335.2

360.9

<40

<17

MPa

2.531

3.0

312.1

321.6

Temperature

difference

between initial and reheat


steam
Temperature

difference

between two sides of initial


steam and reheat steam
HP

cylinder

exhaust

pressure
HP

cylinder

exhaust

- 41 -

520

As the initial steam temperature

TURBINE OPERATION RULES

temperature
LP

cylinder

exhaust

pressure
LP

cylinder

exhaust

temperature

kPa

8.83

20.3

<65

120

Alarm at 80 shut down at


121

1.2 Pressure of each monitored section: (MCR) Unit: Mpa (a)

Governing
stage
10.34

Extraction

Extraction

Extraction

Extraction

Extraction

Extraction

Extraction

steam

steam

steam

steam

steam

steam

steam

No.1

No.2

No.3

No.4

No.5

No.6

No.7

3.5516

2.4566

0.7301

0.4509

0.2515

0.067

0.0143

1.3 Shaft seal system


Name

Unit

Normal value

MPa

0.02~0.03

LP shaft seal steam temperature

149

Vacuum of the shaft seal heater

kPa

-5~-7

Water level of the shaft seal heater

mm

Pressure of steam supply header of


shaft seal

Max

Min

176

121

Remarks

1/3 of water
level gauge

1.4 Relative expansion & axial displacement of turbine


Name

Unit

Alarm value

Limit value

Axial displacement

mm

1.2

Differential expansion of HP & MP cylinder

mm

+7, -2

+8, -3

Differential expansion of LP cylinder

mm

+6.5

+7.5

Remark

1.5 Peak to peak vibration amplitude of rotor


Eccentricity alarm at 0.076mm for below 600r/min;
Bearing vibration alarm at 0.127mm for above 600r/min;
Trip for vibration at 0.254mm;
It is qualified If the bearing pad vibration is < 0.05mm and is good if less than 0.025mm at
3000r/min.
Note: motor vibration of all auxiliary equipment
It is qualified if bearing pad vibration is < 0.085mm for rotating speed at below 1,500r/min;
It is qualified if bearing pad vibration is < 0.05mm for rotating speed at below 3,000r/min.

1.6 Operating parameters of deaerator


Name

Unit

Item

Operating
- 42 -

Operating result

TURBINE OPERATION RULES

Water level
of deaerator

Pressure of
deaerator

Normal value
High value I

value
2,550
2,750

High value II

2,850

High value III

2,950

Low value I

2,350

Alarm
Interlock open the motor-operated overflow
valve of deaerator
Interlock close the steam extraction No.3
motor-operated valve and check valve
interlocking, interlock close the motoroperated overflow valve of the deaerator
when the water level decreases to below
2,750mm;
Alarm

Low value II
Normal

680
0.68

Feed water pump trip


Operate at sliding pressure

Low pressure
High pressure

0.3
0.85

Alarm for low pressure


Safety valve operate

mm

MPa

1.7 Oil system of steam turbine


Name

Unit

Normal

Max

Mini

Remarks
Alarm at 0.08Mpa;
AC lubricating oil pump puts in at

Lubricating

oil

pressure

0.07Mpa;
MPa

0.078~0.147

DC lubricating oil pump put in at


0.06Mpa;
Shut down at 0.06Mpa;
Turning stop at 0.03MPa

Inlet oil pressure of


main oil pump
Outlet oil pressure of
main oil pump
Outlet oil temperature
of oil cooler
Return oil temperature
of bearing #1-#5
Metal temperature of
journal bearing #1-3
Metal temperature of
journal bearing #4-5
Metal temperature of
thrust bearing
Oil level of main oil
tank
Inlet oil pressure of

MPa

0.098~0.11
Alarm at 0.9Mpa;

MPa

1.1~1.18

Interlock

start

oil

pump

at

0.883Mpa

38~42

45

<65

<75

<85

<70

Alarm at 75, shut down at 80

<85

Alarm at 99, shut down at 107

mm

1808

38

Alarm at 35
Alarm at 65
Alarm at 107, shut down at
113

2,616

MPa

1,245

Shut down at 1,245 mm


Refuse to start at below 0.039MPa

- 43 -

TURBINE OPERATION RULES

Name

Unit

Normal

Max

Mini

Remarks

jacking oil pump


oil pressure of jacking

MPa

oil header

Block start turning gear at below

10~12

4.2MPa
Overflow valve operates at 16.2

EH oil pressure

MPa

Mpa;

13.7~14.5

Start standby pump at 11.03 Mpa;


Shut down at 9.31 Mpa.

Oil level of EH oil tank

mm

438.15~558.8

EH oil temperature

35~45

438.15

558.8

Low value II: 295.15mm


Low value III: 193.54mm
Start electric heater at below 23

1.8 Operating parameters of feed water pump


Name

Unit

Normal

Max

Min

Remarks
Permit to start pump at 0.17Mpa;
Auxiliary

Lubricating oil pressure

MPa

0.2~0.3

0.3

0.17

oil

pump

stops

automatically at 0.22Mpa;
Alarm and auxiliary oil pump starts
automatically at 0.08Mpa;
Feed water pump trips at 0.08Mpa.

Inlet

oil

temperature

of

lubricating oil cooler


Outlet oil temperature of
lubricating oil cooler
Inlet

oil

temperature

of

working oil cooler


Outlet oil temperature of
working oil cooler
differential
coupling

pressure

of

lubricating

oil

<65

70

45

Alarm at 65, trip pump at 70

<55

60

35

Alarm at 55, trip pump at 60

<110

130

60

Alarm at 110, trip pump at 130

<75

85

35

alarm at 75, trip pump at 85

MPa

0.01-0.03

0.06

strainer
Journal

alarm at 0.06MPa, it need to switch


the strainer

bearing

temperature of feed water

Alarm at 80, stop pump at 90

pump motor
Journal
temperature

bearing
of

booster

70

90

pump
- 44 -

Alarm at 75, stop pump at 90

TURBINE OPERATION RULES

Name

Unit

Journal

Normal

Max

Min

Remarks

bearing

temperature of feed water

70

90

Alarm at 75, stop pump at 90

75

95

Alarm at 80, stop pump at 95

pump
Thrust bearing temperature
of feed water pump
High inlet flow of feed water
pump
Low inlet

flow of feed

water pump
Temperature

of

t/h

Recirculation is ON at > 280 t/h

t/h

Recirculation is OFF at < 132 t/h

rotor

winding of feed water pump

130

Alarm at 120, stop pump at 130

95

Alarm at 90, trip pump at 95

motor
Temperature of all bearings
inside the coupling
Differential

pressure

of

sealing water

<90

MP

>0.1

1.9 Operating parameters of HP heater


Name

Unit

Normal

Remarks

value

Alarm at High Value I (850mm);


Water
level of
HP heater

Interlock open the emergency drain valve of corresponding HP


mm

700

No.1

heater at High Value II (1000mm). Close the emergency drain valve


of corresponding HP heater when the water level lowers to 600mm;
Parallel HP heaters off and close motor-operated steam inlet valve
of HP heater at High Value III (1200mm).
Alarm at High Value I (1125mm);

Water
level of
HP heater

Interlock open the emergency drain valve of corresponding HP


mm

975

No.2

heater at High Value II (1275mm). Close the emergency drain valve


of corresponding HP heater when the water level lowers to 875mm;
Parallel HP heaters off and close motor-operated steam inlet valve
of HP heater at High Value III (1475mm).

1.10 Quality requirement for various types of water


Name

Hardness

Dissolved oxygen

Conductivity

(mol/l)

(g/l)

(s/cm)

SiO2 (g/l)

Condensate

Approach 0

40

0.3

20

Feed water

Approach 0

0.3

20

- 45 -

PH value

8.8~9.3

TURBINE OPERATION RULES

Boiler water

50

450

9.0~10

1.11 Steam quality


Item

Iron ppb

Copper ppb

Sio2 g/l

Sodium g/l

Permitted value

20

20

10

Conductivity
ms/cm
0.3

Chapter 2 Operating Modes of the Unit


2.1 BASE
In this mode, both the power and pressure control circuit have been cut off, the main controller of
turbine-boiler is controlled by operators manually. On the boiler side, change the boiler load
demand manually to adjust the initial steam pressure. ON the turbine side, change the turbine
load demand to control the units power through DEH.
Unit shall be switched to Base mode if any condition as follows is met:
MFT operating;
Operator selected the Base mode;
Both boiler main controller and turbine main controller are operated manually at the same time.

2.2 Cooperative control system


In this mode, the main controller of turbine is on Auto position to adjust the power automatically
according to the UD. The main controller of boiler is also on the Auto position, the heat signal is
compared with the energy balance demand and calculated to be taken as the demand of main
controller of boiler.
When the load changes, the turbine makes control demand first to take advantage of the boilers
thermal storage capacity to adapt to the need of load. Here the initial pressure decreases
gradually; when the deviation between initial steam pressure and specified value is higher than

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TURBINE OPERATION RULES

the dead-band of module, the output and unit power demand are summed up and sent to the
turbine side to limit the initial steam pressure to change further. At the same time, the combustion
rate on boiler side changes quickly to make the initial steam pressure return to the range of
specified value. This control mode is commonly used by general unit plant that takes advantage
of thermal storage capacity of boiler and ensures the stability of steam pressure.
Cooperative control system requires both boiler main controller and turbine main controller are on
Auto position, otherwise it is unavailable.

2.3 Boiler following


In this mode, the main controller of boiler is on Auto position, the initial steam pressure governing
circuit is in operation, the main controller of turbine is on Manual position, the units power control
circuit is cut off, the unit load is controlled by operator manually and the control demand is sent to
DEH directly. When the load changes, the turbine sends out control demand first until the initial
steam pressure changes, then the boiler side sends out control demand.
BF mode takes full advantage of the thermal storage capacity of boiler to make the units power
respond quickly. Consequently this mode possesses better initial load response characteristic,
which is in favor of carrying variable load and frequency modulation of power network. However
because the boilers thermal inertia is very high, it is easy for excessively violent change in actual
load demand to cause overuse of boilers thermal storage and result in much fluctuation of initial
steam pressure, which is unfavorable to safety and stability of unit operation.

2.4 Turbine following


In this mode, the turbine main controller is on Auto position and the power control circuit of unit is
cut off and the pressure control circuit is switched to the turbine side. The governing valve of
initial steam pressure is controlled by DEH to maintain within the range of specified value
automatically. On boiler side, if the main controller is on Manual position, the operator shall
change the load demand of boiler load according to load demand of unit. After initial steam
pressure changes, the turbine side changes the opening of governing valve automatically thus to
change the unit load. If the main controller of boiler is on Auto position, the main controller of
boiler receives the actual load demand through switcher with the initial steam pressure still
governed by the opening of governing valve.
The TF mode takes no advantage of the thermal storage of boiler, so the output power is only
able to respond to the change in actual load demand by means of change in combustion of boiler
making evaporating capacity, thermal storage capacity and steam pressure change, which has a
much longer delay and poor adaptability of unit to change in load, so it is unfavorable to carrying
variable load and participating in frequency modulation of power network and is generally used in
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TURBINE OPERATION RULES

the case where main auxiliary equipment of boiler fail.

2.5 Operating mode of unit protection & interlock


All protections and interlocks must be put into operation as long as the equipment starts. They
can only be stopped by order given by the shift engineer after strict procedures of examination
and approval. After the auxiliary equipment become normal after start-up, the standby
equipments interlocking switch shall be put into operation in time to ensure good standby
function.
After power equipment trips, it must first check if the electrical protection operated and then
confirm thermodynamic protection. The tripped equipment must not be put into operation until trip
cause is found out, clear written report by maintenance personnel and approval by shift engineer
are required if it is must be put into operation again. After the equipment is interlocked in
operation, the original running equipment shall be checked thoroughly, if the cause is unavailable,
the original running equipment shall be shut down for a detailed check.

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TURBINE OPERATION RULES

Chapter 3 Regular Works and Requirements


3.1 In order to ensure normal operation of the unit, the operator on duty shall check and maintain
all systems and equipment regularly.
3.2 When the unit is operating normally, record the operation log table every hour. The records
shall be punctual, accurate and written legibly, compare and analyze the running state from time
to time, and find out the cause and give treatment in time if discovering any abnormity.
3.3 The operator on duty is required to check the subordinate equipment regularly.
3.4 Test and regular switching of equipment shall obtain approval from the unit supervisor and be
performed by the supervisor and operator duly who shall fulfill each work required by the test
under unified leadership of the shift engineer.
3.5 Record the regular work; record detailedly the cause for the equipment that can not be tested
and switched, and report to the shift engineer and shift leader; Contact for treatment if any
problem in test, stop the test if necessary and continue test until the problem is solved.
3.6 The switched equipment must be restored to standby.
3.7 Release the interlocking of the equipment with automatic interlock in regular works that shall
put into operation as standby state restores.
3.8 If any abnormal in regular works, stop the operation immediately and perform according to the
demand.
3.9 It is prohibited to put the equipment with unqualifiedly-insulated motor into operation or
standby, but advise the maintenance personnel to treat immediately.
3.10 For the unit is in outage or does not satisfy the test conditions, all specified test items shall
be done in next start-up or regular test period.
3.11 The equipment, which has already been tested for the interlock protection (which had been
started after routine maintenance or overhaul) within the time limit of specified test & switching,
can be exempted this time of regular test.

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TURBINE OPERATION RULES

Att. List of Equipment Regular Works


No.
1
2
3
4
5

Work contents
Test

of

emergency

sound

Check of the oil level gauge of oil tank


Moving test of HP & MP main stop

Moving test of extraction check valves


Water drain of main oil tank and feed

Switching of vacuum pump


Switching of LP heater drain water
pump

Switching of industrial water pump

10

Switching of shaft seal fan


Starting test of feed water pump
auxiliary oil pump

12

Switching of main oil tank exhaust fan

13

Switching of feed water pump


Starting test of starting oil pump, AC &
DC lubricating oil pump, jacking oil
pump and turning gear motor

15
16

Switching of EH oil pump and inner


cooling water pump
Switching of circulating water pump
and circulating water booster pump

17

Switching of condensate pump

18

Emergency governor oil filling test

Operator

Supervisor

Vice operator

Operator

on duty

on duty

Daytime shift per

Vice operator

day

on duty

Daytime shift on

Operator on

Unit

Monday

duty

supervisor

Daytime shift on

Operator on

Unit

Monday

duty

supervisor

Daytime shift on

Routine

Thursday

inspector

Daytime shift on the

Operator on

Unit

5th per month

duty

supervisor

Daytime shift on the

Vice operator

Operator

10th per month

on duty

on duty

Daytime shift on the

Vice operator

Operator

10th of per month

on duty

on duty

Daytime shift on the

Routine

Operator

10th per month

inspector

on duty

Daytime shift on the

Vice operator

Operator

10th per month

on duty

on duty

Daytime shift on the

Vice operator

Operator

15th per month

on duty

on duty

Daytime shift on the

Vice operator

Operator

15th per month

on duty

on duty

Daytime shift on the

Operator on

Unit

15th per month

duty

supervisor

Daytime shift on the

Operator on

Unit

20th per month

duty

supervisor

Daytime shift on the

Operator on

Unit

20th per month

duty

supervisor

Daytime shift on the

Operator on

Unit

25th per month

duty

supervisor

Daytime shift on the

Operator on

Unit

25th per month

duty

supervisor

One month after

Operator on

Unit

unit operating

duty

supervisor

water pump oil tank

14

Per shift

valve

Vacuum leak test

11

&

thermodynamic signal

Time requirement

Note: regular switching of power equipment can be advanced if the due time meets with weekend
or holiday, but it must make records through.

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TURBINE OPERATION RULES

PART 4 Unit Shutdown

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TURBINE OPERATION RULES

1.1 Preparations prior to unit shutdown


1.1.1 After receiving shutdown command from the unit supervisor, contact all posts to make
preparations for shutdown;
1.1.2 Do starting test of AC and DC lubricating oil pump, jacking oil pump and starting oil pump of
turbine and they are normal through test, and do starting test of the steam turbine turning gear
motor and it is normal through test;
1.1.3 Switch the auxiliary steam supply to be supplied by neighboring turbine (or supplied by
starting boiler);
1.1.4 Check the unit thoroughly and count detects of equipment.

1.2 Normal shutdown


1.2.1 Confirm DEH is in Operator Auto mode; confirm lower limit of initial steam pressure is
released.
1.2.2 Open the sub-picture of set value control on the main control picture of DEH to set the
target load at 110MW, and set the load down rate at 1.25MW//min by turning down the governing
valve in the condition of holding steam temperature and pressure, then press the button GO to
make the unit load start to decrease. At the same time, the main operator shall decrease the
temperature and pressure according to normal shutdown curve.
1.2.3 When the load decreases to 110MW, press button HOLD with the initial steam
temperature to 500, reheat steam temperature to 480, initial steam pressure to 11Mpa and
HP stator lower carrier metal temperature to 455.

1.2.4 Table of load, steam temperature & time at normal shutdown


Load MW
Item

135

Time (min)

110

75

54

5.4

20

51

60

71

72

Initial steam temperature ()

535

500

474

472

466

465

Reheat steam temperature ()

535

480

452

450

445

444

HP stator lower carrier metal temperature ()

496

455

415

410

400

398

1.2.5 Decrease the parameter and load according to the normal shutdown curve at the rate of
initial steam temperature of 1.5/min, reheat steam temperature of 2.5 /min and initial steam
pressure of 0.05Mpa/min.
1.2.6 Open the sub-picture of set value control on the main control picture of DEH to set target
load at 75MW and load down rate at 1.13MW/min, then press RATE and ENTER button; press

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TURBINE OPERATION RULES

GO button, the unit load continues to decrease.


1.2.7 When the differential pressure between HP heater #2 steam side and deaerator is <
0.3MPa, stop the HP heater steam side from high to low; close the drain motor-operated valve of
deaerator, change HP heater water drain to the condenser; close HP heater #1 and #2 to the
deaerator air valve and close the air inlet value of HP; open the drain valves before and after
extraction check valve of No. 1 and 2.
1.2.8 When No. 3 extraction pressure decreases to 0.25MPa, check if the auxiliary steam
headers steam supply valve is opened, close the No. 3 extraction to deaerator air inlet valve;
make the deaerator run at constant pressure of 0.192Mpa.
1.2.9 Set the target load at 54MW, load down rate at 2.33MW/min and the unit load continues to
decrease; when the load decreases to 54MW, the initial steam temperature decrease to 472 ,
reheat temperature to 450 and HP stator lower carrier metal temperature to 410.
1.2.10 When the load decreases to 45~60MW, stop the LP heater drain pump and open LP
heater #6 l to multistage water-seal inlet and outlet valve; change LP heater #6 drain water to
condenser
1.2.11 Set the target load at 5.4MW, load down rate at 4.42MW/ min, and the unit load continues
to decrease.
1.2.12 When feed water flow decreases to 132m 3/h, check the feed-water recirculation valve that
shall open automatically, otherwise open it manually. In the process of load decrease, check if the
shaft seal steam supply pressure is not less than 0.08 Mpa, adjust the shaft seal attemperating
water and maintain the shaft seal steam supply temperature within specified range.
1.2.13 When the load decreases to 40MW, put the auto control of HP & LP bypass according to
the requirement of boiler.
1.2.14 Open the attemperating water valve of proper drain flash tank. Close the air inlet valves of
LP heater #4~#6.
1.2.15 When the load decreases to 27MW (20 of rated load), the drain valves of LP part shall
open automatically, otherwise open them manually.
1.2.16 When the exhaust temperature is 80, check if the LP cylinder water spray starts to
operate automatically
1.2.17 When the load decrease to 13.5MW (10 of rated load), the drain valves of HP part shall
open automatically, otherwise open them manually.
1.2.18 When the load decreases to 6MW, the initial steam pressure decreases to 1.57~2.06Mpa,
initial steam temperature to 466, reheat temperature to 445 and HP stator lower carrier
metal temperature to 400, prepare to shut down the unit.
1.2.19 Set the target load at 0 MW and load down rate at 5MW/ min, and the unit load continues
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TURBINE OPERATION RULES

to decrease to zero.
1.2.20 Start AC lubricating oil pump, advise electrical personnel that the generator can be
paralleled off, at this time the steam turbine and boiler shall interlock trip (press the button OFF
to trip them in special case). Check HP & MP main stop valve, governing valve, extraction check
valve and exhaust check valves of HP cylinder A & B that shall close all; unit speed decreases.
1.2.20 Works to done during unit idle time
1.2.20.1 Check the condition of unit idling, listen to its internal sound and record the idle time;
1.2.20.2 When the rotating speed is 2,500r/min, close the air valve of condenser; when the
rotating speed is 1,500r/min, check if the jacking oil pump opened automatically, if not, open it
manually;
1.2.20.3 When the rotating speed is 300~400r/min, open the vacuum breaker valve to decrease
vacuum degree, control the rotating speed to 0 and vacuum to 0; stop the shaft seal motor,
stop the shaft seal steam supply and close isolating valve; stop the vacuum pump.
1.2.20.4 When the unit comes to rest, put the continuous turning into operation and record the
shaft bending and turning gear current.
1.2.21 Operation after shutdown
1.2.21.1 Check HP & LP bypass that shall stop and exit.
1.2.21.2 Close the cooling water valve of oil cooler and air cooler, close the attemperating water
valve of feed water pump and open the oxygen exhaust valve of deaerator to decrease the
pressure to zero.
1.2.21.3 When boiler is filled with water, stop the feed water pump, stop the deaerator heating
and close the isolating valve.
1.2.21.4 Open the recirculation of condensate pump and adjust the water level of deaerator and
condenser.
1.2.21.5 When the exhaust hood temperature is <50 , stop the circulating water pump with
approval of unit supervisor.
1.2.21.6 When the exhaust hood temperature <50, stop the condensate pump with approval of
unit supervisor.
1.2.21.7 When the HP carrier lower half metal temperature is <150, stop continuous turning.
1.2.21.8 When the rotor comes to rest; release the interlocking of oil pump and stop the jacking
oil pump and AC lubricating oil pump.
1.2.22 Precautions in normal shutdown
1.2.22.1 In the process of shutdown, keep the initial and reheat temperature within normal range
as much as possible that shall not be lower than 450minimally.
1.2.22.2 In the process of load down, pay attention to the change in differential expansion of HP
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TURBINE OPERATION RULES

& MP cylinder, when the differential expansion reaches -1mm, stop load down, if such negative
value continues to increase, take measures to reduce the load quickly to zero for shutdown.
1.2.22.3 When the vibration at unit idling increases, reduce the vacuum degree to make the unit
speed lower quickly.
1.2.22.4 After the unit shuts down and before the boiler, deaerator and auxiliary steam header
release pressure completely, closely monitor the metal temperature of steam turbine to prevent
steam & water from escaping into the steam water.
1.2.22.5 If discover exhaust cylinder temperature increases after shutdown, find out the cause
and cut off steam source, or else start the condensate pump and put the LP cylinder spray into
operation to reduce the exhaust cylinder temperature. After shutdown, pay attention to monitoring
the water level of condenser and deaerator to prevent overfeed of water.

