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Abbreviations used in this volume








Classification, names, and divisions of the Nasks

2. Siu/kar Nask

3. Varctmansar Nask

4. Bako Nask

5. DamdaW Nask























NaWarNask: only the Avesta extant
















7. Pa^ag Nask : meat-offering, preparations, and priests for

season-festivals; ( 10) periods of day and year, fra-

van/ikan days; gathering herbs, chastisement of sinners,

33 chieftainships, apostasy; ( 20) almsgiving, summer


and winter, calamity of a century, months . Ra<fo-da^-aitag Nask


9. Bari^ Nask : good and evil ; advantages and disadvan-

tages of the period







10. Ka^kisr6b6 Nask











1 1 . VLrta'sp-sast6 Nask : particulars about Kai-VLrtasp, visit

of the archangels to him, and his war with Ar^asp

12. VaJtagNask: not extant









13. AltradaV Nask: races and monarchs from Gayoman/ to

Zarat&rt; (


17) the Sasanians and some leaders of


14. Spend Nask: birth and life of Zaradut, his vision of the

past, future, and other world; ( 12) his posthumous

sons, the future apostles

15. Bakan-ya-yt Nask:




of the




sacred beings



3 1




1 6. Patkar-rafifistan section of the NikaVum Nask: misery

from sin and assault, kinds of assault and magisterial

enquiry; ( 13) punishment without enquiry, counter-

assault 17. Zatamistan section of the same: assault and its conse-

quences, begging and beneficence, perversion, using

weapons ; conflict through assault, tumult, false-teach-


ing, starving, spells, and threats, by men, women, and

children ; ill-treatment of slaves, compensation the only

atonement, responsibility of fathers for crimes of chil-

dren 1 8. R&shist&n section of the same : kinds of wounds, scourg-

ing, 76 members of the body, effects of assaults, modes


of assaulting, description of a wound and the weapon,

curing wounds








19. HamSmalistan section of the same: various accusations,

true and false, and retribution for the offences ; pollu-

tion, a young woman well taught, slander, care of a

pregnant woman, a householder neglecting his family,

opinions of quiet and unquiet people ; ( 10) cowardice, impenitence, sin of priests, retribution, authority of

priests, punishment of judges, illegal action of plaintiff,

seizing purity of foreigners, those worthy of death,

confession; (

21) assault with a weapon, curing a

wounded person who afterwards dies, security taken

from defendant, procrastination by plaintiff, mediation,

assaults furious and harmless, punishment of a child

for sin, interpretation, signs of approval by the dying ;


31) undefined assault, killing a foreigner, great

hinderers, indiscriminate assault, a frontier governor,

striking the living and dead, timber and firewood, atonement and ordeals, physicians, mutilating a horse ;

4 1 ) a wound as evidence of crime, modes of using


a weapon, assault and retribution, incarceration, pulling a steed's tail, threats and spells, various plaints and

plaintiffs, pleadings inconsistent with accusations ;

( 50) master unfriendly to disciple, arresting and

prosecuting a thief, the good to be treated like oneself,

when carrying off property becomes theft, native and

foreign thieves, why the foreigner is unfettered, assail-



ants to be restrained, renunciation of sin, avoiding one

worthy of death; ( 60) informing about a righteous man, giving weapons to generals and governors, execu-


tion and reprieve of one worthy of death, witchcraft

Fifth section of the same : an armed man riding to attack


another, overhearing talk of murder or robbery, how to

act when a companion murders, saving one worthy of

death for medical purposes, legal argument unnecessary only when the judge is a supreme priest, unauthorised

combatants, travellers' supplies, penalties; ( 10) power

and good works of the worthy, weakness and sin of the

unworthy, how to conduct legal proceedings, a wife

can do so for her husband, particulars about ordeals,

measures of distance ; (20) litigation as to a costly

article, annulling decisions by appeal or ordeal, litigation

of three claimants, selling another's property, disputing,

litigation of Iranians with foreigners or slaves, a noisy

plaintiff, a high-priest, a wife unfit for evidence ; ( 30)

a pledge, property of partners, or held without evidence

of ownership, ordeal of excessive eating, dispute as to

a stolen female, property of any one given by another

to a third party without dispute, a master teaching his

disciple not to litigate, dispute about alms, a successful

triple ordeal, spells and threats ; (

40) ordeals, a thief

liberated to attend a ceremonial, a priest's personal

property and its inheritance, residuary wealth of fathers,

penalty for stealing cattle, three plaintiffs, three claim-

ants, and three thieves; ( 50) imprisoning a native for theft; duration, order, hardship, and stratagems of