1.3 Sliding pressure shutdown


1.3.1 After receiving Sliding pressure Shutdown command from shift engineer, make
preparations for shutdown and get done with division of work and conduct referring to normal
shutdown.
1.3.2 Decrease the load to 100MW according to normal shutdown requirement, and then take
advantage of sliding decreasing initial steam pressure and temperature to decrease the load.
1.3.3 Change the steam source of auxiliary steam header to be supplied by neighboring turbine
or starting boiler and check if the steam pressure and temperature of auxiliary header is normal.
1.3.4 Principle of sliding pressure shutdown
1.3.4.1 Contact the boiler operator to decrease the initial steam pressure first according to sliding
parameter shutdown curve, hold the load demand and pay attention to the opening of governing
valve, governing stage temperature and lower cylinder temperature drop.
1.3.4.2 After initial steam pressure decrease, lower the LOAD DEMAND gradually according to
the load sliding down to cooperate in controlling the initial steam pressure, at this time, keep the
initial steam temperature stable as much as possible.
1.3.4.3 Contact the boiler operator to stabilize pressure and hold load, and decrease the initial
steam temperature according to the governing stage temperature and the upper-lower cylinder
temperature as per sliding pressure shutdown curve.
1.3.4.4 Every time load decreases by 10MW, keep the steam pressure, temperature and load
stable for 5 minutes.
1.3.4.5 Pay attention to the opening of governing valve, governing stage temperature and upper
cylinder temperature drop, monitor the section pressure that shall not exceed the rated value, and
keep the reheat steam temperature catch up with the initial steam temperature decreasing rate.
1.3.5 Operation of sliding pressure shutdown
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TURBINE OPERATION RULES

1.3.5.1 The main controller operator on duty shall reduce the pressure and temperature at the
rate of 0.04~0.049MPa/min and 1.5/min for initial steam and 2.5 /min for reheat steam; pay
attention to controlling the load down rate at 0.4MW/min.
1.3.5.2 Reduce the initial steam temperature to 500 and pressure to 10.79MPa slowly, open
wide the speed governing valve gradually and reduce the load to 100MW and keep stable
operation for 20 minutes.
1.3.5.3 Reduce the initial steam pressure and temperature at the rate of 0.03~0.04MPa/min and
1.5/min, unit load continues to decrease and pay attention to controlling the load down rate at
0.4MW/min.
1.3.5.4 When the load decreases to 40MW, keep stable operation for 40 minutes.
1.3.5.5 When the initial steam flow is 30%, put HP & LP bypass and three-stage attemperating
water into operation, continue to reduce the initial steam pressure and temperature at the rate of
0.03~0.04Mpa/min and 1.5/min, unit load continues to decrease and pay attention to
controlling the load down rate at 0.4MW/min.
1.3.5.6 When the load decreases to 10MW, initial steam pressure to 1.6~2.0MPa and initial
steam temperature to 370~380, the sliding pressure shutdown is over and prepare to shut
down. Open the sub-picture of set value control on the main control picture of DEH to set the
target load at 0MW and load down rate at 5MW/min, and the unit load continues to decrease.
1.3.5.7 Report to the shift engineer when the load decreases to zero and trip to shut down the
unit.
1.3.5.8 Other operations refer to normal shutdown.
1.3.6 Precautions in the sliding pressure shutdown
1.3.6.1 Strictly follow the principle of reducing pressure first and reducing temperature second in
sliding pressure shutdown, and assign special person to monitor the reduction of steam
temperature and pressure and read meter once every 10 minutes, within which the pressure drop
must not exceed 0.4 MPa and temperature drop must not exceed 15 , if not, stop reducing
pressure and temperature immediately and continue after stabilizing for a period.
1.3.6.2 Keep an identity between the initial steam and reheat steam which temperature difference
must not be more than 40, and degree of superheat must be higher 50 so as to prevent
water hammer accident.
1.3.6.3 If discover the negative value of differential pressure increases too fast in sliding pressure
shutdown, lower the load down rate. When HP differential expansion reaches -0.1m, stop
reducing load and continue after differential expansion rises again, if the measures take no effect
and the differential expansion continues to increase, reduce the load to zero quickly and trip to
shut down the unit. Start AC lubricating oil pump, and record the idle time and listen to the sound
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TURBINE OPERATION RULES

of running parts after unit trips.


1.3.6.4 Closely monitor the unit vibration and metal temperature in the process of sliding pressure
shutdown, and it is strictly prohibited to release the axial-displacement protection.
1.3.6.5 Pay attention to the water level of deaerator and condenser, vacuum of condenser and
exhaust temperature that shall be normal.
1.3.6.6 After shutdown, cut off all steam and water sources inside the cylinder to prevent cold
steam and water from entering.
1.3.6.7 Pay attention to that the initial steam pressure shall not rise in the process of load down
so as to ensure the superheat degree of initial steam not lower than 50 minimally, and the
initial steam temperature shall decrease steadily to prevent much fluctuation.
1.3.6.8 The governing stage temperature must not be 20 lower than the lower cylinder
temperature; When the temperature difference between upper and lower cylinder is higher than
35, control the initial steam temperature more than 50 higher than the governing stage
temperature. As negative differential expansion increases, contact the boiler operator to stabilize
parameters, adjust the pressure of shaft seal and temperature to normal and pay attention to
steam puffing up at the shaft seal.
1.3.6.9 Stop sliding parameter and reduce the load to zero quickly to trip to shut down the unit in
any case as follows:
a. The unit vibrates abnormally;
b. The initial and reheat temperature are out of control, and drop for more than 50 within 10
minutes, it is necessary to break vacuum and shut down the unit, open the initial steam pipe and
proper drain valve.
c. HP & MP differential expansion reaches -2mm.

1.4 Precautions in unit shutdown:


1.4.1 Reinforce the monitoring of axial displacement, thrust pad temperature, bearing return oil
temperature and vibration and if there is friction sound inside the unit;
1.4.2 When discover the load fails in decreasing to zero, it is strictly prohibited to parallel the
generator off, but report to unit supervisor and take measure of closing main stop valve to reduce
the load to 0 and then shut down the unit;
1.4.3 Normal shutdown sequence shall be as per generator paralleling off- turbine tripping- -boiler
extinction.
1.4.4 Record the metal temperature of cylinder once every30 minutes since sliding pressure
shutdown start. After putting turning gear into operation, record the cylinder temperature, shaft
eccentricity, turning gear current and metal temperature once every hour until turning stops;
1.4.5 If discover exhaust temperature increases during shutdown, start the LP spray and find out
the cause. Pay attention to exhaust temperature, cylinder temperature, condenser water level,

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TURBINE OPERATION RULES

deaerator water level and HP & LP heater water level to prevent valves of steam, extraction and
drain system from untightness and resulting in cold steam and water entering the turbine;
1.4.6 In turning, pay attention to monitoring lubricating oil inlet temperature of all bearings that
shall be higher than 21, as well as indications of metal temperature of all bearings, turning gear
current and turbine cylinder temperature that shall be normal and record them once every hour;
1.4.7 Keep the turning gear and oil circulating system running for not less than 48 hours after
normal shutdown;
1.4.8 After turbine shutdown, it is prohibited to fill the condenser and heater to test leak when the
cylinder temperature is higher than 200, If it must be conducted, work out reliable preventive
measures against sharp cooling of cylinder resulting in shaft bending that shall be approved by
the shift engineer;
1.4.9 After bypass system is stopped, check to make sure attemperating water valve is closed
tightly;
1.4.10 If there is clear friction sound inside the cylinder during turning, stop turning, but change to
15 minutes interval and turn the rotor by180, and forced turning is not permitted;
1.4.11 When the first stage metal temperature of HP cylinder is higher than 150 , the turning
can only be stopped with approval of unit supervisor, get done with marking clearly, record the
stop time, and turn by 180 manually every 5~15 minutes according to the state of cylinder.
Turning time is required to be at least 10 times larger than the stop time prior to restart;
1.4.12 After shutdown, if the bearing or other parts require maintenance, both the turning gear
and oil circulation shall operate for more than 24 hours to keep the outlet oil temperature of oil
cooler at about 35, and it can stop the turning gear and cut off oil circulation after which, but it
is necessary to prolong the turning time prior to unit start;
1.4.13 For the shutdown for emergency maintenance, keep the turning gear and bearing oil
system circulation for at least more than 3 hours, after which it can stop turning and oil circulation
for 15 minutes and do not stop the oil circulation as much as possible. 15 minutes after stop, start
the turning gear to operate for 2 hours or until the eccentricity becomes stable. After which, it can
stop the turning gear and oil circulation, but the offtime shall not exceed 30 minutes, among
which, 15 minutes after stop, start the oil circulation to turn rotor by 180. After 30 minutes
mentioned above, start the turning gear and oil circulation, and run the steam turbine over again
for 2 hours or until the eccentricity becomes stable. As long as turn the rotor by 180 every 30
minutes within the following six hours, the system will be able to be off for long. Start the oil
circulation to lubricate all bearings during the 180 turning.
1.4.14 If it is required to stop the turning gear for emergency due to unit fault, which may make
the rotor suffer from serious bending, so it must keep oil circulation for at least over 24 hours after
shutdown to prevent bearing from overheating, and keep the outlet oil temperature of oil cooler

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TURBINE OPERATION RULES

within 21~35 during which;


1.4.15 If the rotor bending is not very serious, it can be rotated to become straight by 1~2 hours
turning.

PART 5 Treatment of Unit Accidents

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TURBINE OPERATION RULES

1. Treating Rules of Accidents


1.1 In case of accident, the unit supervisor shall lead all staff of the unit to treat the accident
according to the rules quickly under direct leadership of shift engineer. If the company of unit
supervisor is harmful to person and equipment directly, the operator on duty shall explain the
reason and refuse to execute it.
1.2 If case of fault, the operator shall eliminate the danger to person and equipment and find out
the cause for the fault and remove it, at the same time shall keep non-faulted equipment
operating normally.
1.3 If case of fault, the operator shall ensure normal operation of the auxiliary power system.
1.4 Once concluding that the equipment has fault according to the instrument indication, CRT
display, and alarming of alarm window, faulted copier and appearance of unit, the operator shall:
Eliminate the danger to person and equipment and parallel off the faulted equipment immediately
if necessary;
Ascertain the nature, site and scope of fault quickly, and give treatment and report thereafter;
Ensure normal operation of the equipment without any fault;
Report to the unit supervisor as soon as possible in each stage of fault elimination for the
purpose of timely report and taking correct measures to prevent spread of accident.
1.5 Treat the accidents quickly and correctly, repeat the orders after receiving during treating the
fault; report to the staff who gives you the order after the order is conducted
1.6 When accidents and faults which are not included in the Rules occur, the staff on duty shall
take measures to treat it immediately according to their own judgment. If possible, report to the
unit supervisor and treat the accidents under the leadership of unit supervisor.
1.7 After the fault is treated through, and the cause is found out, it shall restore the operation of
unit as soon as possible and keep each parameter within permitted range during operation.
1.8 In treatment of accidents and faults, trip manually if the emergency shutdown condition is met
but the protection refuses to operate; if an auxiliary equipment reaches the emergency shutdown
condition but the protection refuses to operate, it shall shut down this auxiliary equipment
immediately.
1.9 When any fault occurs, the main operator on duty shall participate in the work of eliminating
the fault and advise the unit supervisor or shift engineer first as much as possible, and report the
measures he has taken to the unit supervisor, and must obey all correct orders from the unit
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TURBINE OPERATION RULES

supervisor.
1.10 The operator shall not leave the post in the process of treatment of fault and accident, If the
fault occurs during work shift, it postpone the time of shift, the staff to hand over shall go on
working and eliminate the accident with assistance by the staff to take over until the unit recovers
normal operation or receiving the order about shift from the unit supervisor.
1.11 People irrelevant to the accident shall not stay at the spot.
1.12 After treatment of fault and accident, the staff on duty shall report the time, phenomenon,
reason, development and the treatment process to the shift engineer and keep detailed records,
and the meeting it after work shift shall analyze the fault.
1.13 First make every effort to eliminate the danger to personal and equipment safety in case of
accident.
1.14 Strive to keep normal running of non-faulted equipment.
1.15 Prevent wrong judgment or treatment caused by bad contact, uncertain condition and
inaccurate report.

2. Condition of Steam Turbine Tripping


2.1 When the rotating speed of the unit increases to 3,300~3,360r/min (electric overspeed and
mechanical overspeed);
2.2 HP & MP differential expansion reaches 8 mm or -3mm;
2.3 The LP differential expansion reaches +7.5 mm;
2.4 The axial displacement reaches 1.2mm;
2.5 The back pressure of condenser reaches 20.3KPa;
2.6 The lubricating oil pressure decreases to 0.06MPa;
2.7 The bearing vibration reaches 0.254mm;
2.8 Metal temperature of journal bearing #1~3 reaches 112 ; metal temperature of journal
bearing #4~5 reaches 80; metal temperature of thrust bearing reaches 107 .
2.9 The EH oil pressure decreases to 9.31MPa;
2.10 DEH system power failure;
2.11 The main protection of generator operates;
2.12 The boiler MFT operates;
2.13 LP exhaust temperature reaches 121;
2.14 The oil level of main oil bank decrease to 1245mm.

3. Condition of Unit Fault Shutdown


3.1 Fault in the main oil pump or much vibration in the speed governing system;
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3.2 In the case where the initial and reheat steam temperature on turbine side increases to above
545 and cannot recover after running for 30 minutes; where the temperature continues to rise
to 555 and cannot recover within more than 15 minutes; or where the temperature exceeds
565;
3.3 The initial steam pressure increases to above 14.71Mpa;
3.4 The back pressure of conderser reaches 20.3KPa or circulating water interrupts;
3.5 The steam turbine rejects load to 0 to run for more than 15 minutes;
3.6 The change in frequency is lower than 46HZ;
3.7 The initial and reheat steam and feed water pipe or valve breaks to endanger the equipment
safety;
3.8 The MFT operates, but the major interlock of turbine-boiler refuses to operate;
3.9 The main stop valve, governing valve and MP combined valve are jammed and cannot
recover;
3.10 LP cylinder exhaust temperature reaches 121;
3.11 The steam turbine motor operates for more than 1 minute;
3.12 When an important monitoring meter displays inaccurately or fails, it must stop running in
the condition that there is not any effective monitoring means;
3.13 The copper tube of condenser breaks resulting a great deal of circulating water entering the
steam side.

4. Condition of Emergency Shutdown


4.1 The unit vibrates severely suddenly;
4.2 Obvious metal friction sound occurs inside the steam turbine;
4.3 The steam turbine has water hammer and the initial and reheat steam temperature decreases
by 50 within ten minutes;
4.4 Inside of shaft seal sparkles;
4.5 The generator smokes and catches fire;
4.6 Any bearing goes without oil or smokes;
4.7 Turbine bearing return oil temperature reaches 75;
4.8 Metal temperature of journal bearing #1~3 reaches 113; metal temperature of journal
bearing #4~5 reaches 80; metal temperature of thrust bearing reaches 107 ;
4.9 The bearing lubricating oil pressure decreases to below 0.06MPa and cannot recover even by
starting the auxiliary oil pump;
4.10 The steam turbine oil system catches fire to endanger safe operation of the unit;
4.11 The oil level of main oil tank decreases sharply that cannot recover by make-up oil and
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decreases to the limit value;


4.12 The oil pump pipe broke and cannot be isolated, which resulting serious leak of oil to
endanger the safety of equipment;
4.13 The rotating speed of steam turbine increases to 3,300r/min, but the emergency governor
refuses to operate;
4.14 The HP & MP differential expansion reaches +8 or -3mm and LP differential expansion
reaches +7.5mm;
4.15 The axial displacement reaches 1.2mm, and at the same time the temperature of thrust
bearing increases sharply.

5. Procedure of Emergency Shutdown with Vacuum Broken


5.1 Press the emergency shutdowm button or push the emergency governor handle locally with
hand to check if the HP & MP main stop valve, speed governing valve, extraction check valve and
HP exhaust check valve are closed tightly immediately and the rotating speed shall decrease;
5.2 It is prohibited to open the HP & LP bypass;
5.3 Release the starting oil pump interlocking and start the lubricating oil pump;
5.4 Ensure generator has paralleled off;
5.5 Release the vacuum pump interlocking and stop the vacuum pump to open wide the vacuum
breaker valve;
5.6 Adjust the steam seal pressure to prevent the cold air from cooling cylinder and rotor;
5.7 Open the water drain valves of steam turbine proper and all extraction pipes and it is strictly
prohibited for the cold water and cold steam in all steam and water pipes to flow inversely to the
cylinder;
5.8 Listen to the sound of the inside of unit and pay attention to the idle time and vibration of unit
rotor and keep records.
5.9 When the rotating speed decreases to 1,500r/minstart the jacking oil pump;
5.10 When the rotor stops, record the eccentricity and put the turning gear into operation, if fail in
putting it into operation, it shall turn the rotor by 180 0 every 5 minutes, If there is any friction
between stator and rotor and the rotor can not be turned, report to the shift engineer and it must
not turn forcedly;
5.11 Other operations as per the specifications for normal shutdown.

6. Procedure of Unit Fault Shutdown without Vacuum Broken


6.1 Report to the unit supervisor and reduce the load to zero;
6.2 Press the emergency shutdowm button or push the emergency governor handle locally with
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hand to check if the if the HP & MP main stop valve, speed governing valve, extraction check
valve and HP exhaust check valve are closed and if the rotating speed of unit decreases;
6.3 Release the starting oil pump interlocking and start the lubricating oil pump;
6.4 If boiler MFT operates, treat it according to MFT operation emergency shutdown;
6.5 Adjust the steam supply pressure of deaerator and shaft seal, and switch to the standby
steam source in time;
6.6 Check thoroughly, listen to the sound of unit and record the idle time;
6.7 Other operations as per normal shutdown procedure.

7. Decreasing of Vacuum
7.1 Phenomenon
7.1.1 The condenser vacuum indication decreases, local vacuum gauge, DEH or DCS displays
vacuum decreasing;
7.1.2 The exhaust temperature of steam turbine rises;
7.1.3 Conderser Vacuum Low sound & light alarms.
7.2 Cause
7.2.1 The circulating water pump works abnormally and the system valve is operated by mistake,
which result in interruption or lack of circulating water;
7.2.2 The steam supply of shaft seal is not enough or shaft seal carry-over;
7.2.3 The water level of condenser is too high;
7.2.4 The vacuum pump works abnormally;
7.2.5 The vacuum system leaks or the system valve is operated by mistake;
7.2.6 The condenser piping is dirty;
7.2.7 The water temperature of vacuum pump is high;
7.2.8 No level or overfeed of water of the shaft seal heater.
7.3 Treatment
7.3.1 If discover the condenser vacuum decreasing, check the exhaust temperature immediately
to ascertain vacuum down;
7.3.2 If the condenser vacuum decreases, it shall start the standby vacuum pump rapidly to
observe the change in vacuum;
7.3.3 If the vacuum keeps on decreasing, it shall reduce the unit load appropriately until alarm off,
find out the cause and give treatment;
7.3.4 Check the operation of circulating water pump:
a. Check if the circulating water pump operates normally, otherwise switch to the standby
circulating pump or start another pump, when there are two pumps operating, if one pump stops
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for fault to result in decreasing of condenser vacuum, it shall close the outlet valve of faulted
pump quickly;
b. Check the outlet valve of circulating water pump, and open it in time if it is closed by mistake;
c. Check if the circulating water pressure is normal, if it is low, check if the circulating water
system leaks or is blocked;
d. Check the differential pressure between the circulating water outlet and inlet of condenser is
normal, if it is high, then clean a half of condenser;
e. Check if the disc valve of condenser inlet & outlet is closed by mistake; if so, open it
immediately;
7.3.5 Check the shaft seal system:
a. If the shaft seal header pressure is low, then check if the shaft seal steam source and overflow
valve are normal to adjust the shaft seal header pressure to normal;
b. If the steam pressure of LP shaft seal is low, then turn down the shaft seal attemperator spray
isolating valve and adjust the LP shaft seal steam temperature at 149;
c. If the shaft seal heater pressure is high, then start the standby shaft seal heater blower to
check if the multi-stage water seal of shaft seal heater is broken and water level is normal.
7.3.6 Check if the water level of condenser condensation sump is high, if so, it shall find out the
cause and give treatment;
7.3.7 Check if the LP extraction flange and junction plane of LP cylinder leak, if the vacuum
system is tight, in the case where the vacuum system leaks, seal it off and contact with
maintenance personnel to treat;
7.3.8 Check if the vacuum breaker valve is opened by mistake
7.3.9 Check if any vacuum valve and flange leaks;
7.3.10 Check if the water level of vacuum pump steam-water separator is normal and if the
vacuum pump water temperature is normal;
7.3.11 When the back pressure of condenser reaches 20.3KPa, the steam turbine shall trip
automatically and trip it manually, and give treatment according to the procedure of fault
shutdown.

8. Water Hammer of Steam Turbine


8.1 Phenomenon
8.1.1 The temperature difference between upper and lower cylinder of turbine is high;
8.1.2 Increasing of axial displacement, vibration, differential expansion are displayed, and the
sound of steam turbine is abnormal;
8.1.3 Alarm because of abnormal water level of heater;
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8.1.4 The initial steam and reheat steam pipe or the extraction pipe vibrate, shaft seal has water
hammer sound, and there is white steam belching from the main stop valve and speed governing
valve lever, as well as the flange of extraction pipe;
8.1.5 Temperature of initial and reheat steam decreases sharply;
8.1.6 Temperature of LP shaft seal header decreases sharply.
8.2 Cause
8.2.1 The boiler drum is overfed with water;
8.2.2 The steam drum pressure drops sharply, which result in the carry-over;
8.2.3 Adjustment of the boiler steam temperature is inappropriate;
8.2.4 When the unit is started, the drainage of turbine proper, shaft seal system and all relevant
steam pipes are not smooth;
8.2.5 The heater leaks or drainage is not smooth and deaerator is overfed water;
8.2.6 The unit load changes abruptly;
8.2.7 Boiler water is unqualified or carry-over (priming);
8.2.8 The attemperating water valve of bypass system is not closed tightly;
8.2.9 When the superheat degree of initial steam and reheat steam is low, the speed governing
valve swings severely.
8.3 Treatment
8.3.1 Open the drain valves of steam turbine proper and the relevant steam pipes to intensify
proper drainage;
8.3.2 If water flowing into the steam turbine is caused by water overfeed of heater, it shall stop
the overfed heater and isolate it to drain water;
8.3.3 In case of white steam belching from the main and reheat steam pipe flange, and main stop
valve and governing valve lever, treat according to fault shutdown;
8.3.4 Record the idle time of turbine and listen to the sound of inside of turbine in idling carefully;
8.3.5 Put the turning gear into operation after the turbine come to rest, it shall execute the
stipulations for turning gear operation in shutdown strictly, and intensify proper drainage;
8.3.6 After turbine shutdown caused by water emergency, it can only restart the turbine after the
unit is normal through check, temperature difference between upper and lower cylinder is<50,
and rotor eccentricity <0.076mm with approval of the chief engineer;
8.3.7 In the process of the start, it shall pay attention to monitoring the axial displacement,
vibration and bearing temperature, etc. parameters and drainage of relevant stem pipes of the
turbine proper, if any abnormal sound or stator-rotor friction in the process of restart, it shall break
the vacuum to shut down immediately;
8.3.8 In case of water flowing into the turbine, if the axial displacement, differential expansion and
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bearing temperature reach the tripping value, idle time shortens obviously, or there is any
abnormal sound inside the turbine, it shall shut down to check.

9. Increasing of Axial Displacement


9.1 Phenomenon
9.1.1 It gives an alarm when the axial displacement is larger than 1mm;
9.1.2 Thrust pad temperature increases sharply, and the return oil temperature increases;
9.1.3 Vibration of the unit increases;
9.1.4 The differential expansion indication changes correspondingly.
9.2 Cause
9.2.1 The initial steam conditions decrease, and the through-flow part is overloaded;
9.2.2 The unit rejects load abruptly;
9.2.3 Water hammer occurs to the steam turbine;
9.2.4 Vacuum decreases greatly
9.2.5 The thrust pad is worn and oil interrupts;
9.2.6 The steam quality is unqualified and the stator blade scaled seriously.
9.3 Treatment
9.3.1 If the axial displacement increases, check the thrust pad temperature and return oil
temperature of thrust pad immediately and verify the increase of axial displacement, report to the
unit supervisor to request for reducing the load appropriately so as to make the axial
displacement, return oil temperature and thrust bearing temperature recover;
9.3.2 Check that the pressure of the monitored section that shall not be higher than the specified
value; Or else report to the unit supervisor to request for reducing the loading;
9.3.3 If the axial displacement increase is caused by initial steam conditions exceeding the limit,
it shall adjust the boiler combustion to remover normal conditions;
9.3.4 If the load reduction takes no effect, and the axial displacement reaches 1.2mm and
protection operates, it shall treat according to the emergency shutdown;
9.3.5 It shall shut down the turbine for emergency if the thrust pad oil interrupts or any point
temperature exceeds 107 and return oil temperature exceeds 75;
9.3.6 It shall shut down the turbine for emergency when the unit vibration exceeds limit due to
broken blade and water hammer;
9.3.7 It shall shut down the turbine for emergency if the protection refuses to operate when the
axial displacement increases to the limit value.

10. Steam Turbine Oil System Catching Fire


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10.1 Phenomenon
10.1.1 The fire monitor control raises the alarm;
10.1.2 Flare or smoke is discovered locally;
10.1.3 When the turbine oil pipe leaks, the oil level of main oil tank decreases;
10.1.4 When the lubricating oil system leaks, lubricating oil pressure decreases, signal
Lubricating Oil Pressure Low may be raised and AC & DC lubricating oil pump may interlock
start.
10.2 Cause
10.2.1 Oil system leaks;
10.2.2 Oil leaks to high temperature hot body or faulted electrical equipment;
10.2.3 Oil pipe is broken due to external causes and oil leaks to the hot body.
10.3 Treatment:
10.3.1 If any abnormal change in the oil level of main oil tank and all oil pressure, it shall find out
the cause, if due to oil leak of oil system, it shall ascertain the leaking point and try to isolate it
from surrounding hot body pat and operating equipment to prevent the oil system from catching
fire, meanwhile, contact the maintenance personnel to treat the leaking point temporarily;
10.3.2 If the equipment and pipe of unit oil system is damaged to leak, in any case where the
equipment or pipe cannot be isolated from system to be treated or oil has seeped into the heat
distribution pipe, it shall shut down to treat immediately;
10.3.3 After the system catches fire, it shall cut of the equipment power supply endangered by the
fire, and then extinguish the fire and advise the fire fighter immediately;
10.3.4 If the fire cannot be extinguished quickly and endangers the personal and equipment
safety, it shall break the vacuum to shut down for emergency immediately. Release the
interlocking of starting oil pump, not start the starting oil pump to shut down the lubricating oil
pump; if the lubricating oil system catches fire that cannot be extinguished, resulting in shutdown,
it may reduce the lubricating oil pressure to decrease oil leak in the precondition of ensuring
normal lubrication of bearing.
10.3.5 When the fire endangers the main oil tank or top platform, plant building and neighboring
turbine, after tripping to shut down, it shall open the emergency oil drain valve of main oil tank,
keep mini permitted oil level prior to the rotor coming to rest and drain out the remaining oil after
rotor coming to rest.

11. Abnormity of Steam Conditions


11.1 Steam temperature does not change, but the initial steam and reheat steam pressure

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become abnormal.
11.1.1 Phenomenon
a. Initial steam and reheat steam pressure gauge change;
b. DEH and DCS display the initial steam and reheat steam pressure alarm;
c. When the unit operating in coordinated control mode, its load changes correspondingly.
11.1.2 Cause
a. Fault in control system;
b. Units load changes abruptly.
11.1.3 Treatment
a. If it is the fault in control system that caused abnormality of initial and reheat steam
pressure, it shall adjust the charge of fuel to restore the initial and reheat steam pressure;
b. If it is the too quick change of units load that caused abnormality of initial and reheat
steam pressure, it shall try to stabilize the load and change it after the initial and reheat
steam pressure recovering;
c. If the initial and reheat steam pressure are high, it may increase the units load to make
the pressure recover;
d. When the initial steam pressure rises up to 14.71Mpa, it shall trip to shut down the turbine;
e. When the initial and reheat steam pressure change, it shall pay attention to the units
vibration, sound, differential expansion and axial displacement, as well as temperature
difference between upper and lower cylinder of turbine;
f. When the steam pressure drops, it shall control each monitored section pressure not
exceeding the max permitted value with initial steam flow rate440t/h;
g. If the steam pressure keeps on dropping to below 4Mpa and cannot recover, treat
according to fault shutdown.
11.2 Steam pressure does not change, but the initial steam and reheat steam temperature
become abnormal.
11.2.1 Phenomenon
a. Initial steam and reheat steam temperature gauge change;
b. DEH and DCS display the initial steam and reheat steam temperature alarm.
11.2.2 Cause
a. Governing of attemperator to the initial steam and reheat steam fails;
b. Boiler steam drum is overfed with water;
c. Boiler combustion is unstable and combustion condition changes;
d. Units load changes greatly;
e. Coking or soot deposit of furnace;
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f. In soot blowing of boiler;


g. Coal quality changes.
11.2.3 Treatment
a. If Auto mode of the initial steam and reheat steam attemperator fails, it shall adjust
manually to keep initial steam temperature not exceed 545;
b. Check the water level of steam drum and adjust the water level to normal;
c. If the boiler combustion rate is high, which caused initial and reheat steam temperature
becoming high, it shall reduce the load at the same time of reducing coal;
d. In the case where initial and reheat steam temperature exceed 545 and cannot recover
after running for more than 30 minutes; where the temperature continues to rise to 555
and cannot recover within more than 15 minutes; or where the temperature exceeds 565 ,
treat according to fault shutdown;
e. Temperature difference between the left and right of initial steam and reheat steam
temperature shall be less than 17;
f. When the initial steam and reheat steam temperature change in operation, it shall pay
attention to the units vibration, sound, differential expansion and axial displacement, as well
as temperature difference between upper and lower cylinder of turbine;
g. When the initial steam temperature decreases to 500, it shall open drain valves of the
turbine proper and initial steam conduit and intensify monitoring of metal temperature, axial
displacement and thrust pad temperature;
h. In the case where initial steam temperature decreases by 30 within 10min, it shall open
the drain valves of initial steam & reheat steam pipe and proper, report to the unit supervisor
and closely monitor the units vibration, axial displacement and differential expansion;
i. In the case where the steam temperature decreases by more than 50 within 10min, it
shall trip to shut down the turbine immediately;
j. In the case where initial steam temperature decreases suddenly and superheat degree of
steam decreases to below 150, it shall trip to shut down the turbine immediately.
11.3 Steam temperature and pressure decrease at the same time.
11.3.1 If the steam temperature and pressure decrease at the same time, it shall verify the
superheat degree and meanwhile restore steam conditions quickly, if fail, report to the unit
supervisor, reduce load and pay attention to monitoring the change in differential expansion and
axial displacement;
11.3.2 When the steam temperature decrease to the value under corresponding pressure and
superheat degree is not enough, it shall shut down the turbine for fault immediately;
11.3.3 Closely monitor if there is white steam belching or water drop spilling from the main stop
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valve, shaft seal and junction plane of cylinder, if any water hammer, it shall shut down the turbine
for emergency. Closely monitor the change in metal temperature and differential expansion;
11.3.4 Pay attention to the change in shaft seal pressure and water level of condenser and all
heaters, switch over the steam source of deaerator in time;
11.3.5 When the initial steam temperature and pressure decrease at same time, although not to
the shutdown temperature, the initial steam temperature is over 50 lower than the first stage
metal temperature, it shall report to the unit supervisor and request for fault shutdown.

12. DEH Failure


12.1 Phenomenon
12.1.1 DEH Power Failure light and sound alarm is raised;
12.1.2 DEH displays Main Power Supply Failure and Standby Power Supply Failure;
12.1.3 DEH displays DEH failure and the indicator lamp lights;
12.1.4 The indicator lamp of Operator Auto on DEH operating panel goes out;
12.1.5 The indicator lamp of Manual on DEH operating panel lights;
12.1.6 DEH displays Speed Failure.
12.2 Cause
12.2.1 Computers AC power off;
12.2.2 Fault in computer or VCC card;
12.2.3 Two of DEH speed feedback channels get fault in increasing and decreasing the speed of
turbine (extensive speed control).
12.3 Treatment
12.3.1 If it is required to change the load or rotating speed, operate the "GV UP and GV Down"
manually and observe the change in speed or load via the "Speed" or "Power" window.
12.3.2 Pay attention to monitor if the changes in turbine lubricating oil temperature, bearing return
oil temperature, axial displacement, differential expansion and vibration are within normal range.
12.3.3 If DEH power off, turbine should trip automatically, and otherwise it shall trip it manually;
12.3.4 If DEH failure caused main stop valve or HP governing valve on one side closing, it shall
shut down the turbine immediately.

13. Abnormity of Steam Turbine Lubricating Oil System


13.1 Main phenomena of the abnormity of oil system:
13.1.1 Main oil pump operates abnormally;
13.1.2 Oil leakage of the equipment and oil system;
13.1.3 Foreign matters dropped into the oil pipe and the strainer is dirty;
13.1.4 Lubricating oil system valve element dropped out;
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13.1.5 Auxiliary oil pump operates abnormally;


13.1.6 Too low oil level of the oil tank;
13.1.7 Oil system catches fire.
13.2 Fault in the main oil pump
13.2.1 Phenomenon
a. Outlet oil pressure decreases;
b. Sound in the units head is abnormal;
c. When the case becomes serious, the starting oil pump starts to operate automatically and
the alarm window raises an alarm.
13.2.2 Treatment
a. The starting oil pump shall start to operate automatically when the oil pressure decreases
to 0.883MPa, otherwise start it immediately and check if the inlet oil pressure of main oil
pump and stage I oil injector are normal;
b. Listen to the sound of main oil pump carefully, closely observe the change in system oil
pressure and report to the unit supervisor;
c. Ascertain the fault in main oil pump and treat according to emergency shutdown with
vacuum broken.
13.3 Oil pressure decreases, but oil level does not change.
13.3.1 Cause
a. Check valves of the staring oil pump and AC & DC lubricating oil pump are untight;
b. Oil injector and main oil pump operate abnormally;
c. The outlet strainer of the oil cooler is blocked;
d. Overpressure valve is adjusted improperly or spring is broken;
e. Internal leak between oil supply system and oil return system.
13.3.2 Treatment:
a. When the oil pressure decrease to 0.883Mpa, the starting oil pump should start
automatically, otherwise start it manually;
b. Check the cause of oil pressure being low and if the speed governing system operates
normally;
c. Check if the indication of oil tanks oil level gauge is normal;
d. Check the return oil quantity of each bearing, if the return oil quantity of bearing #1
increases, it indicates the speed governing oil pump or main oil pump seal ring in this
bearing box leaks oil;
e. If there is any lubricating oil pressure decreases, when the oil pressure decreases to
0.07Mpa, the AC lubricating oil pump should start to operate automatically, otherwise start it
manually to increase the lubricating oil pressure;

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f. Switch the lubricating oil strainer, and operate and check if the stage oil injector is
blocked.
g. If the overpressure valve operates by mistake, contact the maintenance personnel to treat;
h. If the lubricating oil pressure still decreases to 0.06MPa, the DC lubricating oil pump
should start to operate automatically, otherwise start it manually;
i. The lubricating oil pressure still decreases to 0.06MPa even if various measures, it shall
break the vacuum for emergency shutdown.
13.4 The oil pressure does not change, while oil level decreases:
13.4.1 Cause:
a. Oil leak in the return oil pipe of the oil cooler, oil system or oil catch of bearing;
b. Emergency oil drain valve, oil drain valve of oil tank, sampling valve or water discharging
valve etc. leak or opened by mistake;
c. Oil gauge malfunctioned;
d. If the oil pump packing set leaks oil seriously.
13.4.2 Treatment:
a. Check if the indication of the oil level gauge of oil tank is right;
b. Check if the emergency oil drain valve and sampling valve etc. leak or opened by mistake;
c. Check the leak of the running oil cooler, if any, it shall switch over to others.
d. Check if there is oil leak of oil system pipe completely, if any, try to eliminate the leak and
take strict precautions against oil leaking to high temperature pipe and equipment;
e. When the oil level of oil tank decreases to 1,800mm, it shall contact the maintenance
personnel to service and make up oil in time;
f. When oil level decreases to 1,245mm, if any means takes no effect, it shall break the
vacuum for emergency shutdown.
13.5 Oil pressure does not change, which oil level rises:
13.5.1 Phenomenon & cause:
a. Great steam leakage of shaft seal and too wide clearance of main bearing oil catch
caused water mixed in oil;
b. Oil cooler leaks, and the pressure of water side is higher than that of oil side.
13.5.2 Treatment
a. Check if the indication of the oil level gauge is right;
b. Discharge the water from the bottom of oil tank, if the water quantity is high, it shall advise
the chemical staff to assay the oil quality and filter the oil if necessary;
c. Adjust the steam inlet pressure and flow of shaft seal;
d. Switch over the oil cooler to check leaks;
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e. Ascertain the cause of water flowing into oil system then eliminate it.
13.6 Oil pressure and level decrease at the same time.
13.6.1 If the oil supply system leaks seriously, it shall report to the unit supervisor to try to stop
the leak and take measures against fire, change the direction of oil leakage to keep it off the hot
body if necessary, meanwhile advise the maintenance personnel to make up oil of oil tank and
eliminate the defect;
13.6.2 Check if the oil and water discharge valves are on closed position;
13.6.3 Check leak of the oil cooler, if any, it shall switch to the standby oil cooler in time;
13.6.4 If the bearing oil inlet pressure decreases to below 0.06Mpa or oil level decreases to
1,245mm due to a great deal of oil leak, it shall start the lubricating oil pump immediately to break
the vacuum for emergency shutdown.
13.7 The return oil temperature of bearing rises
13.7.1 Cause
a. The outlet oil temperature of the oil cooler rises;
b. The lubricating oil pressure decreases or the oil inlet pipe of bearing is blocked;
c. The bearing pas is damaged and inlet hole is blocked;
d. Much vibration of the unit;
e. The steam turbine is overloaded and axial thrust is excessive;
f. The oil quality decreases.
13.7.2 Treatment
a. When the return oil temperature of bearing rises by 2~3 suddenly, it shall find out the
cause and take corresponding measures;
b. When the return oil temperature of all bearings rises, it shall check if the oil outlet
temperature of oil cooler and lubricating oil pressure are normal;
c. When the return oil temperature of only one bearing rises, it shall check the inlet oil
pressure and return oil flow of this bearing, as well as bearing vibration and axial
displacement change, and report to the unit supervisor;
d. When the thrust bearing pad temperature rises to 80 , report to the unit supervisor and
find out the cause, if the temperature keeps on rising to 90 , report to the unit supervisor to
lower the oil outlet temperature of oil cooler and load appropriately, meanwhile pay attention
to the axial displacement and return oil temperature of thrust bearing pad.
e. When any bearing oil interrupts or smokes or bearing return oil temperature rises up to
75 sharply, it shall break the vacuum for emergency shutdown.

13.8 Fault in auxiliary oil pump:


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13.8.1 In the process of unit start, it shall treat the fault in the starting oil pump as follows:
a. When the rotating speed of steam turbine reaches below 2500rpm, start the lubricating oil
pump immediately, trip to shut down the turbine, and it can only restart the turbine after
removing the fault in the starting oil pump;
b. When the rotating speed of steam turbine reaches above 2500rpm, it shall start the AC
lubricating oil pump at once, if the main oil pump is able to maintain normal oil pressure,
increase the speed up to 3,000rpm quickly, stop and service the starting oil pump, it can only
restart after removing the fault in the starting oil pump.
13.8.2 Treatment of fault in the auxiliary oil pump in the process of unit shutdown:
a. If it is the AC lubricating oil pump that gets fault, start the starting oil pump or DC
lubricating oil pump immediately to make shutdown continue;
b. If all three oil pumps get fault: it shall start the jacking oil pump immediately to break the
vacuum for emergency shutdown.

14. Abnormal Vibration of the Unit


14.1 Phenomenon
14.1.1 The vibration indication on DEH panel increases;
14.1.2 The unit sends out abnormal sound, and lubricating oil pressure and temperature may
become abnormal;
14.1.3 Bearing vibrates sharply and the sound-light alarm is raised;
14.1.4 Bearing vibration increases as measured locally.
14.2 Cause
14.2.1 The oil temperature is abnormal, resulting in oscillation of oil film;
14.2.2 Oil flowing into the bearing pad is insufficient or interrupted, resulting in damage to oil film;
14.2.3 Unit load and steam conditions change abruptly;
14.2.4 The opening extent of the main stop valve and governing valve are different between side
A and B, deviation of steam flow is great;
14.2.5 Expansion on both sides of cylinder is uneven;
14.2.6 The sliding key system is jammed;
14.2.7 High metal temperature difference of cylinder resulted in heat distortion or bending of
shaft;
14.2.8 Shaft seal is damaged or shaft end is cooled, result in bending of shaft;
14.2.9 Breakdown of blades and deformation of diaphragm;
14.2.10 The rotor components become loose or the rotor is unbalanced;
14.2.11 The thrust pad is damaged, axial displacement increases or bearing bush clearance is
unqualified;
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14.2.12 The generator rotor is not heated equally.


14.2.13 The running components in the front bearing case fall off.
14.2.14 Center of the turbine-generator is abnormal, or the rotor bending is relatively large and
exceeds the specified value as starting.
14.2.15 Condenser vacuum is low;
14.2.16 The generator exciter caused the vibration;
14.2.17 Anchor bolts of all bearing bushes of the turbine-generator unit become loose;
14.2.18 Oil contains foreign matters that wear the bearing bush tungsten-base alloy or water mix
in oil and oil is emulsified.
14.3 Treatment
14.3.1 The unit vibrates sharply suddenly, or metal sound inside the unit can be heard clearly, it
shall break the vacuum for emergency shutdown quickly.
14.3.2 Abnormal vibration occurs during operation:
a. When discovering the bearing vibration increases gradually, if the rotor vibration exceeds
0.08mm or bearing vibration exceeds 0.03mm, it shall report to the unit supervisor to try to
eliminate the vibration, if the rotor vibration exceeds 0.254mm, it shall shut down
immediately;
b. If the unit sends out impulsive sound from the inside in operation or the conductivity of
condensate increases suddenly, the monitored section pressure at same load rises and
vibration increases obviously, it shall immediately break the vacuum for emergency
shutdown;
c. When the shaft vibration changes by 0.05mm or bush vibration changes 0.03mm, it shall
find out and try to eliminate the cause, when the bearing vibration change increases to
0.015mm suddenly, it shall trip and shut down the unit immediately;
d. When the load changes, it shall reduce the load until vibration disappears;
e. If it fails in ascertaining the vibration cause directly, it shall take measures to reduce the
load, If the vibration or abnormal sound remains, report to the unit supervisor and relative
leaders for settlement.
14.3.3 Abnormal vibration occurs during start-up and shutdown:
a. In the case where rotor eccentricity at a speed of below 600r/min or bearing vibration
exceeds 0.03mm at a speed of below 1200r/min in the process of start-up speed rise, it shall
trip and shut down the unit immediately. When the unit operates at critical speed, if the
bearing vibration exceeds 0.10mm or shaft vibration exceeds 0.25mm, it shall trip and shut
down the unit immediately. It is prohibited to warm up with critical speed or reduction of
speed forcedly. It can only restart the unit after ascertaining and removing the cause;
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b. It shall cease the start-up when there is friction at end shaft seal or through-flow parts,
report to the unit supervisor and relative leaders, it can only restart the unit after finding out
the cause;
c. In the process of shutdown, if friction sound inside the end shaft seal or cylinder can be
heard clearly, it shall break the vacuum for emergency shutdown;
d. In the case of shutdown due to abnormal vibration, it shall pay attention to the idle time
and listen to the inner sound of the unit carefully and increase the time of continuous turning.

15. Generator parallels off, while turbine does not trip


15.1 Phenomenon
15.1.1 Load reaches 0, generator parallels off, all extraction check valves close and make
signals;
15.1.2 The electric overspeed OPC protection operates, after closing, HP & MP speed governing
valves open to no load position, and the speed decreases to about 3,000r/min;
15.1.3 Running sound of the turbine changes suddenly and the speed rises.
15.2 Treatment
15.2.1 Adjust the speed to keep the unit at 3,000r/min;
15.2.2 Close and check all electric extraction valves;
15.2.3 Keep the water level of deaerator normal, close extraction 3 motor-operated valve, change
the steam source of deaerator to be supplied by the neighboring turbine, adjust the water level of
condenser and check the LP cylinder spray that shall put into operation;
15.2.4 Switch over the steam supply of shaft seal in time;
15.2.5 If all parts of the unit are normal through a thorough check, report to the unit supervisor
and parallel the generator in with load on;
15.2.6 If the generator fails in paralleling in within 15min after rejection of load, it shall shut down
the unit for fault.

16. Generator parallels off and turbine trips


16.1 Phenomenon
16.1.1 Load reaches 0, generator parallels off and emergency governor operates;
16.1.2 HP & MP main stop valve, speed governing valve, all extraction check valves and HP
exhaust check valves closed, unit sound changes abruptly and speed rises and then decreases;
16.1.3 The initial steam pressure rises, steam flow meter indication approaches zero.
16.2 Treatment
16.2.1 When the speed decreases to 3,000r/min, release the interlocking of starting oil pump and
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start the lubricating oil pump;


16.2.2 Pay attention to adjusting the water level of condenser and HP & LP heater, put the LP
cylinder spray into operation;
16.2.3 Maintain the water level of deaerator and switch into standby steam source of deaerator;
16.2.4 Check the unit completely and switch the steam supply of shaft seal to the standby;
16.2.5 Record the idle time when the speed decreases to zero, and stop the steam supply of
shaft seal when the vacuum decreases to zero and put the turning gear into operation in time;
16.2.6 After shutdown, check the unit thoroughly, find out the causes of speed governing system
operating abnormally and generator paralleling off, it can only restart the unit after eliminate the
causes and unit being normal through test.

17. Turbine trips, while the generator does not parallel off
17.1 Phenomenon
17.1.1 Some protection operates and makes signals, power reaches zero or displayed in
negative;
17.1.2 HP & MP Main stop valve, speed governing valve, extraction check valve and HP exhaust
check valves closed;
17.1.3 The generator does not parallel off and speed does not change.
17.2 Treatment
17.2.1 After the protection operating, it shall cut off the outlet switch of generator-transformer unit
to parallel off and shut down, and the operating time of unit without steam shall not exceed 1
minute;
17.2.2 Check and ascertain the cause steam turbine protection operating, treat according to
emergency shutdown or fault shutdown;
17.2.3 If the protection of steam turbine operates by mistake, it shall advise the thermodynamic
engineer to find out and remove the cause quickly. If it fails within 15 minutes, it shall shut down
the unit for fault;
17.2.4 Advise the electric staff to find out and remove the non-tripping cause of generatortransformer unit quickly;
17.2.5 After removing the fault, it can only restart the unit after it is normal through test.

18. Failure of Thermodynamic Power Supply


18.1 Phenomenon
18.1.1 The heat-control power indicator lamp goes out and the alarm window lights;
18.1.2 The indication of instruments is abnormal and all indicator lamps go out;
18.1.3 Power failure of motor-operated valves and governing valves, and malfunction of all
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automatic governing;
18.1.4 Partial protections and interlocks of the unit can not operate.
18.2 Treatment
18.2.1 Immediately contact heat engineer to recover the power supply, check and monitor primary
meters locally, and switch the automatic into manual governing;
18.2.2 Report to the unit supervisor and keep the unit load stably as much as possible;
18.2.3 Avoid adjusting as much as possible, monitor the operation of equipment according to the
indication of local meters and ammeter of each auxiliary equipment, etc., and make necessary
adjustment locally;
18.2.4 When the system or equipment becomes abnormal, and the unit loses operating and
monitoring means, which affect the safety of main equipment, report to the unit lead and conduct
fault shutdown;
18.2.5 If the heat control power supply can not recover within 30 minutes, make fault shutdown.
18.2.6 If the heat control power supply of turbine and boiler fail at the same time, it shall conduct
fault shutdown.

19. High Bearing Temperature of Turbine-generator Unit


19.1 Phenomenon
19.1.1 DEH displays that the bearing temperature is high and raises the alarm;
19.1.2 Local thermometer of bearing return oil displays high indication.
19.2 Cause
19.2.1 Lubricating oil temperature is high or pressure is low, and the oil quality is unqualified;
19.2.2 Bearing inlet & outlet oil pipes are jammed;
19.2.3 Motion and static bearing has friction between the stationary and rotary part;
19.2.4 Shaft seal leaks steam too seriously;
19.2.5 Vibration cause damage to the oil film, and the lubrication is poor;
19.2.6 Unit is overloaded or vacuum of condenser is low vacuum.
19.3 Treatment
19.3.1 If bearing temperature high alarm is raised, it shall intensify monitoring;
19.3.2 When the temperature of all bearings rises generally, if the lubricating oil pressure is low, it
shall treat according to the decreasing of lubricating oil pressure, if the lubricating oil pressure is
normal, it shall check if the state of inlet and outlet valve of oil cooler is right, and adjust the
lubricating oil temperature to normal;
19.3.3 if the temperature of individual bearings is high, listen to if there is metal friction sound
inside the bearing and observe the condition of return oil, and lower the unit load at high
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temperature alarm;
19.3.4 If the shaft seal pressure is high and the steam leak of shaft seal is serious, it shall check
the steam source governing valve of shaft seal and adjust the shaft seal pressure to normal;
19.3.5 When the temperature of journal bearing #1-3 of turbine reaches 112 , the temperature
of journal bearing #4-5 of generator reaches 80 and the temperature of thrust bearing reaches
107, the steam turbine should trip automatically; if bearing return oil reaches 80 , it shall treat
according to emergency shutdown for fault;
19.3.6 Pay attention to adjusting the unit load and vacuum of condenser.