legal proceedings; ordeals, benedictions on decisions,

evidence, ownership; ( 60) certainty of statements,

incrimination, treatment of apostates, origins of virtue

and vice, harm of unatoned sin, Tanapuhar sin, atone-

ment and ordeal, witnessing a theft, decisions according

to scripture or precedent ; ( 70) when men and beasts

can be sold with a warranty, an exceptional decision,

appointment and qualification of judges, legal pro-

ceedings producing injustice, litigating thieves con-

victed, offences as to property, isolation ; ( 80) dispute

about property resigned by a third party, disputing


fathers' debts, when women and children can be con-

demned for spells, lowest and highest values, stealing

one's own property, false and true investigation, litiga-

tion of man and wife, who gives away the daughter of

a dead father ; (

90) estranging a wife from her hus-

band, bartering girl for girl, consequent injury to one's own wife, overpayment for wife recoverable, sin of

keeping a marriageable daughter unmarried, a wife can be given only to a Masflk-worshipper, mortal sin of

longest and



food, chastising a


shortest days and parasangs; ( 101) work and food

of an injured beast, manslaughter by a sheep, period

from certainty to doubt, useless witnesses and unjust

judges, harm

righteous gifts;

of gifts to the unworthy,




no) crime of not maintaining

families under one's control, punishment and atone-

ment for sin and assault, all prosperity given to Zaratu^t

and his disciples, an isolated creature, keeping and

breaking promises; sin and punishment of strife, in-

sincerity, and slander; hostages and ransom; ( 121) sin

of a governor, ransom of thieves, stolen article tied to

the thief s neck, no atonement for theft without con-

fession, stolen property to be recovered by authorities,

sin of giving a woman to one when engaged to an-

other, cheating an ignorant man, interceding for him,

fitness for sovereignty; ( 130) indisputable ordi-

nances, enquiry after confession, squandering alms, delay of legal proceedings, a woman without a guar-

dian, written statements in law, sin of frightening away,

restoring what was extorted, minor decisions obvious

from greater ones, benefit of a family; (

140) sin of

wealth from unnatural intercourse, a decree of three

kinds, a stolen tree, a sin aggravated by deceit, defile- ment, stopping a combat, counter-assaults, no property

for one worthy of death, abettors of sin ; (

1 50) harm

of an incompetent president, sin of deciding by origin

of claimant, sin of delivering an Iranian to a foreigner;

gifts of the righteous, controversy with apostates, ne-

cessity for maintaining the truth, sin of occasioning

schism, injustice produced by the evil spirit, complaint



of aristocrats condemned for taking bribes, the just

judge ; ( 1 60) possibility of reaching heaven, true and

false justice, learning the Gathas, Hafitokht, and Vajtag;

greatness of the law, kinds of property not to be taken

as security, ten friends differing, and much other ad-










2 1 . First section of the Ganaba-sar-nig'a^ Nask : the thief, his

arrest, sin, punishment, and ransom, pinioning and

fettering, imprisonment at expense of privileged

accusers; kinds of theft, theft with plunder, injury,

and in confederacy ; shares in theft, assisting a thief,

theft by women and children, property to be pre-

served from thieves;

rewards, difference of theft and plunder, property to


10) testimony of thieves,

be restored to its owners, protectors of thieves . 22. Second section of the same is miscellaneous: authority

for enquiry into sin of a relative, teaching and sin of


children, not killing in war, property of a slain soldier,


woman's treatment of two men, supplies found by

a warrior, property inexpedient, delays of a judge ;

( 10) improper decisions, duties of judges; (21) fit-

ness of women and children for judgeship, aiding a

disciple, supremacy of Rashnu, property in trust, con- sistency of actions, congregational actions, misuse of

weapons not for women, children, or foreigners ;

the law







23. Pasuj-haurvastan section of the same :




selection and

efficiency of the shepherd's dog, preparations for him,

his duties; (

12) characteristics of sheep, way to the

village, when starved the dog may kill a sheep, stray

sheep and dogs; treatment, punishment, instruction,

and peculiarities of the dog

24. Storistan

section of the







sin of injuring cattle,

beasts, and sheep; branding, making a dog dumb,

plucking birds, spoiling fish, beating cattle, leathern and woollen clothing, sin of burning it, good works

lead to heaven, and sin to hell .