20. Burning out of Turbine-generator Bearing Bush


20.1 Phenomenon:
20.1.1 The bearing metal temperature rises abruptly;
20.1.2 The bearing return oil temperature rises abruptly;
20.1.3 The unit vibration increases;
20.1.4 Bearing smokes.
20.2 Cause
20.2.1 Oil in and oil return of bearing are not smooth;
20.2.2 Foreign matters falling in the bearing, and tungsten-base alloy dropped out;
20.2.3 Return oil temperature of cooler is too high or too low;
20.2.4 Oil quality deteriorated;
20.2.5 Vibrations caused crack of oil film;
20.2.6 The stress distributed to bearings is uneven and load of individual bearing is high;
20.2.7 Lubricating oil flow of the bearing is insufficient or broken;
20.2.8 Oil cooler and lubricating oil strainer are switched over improperly, which resulted in air
mixing in oil;
20.2.9 The axial thrust rises suddenly, which resulted in overload of thrust bearing;
20.2.10 The bearing has its own defect.
20.3 Treatment
20.3.1 If the metal temperature and return oil of any bearing rise of the generator unit rise
abnormally, it shall find out the cause immediately;
20.3.2 Start AC lubricating oil pump to raise the oil pressure if the lubricating oil quantity is
insufficient, check if any valve operates by mistake, if the oil level of main oil tank is normal and if
the lubricating oil strainer is blocked, meanwhile contact the maintenance personnel to check that
if the oil injector and lubricating oil overpressure valve work normally;
20.3.3 If the lubricating oil temperature is abnormal, adjust it to normal;
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20.3.4 If any bearing oil interrupts, smokes or metal temperature and return oil temperature of
bearing reach the limit, it shall break the vacuum to trip and shut down the unit immediately.

21. Steam Turbine Shaft Bending


21.1 Phenomenon:
21.1.1 Steam turbine has abnormal vibration and bearing box swags;
21.1.2 The steam seal of shaft end sparkles or form a fire ring;
21.1.3 Idle time of the bearing shortens obviously after shutdown;
21.1.4 The turning gear can not be put into operation or the turning gear current is larger than
normal value and oscillates periodically after shutdown;
21.1.5 The shaft eccentricity is large after shutdown;
21.2 Cause
21.2.1 The eccentricity of rotor exceeds the specified range before start;
21.2.2 High temperature difference between upper and lower cylinder;
21.2.3 Inlet steam temperature is low;
21.3.4 Cold water and steam enter the cylinder;
21.3.5 When unit vibration exceeds the specified value, it fails to trip and shut down the unit;
21.2.6 Rotor deflected as assembled;
21.2.7 Turning gear is abnormal or not put into operation in time after shutdown and
vacuumization.
21.3 Treatment:
21.3.1 When abnormal vibration occurs to the unit, it shall find out the cause and report to the unit
supervisor and try to eliminate the vibration;
21.3.2 When the vibration of unit reaches the shutdown value or shaft seal sparkles, it shall break
the vacuum and conduct fault immediately;
21.3.3 After shutdown, immediately put the turning gear into operation, open the drain valve of
steam turbine proper, closely monitor the temperature difference between upper and lower
cylinder, as well as turning gear current and eccentricity, etc. parameters to prevent strictly cold
water and steam from entering the steam turbine and insulate the steam turbine from outside
system reliably;
21.3.4 After shutdown, if the shaft seal rubs seriously, it shall put the high point of rotor on the
highest position, close cylinder drain, maintain the temperature difference between upper and
lower cylinder and monitor rotor bending becoming normal, thereafter operate the turning gear by
180 manually to ascertain the rotor bending is normal, put in continuous turning, it is strictly
prohibited to turn forcedly with a crane if turning fails;
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21.3.5 If it is the fault in turning gear that caused shutdown, after shutdown, it shall monitor the
change in rotor bending, when the bending is high, it shall operate the turning gear by 180 and
put the continuous turning into operation after the turning becomes normal in time;
21.3.6 After shutdown, continuous turning time must not be less than 4 hours, only after the
temperature difference between upper and lower cylinder, turning gear current, and rotor
eccentricity meeting the starting conditions, can restart the unit after reporting to the unit
supervisor, closely monitor the rotor vibration and eccentricity etc. parameters in start, if any
abnormality, trip and shut down the unit immediately.

22. Steam turbine Overspeed


22.1 Phenomenon:
22.1.1 The unit rejects the load to zero suddenly and sends out abnormal sound;
22.1.2 Rotating speed and frequency indication of the unit exceed the stipulated value and keep
on rising;
22.1.3 The outlet pressure of main oil pump and lubricating oil pressure increase;
22.1.4 Unit vibration increases;
22.1.5 OPC protection operates, and the mechanical overspeed protection and electric
overspeed protection of the unit possibly operate.
22.2 Cause:
22.2.1 DEH control system works abnormally and has defects;
22.2.2 Poor oil quality of the steam turbine makes the control and governing system refuse to
operate and loss protective function;
22.2.3 Test to the emergency governor is not done according to the stipulated conditions and
time, so the emergency governor operates to make the rotating speed change;
22.2.3 Poor steam quality and main stop valve and governing valve lever scaling result in valves
being jammed and cannot be closed;
22.2.4 Extraction steam check valve and HP check valve are out of order, drain of the high
pressure heater vaporized or steam of public system enters the steam turbine.
22.3 Treatment:
22.3.1 After the unit rejects load to zero and rotating speed reach 3,090r/min, check that HP &
MP governing valve shall be closed, try to close the unclosed if any, lower the units rotating
speed to 3000r/min or so, ascertain and eliminate the cause of load rejection within 15 minutes
and parallel the unit in, if fails, it shall conduct fault shutdown;
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22.3.2 When the unit speed rises up to 3,300r/min, check that the mechanical and
electromagnetic overspeed protection shall operate. Otherwise it shall trip and shut down the unit
manually, verify that the HP & MP main stop valve and all extraction check valve shall be closed,
cut off all possible steam access to turbine and immediately open the vacuum breaker valve for
emergency shutdown;
22.3.3 If the overspeed is caused by HP & MP main stop valve being jammed, it shall
immediately start the overheater or reheater atmospheric exhaust valve, and etc. to reduce the
pressure;
22.3.4 Eliminate the cause of overspeed after the turbine is shut down for overspeed, and it can
be restarted after it is qualified through calibration, it shall intensify overall check of the unit in
restart, if any abnormality, it shall find out and eliminate the cause immediately.

23. Feed water pump set outlet check valve is untight and rotates reversely
23.1 Phenomenon:
23.1.1 Feed water pump reverses;
23.1.2 The pressure of the outlet header pipe decreases and the current of the parallel running
pump increases;
23.1.3 Sound of the reversing pump is abnormal and accompanied by increased vibration;
23.1.4 Water level of deaerator rises;
23.1.5 Water level of steam drum decreases and feed water flow decreases;
23.1.6 The oil inlet temperature of working oil cooler rises.
23.2 Treatment
23.2.1 Once discovering pump reversing, it shall close the outlet motor-operated valve and center
tap motor-operated valve of this pump immediately;
23.2.2 If the reversing feed water pump outlet motor-operated valve and center tap valve loss
power or jammed and cannot be closed, it shall stop the working feed water pump, close the
forced handwheel of HP heater outlet check valve, close the main feed water motor-operated
valve of boiler and feed water bypass motor-operated valve, press MFT to shut down the boiler
and shut down the turbine without vacuum broken;
23.2.3 In any case, the feed water pump can only be stopped after all outlet motor-operated
valves have been closed. Assign person to monitor locally if the pump reverses in the process of
stopping the pump;
23.2.4 When the feed water pump restores standby, it shall open the outlet motor-operated valve
with hand, and verify the outlet check valve have returned prior to electric opening.

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24. Turbine-generator unit operates at abnormal frequency


24.1 Phenomenon:
24.1.1 Indication of frequency meter decreases or rises.
24.1.2 Sudden change of the units sound.
24.1.3 DEH shows that the indication of steam turbine speed decreases or rises.
24.1.4 Indication of power meter decreases or rises.
24.2 Cause: Fault in the electric power network system.
24.3 Treatment
24.3.1 If frequency decreases and unit load increases, it shall stabilize the unit load at the rating
as soon as possible that is not permitted to exceed max limit to load. Pay attention to that the
pressure of all monitored sections and initial steam flow shall not exceed the maximum value,
otherwise reduce the load manually;
24.3.2 Check if the initial steam conditions, vacuum, axial displacement, thrust bearing
temperature & vibration and lubricating oil pressure are normal.
24.3.3 Pay attention to the operation of each auxiliary equipment and check if any operating
equipment is overloaded to heat.
24.3.4 Strictly monitor the unit frequency not to exceed the value in the following table:
Frequency(Hz)

Permitted operating time


Accumulated (min)

Every time (Sec)

52.5

>5

>5

52.0

>30

>30

47.5~51.5

Continuous operation

47

>60

>60

46.5

>10

>10

46

>2

>2

24.3.5 In operation at high frequency, reduce the active output as required, pay attention to the
vibration of unit, if the vibration rises up to the tripping value, it shall conduct emergency
shutdown.

25. Boiler Fire Extinction


25.1 Phenomenon
25.1.1 MFT operates, sound & light alarm is raised;
25.1.2 Negative pressure of furnace increases suddenly;
25.1.3 Furnace inner is dark, flame of the monitor disappears, alarm window of no fire in the

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upper, middle and lower layer raised an alarm;


25.1.4 Steams pressure and temperature decrease sharply, the water level of steam drum first
decreases and then rises;
25.1.5 Boiler fire extinguishing, MFT operates, steam turbine trips, generator-transformer unit
parallels off the system;
25.2 Cause
25.2.1 Conditions of the MFT operation are met;
25.2.2 Auxiliary power interrupts;
25.2.3 Boiler load is too low, operation and adjustment are improper, disproportion between air
and pulverized coal, primary air speed is too high or proportioning of primary and secondary air is
improper;
25.2.4 Jet burner operates with seriously unfilled corner, coal feeder gets fault, pulverized coal
chute is blocked, level of pulverized coal is too low, which make combustion unstable that is not
adjusted and treated in time;
25.2.5 Water-cold wall pipe, economizer, superheater and reheater burst seriously;
25.2.6 Boiler has serious fouling and coke residue fall off by a large area;
25.2.7 Coal quality is too poor, volatile content is too low or coal type changes suddenly;
25.2.8 When ash is being removed, large amount of cold air enter the furnace;
25.2.9 When the combustion is unstable, fail in put oil into supporting the combustion in time;
25.2.10 During startup, oil gun gets fault and oil quality is poor;
25.2.11 Induced and forced draft blower trip;
25.2.12 Both flame monitor and cooling fan get fault.
25.3 Treatment
25.3.1 Extinguish the boiler fire and treat the unit as emergency shutdown;
25.3.2 Report to the unit supervisor, extinguish the boiler fire, if the turbine does not trip, reduce
the load to 5~20MW according to the steam pressure, keep turbine at full speed, but if the
operating time at no load exceeds 15 min, it shall trip to shut down the turbine immediately;
25.3.3 Close the attemperating water valve, change the auto control of feed water to manual
control and control the water supply well, prevent the boiler from being overfed with and lack of
water; monitor and adjust the water level of the deaerator and condenser, as well as shaft seal
pressure.
25.3.4 In the process of fire extinction, pay attention to control no cooling of cylinder, strictly
prevent water hammer accident, closely monitor the differential expansion and temperature
change of all metals.
25.3.5 For boiler fire extinction, if it is to maintain low power operation, it shall keep initial steam
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pressure and temperature down rate not exceed the permitted value and fulfill the operations or
checks as specified in section 25.3.2~25.3.4.
25.3.6 In the process of treatment, closely monitor we various differential expansion, axial
displacement, temperature, vibration and sound, etc. of thrust bearing pad.

26. Treatment of Accidents & Abnormity of the Motor


26.1 Conditions of motor emergency shutdown (shut down first and then start the standby)
a)

When there is a fatal accident requiring emergency shutdown of motor (including

electric shock and the mechanical injury).


b) The machine driven by the motor is damaged or motor fan dropped out.
c) The motor and its subsidiary electrical equipment smoke or catch fire.
d) The rotating speed of motor slows down sharply and the current rises or reaches 0
(including the abnormal voltage and mechanical failure).
e) The temperature of motor or bearing rises sharply to exceed the permitted value and
keeps on rising.
f) Much vibration above the rated value occurs or shock occurs inside and friction exists in
between the stator and rotor.
g) In the case of flood or Water accident or fire accident, etc. that endangers safe
operation of the motor.
26.2 In any case as follows, it is permitted to start the standby motor first and then stop the
faulted motor:
a) There is abnormal sound or insulation burnt odor during the operation.
b) The motor or the starting governing equipment sparkles and smokes from the inside.
c) The vibration reaches the permitted value and exceeds the standard value for a short
time.
d) When the temperature of core, bearing, bearing bush, enclosure and end cover, etc. is
high abnormally and no treatment takes effect.
e) The cable lead of motor overheats too seriously, or leaks oil and blisters.
f) The cooler of the large-size sealed cooling motor gets fault.
g) The motor current rises to exceed the rated value or the imbalance value of three-phase
current exceeds more than 10% cannot recover.
h) The electric brush of DC motor catches fire seriously that cannot be extinguished in
operation

26.3 Treatment of Abnormal Operation & Accidents of Motor


26.3.1 When there is any abnormal state occurring in operation of motor, it shall report to the unit
supervisor at once to assign special person to check.
26.3.2 For the tripped important motor (the one that will affect the output and safe operation of the
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unit ), when there is no standby one or the standby one cannot be started quickly, in order to keep
the unit keep on operating, once forced closing of the tripped motor is permitted. But the following
cases are not included:
a. In case of fatal accident that requires immediate shutdown.
b. The equipment driven by the motor is broken.
c. The motor with protection operating to trip (for feed water pump & water circulating pump)
26.3.3 Treatment of motor tripping
a. Start the standby power.
b. If there is no standby power, it shall assign person to check, if no problem, restart it, if it
trips again, then prohibit starting and advise the maintaining personnel to treat.
26.3.4 Treatment of motor starting with sound but without rotating or abnormal rotating speed
a. Cut off the power supply of motor immediately and check it according to the cases above;
if the fuse has blown, replace with a new one, if the voltage is too low, there is the means to
adjust the voltage.
b. Advise the maintenance personnel to treat.
26.3.5 Treatment of motor rotor with current oscillating periodically in operation
a. Start the standby motor unit and stop the equipment with fault
b. It shall intensify monitoring of the equipment with fault if there is no standby one, and it
shall stop the unit with fault and report to the maintenance personnel if the check and
treatment fail and oscillating amplitude of ammeter increases.
26.3.6 Treatment of motor with smoking & fire and burnt odor
a. Switch off the power supply of the motor at once.
b. Extinguish the fire with the forceful dry powder extinguisher, 1211 extinguisher, CO 2
extinguisher or the mist-sprinkling extinguisher. It is strictly prohibited to use high flow water,
sand and foam extinguisher to extinguish the fire.
c. After fire extinction, cut off the power supply of the faulted motor with and isolate it for
safety purpose, and advise the maintenance personnel to treat.
26.3.7 Treatment of motor with much vibration
a. Start the standby equipment and stop the operation of the equipment with vibration.
b. If there is no standby equipment, it shall lower the load of motor to see if the vibration can
decrease or disappear.
c. If the vibration continues, it shall cut off the power supply for treatment.
26.3.8 If the motor temperature in operation rises abnormally to exceed the permitted value, it
shall make the following checks:
a. If the voltage is lower than the specified value and the current is higher than the rated
value.
b. If the cooling system and fan operate normally.
c. If the three-phase current (voltage) is in balance.

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d. If the equipment drive is jammed and caused overload.


26.3.9 Check and treatment of motor with bearing temperature rising in operation
a. Check if the oil ring can rotate, if oil carriage is normal, if oil pipeline is blocked or oil
interrupted.
b. If oil quantity is sufficient, pressure and temperature are normal.
c. If the rolling bearing is overfed with or lacks oil.
d. If the cooling water of bearing is normal.
e. If there is abnormal sound or worn parts of the bearing.
26.3.10 Precautions for treatment of abnormal operation & accident of motor
a. When auxiliary power disappears, do not switch off the motor within 1 minute (except that
with low voltage trip).
b. In the case of tripping for low voltage protection operating, it is strictly prohibited to start
the motor forcedly.

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PART 6 Auxiliary Equipment & Common


Service System

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Chapter 1 General Operation Rules of Auxiliary Equipment


1.1 Precautions for auxiliary equipment start-up
1.1.1 The auxiliary equipment after servicing must go through various interlocking and protection
tests and be qualified through test prior to trial run, and must be qualified through trial run prior to
operation.
1.1.2 Auxiliary equipment can only be powered on after the conditions are met through check
locally.
1.1.3 Before starting the 6,600V and principal 6,600V equipment, it shall assign special person to
check locally and starting conditions shall be met. The staff on duty shall stand by the emergency
button and stop it in time once discovering any problem.
1.1.4 After the outlet valve of the centrifugal pump is closed, can it be started (except the standby
pump) after the scoop tube opening is placed on 0, forbidden to start with load;
1.1.5 After the motor is closed, it shall monitor tightly the returning time of current, forbidden to
start other equipment until the current returns;
1.1.6 Immediately reset the switch if trips after closing, and do not start any more until finding out
the cause;
1.1.7 It must not start more than two auxiliary equipment above 6.6 kv on one busbar at the same
time.

1.2 Check before auxiliary equipment startup


1.2.1 The local check and maintenance have been finished, work sheets have been called back,
equipment and surrounding impurities have been cleaned up, equipments appearance is
unbroken, connection is firm, safety cover of turning parts are installed, related meters have been
put into operation and illumination is sufficient.
1.2.2 The lubricating oil, quality, level and temperature of all oil sites are satisfactory, auxiliary
equipment temperature and motor temperature are satisfactory and cooling water is normal.
1.2.3 Motor is earthed reliably, if the motor has been serviced, its rotating direction shall be right
through test prior to connecting with auxiliary equipment, the insulation of motor which has
stopped for more than 3 days or possibly be affected with damp shall be tested for qualification.
1.2.4 Manual turning is flexible without any jamming, and the rotor does not reverse prior to startup.

1.3 Check after auxiliary equipment start-up


1.3.1 In normal condition, the motors long-time operating temperature shall be as specified on
the nameplate of the manufactory, refer to the following table for the temperature of each part if
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there is no regulation from the manufactory.


Permitted Temperature Rise of Different Insulation Grades
Insulation
Grade

Max

Max p

Max

Max

Permitted

Permitted

Permitted

Permitted

Permitted

Permitted

Permitte

Permitted

temp.

temp. rise

temp.

temp. rise

temp.

temp. rise

d temp.

temp. rise

95

55

105

65

110

70

125

85

100

60

115

75

140

80

140

100

100

60

110

70

140

80

130

90

80

40

80

40

80

40

80

40

100

60

100

60

100

60

100

60

Stator and
rotor
winding
Stator core
Sliding
ring
Sliding
bearing
Rolling
bearing

The temperature of bearing in normal operation shall be stable, generally the sliding bearing
temperature shall not exceed 65 and the rolling bearing temperature shall not exceed 80 .
The enclosure temperature of the motor with grade A insulation must not exceed 75;
The enclosure temperature of the motor with grade E insulation must not exceed 80 ;
The enclosure temperature of the motor with grade b insulation must not exceed 85 ;
If excess, it shall lower the output or take measures to lower the temperature.
1.3.2 Vibration shall accord with specification:
Rated rotating speed (r/min)

750

1000

1500

above 1500

Vibration value (mm)

0.12

0.1

0.085

0.05

1.3.3 The axial movement must not more than 2~4mm.


1.3.4 The current and temperature rise of motor shall accord with the specification.
1.3.5 The oil level of all lubricating oil tanks is normal without oil leak.
1.3.6 Good seal of the sealing parts of equipment.
1.3.7 There is no abnormal sound and friction sound of the turning equipment and motor.
1.3.8 The mechanical connection of all adjustment devices shall be in tact without dropping.
1.3.9 The pressure of the outlet and inlet, and flow of equipment conveying medium are normal.
1.3.10 There is water, gas, power and oil leak in the auxiliary equipment and the system to which
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it is subordinate.

1.4 Ceasing of rotating equipment


1.4.1 If there is reversal after the equipment stops, separate it immediately, find out and eliminate
the cause.
1.4.2 It shall be in standby state after the equipment stops, it shall keep the cooling water smooth,
if considering saving water, it can turn down the cooling water valve, but keep a record.
1.4.3 The rotating equipment is divided into Run, Standby and Service, three states. Any
person must not break the standby into service without approval.

1.5 Conditions of emergency shutdown of rotating equipment:


1.5.1 In the case where the motor or driven equipment has such accident that emergency
shutdown can avoid personal injury.
1.5.2 The driven equipment by motor is damaged seriously and can not keep on running;
1.5.3 In case of fire accident that endangers the equipment and personal safety;
1.5.4 IN case of serious leak of water and oil;
1.5.5 Bearing oil interrupts, smokes or temperature exceeds the specified value;
1.5.6 After closing, the motor fails in running or running at a lower speed than normal speed and
accompanied with abnormal noise;
1.5.7 After starting, the motor current does not return within specified time or there is no indication
of current;
1.5.8 After closing, the motor smokes or sparkles.

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Chapter 2 Industrial Water System


2.1 General
Industrial water pump house holds 3 industrial water pumps, 1 is vacuum pump and 2 water
filtering pumps. In normal condition, 1 or 2 industrial water pumps operate and others for standby;
for number of operating sets may be determined according to variation of season and water
consumption in the precondition of guaranteeing header pressure. There are interlocking devices
in between #1~3 industrial water pumps, if operating pump trips, the standby pump will start
automatically. One industrial pump house contains 2 blowdown pumps, which can realize
automatic start-up and shutdown in case foul water level is high.

2.2 Equipment specification


Equipment specification

Industrial water pump

Model
Water

pump

specification

SX400-650

Flow

m /h

2,066

Head

50

Speed

r/min

980

Manufactory
Model

Motor specification

YKK450-6

Power

KW

400

Voltage

6,600

Current

47.4

Speed

r/min

990

Manufactory

2.3 Inspection prior to start-up


2.3.1 Inspection work is finished, no foreign matters blocking operation, check if motor connection
and ground connection are sound, and insulation is qualified.
2.3.2 Oil level of all bearings is normal and oil quality is good, rotor shall be normal in turning;
2.3.3 Inlet valve of water pump is opened, and outlet valve is closed (if in standby, outlet valve is
opened, and water pump shall not inverse)
2.3.4 Water level of clarified water pond is normal, and the pond inlet valve is opened;
2.3.5 Various interlocks and protections of water pump are good through static test, and motor is
powered on.
2.3.6 Start water chamber vacuum pump to vacuumize the industrial water pump pipe.

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2.4 Start-up and operation


2.4.1 As receiving command or it is necessary to start pump, release the interlocking switch of
this pump, close operating switch and open outlet valve after water pump being normal in
operation.
2.4.2 Switch the interlocking switch of standby water pump on Interlock position;
2.4.3 Attention shall be paid to checking water level variation in clarified water pond to prevent
water shortage and overflow.
2.4.4 Shutdown the water chamber vacuum pump after industrial water pump is normal in
operation through checking.

2.3 Shutdown of water pump


2.3.1 As receiving pump shutdown command or it is necessary to shutdown water pump, open
the console switch, then water pump stops, check pump that shall not inverse, otherwise close
the outlet valve for treatment;
2.3.2 Put the water pump into standby state;
2.3.3 Check water level in clarified water pond;
2.3.4 Keep record.

2.6 Treatment of abnormal operation and accidents


2.6.1 In any case as follows, it is necessary to shut down the water pump for emergency:
a. Much vibration occurs in pump set and frication sound can be heard clearly inside pump
b. Motor has smoke belching and catches fire;
c. When bearing temperature exceeds the rated value or has smoke belching;
e. Water pump gland packing spray much water or has much smoke belching, which endangers
safety operation;
f. Industrial water pond lacks water, and water pump outlet pressure and current drop greatly;
g. Water pump or outlet pipe sprays water, which endangers personal safety.
2.6.2 Procedure of water pump emergency shutdown:
a. Pull down the console switch or emergency button of faulted pump immediately, then pump
shall shut down, and close the console switch after standby interlocks.
b. Release the interlocking switch of faulted pump, and the operating pump shall be normal
through checking;
c. Report to the unit supervisor, and contact for removing the fault, put it into standby after
removing fault, and keep record.

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Chapter 3 Oil Purification System of Steam Turbine


3.1 Introduction of equipment
The GJZ-6 coalescing & isolating oil purification system can remove free water and solid pollutant
in steam turbine oil with high efficiency, and also can give bypass or on-line purification to oil
independently according to requirement. It comprises circulating filtering system, coalescing
system, isolating system, water discharge system, oil discharge system and safety protection
system, etc., and the main operating principle is: the steam turbine oil is pumped into circulating
filter that has a 6 micron filter element, which can meet the requirement of oil cleanliness in
common condition. When it is necessary to separate water content, steam turbine oil will flows
into the coalescing filter element in coalescing and isolating vessel via protective filter, because
the unique effect of polar molecule in coalescing filter element material, free water and emulsified
water in oil will form larger water drop after flowing through filter element, and will settle to the
vessel bottom with gravity action, and globule of small size will enter the isolating filter element
together with steam turbine oil under effect of inertia, since this element is made of special
hydrophobic material, when oil flow through filter element, globule will be blocked out from filter
element, and oil will flow through the filter element to be discharged from outlet, the globule
blocked out of filter element, with mutual condensing, the size will be larger and larger and settle
to water storage tank at vessel bottom with gravity action to be discharged.

3.1 Start-up of oil purification device


3.2.1 Contact with electric and thermodynamic personnel and powering on of related equipment
and signal are good through test;
3.2.2 Check if valve position of oil purification device is correct;
3.2.3 Turn START/STOP knob to right to start oil pump operation;
3.2.4 Open the outlet water valve of auto drainer, water discharge shall be normal, and discharge
level meter indicates that water level varies stably.
3.2.5 Oil purifier can operate continuously in steam turbine operating or shutdown state.
3.2.6 After oil purification system starts to operate, check oil level in main oil tank frequently for
normal.

3.3 Shutdown of oil purification device


3.3.1 Close the outlet water valve of auto drainer;
3.3.2 Turn START/STOP knob to left to stop oil pump operation;
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3.3.3 Close inlet valve and outlet valve of oil purification device;
3.3.4 Turn the power switch to OFF position.

3.4 Safety protection


3.4.1 Motor overload protection: in case of motor short circuit or overload, auto air switch will
break to stop the device, meanwhile the entire six alarm indicator lamps will flash from left to
right, and top alarm lamp will flash.
3.4.2 Power source open-phase and fault-phase protection: in case of incorrect phase sequence
or open-phase in three-phase power, the six red alarm indicator lamps and yellow alarm lamp will
flash synchronously.
3.4.3 Monitoring and negative protection of inlet vacuum degree: in equipment operation, if
pressure of inlet piping is lower than set value (-0.8 Bar), inlet vacuum switch will operate to stop
equipment, and then outlet pressure alarm lamp (LP01) and top alarm lamp (LP10) will flash
synchronously.
3.4.4 Differential pressure alarm of protection filter: in operation, if differential of protection filter is
up to 2.4Bar, protection filter differential pressure switch (PS02) will operate, and differential
pressure alarm indicator lamp of filter (LP02) will flash successively, then auto shutdown will
make after 2h. And during this 2h, if differential pressure becomes less than 2.4Bar, alarm signal
will trip automatically.
3.4.5 Differential pressure alarm of circulating filter: During equipment operation, if differential
pressure of circulating filter is up to 2.4Bar, differential pressure switch (PS04) of circulating filter
will operate, and differential pressure alarm indicator lamp of circulating filter (LP04) will flash
continuously, then auto shutdown will make after 2h. And during this 2h, if differential pressure
becomes less than 2.4Bar, alarm signal will remove automatically.
3.4.6 Differential pressure alarm of coalescing and isolating vessel: In system operation, if
differential pressure of vessel inlet and outlet is up to 3.0Bar, differential pressure switch (PS03)
of dehydrator filter will operate, and differential pressure alarm indicator lamp of circulating filter
(LP03) will flash successively, then auto shutdown will make after 2h. And during this 2h, if
differential pressure becomes less than 3.0Bar, alarm signal will trip automatically.
3.4.7 High water level control and alarm: as water level in water storage tank is up to the set high
water level, water discharge valve of equipment will open, and meanwhile water discharge
indicator lamp on control panel will light. Generally, water level will be below the high water level
position within 1~2S after water discharge valve opening. In case of water discharge pipe
blocking, water level will maintain on high water level for 20S, after which high water alarm
indicator lamp (LP08) will flash for 5min, and then equipment will shut down.
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3.4.8 Low water level control and alarm: After opening water discharge valve, water level will
decrease promptly, as decreasing to the set water level, water discharge valve will close, water
level will no longer decrease thereupon. In case water level keeps on decreasing to the set ultra
low level, equipment will shut down, meanwhile low level alarm lamp (LP07) will flash.
3.4.9 Alarm of water discharge time being over long: if water level is lower than the high water
level as a result of water discharge valve opening, and if the discharge time is over long that
exceeds 5min, the water discharge valve can not close, equipment will shut down, and
meanwhile alarm lamps of low water level and high water level will flash synchronously.

3.5 Daily operation and maintenance of oil purification device


3.5.1 Daily operation and maintenance of oil purification device:
a. Perform alarm indicator lamp test in the day shift of every Monday, press the alarm lamp test
button, then all the alarm buttons will light, thus it can check if the alarm lamp works normally;
b. After fault is removed every time, alarm reset button shall be pressed down for tripping alarm
state, and then equipment can be re-started;
c. Pay attention to the checking of main oil tank oil level to prevent oil leak as a result of water
discharge valve fault;
d. Check if the motor operation is normal;
e. Attention shall be paid that parameters of inlet vacuum degree, system operating pressure,
vessel inlet pressure, vessel outlet pressure and operating oil temperature shall be checked in
the specified range;
f. In case of filter element replacement, equipment operation shall be stopped, and attention shall
be paid to the electric pollution, which shall be prevented in replacement process.
3.5.2 Operating procedure of coalescing and isolating filter element replacement:
a. Stop the operation of oil purification device;
b. Close the inlet ball valve;
c. Open the ball valve and vent valve at the underpart of water storage tank;
d. Open the inlet and outlet ball valve of coalescing and isolating vessel;
e. Open the vent valve on coalescing and isolating vessel top;
f. Open oil pump to discharge the oil in coalescing and isolating vessel thoroughly, and after
confirming no oil being in system, stop the oil pump.
3.5.3 Operating procedure of filter elements replacement in protection filter and recirculating filter:
The operating procedure of filter elements replacement in protection filter and recirculating filter
are basically identical with that of the coalescing and isolating filter element replacement, in
addition, in filter element replacement, sampling valve of filter elements in protection filter and
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recirculating filter can be used to discharge oil in filter element.


3.6 Abnormal operation of oil purification device and its treatment
3.6.1 Frequent fault of oil purification device mainly includes the following:
a. Auto water discharge valve operates disorderly resulting in oil spills from discharge outlet or no
water discharging.
b. Oil water interface instrument is out of order;
c. Blocking occurs in inlet filter element, circulating filter, and coalescing and isolating filter
element;
d. Oil pump operates abnormally, and has abnormal sound or vibration.
3.6.2 The above fault shall be treated after stopping oil purification device.

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Chapter 4 Lubricating Oil System of Steam Turbine


4.1 Inspection prior to lubricating system start-up.
4.1.1 Check if the position of lubricating system valves is correct;
4.1.2 Affirm the emergency oil release valve of main oil tank is closed.
4.1.3 Affirm the oil release valve of main oil tank is closed.
4.1.4 Oil level of main oil tank is normal and oil quality is qualified;
4.1.5 Oil temperature of main oil tank shall be kept higher than 25C prior to unit start-up and
38~42C in steam turbine normal operation. Electric heater can be put into operation when oil
temperature is low and stopped when oil temperature is up to 40C.
4.1.6 Make sure inlet and outlet valves of oil cooler are closed;
4.1.7 Make sure inlet baffle of smoke exhaust fan is closed;
4.1.8 All the motors are in good insulation;
4.1.9 No leak phenomenon in oil piping;
4.1.10 All oil pumps are on Manual position;
4.1.11 Pressure of gas tank is normal.

4.2 Start-up of lubricating system


4.2.1 Start a smoke exhaust fan of main oil tank, adjust the inlet baffle of smoke exhaust fan,
create the vacuum of main oil tank larger than 0.5KPa, and put the other smoke exhaust fan on
Auto position;
4.2.2 Start the AC lubricating oil pump, check if the outlet oil pressure is within 0.09~0.15MPa;
4.2.3 Put the DC lubricating oil pump on Auto position, and check the forced link circuit of DC oil
pump.
4.2.4 Check over the system, which shall be of no leak;
4.2.5 Open the inlet valves of one jacking oil pump, and after affirming that inlet oil pressure of
jacking oil pump being higher than 0.039MPa, which meets the starting condition of jacking oil
pump, start one jacking oil pump, and check if the jacking oil pressure is about 10~12Mpa, if the
oil pressure is much lower, it may start two jacking oil pumps, if the oil pressure is still too low, it
shall find out the cause;
4.2.6 Check the jacking oil pressure shall be higher than 6.0MPa, and diameter of bearing shall
be jacked up 0.050.08mm.
4.2.7 Check if the oil return of every bearing is normal
4.2.8 Start the turning gear to check if the rotor rotates at a speed of 7~8r/min;
4.2.9 Check if the turning gear current and internal sound is normal, listen to if there is any
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metallic friction sound inside steam turbine. And stop one jacking oil pump.
4.2.10 Measure the eccentricity of shaft that shall be < 0.076mm and less than the original value
by 0.03mm.

4.3 Stop of lubricating system


4.3.1 Stop the steam turbine turning gear, and rotor will stop rotating thereupon;
4.3.2 Trip auto, and stop operation of jacking oil pump;
4.3.3 Trip the auto mode of DC lubricating oil pump;
4.3.4 Stop the AC lubricating oil pump;
4.3.5 Trip the auto position of standby smoke exhaust fan of main oil tank, and stop the smoke
exhaust fan.
4.3.6 Put electric heater of main oil tank on stop position.

4.4 Put-in and shutdown of oil cooler


4.4.1 Precautions for oil cooler put-in and shutdown:
4.4.1.1 Prior to operation, it shall check if oil system operates normally, and oil temperature and
pressure are within normal range;
4.4.1.2 In start-up or shutdown operation, attention shall be paid to the variation of oil
temperature & pressure, which shall be kept steady. Prior to oil cooler put-in, air in oil piping shall
be drained away.
4.4.1.3 Pay attention to the oil level of main oil tank, and contact for making oil up to normal if
necessary;
4.4.1.4 There shall be no oil leak in oil cooler;

4.4.2 Oil cooler put-in


4.4.2.1 Check if the oil outlet valve of oil cooler is closed, open oil inlet valve slightly, close air
exhaust valve after draining away air, then open the oil inlet valve wide (in case of put-in after
overhaul, the above operation shall be performed after accumulated water being drained away);
4.4.2.2 Open water discharge valve at water side, and check if there is any oil leakage, if any, it is
strictly prohibit to put in. close water discharge valve after leakage check over.
4.4.2.3 Slowly open the water inlet valve, and close air exhaust valve at water side after draining
away air, then open the water outlet valve;
4.4.2.4 Open the oil outlet valve of oil cooler;
4.4.2.5 Regulate oil temperature within specified range. In oil temperature regulation in operation,
it shall open the water inlet valve wide and regulate oil temperature with return water valve, thus
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prevent fullness of oil cooler water side from being little, and deposit corrosion from accelerating.

4.4.3 Oil cooler shutdown


4.4.3.1 Check if the oil outlet valve of oil cooler has been closed;
4.4.3.2 Close cooling water outlet valve of oil cooler;
4.4.3.3 If servicing is necessary, the oil inlet valve and water inlet valve of oil cooler shall be
closed, and maintenance personnel shall be contacted to discharge the accumulated oil & water
in this oil cooler thoroughly;
4.4.3.4 Standby mode of standby oil cooler
For standby oil cooler, oil inlet valve & water inlet valve shall be opened and oil outlet valve and
outlet valve shall be closed to guarantee oil cooler in oil-filled and water-filled state for standby
and prevent water side from scaling, and oil side from water or air entering.

4.5 Inspection and maintenance in lubricating oil system operation


4.5.1 Check if operation of all the oil pumps and smoke exhaust fans are normal, and vibration
and motor current within specified range.
4.5.2 Check if bearing lubricating oil pressure is within the range of 0.09~0.15MPa, and jacking oil
pressure is normal in turning state.
4.5.3 Check outlet oil temperature of oil cooler for normal, lubricating oil temperature shall be
higher than 25C in turning; as steam turbine being in normal operation, lubricating oil
temperature shall be within a rang of 38~42C, and oil pressure of oil cooler shall be larger than
water pressure.
4.5.4 Normally, bearing return oil temperature is below 65C, metal temperature of journal bearing
#1~3 is below 107C, metal temperature of journal bearing #4~5 is below 75C, and metal
temperature of thrust bearing is below 99C.
4.5.5 Monitor oil level of main oil tank for normal, if it is over high or too low, it may discharge or
make up oil to oil reservoir.
4.5.6 Oil pressure of jacking oil pump inlet shall be >0.039MPa.
4.5.7 Pay attention to the lubricating oil quality, clean or filter oil if necessary, and enhance
chemical supervision to steam turbine oil.
4.5.8 When turbine operates in rated speed, oil pressure of main oil pump inlet and outlet shall be
normal.
4.5.9 Check if no leak in system.
4.5.10 Starting oil pump, AC &DC lubricating oil pumps, jacking oil pump and smoke exhaust fan
shall be tested periodically according to requirement.
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4.5.11 Remarks
4.5.11.1 When unit starts and stop, the main oil pump operating at above 2,700r/min ( 90% rated
Rev) can meet all the oil demand of speed governing and lubrication;
4.5.11.2 The capacity of single oil cooler is 100%, and only one set is enough in normal
operation;
4.5.11.3 The brand of lubricating oil is 32# steam turbine oil with cleanness up to grade NAS7.

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Chapter 5 Circulating Water System


5.1 Check & put-in before circulating water system start-up
5.1.1 Make sure the interlock protection of circulating water system is qualified through test and
has been put into operation;
5.1.2 Make sure the circulating water pump is qualified in insulation and has been powered on,
the circulating water inlet & outlet motor-operated disc valves on side A and B of condenser and
outlet disc valve of circulating water pump have been powered on, and the outlet disc valve of
circulating water pump is on Auto position;
5.1.3 Check if the position of the circulating water system valves is right:
a. Put the bearing cooling water of circulating water pump into operation;
b. Close all the water-discharging valves of circulating water system;
c. Make sure that the water level of the cooling water tower and suction bay at inlet of circulating
water pump is normal;
e. Fill the pump with water;
f. Open the circulating water outlet and inlet valves on side A of condenser and the inlet valves on
side B.
g. Close the manual valve and bypass valve of circulating water to the two strainers of generator
air cooler and turbine oil cooler. That is to stop all circulating cooling water supplied to generator
air cooler and turbine oil cooler. Prevent water hammer due to insufficient exhaust as the
circulating water pump starts;
h. If the condenser has been discharged of water, it shall fill the condenser and inlet circulating
water pipeline with industrial water, when water can be seen in the cooling water tower, stop filling
and return to makeup water mode of industrial water pool.
5.1.4 Contact the local checker to open the outlet disc valve of circulating water pump to the
extent of15%, then it shall interlock start the circulating water pump, pay attention to the motor
current

and outlet pressure which indication shall be normal, monitor the inner noise and

vibration of the pump set and check if the bearing temperature is < 70;
5.1.5 Pay attention to that the operating time when the pumps outlet valve is not opened or the
pump fails in draining water to the system must not exceed 60s;
5.1.6 If one circulating water pump accords with the standby condition, put it on AUTO position
and put the outlet disc valve into AUTO;
5.1.7 After the cooling water flowing into the condenser becoming normal, check if the generator
air cooler, outlet and bypass valves are all opened, open slowly the strainer inlet valve of
circulating water to generator air cooler to fill the generator air cooler with water;
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5.1.8 Open slowly the strainer inlet valve of circulating water to the generator air cooler manually,
fill the cooling water pipeline of turbine oil cooler slowly with water, and thereafter put it into
operation.

5.2 Normal shutdown of circulating water system


5.2.1 When the exhaust temperature of LP cylinder is lower than 50 and circulating water has
no user, it can contact the relative staff to stop the running of the circulating water pump;
5.2.2 Check if the circulating pump and outlet disc valve are on the auto position, assign special
staff to monitor locally before pump shutdown;
5.2.3 Contact the local staff to close the outlet disc valve of circulating water pump, when closing
to the extent of 75%, it shall interlock stop the circulating pump and check that the pump should
not reverse.

5.3 Normal switching of circulating water pump


5.3.1 Circulating water system is normal, standby pump is good and has the starting conditions
as checked in an all round way;
5.3.2 Make sure the outlet disc valve of standby pump closed;
5.3.3 Check if the standby circulating pump and outlet disc valve are on Auto position;
5.3.5 When opening the outlet disc valve of circulating pump to the extent of 15 , the standby
circulating pump will interlock start;
5.3.6 Check if the outlet pressure, vibration, sound and motor current of standby pump are
normal;
5.3.7 After everything is normal through check, close the outlet disc valve of original running
pump, ensure the interlock stopping the original pump, pay attention to the normal pressure of
circulating water header and avoid the inverse flow of stopped pump;
5.3.8 When the original running pump is used as standby, put the original running pump and
outlet disc on Auto position.

5.4 Half side cleaning of condenser


5.4.1 Half side of condenser is stopped for servicing:
5.4.1.1 Contact the unit supervisor, prepare for half side cleaning or leak stoppage of condenser,
check thoroughly the circulating water system and record the condenser vacuum and exhaust
temperature indication;
5.4.1.2 Contact the unit supervisor to lower the unit load to 70% or so;
5.4.1.3 Check that the back pressure of condenser shall not be lower than 16.9 Kpa, the exhaust
temperature must not exceed 80, otherwise put the rear cylinder spray into operation to reduce
the temperature or lower the load;
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5.4.1.4 Close slowly the air valve of condenser on stopped side and circulating water inlet motoroperated disc valve, pay attention to that the back pressure of condenser shall not be lower than
16.9Kpa, start another vacuum pump if necessary to intensify monitoring of the vibration,
differential expansion and axial displacement;
5.4.1.5 Close the circulating water inlet and outlet motor-operateddisc valve of condenser on the
stopped side, open the circulating water discharge valve on the stopped side, pay attention to the
change in vacuum. If there is serious leakage in the condensers pipe, here pay attention to
vacuum decreasing, it shall close the circulating water discharge valve immediately, report to the
unit supervisor to restore the original running mode immediately and make decisions after
reporting;
5.4.1.6 After circulating water on the stopped side drain away, the vacuum shall keep within the
permitted range, power off the motor-operated inlet disc valve of condenser on the stopped side,
motor-operated outlet disc valve and rubber ball pump motor, then it may permit the maintenance
personnel to open the manhole to work;
5.4.1.7 In the whole process of cleaning and leak stoppage, it shall monitor strictly the change in
the condenser vacuum and exhaust temperature, if any abnormality and vacuum decreases
sharply, stop working immediately and load on as per vacuum.

5.4.2 Half side operation of condenser:


5.4.2.1 Work sheets of the cleaning and leak stoppage of condenser has been packed up, all the
safety measures have been removed;
5.4.2.2 Check that the manhole valve is closed tightly, close water outlet of put-in side, power on
the motor-operated inlet disc valve of condenser on the put-in side, motor-operated outlet disc
valve and rubber ball pump motor after confirming they are qualified in insulation;
5.4.2.3 Open narrowly the outlet motor-operated disc on the stopped side of condenser manually
to charge water on water side, open the outlet and inlet motor-operated disc valve of circulating
water wide; and open the air valve of condenser on the put-in side.
5.4.2.4 If the other side requires cleaning or leak stoppage, then after the put-in side operating
becomes normal, stop the other side according to the above methods;
5.4.2.5 After both sides of condenser become normal, stop one vacuum pump if there are two
pumping operating, and the other back to standby;
5.4.2.6 Report to the unit supervisor after checking thoroughly that the exhaust temperature and
vacuum of the unit are normal, the leak stoppage work is finished, the unit load returns to normal
and stop the LP cylinder spray.

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5.5 Washing of condenser rubber ball


5.5.1 Hand-operated put-in:
5.5.1.1 Before putting the rubber-ball system into operation, the operator shall contact with the
personnel of Centralized Control Room to make good preparation for operation;
5.5.1.2 Check that there is no need of maintenance and the equipment is in good condition, the
meters are all presented and the spot is clean;
5.5.1.3 Turn the rubber ball pump shaft to run flexibly and without jamming. Confirm the motor
insulation is good and power on;
5.5.1.4 Check that the inlet valve of rubber-ball pump on the washing side has closed and the
water discharge valve of Loaded Ball Room has opened, and the outlet valve has closed too, and
the switch valve of Loaded Ball Room has been turned to the position of collecting the balls;
5.5.1.5 Open the top cover of Loaded Ball Room, and close it and water discharge valve after
putting into adequate rubber-ball (500 pieces);
5.5.1.6 Open the inlet valve of rubber-ball pump slightly and fill Loaded Ball Room with water.
When there is water overflowing, close the air valve and open the inlet valve of rubber-ball pump
wide;
5.5.1.7 Contact with the personnel of Centralized Control Room to put the rubber ball of
Condenser into washing. Keep records of the vacuum, load, exhaust temperature, circulating
water pressure and circulating water outlet and inlet temperature;
5.5.1.8 Start the rubber-ball pump. Open the outlet valve of Loaded Ball Room and switch the
valve to the Wash position to put it into operation. Pay attention to observing the vacuum change
of condenser.
5.5.2 Collecting ball and shutdown
5.5.2.1 The rubber-ball shall be fetched and the switch valve shall point at the position of Wash
before the process of washing is completed;
5.5.2.2 Close the outlet of Loaded Ball Room to shut down the operation of rubber-ball pump and
close the inlet valve of pump;
5.5.2.3 Open the air release valve and water discharge valve of Loaded Ball Room and open the
top cover to pull out the rubber-balls;
5.5.2.4 Figure out the percentage of fetching rubber-ball and compare the washing effect after
finishing washing (the percentage of outballs/inballs).

5.5.3 Program control


5.5.3.1 The method of check, ball filling the and air release of Loaded Ball Room is the same with
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the hand- operated process;


5.5.3.2 Check that the rubber ball washing equipment is in the state of program control, press
the button Program/ON to check if all motor-operated valves and rubber-ball pumps operating
normally;
5.5.3.3 The washing is to end 30 minutes later and the system automatically starts to fetch the
balls ball fetching is to end after another 20 minutes with all motor-operated valves closed and
rubber ball pump shut down.

5.6 Inspection & maintenance in operation


5.6.1 Reinforce the inspection and maintenance of circulating water system in operation, pay
attention to the variation of steam condenser vacuum.
5.6.2 Control the circulating water inlet temperature not to exceed the specified value;
5.6.3 Check if the valves of circulating water system are sound without leak, and water outlet
temperature difference between steam condenser two sides are not more than 2C;
5.6.4 Monitor the water outlet differential pressure between two sides of condenser is normal;
5.6.5 Monitor and check if the open & close positions of steam condenser inlet & outlet motoroperated disc valves are correct;
5.6.6 Monitor inlet strainer of circulating water pump that shall not be blocked; otherwise,
maintenance personnel shall be informed for clearing;
5.6.7 Pay attention to checking bearing oil level, bearing temperature, and motor coil temperature
that shall be within the specified range, otherwise, give treatment in time;
5.6.8 Washing time of rubber-ball is from 60 to 80 minutes every time. From March to June, the
time for putting the balls is on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday every week. At the other time, the
time is on Tuesday and Friday. If discovering any dirt in the copper pipeline of Condenser, it may
increase the number of times of rubber ball washing. After finishing washing, it shall switch the
electric push rod into the position of ON in order to avoid jamming of circulating water.

5.7 Abnormal operation of circulating water system


5.7.1 Phenomenon:
5.7.1.1 Vacuum degree of steam condenser decreases sharply, and steam exhaust temperature
of LP cylinder rises sharply;
5.7.1.2 Circulating water inlet pressure decreases or to zero;
5.7.1.3 Water outlet temperature of air cooler, outlet oil temperature of oil cooler and temperature
of all bearings rise sharply.
5.7.2 Treatment
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5.7.2.1 Once circulating water interruption is ascertained, unit load shall be decreased to zero
immediately, inlet & outlet disc valves of steam condenser or outlet valve of circulating water
pump shall be checked for mis-close, if any, it shall be opened at once. The auxiliary water pump
shall be started for recovering water supply as soon as possible, if fails, shutdown shall be
performed promptly;
5.7.2.2 After shutdown for fault, if water supply for steam condenser can not be recovered
temporarily, condensate pump recirculation valve shall be opened in time.
5.7.2.3 In case of circulating water interruption, the interconnection valve between industrial water
and circulating water shall be opened in time, and attention shall be paid to the metal temperature
of all the auxiliary equipment, outlet temperature of oil cooler and air cooler that must not exceed
the specified value;
5.7.2.4 In case of circulating water interruption, pay attention to if the steam condenser rupture
disk operates, if any, perform shutdown immediately.

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Chapter 6 Shaft Seal & Vacuum System of Steam Turbine


6.1 Specification of shaft seal system
6.1.1 Steam seal of the steam turbine is divided into HP steam seal, MP seal and LP seal. The
high & MP external steam seals and LP rear steam seal are equipped with steam seal casing and
steam seal ring, the latter is mounted in the former and pressed hard with spring leaf, the steam
seal casing is made up of two-half, the horizontal split is fixed with bolt and located with taper pin,
the bottom of lower half is located with flat key, and the shaft direction position is adjusted with
adjustable gasket. Steam seal rings of both HP and medium are stepped labyrinth structure, and
LP steam seal ring is plain structure. Steam seals of high and MP cylinder diaphragms are the
flush type, and are riveted into diaphragm with fillet. The steam seal ring of LP diaphragm steam
seal is mounted in septalium, and is pressed tightly with spring leaf.
6.1.2 The steam seal system is self-sealing system, in steam turbine start-up and with low load,
seal steam is supplied by auxiliary steam header; in high load condition, steam exhausted by high
and MP cylinders will escape into the steam seal casing, and will be discharged from steam
supply chamber to supply to LP steam seal, and excess seal steam will escape into steam
condenser via overflow control valve.

6.2 Start-up of shaft seal system


6.2.1 Check prior to shaft seal system start-up
6.2.1.1 Check if the position of shaft seal system valves is correct;
6.2.1.2 As the unit is in turning state, and steam seal supplies water to the steam inlet governing
valve, check if the drain valve is opened, no accumulated water inside pipe, and water stored in
inlet & outlet pipe of high & medium & low pressure steam seals has already been drained away;
6.2.1.3 Circulating water system is in normal operation, and steam condenser has water flowing
in.
6.2.1.4 Condensate system operates normally, and shaft seal heater has water flowing in.
6.2.1.5 Affirm multi-level U water seal is full of water, and priming valve is closed.
6.2.1.6 Affirm the drain system of shaft seal heater and steam condenser is opened;
6.2.17 Air source for overflow control valve, pressure and temperature reducing valve of LP
steam seal is supplied normally.
6.2.1.8 Check that HP steam supply temperature shall be of not very high difference with the rotor
metal surface temperature of high & MP steam turbine.

6.2 Shaft seal system put-in


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6.2.2.1 Open the motor-operated valve of overflow valve and auxiliary steam inlet governing
valve;
6.2.2.2 Regulate the pressure of seal steam supply header to that of governing valve setting
point;
6.2.2.3 Start a shaft seal heater blower, and the other for standby, regulate the water level of shaft
seal heater;
6.2.2.4 Close drain valves of steam seal return steam pipes of HP & MP cylinder, and close the
drain pipe of steam seal return steam header.
6.2.2.5 Regulate pressure of steam seal header to 0.02~0.03MPa, LP steam seal temperature to
121C~176C, and difference between rotor metal temperature of high & MP steam turbine shaft
seal and steam pressure of shaft seal to 111C;
6.2.2.6 Check if the continuous drain operation of steam seal header between steam
attemperating section and LP steam seal is normal.
6.2.2.7 Close drain valve on steam seal piping after steam supply of steam seal being normal;
6.2.2.8 Precaution:
In cold start-up, it shall pump vacuum first, and then supply steam to steam seal;
In warm-hot start-up, it shall supply steam to steam seal first, and then pump vacuum.

6.3 Start-up of vacuum system


6.3.1 Check prior to vacuum system start
6.3.1.1 Check if valve position of vacuum system is correct, and check over the system;
6.3.1.2 Ascertain air valve of steam condenser is opened;
6.3.1.4 Ascertain vacuum breaker valve of steam condenser is closed;
6.3.1.5 Check if the water level and temperature of vacuum pump air-water separator are normal;
6.3.1.6 Ascertain inlet valve of vacuum pump is on open position;
6.3.1.7 Ascertain steam condenser man hole is closed, and rupture disk of LP cylinder is
undamaged;
6.3.1.8 Ascertain condensate pump A & B and LP heater vacuum valve, the vacuum valves of LP
heater drain pump A & B are opened;
6.3.1.9 Ascertain steam condenser has circulating water inputted in, condensate pump is in
operation and steam seal supplied steam to the shaft seal.
6.3.2 Startup of vacuum pump:
6.3.2.1 Open the inlet of vacuum pump;
6.3.2.2 Start the vacuum pump and check IF vacuum pressure and current are normal;
6.3.2.3 Start inlet valve of another vacuum pump and place it on AUTO position.
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6.4 Shutdown of shaft seal and vacuum system


6.4.1 As steam turbine rotor idle runs to 2,500r/min, trip interlocking switch of standby vacuum
pump to stop vacuum pump operation;
6.4.2 As vacuum degree of steam condenser decreases to 0, stop shaft seal steam supplying and
shaft seal heater blower;
6.4.3 Close steam inlet governing valve of steam seal and the motor-operated valve on both
sides of overflow control valve.

6.5 Shaft seal system operation of steam turbine in abnormal cases


6.5.1 In case of load reduction, transfer the steam seal to auxiliary steam header for steam
supplying, in transferring, drain away the drainage in pipe, and pay attention to regulating steam
supplying temperature of steam seal to match with the metal surface temperature of HP & LP
rotor with the temperature difference 111C.
6.5.2 In case of steam turbine shutdown, seal steam shall be supplied by neighboring unit and
the temperature shall be guaranteed for matching so as to avoid mismatching between HP steam
temperature and cylinder end wall metal temperature as a result of prompt transfer of steam seal
steam supplying source.

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Chapter 7 Condensate System


7.1 Inspection prior to start-up
7.1.1 Check if the maintenance of condensate system is completed, the site is clean, and
equipment is sound;
7.1.2 Check if the positions of all the valves in condensate system are correct;
7.1.3 Contact thermodynamic personnel to power on all the meters, motor-operated valve and
protections, check if pointers are all complete and indicating correctly;
7.1.4 Condenser has circulating water supplied to the water side;
7.1.5 Check if the water level of steam condenser is normal. Check if the water make-up system
of condenser is normal;
7.1.6 Check if the oil level of condenser pump bearing is normal, and oil quality is qualified; the
bearing cooling water and packing sealing water are smooth; the rotor is flexible and unjammed
in turning;
7.1.7 Power on after confirming insulation of condensate pump motor is qualified;
7.1.8 Check if the condensate recirculating hand-operated valve is on open position, if outlet
valve of condensate pump is closed, if the condensate recirculating valve and the outlet motoroperated valve of condensate pump are powered on, and if the outlet motor-operated valve of
condensate pump is on auto position.

7.2 Start-up of condensate pump


7.2.1 Make sure condensate pump inlet valve is full opened and outlet valve is closed, and the air
extraction valve is properly opened.
7.2.2 Press the button Start-up of condensate pump, pay attention to the current return time,
and if the on load current is normal;
7.2.3 Check and confirm interlocking start-up of outlet valve after starting condensate pump;
7.2.4 Adjust the condensate recirculation valve to maintain normal condensate pressure;
7.2.5 Adjust the bearing cooling water and gland sealing water of condensate pump to normal;
7.2.6 Check if the vibration and sound of condensate pump are normal;
7.2.7 As the other condensate pump is up to the standby condition, put it on Auto position.

7.3 Shutdown of condensate pump


7.3.1 In shutting down the condensate system operation, it is necessary to release the

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interlocking switch of auxiliary condensate pump first. Start the standby pump first in switching
condensate pumps.
7.3.2 Adjust the condensate recirculation valve to maintain the pressure of condensate water
within the normal range.
7.3.3 Close the outlet motor-operated valve of condensate pump, pay attention to the variation of
condensate header pressure and the water level of steam condenser and deaerator.
7.3.4 Shut down the condensate pump.
7.3.5 When the condensate pump acts as standby after shutdown, put it on the auto position
and open the outlet motor-operated valve.
Check the motor-operated outlet valve and pay attention to the pressure change of the
condensed water main pump and water level of the Condenser and deaerator;

7.4 Put-in and stop of LP heater


7.4.1 Startup of LP Heater along with the turbine
7.4.1.1 Before the turbine impulsing, LP Heater has been supplied with condensate, close the
water discharge valves of all LP Heaters that use emergency drain mode. Open the extraction
valve of LP heater #4, 5, 6 & 7, creation of vacuum of LP heater is in good condition, position of
all valves is right and instruments are sound;
7.4.1.2 After the turbine impulsing, open air inlet valves of all LP heaters and check if the water
level of all heaters is normal;
7.4.1.3 When the load rises to 45~67.5MW (1/3~1/2 of rated load), close the drain stop valve of
LP heater #4, 5 & 6 to condenser and start the LP heater drain pump.
7.4.2 Put-in of LP Heater after maintenance
7.4.2.1 Check to confirm that all valves of LP Heater and meters are in good condition prior to
start;
7.4.2.2 Close the water discharge valve on steam side and confirm to open the drain valves
before and after extraction check valve;
7.4.2.3 Check and confirm that the water discharge valve on the water side of LP heater in
operation is closed and the air valve is opened;
7.4.2.4 Open slowly the water inlet valve on the water side of the LP Heater in operation and
conduct water filling. When water appears at the water-side air valve, close the air valve,
gradually open the water outlet valve on the water side, and close the bypass valve of
condensate;
7.4.2.5 Open slowly the extraction valve of the LP Heater in operation and pay attention to the
vacuum change of condenser;
7.4.2.6 Open slightly the steam inlet valve of LP Heater in operation and increase the

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temperature at a rate of 2/min that shall not exceed 3/min maximally;


7.4.2.7 Close the drain valves before and after corresponding extraction check valve;
7.4.2.8 Gradually open the steam inlet valve of LP Heater in operation according to the
temperature rise of LP heater in operation;
7.4.2.9 The drain water of LP Heater # 4 & 5 shall be dumped into the LP Heater #6, and it shall
start the drain pump according to the water level of #6m and check the automatic control
equipment in normal operation and adjusting water level normally.

7.4.3 Paralleling off of LP Heater


7.4.3.1 Close the steam inlet and the corresponding check valve of the LP heater paralleled off;
7.4.3.2 In paralleling off the LP Heater, it shall dump the drain water from last stage LP heater into
condenser, close the drain governing valve and hand-operated valve of this stage LP heater to
the next stage LP heater; in paralleling off the LP heater #6, it shall dump the drain water of LP
heater into the condenser and stop the LP heater drain pump;
7.4.3.3 Close the extraction valve of paralleled-off LP Heater and open the water discharge valve
on the steam side;
7.4.3.4 Open the condensate bypass valve of paralleled-off LP Heater and close the water outlet
and inlet valve and pay attention to the change of the pressure and temperature of deaerator and
the vacuum of condenser.

7.5 Startup and stop of LP Heater drain pump


7.5.1 Check and operation of LP Heater drain pump
7.5.1.1 Check if the lubricating oil level of bearing on both ends is normal;
7.5.1.2 Turn the pump shaft manually to confirm it is flexible and non-jamming;
7.5.1.3 Fill the pump with water and carefully check the sealing water cautiously to make sure
that the flow of cooling water is smooth and the air extraction valve is properly opened;
7.5.1.4 Power on after the insulation of LP Heater drain pump is qualified through measurement;
7.5.1.5 Close the outlet valve of LP Heater drain pump;
7.5.1.6 Start the drain pump and open the outlet valve of LP Heater drain pump (in the case of
outlet valve being closed and continuous operating time of pump 2min);
7.5.1.7 Put another LP Heater drain pump on auto position.
7.5.2 Shutdown of LP Heater drain pump.
7.5.2.1 Release the interlocking switch of standby LP heater drain pump;
7.5.2.2 Close the outlet valve gradually;
7.5.2.3 Stop the operation of drain pump;
7.5.2.4 Adjust the sealing water valve;

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7.5.2.4 When the pump shuts down for servicing, close all cooling system valves, sealing water
valves, air extraction valves and the pump outlet & inlet valves.

7.6 Check & maintenance in normal operation


7.6.1 Condenser:
7.6.1.1 Monitor the temperature rise of circulating water;
7.6.1.2 Monitor the differential pressure between inlet and outlet of circulating water;
7.6.1.3 Exhaust temperature of the condenser is not more than 80;
7.6.1.4 The temperature difference between both sides of condenser is not more than 2 ;
7.6.1.5 Vacuum is normal;
7.6.1.6 The water level of condensate sump is normal.

7.6.2 Condensate pump


7.6.2.1 Sound is normal and there are no friction and vibration;
7.6.2.2 Check the outlet pressure of the condensate pump that shall be normal;
7.6.2.3 Check the leakage of condensate packing set that shall be normal;
7.6.2.4 The temperature of motor coil is normal;
7.6.2.5 Switch over condensate pump periodically.
7.6.3 LP Heater
7.6.3.1 There shall be no water hammer and vibration in the heater;
7.6.3.2 The water level of the heater is normal;
7.6.3.3 Check the temperature and pressure of the outlet and inlet on the water side of LP heater
that shall be normal.
7.6.3.4 Check the pressure and temperature on the steam side of LP Heater that shall be normal.
7.6.3.5 Check if there is no leak in the system.
7.6.4 LP Heater drain pump
7.6.4.1 There shall be a little thin flow of leakage, if it is excessive or none, it shall check and
adjust the tightness of filling in time;
7.6.4.2 The bearing oil level is normal. If it is low, add oil in time.

7.7 Abnormal operation of condensate system


7.7.1 In any case as follows, it is necessary to shut down the condensate pump for emergency
7.7.1.1 Much vibration occurs in condensate pump;
7.7.1.2 There is clear metal friction sound in condensate pump;
7.7.1.3 Motor has smoke belching and catches fire;

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7.7.1.4 Bearing has smoke belching;


7.7.1.5 Leak occurs in condensate pump that endangers personal and equipment safety.
7.7.2 Vaporization or air leak occurs to condensate pump
7.7.2.1 Phenomenon:
a. Outlet pressure of condensate pump fluctuates, the flow is unsteady or decreases to zero;
b. Motor current decreases or fluctuates;
c. Abnormal sound in pump body, vibration in outlet header and the check valve makes impact
sound;
d. Dissolved oxygen in condensate rises.
7.7.2.2 Causes:
a. Steam condenser water level is low;
b. Air leak in condensate pump inlet pipe;
c. Air leak in condensate pump packing, the sealing water valve is not opened or opened too little;
d. Inlet strainer of condensate pump is blocked;
e. Condensate flow is too low, and the recirculation valve is not opened.
7.7.2.3 Treatment
a. Check if the water level of steam condenser hot well is normal, if lower, make up water to
normal;
b. Check the condensate packing sealing water, and adjust the sealing water quantity to normal;
c. Check the air extraction valve of condensate pump that shall be on open position;
d. Open the condensate recirculation valve in time;
e. If adjustment fails, start the standby pump and stop the faulted pump.
7.7.3 Steam condenser water level abnormal
7.7.3.1 Phenomenon
a. Alarm for steam condenser being high or low;
b. Local water level gauge indicates high or low.
c. Overhigh condensate level will result in vacuum degree decrease, and too low condensate
level will result in abnormal sound or vaporization in condensate pump.
d. As water level of steam condenser rises to high value I, the standby condensate pump starts
by interlock.
7.7.3.2 Causes:
a. Condensate pump gets fault;
b. Leak occurs in steam condenser copper pipe;
c. Leak occurs in LP heater;
d. Deaerator water level control is out of order, or deaerator water level is abnormal;
e. Condensate piping gets leak or discharge valve mis-opens;

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f. Auto control device of steam condenser water level operates disorderly;


g. Recirculating valve of steam condenser is not closed tightly;
h. Overflow valve or water discharge valve of deaerator is untight or mis-opened.
7.7.3.3 Treatment of low steam condenser water level
a. Check if make-up water control valve of steam condenser operates normally, otherwise open
its make-up water bypass to make up to normal;
b. Check if water level control valve of deaerator is mis-opened large or jammed, if any, adjust to
normal in time.
c. Check if water discharge valve of LP heater #4 outlet is mis-opened, if any, close it in time;
d. Check if any leak in condensate system.
7.7.3.4 Treatment of high steam condenser water level
a. In case condensate pump gets fault in operation, it shall start the standby pump, stop faulted
pump, and contact maintenance personnel for treatment.
b. Check if make-up water control valve of steam condenser operates normally, if inlet water flow
is too large, if such, turn it down.
c. In case of leak in steam condenser brass pipe, check if the steam condenser half side leaks, if
serious, shut it down for treatment.
d. Check if condensate recirculating is mis-opened, if any, adjust recirculation in time.
e. In case of steam condenser water level rise, open the water discharge valve of LP heater #4
outlet so as to discharge to normal.
7.7.4 LP Heater is overfed with water
7.7.4.1 Phenomenon:
a. Alarm for high water level LP Heater;
b. The water gauges indication of LP Heater is high;
c. The current of LP Heater drain pump may decrease.
d. The condensate flow may reduce.
7.7.4.2 Causes:
a. The pipe of Heater leaks;
b. Drain governing valve works abnormally;
c. Drain pump of LP Heater woks abnormally;
7.7.4.3 Treatment:
a. When the water level of LP Heater is higher than normal level, it shall check if the operation of
drain governing valve is normal, otherwise open the emergency drain valve of LP Heater;
b. Check the LP heater drain water that shall work normally, otherwise start the standby drain
pump;
c. When the water level of LP Heater is II, the emergency drain valve of LP heater to condenser

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shall be opened;
d. When the water level of LP Heater is III, the protection operates, it shall close the extraction
check valve and steam inlet valve of LP Heater, parallel off and isolate the LP Heater;
e. When discovering the copper pipeline leaks, it shall be isolate and service it in time.

Chapter 8 Feed Water & Deaerating System


8.1 Starting conditions of the Feed Water & Deaerating System
8.1.1 If any case as follows, it is prohibited to start the feed water pump:
8.1.1.1 The main instruments meters (ammeter, speed counter, oil pressure gauge, Inlet & outlet
pressure gauge) lack or are damaged;
8.1.1.2 The outlet check valve of feed water pump is not closed tightly;
8.1.1.3 The protection test is unqualified;
8.1.1.4 The scoop tube is jammed or regulation failed;
8.1.1.5 The oil level of oil tank decrease to the limit value or oil quality is unqualified and oil
temperature is lower than 15;
8.1.1.6 The sealing water can not be put into operation normally;
8.1.1.7 The insulation of motor is unqualified;
8.1.1.8 The auxiliary oil pump fails or the lubricating oil pressure is lower than 0.17MPa;
8.1.1.9 The oil cooler of feed water pump has no cooling water;
8.1.1.10 Temperature difference between upper and lower pump body is higher than 20 as a
result of no warming up or poor warming up of feed water pump;
8.1.1.11 The water level of deaerator is low I value of 2,350mm;
8.1.2 The HP heater is forbidden to be put into operation if it has any defect as follows:
8.1.2.1 The water level gauge fails and can not monitor the water level;
8.1.2.2 The steel pipe of HP heater leaks;
8.1.2.3 The extraction check valve #1 & 2 are jammed or can not operate normally;
8.1.2.4 When the HP Heater protection, HP Heater emergency drain protection and extraction
check valve protection cannot be put into operation normally.
8.2 Check prior to feed water & deaerating system start-up
8.2.1 Cold start of deaerator:
8.2.1.1To ensure the overhaul of the deaerator and system has been finished, the work site is
clean, the equipment in good condition, the safety measures have been removed and relevant
work sheets have been packed up;
8.2.1.2 To check and confirm that every valves position is right;
8.2.1.3 Contact the heat engineer to confirm all meters motor-operated valves, water level
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gauges and protections are powered on and indicates correctly;


8.2.1.4 To confirm the water level and the higher-and-lower pressure signal can alarm well. The
motor-operated valves and governing valves switch can open and close flexibly and Open-Close
operating direction is correct;
8.2.1.5 Contact the chemist to prepare enough dematerialized water pump and start the
demineralized water pump, make up the makeup-water tank of condensate to the high level and
test the water quality that is qualified;
8.2.1.6 Supply steam to the auxiliary steam header, prior to which, it shall warm up and drain
water of the auxiliary steam header;
8.2.1.7 Ask the chemist to test the water level quality when the water level of the Deaerator
reaches 600mm. If the water is not qualified, discharge water until it becomes qualified. The water
overflow value shall be placed on the AUTO position;
8.2.1.8 When the water is qualified and the water level rises to 1,600mm, open the deaerating
valve of Deaerator properly;
8.2.1.9 Open the hand-operated valve of heating & steam inlet valve at the bottom of deaerator
slowly and put the bottom heating of deaerator into operation. Pay attention to controlling the
pressure of deaerator 0.15Mpa prior to supplying steam to the deaerator;
8.2.1.10 Control the water temperature at about 100when the water level rises to the normal
point of 2,550mm.
8.2.1.11 After the steam turbine started, recycle the condensate after it is qualified, determine
whether to open the water inlet valve of condensate to deaerator according to the condensate
flow, and the condensate flow of deaerator thus to guarantee deaerating effect. At the same time,
put the auxiliary heating steam source into operation. Put the automatic control of deaerator
water level into operation in good time;
8.2.1.12 When the extraction 3 pressure of this turbine is higher than 0.25Mpa, put the extraction
3 into operation, close the auxiliary steam valve and close the hand-operated heating & steam
inlet valve at the bottom of deaerator;
8.2.1.13 The deaerator starts with the unit at sliding parameters, after the unit is in full load, check
the deaerator in an all round way that shall be normal.
8.2.2 Check and maintenance of feed water pump prior to start-up
8.2.2.1 Ensure the maintenance work has finished, the work site is clean and equipment pipe is
good;
8.2.2.2 Check if the position of all valves is correct;
8.2.2.3 Contact the heat engineer to supply power to all meters, protections and motor-operated
valves, test heat engineering signals and accident alarm sound that are good.
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8.2.2.4 The oil level of the oil tank is on the upper-limit the oil quality is qualified, when the
auxiliary oil pump operating, the oil tank temperature of hydraulic coupling is 15C, oil pressure
within 0.17~025Mpa or so and 018Mpa minimally;
8.2.2.5 Drain out the gas in the oil and water pipeline of cooler and feed oil to circulate. When the
filters differential pressure is > 0.06Mpa, switch it to the cleaning side. The lubricating oil shall
keep on circulating until the strainer of filter is clean;
8.2.2.6 Check if the water level of the deaerator is normal, the temperature is > 50C, the feed
water pump has a temperature difference between its upper and bottom pump body is lower than
20C;
8.2.2.7 The sealing water system works normally and loop is smooth; Check if the pressure after
the sealing water governing valve is the ring is 0.05~0.1Mpa higher than the unloading water
pressure;
8.2.2.8 Check if all transmission contacts of hydraulic coupling speed governing mechanism are
firm transmitting reliably, and the handle is flexible, after it is normal through hand operation, set
the scoop tube at 0 position;
8.2.2.9 Power on the feed water pump motor after it is qualified through insulation test and it is
permitted to close the switch;
8.2.2.10 Close the water discharge valve of the feed water pump body;
8.2.2.11 Check if the recirculation valve is opened wide and set it on AUTO position.
8.2.3 Check and preparation prior to HP heater operation:
8.2.3.1 Ensure the check work is finished, the work site is clean the equipment pipeline heat
preservation is good, meters are all complete, report to the heat engineer to power on the meters
and protections;
8.2.3.2 Measure the motor insulation of all motor-operated valves that shall be good, qualified
and powered on;
8.2.3.3 Check if the system valves are on correct position;
8.2.3.4 Put the HP heater protective water source into operation and the pressure is normal;
8.2.3.5 Companying with the heat engineer to conduct relevant test and interlock tests to HP
heater that is good: extraction check valve 1 & 2 are normal through test, HP heater water level
protection is normal through test, and the HP steam inlet motor-operated valve and emergency
drain motor-operated valve are normal through opening/closing and interlock test;
8.2.3.6 Check and test that the HP heater drain auto-control valves opening and closing are
flexible, direction is correct, and automatic control is normal.
8.2.3.7 Check if the HP heater four-way valve is on the bypass position.

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8.3 Start-up of feed water pump set


8.3.1 All equipment of t feed water pump set and valves of pipe are checked and verified as
normal;
8.3.2 Confirm the inlet valve of booster pump is fully opened and the water discharge valve has
been closed;
8.3.3 Verify the feed water pump motor-operated outlet valve and the center tap valve is closed,
the recirculation valve of feed water pump is opened;
8.3.4 Verify the scoop tube of the hydraulic coupling is in the maximum position;
8.3.5 Verify when the auxiliary oil pump is working, the lubricating oil pressure is more than
017Mpa;
8.3.6 Click the Start button of feed water pump and record the constant speeds time; if no-load
current is normal, then start the feed water outlet electric value;
8.3.7 After feed water pump starting, check the sound and vibration, etc. of the feed water pump
and booster pump that are normal;
8.3.8 When the lubricating oil header pressure is > 0.22MPa, the auxiliary oil pump shall stop
automatically;
8.3.9 Put the oil-cooler of motor into operation;
8.3.10 Put the oil cooler and lubricating oil cooler into operation according to the oil temperature,
and check if the cooling water flow, lubricating oil and the working oil flow are normal via the
observation hole;
8.3.11 Adjust the rotating speed of feed water pump, when the feed water flow reaches 280t/h,
check that the recirculation valve shall close automatically;
8.3.12 If another feed water pump reaches standby condition, put the interlocking switch into
operation;
8.3.13 Put-in of service oil cooler and lubricating oil cooler
8.3.13.1 Check every attachment and meter, and check if all joints are tight;
8.3.13.2 Open the oil valve on the oil side;
8.3.13.3 Close the oil valve on the oil side when there is oil overflowing;
8.3.13.4 When the oil temperature rises, put the cooling water on the water side of oil cooler into
operation, open the water discharge valve on the water side, and then open the inlet valve of
cooling water gradually;
8.3.13.5 The pressure on the oil side of oil cooler shall be larger that on the water side.
8.3.14 Hot reserve of feed water pump set:
8.3.14.1 Provide dynamic power and operating power for the feed water pump and the motor
insulation is qualified;
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8.3.14.2 When the auxiliary oil pump is operating, the lubricating oil pressure is >0.17Mpa;
8.3.14.3 Open the booster pump inlet valve, feed water pump outlet valve and the recirculation
valve;
8.3.14.4 The temperature difference between the pump body and feed water pump inlet is <
20C;
8.3.14.5 The differential pressure of the sealing water of feed water pump is > 0.1Mpa;
8.3.14.6 The interlocking switch of feed water pump in on AUTO position, and the scoop tubes
opening is on 60% position.

8.4 Start-up of HP heater along with the turbine


8.4.1 Prior to the unit start, the check of HP heater shall be done according to the preparation
done prior to operation, all steam inlet and water inlet valves are closed, steam & water discharge
valves are closed and protective water source of HP heater is put into operation;
8.4.2 After the feed water pump start, and the feed water pressure is more than 6MPa, check and
verify the emergency drain motor-operated valve of HP heater is on AUTO position, open the
water filler valve 1 and 2 on the water side of HP heater, open the air release valve on the
water side, close the air release valve on the water side after HP heater is filled with water, check
HP heater the HP four-way valve that shall open automatically, the feed water run along the HP
heater, close the water filler valve 1 and 2, check if there is no water level on the steam side
of HP heater that is normal and verify there is no leak in the HP heater;
8.4.3 After the water side of HP heater becoming normal in operation, open the drain valve of HP
heater #1 & 2 emergency drain to HP heater emergency drain flash tank, after turbine is latched,
open the steam inlet motor-operated valve and check valve of extraction 1 and 2, the steam side
of HP heater starts along with the turbine, in the process of unit impulsing and loading on, monitor
the outlet feed water temperature rise of HP heater that shall be within 1.83 /min (110 /h);
then open the continuous exhaust valve of HP heater;
8.4.5 Put the HP steam inlet valve, emergency drain motor-operated valve, extraction check valve
and HP protection into automation;
8.4.6 When the steam side pressure of HP heater 2 is more than 0.3MPa higher than the
pressure of deaterator, switch the HP drain to the deaerator and close the emergency drain
valves of HP heater 1& 2;
8.4.7 Adjust the water level of the HP heater and check if the automatic adjusting device of drain
is normal.

8.5 Cold start of HP heater


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8.5.1 Put the HP protective water source into operation;


8.5.2 Verify the inlet and outlet four-way value of HP heater are closed, feed water runs along the
bypass, the water filler valve is closed tightly and open the steam discharge valve on the water
side of HP heater;
8.5.3 Open the primary and secondary oil filler valve of HP heater to fill HP heater with water,
after there is water overflowing the air valve, close the air release valve on the water side of HP
heater, after the internal pressure of HP heater becomes equal to the feed water pressure, check
the HP heater four-way valve that shall open automatically, close the water filler valve, check that
there is no water level on the steam side of HP heater and verify no leak in HP heater;
8.5.5 Open the drain valves before and after the steam extraction section 1 and 2 check valve to
warm up the pipe;
8.5.6 Open the water discharge valve at the bottom of HP heater 1 & 2 HP heater, as well as
the air release valve on the top;
8.5.7 Open the check valves of steam extraction section 1 and 2;
8.5.8 Open the air inlet motor-operated valves of HP heater 1 & 2, maintain the HP heater
pressure within 0.05~0.1Mpa for warming, after there is steam coming from the air valve of HP
heater, close the air release valve of HP heater, and close the drain valves before and after the
steam extraction section 1 and 2 check valve;
8.5.9 Close the water discharge valve at the bottom of steam side of HP heater 1 & 2; open the
continuous exhaust valve of HP heater;
8.5.10 Maintain the differential pressure between HP heater 1 and 2 at 0.5Mpa, open the air
inlet motor-operated valve of HP heater 2 & 1 gradually to control the average temperature rise
of the outlet water of HP heater 1.83C, (sequence of extraction to be opened: 2 HP heater
air inlet valve- 1 HP heater air inlet valve) until normal, pay attention to the water level of HP
heater, when the steam side pressure of HP heater 5 is more than 0.3MPa higher than the
deaerator pressure, it shall dump HP drain to the deaerator;
8.5.11 When the feed water temperature reaches the rating, open wide the air inlet valves of HP
heater2 & 1;
8.5.12 Put the HP protection, automation of the check valves and air inlet valves of extraction
stage 1 and 2, as well as Auto of emergency drain motor-operated valve into operation.

8.6 Normal shutdown of HP heater


8.6.1 Contact the unit supervisor to prepare for shutting down HP heater1 & 2;
8.6.2 Turn down the air inlet motor-operated valves of HP heater 1& 2 gradually (sequence of
extraction to be closed: 1 HP heater air inlet valve-2 HP heater air inlet valve), pay attention
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to that the feed water temperature decreasing rate must not be more than 1.83/min;
8.6.3 When the differential pressure between the steam side of HP heater and deaerator is less
than 0.3MPa, switch the drain to the condenser, close the 2 HP heater drain and lead it to the
hand-operated valve of deaerator; close the continuous exhaust valve of HP heater;
8.6.4 Close the air inlet motor-operated valve of HP heater 1, close the extraction 1 check valve
fully, close the air inlet motor-operated valve of HP heater #2 and the extraction 2 check valve.
When closing the all, verify the inlet valve is closed tightly, then stop the water side of HP heater,
close the inlet & outlet four-way valve of HP heater with the feed water running along the bypass.
Check if the feed water pressure is normal;
8.6.5 Open the pipe of steam extraction 1 and 2 to drain water appropriately;
8.6.6 When there is a short time maintenance work on HP heater steam side, it is permitted to
operate with only the steam side stopped, but it shall verify there is no leak in the HP heater, and
open the water discharge valve on the steam side to discharge water until the steam side
pressure decreases to 0 prior to operation. It is forbidden strictly for HP heater to operate with
only steam side.

8.7 Sliding shutdown of HP heater along with the turbine


8.7.1 Intensify the monitoring and adjustment of HP heater water level when the unit sliding
decreases its load;
8.7.2 When the differential pressure between HP heater steam side and deaerator is less than
0.3MPa, switch the HP heater 2 drain to the condenser, close the drain valve of HP heater 2
to deaerator; close the continuous exhaust valve of HP heater;
8.7.3 After the turbine trips, check if the air inlet valves of HP heater 1 & 2 and steam
extraction 1 & 2 check valves automatically, and release the HP heater protection;
8.7.4 Open the drain valves of steam extraction stage 1 and 2;

8.8 Stop of feed water pump


8.8.1 Auxiliary oil pump is good through test run, and the sealing water and cooling water of feed
water pump are normal through check;
8.8.2 Release the interlocking of feed water pump and reduce its speed (if it is to switch over the
pump, it shall increase another pump speed to full load and switch over the center tap of feed
water pump);
8.8.3 When the feed water pump flow is < 132t/h, the recirculation valve of feed water pump
should open automatically, if not, open it by hand;
8.8.4 Verify that feed water pump, auxiliary oil pump, outlet valve and center tap valve are all on
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Auto position;
8.8.5 Start the auxiliary oil pump;
8.8.6 Reduce the rotating speed to minimal, set the scoop tube at zero point, and click the button
Stop of feed water pump to stop the feed water pump. Record the idle time;
8.8.7 Adjust the sealing water pressure to normal in time;
8.8.8 When the lubricating oil inlet temperature the decreases to 40 , turn down the cooling
water value of lubricating oil cooler. When oil temperature of the service oil cooler is 50 , turn
down the cooling water valve of the service oil cooler;
8.8.9 If it is to put the feed water pump into standby, open its outlet valve and check the check
valve that shall be closed tight and feed water pump is on Auto position;
8.8.10 If the feed water pump requires a maintenance, it shall ensure the auxiliary oil pimp to
operate for half 30min after pump stop and supply oil to cool the feed water pump.

8.9 Stop of deaerator


8.9.1 The stop of deaerator adopts sliding stop along with the turbine;
8.9.2 The pressure of deaerator sliding decreases along with load, pay attention to monitoring
and adjusting the water level of deaterator, and transfer the Auto into Manual adjustment if
necessary;
8.9.3 When the pressure of steam extraction 3 decreases to 0.25MPa, switch the steam supply of
deaerator to the auxiliary steam source;
8.9.4 Close the motor-operated valve and check value of this turbines stream extraction 3;
8.9.5 After the unit shutdown, stop the auxiliary steam source to deaerator. After boiler water
filling finished, stop condensate supply to deaerator;
8.9.6 When the deaerator requires water discharging, verify all steam valves and water valves
are closed tightly, open the water discharge valve at the bottom of deaerator slightly to discharge
water to the emergency drain flash tank.

8.10 Check and maintenance of the feed water & deaerating system
8.10.1 Check and maintenance of deaerator
a. It shall monitor the changes in pressure, temperature and water level from time to time when
the deaerator is normal operation. If any abnormality, adjust it/them back to the normal range;
b. When the condensate pump stopped because of fault, it shall start the standby condensate
pump instantly. If the inlet water of deaerator interrupts, it shall close the air inlet valve
immediately in order to prevent the deaerator from overtemperature;
c. It shall open the deaerating valve wider if there is not qualified oxygen content in the water of
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deaerator. It may open the heating & steam inlet at the bottom if necessary to adjust the oxygen
content to qualified;
d. Check the indication of the pressure gauge, thermometer and water level gauge of deaerator
on schedule, if any abnormality, it shall report for treatment in time;
e. If the water level decreases because of improper adjustment of water level or the condensate
pumps insufficient output, it shall take some measures to make up water timely. But pay attention
to that: Dont hurry, it may affect the pressure of deaerator and cause vibration. It may lower the
unit load if necessary;
f. If the water level still keeps on decreasing measures, it report to the unit supervisor. If
emergency water level occurs to affect normal operation of feed water pump and cause fault
hereof, it shall lower the load to shut down the unit;
g. Check the running condition of the safety valve of deaerator in operation regularly, when
deaerator is overpressed, pop the safety valve in order to ensure normal operation of deaerator.
8.10.2 Check & maintenance of feed water pump
a. Check if the feed water pump set has any friction and leak, vibration is normal and no
abnormal sound.
b. The oil level of oil tank and bearing is normal and the auxiliary oil pump is in good and standby
state;
c. All the protections have been put into operation, the automatic equipment works normally;
d. The sealing and cooling water system operate normally and the return water is unimpeded; the
sealing water governing valve can adjust automatically to make the pressure after valve have
always been 0.05~0.1MPa higher than the pressure before the booster pump inlet valve. At the
same time, maintain the return water temperature of sealing water within 70-80 ;
e. The coupling works soundly, and the speed governing mechanism is not jammed.
8.10.3 Check and maintenance of HP heater
a. HP heater water level is normal, and operation of automatic drain governing device is normal;
b. No water hammer and vibration;
c. Inlet and outlet temperature of water side is normal;
d. Temperature and pressure of steam side are normal;
e. No leak in the system through check;

8.11 Abnormal operation & treatment of the feed water & deaerating system
8.11.1 Abnormal operation & treatment of HP heater
8.11.1.1 Conditions of emergency stop of HP heater
a. Pipes and valves, etc. on the steam side burst, which endangered the personal and equipment
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safety;
b. Water lever of HP heater rises, treatment takes no effect and water level gauge is on the
utmost;
c. When water level gauge burst and can not keep on working;
d. The HP heater proper leaks seriously and cannot keep on working.
8.11.1.2 Treatment of t HP heater overfeed with water
Phenomenon:
a. Alarm for high water level of HP heater;
b. Protection may operate;
c. The HP heater outlet water temperature is low, and the heater vibrates.
Treatment:
a. When HP heater water level is high, check if the HP heater drain system operates normally,
when the drain governing valve is jammed, it shall open the emergency drain valve to lower the
water level, and contact with the maintenance personnel for treatment;
b. The running HP heater leaks and the water level rises to 850mm/1,125mm (HP heater 1/ HP
heater2) sharply, the water level high value I alarm is raised;
c. If the HP heater water level rises to 1,000mm /1,275mm (HP heater 1/ HP heater 2), the
water level high value II alarm is raised to open emergency drain valve automatically;
d. If the Hp water level keeps on rising up to 1,200mm/1,475mm (HP heater 1/ HP heater2),
the water level high value III alarm is raised, HP heater protection operates to close the feed
water inlet & outlet four-way valve of HP heater, as well as the extraction motor-operated valve
and check valve, open the water discharge valves on the steam side and water side and the air
release valve;
e. If the automatic paralleling off system of HP heater protection malfunctions and refuses to
operate, it shall parallel off the HP heater by hand immediately, if still no effect, it shall operate all
valves by hand locally immediately to parallel off HP heater;
f. When the HP protection operates to parallel off automatically, it shall pay attention to adjusting
the boiler combustion to prevent the initial steam from overtemperature or unit from overload.

8.11.2 Abnormal operation of deaerator


8.11.2.1 Deaerator pressure rise
Cause:
a. Air inlet interrupts or reduces;
b. The opening of governing valve of HP heater drain to deaerator is too large;
c. The unit load increases too quickly;
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d. Misoperation of system valve.


Treatment:
a. Increase the condensate flow, maintain normal water level to make the pressure recover;
b. If the opening is too large, adjust it in time;
c. Stabilize the units load and decrease it properly;
d. Check if standby steam resource valve of deaerator is opened by mistake.
8.11.2.2 Deaerator pressure decrease
Cause:
a. Water Inlet flow increases suddenly or temperature decreases;
b. The steam source pressure of deaerator is too low.
Treatment:
a. Check if the deaerator steam source is normal, if not, transfer to the standby steam source;
b. Adjust the condensate governing valve according to the water level of deaerator.
8.11.2.3 Water level of deaerator rise
Cause:
a. Feed water pump trips, but the standby pump does not interlock or treatment is not timely;
b. The water level auto-governing system of deaerator malfunctions or the opening of condensate
governing valve is too large;
c. The water quantity used by the boiler decrease suddenly;
d. Mode of water filling is incorrect.
Treatment:
a. If the high water level I alarm of deaerator is raised, it shall turn down the governing valve of
condensate to deaerator;
b. When the water level of deaerator rises up to value II (2880mm), the overflow motor-operated
valve opens automatically;
c. Check if the feed water pump is started by mistake, if the mode of water filling is normal, if not,
stop it;
d. If the water level of deaerator rises up to the flood stage of 2950mm, the protection shall
operate, close the steam extraction check valve and motor-operated steam inlet valve of
extraction 3.
8.11.2.4 Water level of deaerator decrease
Cause:
a. The opening of the governing valve of condensate to deaerator is too small;
b. The condensate flow interrupts or reduces;
c. Feed water pump flow increases;
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d. The water discharge valve of deaerator is opened by mistake.


Treatment:
a. When the water level of the deaerator decreases, adjust timely the governing valve of
condensate to deaerator, or open wider the makeup water to maintain normal water level;
b. Pay attention to the change in condensate flow and maintain normal water level of condenser;
c. Stabilize the water quantity used by the boiler and pay attention the adjustment of the scoop
tube.
8.11.3 Abnormal operation & treatment of feed water pump
8.11.3.1 If any case as follows, the feed water pump protection will trip:
a. The deaerator water level is the low value II (680mm);
b. The differential pressure of sealing water is low;
c. The oil inlet temperature of the service oil cooler of feed water pump is > 130;
d. If the outlet flow of feed water pump is low (<132t/h), open the recirculation valve that does not
open after 15 seconds;
e. The librating oil pressure of feed water pump is the low value II (0.08MPa).
8.11.3.2 Conditions for emergency stop of feed water pump
a. The main feed water system leaks and a great deal of water spraying that cannot be isolated,
which endangered the personal and equipment safety;
b. Water pump, booster pump and hydraulic coupling vibrate violently;
c. There is metal impacting and friction sound between stationary and rotary part;
d. The feed water pumps motor or bearing smokes and catches fire;
e. Oil system catches fire that can not be extinguished in time, which endangered the safe
operation of pump set;
f. Vaporization in feed water pump, and the outlet pressure and current oscillate greatly and
decrease;
g. The thrust bearing temperature rises up to 95 sharply;
h. Protection of feed water pump operates to trip.
8.11.3.3 Operating procedure of emergency stop of pump:
a. Start the auxiliary oil pump;
b. Press the emergency button of the faulted pump or open the console switch immediately;
c. Check the standby feed water pump that shall start to operate automatically, if not, start it by
hand. Check if the header pressure is normal, if it is the feed water pipe bursting, it shall be
prohibited to start the standby pump.
d. Close the outlet valve, recirculation and center tap valve of the faulted pump and open the
outlet and center tap valve of the interlocked pump;
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e. Record the idle time and vibration value of the faulted pump;
f. Complete other operations of pump stop, and take necessary safety measures as the fault may
be;
g. Report to the unit supervisor if there is no standby pump to shut down the unit for emergency.
8.11.3.4 Tripping off of feed water pump
Phenomenon:
a. The service pumps current reaches 0, the pump stops, emergency alarm is raised and feed
water pressure swings or decreases;
b. The standby pump interlock starts.
Cause:
a. Fault in the 6.6 KV busbar;
b. Protections of feed water pump and motor operate or are operated by mistake;
c. Misoperation made by man;
d. The emergency button is pressed by mistake.
Treatment:
a. Check and close the outlet motor-operated valve and center tap valve of the tripped-off pump,
check the auxiliary oil pump of the tripped-off pump that shall interlock to stop automatically;
b. If the standby pump doesnt start, start it immediately, if no standby pump, or the standby pump
cannot be started by hand, it may recluse the tripped-off pump once more (when it doesnt
reverse);
c. Adjust the interlocked pumps rotating speed, put the feed water automation into operation, and
check if every part operating normally;
d. Check the recirculation valve of the tripped-off pump that shall be opened, and the recirculation
valve of interlocked pump shall be closed, otherwise operate by hand;
e. If no standby pump is available in the system, and the faulted pump can not start either, report
to the unit supervisor as soon as possible to conduct fault shutdown.
8.11.3.5 Vaporization in feed water pump
Phenomenon:
a. Abnormal noise occurs to the feed water pumps inlet pipe or the inner of pump body;
b. Current and pressure of the inlet and outlet swing greatly;
c. Feed water pressure decreases.
Cause:
a. Deaerator pressure and water level decrease suddenly;
b. The inlet strainer is blocked;
c. When the flow decreases to the opening value of the automatic recirculation valve, but it fails in
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operating, for which the operation and treatment are not timely;
d. The inlet valve of booster pump is closed by mistake in operation.
Treatment:
a. Treat as per the requirements of emergency stop of pump;
b. Find out the causes for vaporization in feed water pump, and eliminate the abnormity;
c. If the vaporization is caused by inlet strainers of booster pump and feed water pump being
blocked, it shall start the standby pump immediately;
d. Only when the inlet pressure and deaerator pressure and water level become normal can it
restart the pump or put the standby into operation.
8.11.3.6 Feed water pressure decrease
Cause:
a. Fault in the hydraulic coupling or the scoop tube is jammed;
b. Water quantity used by the boiler increases greatly suddenly;
c. Water pipe breaks or HP heater leaks seriously;
d. The outlet check valve of standby pump is not closed tightly and the pump reverses;
e. The system valve is operated by mistake;
f. The service feed water pump is vaporized;
g. When the feed water flow is 280t/h, the recirculation valve of service feed water pump is not
closed.
Treatment:
The fead water flow exceeds 200t\h.The recirculation valve of the working feed water pump
hasnt been closed.
a. If the feed water pressure decreases, it shall ascertain the cause quickly and report to the unit
supervisor at the same time;
b. If the feed water pump gets fault, start the standby pump quickly;
c. If the standby pump reverses, close the outlet motor-operated valve;
d. Stabilize the water quantity used by the boiler if the cause is sudden increase of water quantity,
adjust the speed of feed water pump and start the standby pump if necessary;
e. If the standby pump has interlocked, it shall adjust the rotating speed timely to prevent the feed
water from overpressure, after everything is normal, stop one feed water pump;
f. If the recirculation valve of feed water pump operates abnormally, contact the maintenance
personnel to treat.
8.11.3.7 Hydraulic coupling scoop tube being jammed
Phenomenon:
a. Adjustment to the scoop tube takes no effect;
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b. The feed water pump operates at a certain speed, which cant satisfy the requirement of the
boiler or the rotating speed decreases.
Treatment:
a. Move the scoop tube locally to make it return to normal;
b. If moving the scoop tube locally is useless, it shall stop the faulted pump and start the standby
pump in time;
c. Contact the maintenance personnel, it must not restart or put the standby into operation until
eliminating the defect.

Chapter 9 DEH System


9.1 General statement of DEH system
DEH-steam turbine digital electric hydraulic control system adopts the I/A hardware manufactured
by FOXBORO company and uses HP fire resistant oil as its hydraulic pressure part, and the
governing valve is directly controlled by DEC with electro-hydraulic converter.

9.2 Structure of DEH System


With the operation of OPC solenoid valve and OPC oil way, HP oil system can realize overspeed
protection, and with the operation of diaphragm valve and safety oil interface, it can realize valve
fast closing as shutdown. That is the DEH system structure.
9.3 DEH operator station is to perform various operations and image operation with the
assistance of CRT picture, mouse, and keyboard. The main functions include:
Speed control: the operator realizes synchronous speed via turning speed according to the target
value and speed-up rate.
Overspeed protection test: perform OPC overspeed test under the control of DEH, moreover, and
it also has load rejection forecasting function.
Load control: after incorporating into network, DEH can realize the control of load and load
variation rate.
Automatic quasi-synchronization: At synchronous speed, it receives the increasing and
decreasing signal of Automatic quasi-synchronization device to accomplish unit paralleling and
paralleling off.
Remote control function: it receives the load command of MCS (analog value control) system to
realize coordination control.
Other functions: ATC control, valve position limit, lower limit of main steam pressure, high load
limit, steam extraction control, primary frequency modulation, and manual control, etc.

9.4 Conditions of steam turbine latching


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Steam turbine in the state of tripping;


Starting oil pump and EH oil pump operate normally and oil pressure is normal;
Manual shutdown is on the Reset position;

9.5 DEH Control and Operation


9.5.1 Automatic control mode (OA)
Operator can perform reset by clicking the button Reset on manual operation panel, and after
steam turbine is reset, main control panel will display Latched.
Click button control mode on top left of main control panel, and then sub picture of control mode
will pop up, here can select a control mode for application. Click the button OPERATOR AUTO,
afterwards click button Put-in within 3S, then auto control mode (OA) is put in, meanwhile, main
panel displays equipment being in OPERATOR AUTO mode.
Operator click the button Limit Value on lower left of main control panel to pop up the sub
window, then input valve position limit value, thereupon valve position limit will rising ceaselessly
up to valve position limit value.
Click button Control Set Value to pop up sub picture, input the target speed (0~3,000rpm/min)
into target value bar and the speed (0~500rpm/min) in Speed bar, afterwards click buttons
ENTER and GO, thereupon the set value will rise to target rotating speed according to the set
speed, then with PID calculating, #1~4 (valve regulating control signal) will come into being that is
transmitted to GV card to be transferred into current signal to drive electro hydraulic converter to
start the GV, which rotating speed will rise thereupon.
In case of auto mode in on-load stage, operator can set target load (0~135MW) and run up rate
(0~50MW/min) on rotating speed control sub picture through operating CRT, after click buttons
ENTER and GO, load set value will approach the target value step by step according to set
load rate, and then vary #1~4 (adjust steam valve control output), and change load can through
electro hydraulic converter operating hydraulic servomotor.
No matter it is the speed control stage or load control stage, once operator click button
Maintain, the rotary set value or load set value will maintain constant till operator press button
GO.
Attention: After latching, valve position limit must be opened before valve being opened.
9.5.2 Synchronization control mode (AS)
In auto mode, as rotating speed is close to 3, 000 r/min and self synchronization condition is met,
operator can press the control mode button in top left of main control panel to pop out the sub
picture, click synchronous button, afterwards click put-in button within 3s, then control will enter
the synchronous mode, meanwhile main panel displays equipment has entered AS mode.
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Then DEH will rise or decrease pulse according to the command received from electric aspect,
turbine set value will change thereupon. Each pulse can rise or decrease the turbine set value by
1r/min, and with internal PID regulator, DEH can control turbine rotating speed to change
thereupon, thus makes turbine rotating speed be synchronous with network.
After synchronization, DEH will let turbine load on 5% initial load automatically. In the meanwhile,
AS mode will disengage automatically and transfer back to OA mode.
9.5.3 Put-in and trip of power loop (MW IN, MW OUT)
In on load operation, operator can select to put power loop feedback into operation: operator can
click the button Feedback state on lower left of main control panel to pop up the sub picture,
then click button power loop, afterwards click put-in button within 3S, then control will enter the
power loop put-in mode, meanwhile the main panel displays device has entered to Power loop
IN mode,
After power loop feedback put-in, load signal will enter controller as feedback signal to control
load to be identical with set value (undisturbed switch). Prior to power feedback put-in, DEH is in
open-loop control, and there is certain difference between load set value and load, which is
decided by the current main steam pressure, if main steam pressure is the rated value, load set
value will be close to the load value.
Generally, operator shall select the power loop clearing mode in order to ensure the initial steam
pressure stable and boiler combustion adjustment stable. That is because after power feedback
put-in, when main steam pressure fluctuates, valve opening will vary thereupon to guarantee
developed power being identical with the load set value, and that vibration will accelerate
vibration of boiler outlet pressure, but in order to guarantee load steady, power loop put-in is
necessary.
9.5. 4 Remote control mode (ADS)
In on load OA operation, and the set value is close to the remote control set value, operator
can select to enter remote control mode: operator shall send out DEH remote control request,
then press the button Control mode on top left of main control panel to pop up the sub picture,
click button Remote control, afterwards click button Put-in within 3S, and then control will enter
the ADS mode, meanwhile the main panel displays device has entered to ADS mode. At that
time, load set value is under the control of CCS (Coordination control) system.
Attention: as entering OA mode, ADS mode will disengage automatically.
9.5.5 Initial steam pressure limit (TPL)
In on load OA operation, and initial steam pressure is higher than 90% rated pressure, operator
can select the TPL (initial steam pressure limit) mode: operator can pressure the Limit value on
lower left of main control panel to pop up the sub picture, then click button Initial steam pressure
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TURBINE OPERATION RULES

limit, afterwards click button Put-in within 3S, and then control will enter to TPL mode,
meanwhile the main panel will display the main steam pressure limit is IN
In the case of TPL mode, as initial steam pressure being lower than 90% rated pressure, load set
value will decrease at a fixed rate. Shut down the control valve hydraulic servomotor can
compensate the decrease of main steam, thus avoid initial steam pressure decrease being to
large.
TPL mode also can be cleared on limit at sub picture: click the button initial steam pressure
restriction, afterwards click button Clear within 3S, and then control will disengage from TPL
mode.
9.5.6 Remote control initial steam pressure limit (RTPL)
In OA operation, and the initial steam pressure is larger than 90% rated pressure, operator can
select the RTPL (Remote control initial steam pressure limit) mode: operator shall press the limit
value on lower left of the main control panel to pop up the sub picture, then click button Remote
control initial steam pressure limit, afterwards click button Put-in within 3S, and then control will
enter the RTPL mode, meanwhile, the main panel will display the Remote control initial steam
pressure limit being IN
In RTPL mode, and the initial steam pressure is lower than 90% rated pressure, load set value
will decrease at a fixed rate. Shut down the control valve hydraulic servomotor can compensate
the decrease of initial steam, thus avoid initial steam pressure decrease being to large.
RTPL mode also can be cleared on limit sub picture: click button Initial steam pressure
restriction, afterwards click Clear button within 3S, and then control will disengage from TPL
mode.
9.5.7 Load limit (HLL) mode
In on-load OA operation, operator also can select high load limit mode: operator can press the
button limit value on lower left of main control panel to pop up the sub picture, then input the
load set value in high load limit mode area, afterwards click button High load limit, and click
button Put-in within 3S, control will enter the high load limit mode thereupon, meanwhile the
main panel will display IN. In case of high load limit mode, set value will not exceed the load
limit value.
High load limit mode also can be tripped on limit value sub picture: click button High load limit,
and then click button Clear, control will disengage from the high load limit mode thereupon.
9.5.8 Valve position limit mode (VPL)
In OA operation, operator also can select the valve position limit mode: operator can click the
button limit value on lower left of main control panel to pop up the sub picture, click valve
position limit, then input valve position limit value in valve position limit mode area, afterwards
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TURBINE OPERATION RULES

click button GO, here valve limit value will enter the DEH control logic. In case of valve position
limit mode, valve command will not exceed the valve position limit value.
9.5.9 Single valve/ sequence valve (SIG/SEQ) mode
In case of OA operation, operator also can select SIGLE (single valve) or SEQ (sequence valve)
operation mode: click the button valve mode on milled lower part of main control panel to pop
up he side picture, click single valve (or sequence valve) and the two switching buttons (press
switching button within 3S after clicking single valve button, and it will be effective if the two
buttons being red synchronously.
In SIGLE mode, command of all the control valves is the same and all the control valves take part
in control synchronously; in SEQ mode, four control valves will operate one after another
according to a certain sequence. The switching time between two modes is about 3S so as to
guarantee no disturbance of load in the whole switching process.
9.5.10 OPC mode (OPC MODE)
Moreover, there is OPC (overspeed protection control) function set in DEH, in case load of steam
turbine is over 30%, and main oil switch of motor trips, at that time, with the function of solenoid
valve, all the hydraulic servomotors of control valve will control oil pressure to unload, thereby
closing all hydraulic servomotors of governing steams. With the quick close of hydraulic
servomotor, rotating speed acceleration will be restrained, and if steam turbine rotating speed is
lower than 103% rated speed, and it is already 7.5S after OPC operation, then solenoid valve will
lose excitation and hydraulic servomotor will start to maintain normal operation for waiting for
synchronization. If steam turbine rotating speed still is larger than 103% after 7.5S, the valve will
not open until steam turbine speed is lower than 103%.
9.5.11 Manual (TM) mode
It also can enter the manual control mode in steam turbine operation. Pay attention that in
manual operation, operator can change the set value (GVSPT/TVSPT) of control valve and main
steam valve directly without the participation of DEH, and this is belonging to open loop
operation, which is inappropriate to be used except rotating speed path fault, etc. special
situation. The method for entering manual (TM) is as follows: press the manual button on manual
control panel, if red lamp lights, that indicates device being in manual operation state, here
operator can click the control mode button on top left of main panel to pop up the sub picture, and
the manual state bar will display IN, meanwhile main panel will display device being in TM
mode.
In manual operation, operator can realize the control of steam turbine by controlling control valve
set value directly with operating the GVUP GVDN buttons on manual operation panel, thereby
change rotating speed and actual load.
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TURBINE OPERATION RULES

In TM mode, OPC function remains, once OPC operate, it still will close all steam governing
valves.

9.6 Stimulation Test of DEH


DEH has a built-in simulator that can perform closed-loop simulation test to DEH when the
turbine is in the state of rest.
It can stimulate control signals such as latching, synchronization, paralleling in and remote control
signal, etc. to carry static test to verify the signals or functions and ensure the smoothness of
impulsing.
Attention: this test can only be done by related personnel during outage and is forbidden in
normal operation of turbine. After the test is finished, all the original parameter must be restored,
otherwise a serious result may be caused; it is recommended to do this test in the engineer
station.

Chapter 10 Bypass System


10.1 Function of bypass system
10.1.1 Because of improving cold, warm and hot start conditions of unit that greatly reduces the
unit start-up time and makes unit operate with full load in advance, the bypass system is suitable
for the unit HP cylinder impulsing or HP & MP &LP cylinders combined start-up;
10.1.2 In the case of unit load variation, bypass system has governing function to coordinate the
steam quantity unbalance between boiler and steam turbine and bypass the excess steam of
steam turbine to stabilized the boiler operation;
10.1.3 In start-up, shutdown and load rejection, it can protect boiler reheater;
10.1.4 It can prevent overpressure and protect unit;
10.1.5 It can be used in working substance recovery.
10.2 Bypass put-in as unit starts
10.2.1 After checking over the system, ascertain the electro pneumatic devices are sound and the
bypass attemperating water pressure is normal;
10.2.2 Prior to bypass device put-in, open drain device of steam piping first to conduct piping
preheating and drain, check put-in of all the bypass instruments for normal;
10.2.3 Slightly open temperature and pressure releasing valve (about 2% of travel), afterwards
slightly open water spray control valve (usually HP bypass attemperating water is not put in),
observe steam temperature variation and ascertain water spray system is normal;
10.2.4 Open temperature and pressure release valve slowly to conduct preheating, maintain
steam pressure not more than 0.02~0.05MPa, generally speaking, the preheating time shall be
not less than 15min but can be reduced properly in case of lower start-up parameter;
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TURBINE OPERATION RULES

10.2.5 During bypass put-in, put HP bypass in first, then the HP bypass, regulate pressure after
governing valve and steam temperature to meet the requirement of start-up till outlet parameter
being steady and normal;
10.2.6 In unit shutdown, the temperature and pressure releasing valve, pressure reducing valve
and water spray control valve need to be open step by step according to operation parameter,
after unit shutdown, the above shall be closed in time.
10.2.7 Bypass device operating time is less than 8S at constant speed;
10.2.8 The max designed through flow of bypass system is 70%B MCR
Notes: six hydrodynamically-operated valves (including HP bypass pressure release valve, HP
bypass attemperating water isolating valve, HP attemperating water governing valve, LP pressure
release valve, LP bypass attemperating water isolating valve and LP attemperating water
governing valve), shall open automatically in case of unit fault (all are on the interlocking
position).
10.3 Shutdown of 70% bypass system
10.3.1 After unit loads on, bypass system shall be tripped according to the regulating requirement
of boiler parameter.
10.3.2 In bypass trip, HP bypass shall be tripped first, and then the LP bypass, the attemperating
water valve shall be closed first and then the pressure relief valve.

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Chapter 11 Turbine Proper Water Drain System


11.1 In order not to let the drain flow inversely, all drains are connected and arranged on the drain
header by pressure grade in order, the drain heater connects with the proper drain flash tank that
drains water to the condenser sump via pipeline at the bottom and connects with the throat part
of condenser via pipeline on the top.
11.2 In order to avoid accidents of water escaping into the ST and to reduce the loss of accidents,
all turbine proper drains and other drain valves related to the safety of turbine shall be operated
as follows:
11.2.1 Turbine proper drain shall follow the principle of starting by stages;
11.2.2 The drain on the upstream of turbine MP combined valve shall be kept open prior to the
unit is loaded up to 10% of rated load;
11.2.3 The drain on the downstream of turbine MP combined valve shall be kept open prior to the
unit is loaded up to 20% of rated load;
11.2.4 The drain on the upstream of turbine MP combined valve shall be kept open prior to the
unit is loaded down to10% of rated load;
11.2.5 The drain on the downstream of turbine MP combined valve shall be kept open prior to the
unit is loaded down to 20% of rated load;
11.2.6 Before opening the main drain valves, avoid breaking the vacuum, but this term is not
applicable to the emergency case requiring breaking vacuum.
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TURBINE OPERATION RULES

11.3 The turbine proper part includes the following drains:


11.3.1 Drain of cold and hot section of the initial and reheat steam pipes;
11.3.2 Drain of HP air duct;
11.3.3 Drain of MP air duct;
11.3.4 Drain of HP cylinder jacket;
11.3.5 Drain of valve level steam leakage;
11.3.6 Drain before and after HP exhaust check valve and extraction check valve.

Chapter 12 Quick Cooling System of Steam Turbine


12.1 Preparation prior to operation:
12.1.1 The quick cooling equipment is complete and useful.
12.1.2 Iron rust inside the heaters, gas collection tank and oil-water separator have been cleared
out thoroughly that are treated for corrosion protection, the strainer is reliable through check
which can ensure purity of air entering the turbine so as not to pollute the inside of turbine. Check
and verify the drain in cylinder and related pipes are all discharged so as to prevent drain from
dumping into the cylinder. Check if all metal temperature measurement points of cylinder are
sound. Check if the indications of cylinder differential expansion, expansion, axial displacement
and eccentricity, etc. are normal.
12.1.3 Operating of the safety valve of quick cooling equipment is reliable.
12.1.4 With the automatic control of heating air temperature that can control the temperature
deviation within 5 and alarm in case of exceeding the limit, the temperature and flow
indicators and recorders are complete and useful.
12.1.5 Check if all valves of the quick cooling equipment and the system are in correct state.
12.1.6 Verify the circulating water system is put into operation and operating normally.
12.1.7 Verify the turning gear is put into operation and operating normally, shaft oscillation is not
more than 0.07mm and the indications of instruments are normal.
12.1.8 Verify the condensate system is put into operation and operating normally;
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12.1.9 Verify the air compressor and service air system are put into operation and operating
normally.
12.1.10 The manhole on the steam side of condenser steam side is opened. Check if the drain
valve before HP exhaust check valve is opened.
12.1.11 Only when the cylinder temperature decreases to below 350, it can put the quick
cooling equipment into operation.
12.2 Monitoring of parameters in quick cooling process:
In order to ensure the mental temperature inside the turbine can decrease evenly in the process
of quick-cooling after turbine shutdown so as to prevent overstress due to excessive cooling,
rotor from bending and cylinder and welded junction from deforming, it must strictly monitor the
changes in each point temperature, temperature difference between cylinder inner and outer wall,
temperature difference between upper and lower cylinder, absolute expansion, differential
expansion, axial deflection, rotor eccentricity, turning gear current, compressed air temperature
and flow and electric heater current in the process of putting the quick cooling equipment of
turbine into operation. The monitor control index of main parameters includes:
12.2.1 First stage metal temperature decreasing rate of HP cylinder is<5/h.
12.2.2 Carrier temperature decreasing rate of MP cylinder is<5/h.
12.2.3 Temperature difference between upper and lower cylinder of HP & MP cylinder is <42.
12.2.4 Indication of HP cylinder differential expansion is -2~+7.0 mm.
12.2.5 Indication of LP cylinder differential expansion is +6.5mm.
12.2.6 Rotor eccentricity is <0.076mm.
12.2.7 Turning gear current is normal.
12.2.8 Lubricating oil pressure is 0.12Mpa.
12.2.9 Cylinder expansion and contraction are smooth without sudden change
12.2.10 Control the compressed air flow within 25~80t/h.
12.2.11 After putt the quick cooling equipment of turbine into operation, , try to adopt no
temperature difference and little flow mode as much as possible in the early stage of air supply,
then slowly reduce the air temperature to keep the little temperature differences and increase the
flow to observe the change in the cylinders temperature. Strictly control the cylinders air inlet
temperature and ventilation quantity. In principle, keep stable for 30min every time of adjustment,
if there is no change or great change, make readjustment. The outlet temperature of air heater
shall decrease steadily without sudden change. When the air duct wall temperature of HP & MP
cylinder is about 100 and the first stage metal temperature of HP cylinder decreases by less
than 200 , it may increase the ventilation quantity. When the first stage metal temperature of
HP cylinder and No.1 stator carrier temperature of MP cylinder reach below 140 and do not
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TURBINE OPERATION RULES

rise again obviously, it may end the forced ventilation. Close the air inlet valve and keep on
turning for 30min to see if the temperature of all points rises again, if not, it may stop turning to
start servicing.
12.3 Put-in of quick cooling equipment of turbine:
12.3.1 Put the LP cylinder spray of main machine into operation normally.
12.3.2 Slightly open the blowdown valve of oil-water separator and the drain valve of the gas
collection tank.
12.3.3 Open the total valve of compressed air.
12.3.4 Put the heater into operation.
12.3.5 Open wide the primary valve and adjust the air inlet flow of secondary valve as putting the
quick cooling equipment into operation. Slowly open the hand-operated air inlet valve of
compressed air to HP & LP drain pipe.
12.3.6 Open gradually the air inlet valve wider and set the outlet temperature of air heater
according to the decreasing of cylinders temperature, and control the temperature decreasing
rate not exceed 5/h.
12.3.7 Check if the exhaust temperature that shall not exceed 80.
12.3.8 In the process of put-in, check if the temperature difference between upper and lower
cylinder that shall not be more than 41.
12.3. In the process of put-in, pay attention to the change in cylinder expansion, differential
expansion and deflection.
12.3.10 Pay attention to the turning gear operating that is normal.
12.3.11 Keep various records.
12.3.12 If any abnormality, it shall stop air inlet of cylinder and report to the shift engineer.
12.4 Precautions in quick cooling operation:
12.4.1 Prior to forced cooling, purge the forced cooling system first up to standard and drain out
the water depositing in the system pipe.
12.4.2 In the case where turning gear of turbine is not put into operation, it is absolutely
prohibited to put the quick cooling equipment into operation; if so, stop the quick cooling system
immediately after the turning gear tripping.
12.4.3 Put the electric heater into adjusting the outlet steam temperature to warm up the system
pipe.
12.4.4 In the process of cooling, control the air inlet flow and outlet steam temperature strictly in
accordance with the specified decreasing rate, intensify monitoring, make adjustment from time
to time, control various parameters within permitted range and ensure safety of the unit.
12.4.5 In the process of forced cooling, it shall monitor and ensure normal operation of lubricating
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TURBINE OPERATION RULES

oil system, jacking oil system, turning gear, LP cylinder spray system and circulating water
system, if any system above stops, it shall stop forced cooling of turbine until the system
recovers.
12.4.6 In the process of forced cooling, intensify the monitoring of the operation of service
compressed air system at the same time.
12.4.7 In the process of cooling, if the decreasing rate difference between HP & MP cylinder
temperature is high, it may adjust and control with each branch valve.
12.4.8 It must not interrupt the compressed air as putting the quick cooling equipment into
operation so as to avoid dry heating of heater.
12.4.9 When the quick cooling equipment heater is in operation, pay attention to the operation of
heater, if air compressor stops or compressed air interrupts, it shall stop inlet of compressed air
and stop the quick cooling equipment.
12.4.10 When the quick cooling equipment is in operation, keep record of the turning gear
current, exhaust cylinder temperature, governing stage metal temperature of turbine, MP carrier
temperature, cylinder expansion, differential expansion, deflection and cylinder temperature, etc.
proper parameters once every half a hour.

12.4.11 In the process of quick cooling, it shall drain the water of steam-water separator, steam
bleeding box and gas container of air compressor and clean the filter periodically to prevent oil
and water dirty from entering the cylinder. Only in condition that the compressed air and flow are
normal, can the heater be put in to operation and can air be supplied to the turbine after the air
heater temperature becoming in accordance with the index. If discovering the air heater fails to
control temperature, it shall close the air source to prevent cold water supplied to turbine.
Precautions and parameter requirements:
a. When the governing stage mental temperature is 350-300, the temperature decreasing rate
shall be less than 3/h and the temperature difference between hot air and mental shall be less
than 40.
b. When the governing stage mental temperature is 300-250, the temperature decreasing rate
shall be less than 4/h and the temperature difference between hot air and mental shall be less
than 60.
c. When the governing stage mental temperature is 250-200, the temperature decreasing rate
shall be less than 5/h and the temperature difference between hot air and mental shall be less
than 90.
d. When the governing stage mental temperature is 200-150, the temperature decreasing rate
shall be less than 5/h and the temperature difference between hot air and mental shall be less
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TURBINE OPERATION RULES

than 130.
12.4.12 When air temperature exceeds the deviation or the electric heater loses power, it shall
raise the alarm and interlock close the inlet valve to prevent cold air from entering and cooling the
cylinder excessively, meanwhile cut off the power supply of heater to prevent the heater from dry
heating.
12.5 Stop of quick cooling system
After finishing quick cooling, adjust the potentiometer to 0 point manually, stop the heater, open
the power supply switch and continue to ventilate for 5~10 minutes, then close all valves. Slightly
open of the blowdown valve to prevent air leak of air inlet valve from resulting in water entering
the equipment.

Chapter 13 Air Cooling System


13.1 Brief introduction of equipment:

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Appendix Part

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TURBINE OPERATION RULES

Appendix 1: Comparison Table of the Pressure [P] & Temperature [th] of Saturated Water & Steam

th

th

th

th

th

MPa

MPa

MPa

MPa

MPa

0.0015

13.036

0.07

89.595

0.31

134.66

1.4

195.04

4.6

258.75

0.002

17.513

0.08

93.512

0.32

135.75

1.5

198.29

4.8

261.37

0.0025

21.096

0.09

96.713

0.33

136.82

1.6

201.37

5.0

263.91

0.003

24.1

0.1

99.683

0.34

137.87

1.7

204.31

5.5

269.93

0.0035

26.694

0.11

102.32

0.35

138.87

1.8

207.11

6.0

275.55

0.004

28.963

0.12

104.8

0.36

139.86

1.9

209.80

6.5

280.82

0.0045

31.035

0.13

107.13

0.37

140.78

2.0

212.37

7.0

285.79

0.005

32.898

0.14

109.32

0.38

141.71

2.1

214.85

7.5

290.50

0.006

36.183

0.15

111.37

0.39

142.62

2.2

217.24

8.0

294.97

0.007

39.025

0.16

113.32

0.40

143.62

2.3

219.55

8.5

299.23

0.008

41.534

0.17

115.17

0.41

144.52

2.4

221.78

9.0

303.21

0.009

43.787

0.18

116.93

0.42

145.39

2.5

223.94

9.5

307.21

0.01

45.833

0.19

118.62

0.43

146.25

2.6

226.04

10.0

310.96

0.011

47.71

0.20

120.23

0.44

147.09

2.7

228.07

11

318.05

0.012

49.446

0.21

121.78

0.45

147.84

2.8

230.05

12

324.65

0.013

51.062

0.22

123.27

0.5

151.84

2.9

231.97

13

330.83

0.014

52.574

0.23

124.71

0.6

158.84

3.0

233.84

14

336.64

0.015

53.997

0.24

126.09

0.7

164.96

3.2

237.45

15

342.13

0.02

60.86

0.25

127.43

0.8

170.41

3.4

240.88

16

347.33

0.025

64.992

0.26

128.73

0.9

175.36

3.6

244.16

17

352.26

0.03

69.124

0.27

129.98

1.0

179.88

3.8

247.31

18

356.96

0.04

75.886

0.28

131.20

1.1

184.07

4.0

250.33

19

361.43

0.05

81.345

0.29

132.39

1.2

187.96

4.2

253.24

20

365.70

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TURBINE OPERATION RULES

0.06

85.945

0.30

133.54

1.3

191.61

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4.4

256.05

TURBINE OPERATION RULES

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