25. Ar^istan section of the same: value of property, animate

and inanimate, and

of preserving the righteous;

damaging the sacred fire







26. Arat&rtaristan section of the same : destroying wolves,

two-legged and four-legged; supplies, equipments,

and horses for warriors ; training of horses, efficacy

of warriors, sm of a warrior's village on account of

a battle, armour, officers and troopers, number of

troopers; ( 10) supplies for two warriors, medicinal

herbs and accoutrements, feeding warriors on day of battle, wealth of the enemy, friendship and devotion

of warriors, the general and his strategy, requisite

horses to be seized, sentinels ; ( 20) demonstrations,

altercation with enemy, speech to troops, conciliating

and encouraging them, religious rites before the battle,

reserves who keep the stores and prisoners, refreshment

and return of stores after the battle

27. A miscellaneous section of the






a warm bath,

exertion of a horse, precautions with regard to fire

when cooking and travelling, picketing a horse, food of men, fire, and cattle; hospitality, clothes, a street-


( 10) providing in summer for the winter,

reaping, union for good purposes, produce of plants and animals, property of nobles and the multitude,

envy among animals and people

28. Aerpatistan section of the Husparam Nask : providing





for a priestly assembly, the priest and his disciple,

district priest to be appointed, five dispositions of

priests, enquiry into concealed parentage of a priest,

his accountability for sin, worry in forming a priestly

assembly, relative superiority of priests




29. Nirangistan section of the same: ritual and priests for the ceremonial, the sacred cake, abstaining from wine,

recitation of Avesta, the ceremonial when the priest is a

TanSpuhar sinner, priestship of a woman or child, he

who is cursed, season- festivals and periods of the day ;

( n) sacrifice of a sheep, stations of the priests, the

perfect ceremonial, sacred shirt and girdle, sacred

twigs, firewood, ceremonials of various grades, celebra-

tions of the ceremonies; (21) cleanliness of the cele-

brator, place, and apparatus ; ceremony of the waters, and other particulars; families of Zaratiut, Hvov, and






Goharikistan section of the same: superiority; selling

property of another, cattle, slaves, and without war-

ranty; (

9) houses and clothing used during con-

tagious sickness, fatal or otherwise, family alliance


with foreigners, sheep of good breed .




A miscellaneous section of the same: stealing, religious

instruction, oppression and deceit, reducing liberality,

limit of a wife's liberality, a bride going to her husband's

house, quarrels in wedlock, menstruation, foreigners

9) birth and care of a son, injurious

seeking wives ; (

things that must be kept, those who must not punish,

rejoicing and gifts at a birth, naming the child, breed-

ing sheep and dogs;

guardianship of a child, sickness from evil eye or

touching a menstruous woman, fearfulness, supplies,


20) fees for priestly duties,

produce of property, duties of judges ; ( 30) creation

and production of corn, excitement due to blood,

ownership, land-grabbing, supplies sold in distress,

supremacy of sin, atonement for various sins; (42)

the oppressor, greed, the weak man should be good .

32. Another section of the same : about an ordeal


33. Another section of the same :

mad animals and their







A miscellaneous section of the same : amassing property,

arranging marriages for one's children, portioning

daughters, righteous gifts, an Iranian vainly asking

reward for assisting foreigners in battle, offering up

of water; (

10) best and worst actions, heinous sins,

various sins, assisting foreigners, destroying plants,

digging a grave, clothing a corpse ; defiling fire, water,


or people;

preventing misery and adversity

about water, damage by water or fire;





Another section of the same : seeking and begetting a

son, conception, tokens of sex, development of fetus; period of gestation and birth, period of determination

of sex, childbirth and care of child; (

10) periods of

gestation in various animals, spiritual perceptions of

the child, habits tending to beauty, evils of unnatural

intercourse and adultery; increased and diminished

vigour of the female and male, respectively .





36. Another section of the same : ownership and litigation

about property; earnings 5 family guardianship and

income ;

about wives, adoption, partnership of

brothers, inheritance, and giving in marriage



37. Another section of the same : daily food of men, women,

children, and dogs ; religious conversion, association

of various kinds, sins of falsehood and extortion,

food, necessary debt ;

( 14) physicians, medical treatment and fees; ( 30)

suitability for trust, unauthorised dwellings, boun-

daries, testimony of the orthodox and heterodox,

priestly dwellings, abode of fires, water oozing and

flowing, works on a frontier ; ( 40) sheep trespassing, animals' food, distance of house from river, grazing

atonement for deprival


sheep, felling trees, slaughtering, defensive clothing,

migration during war, waters reverenced by a tra-

veller, obedience of disciple to priest ; ( 50) frontier

war, various advantages .


38. One of the first 30 sections of the





Nask :


future reward and punishment, necessity of seeking

the good law and scrutinizing actions, noticing a fire, intentional injury, extent of the fire's light, size of its

sanctuary door, care and food of a new-born child,

keeping a cooking-pot pure ; ( 1 1) proper bed-places,

curing defective sight, workmen and women, giving no food thrice and four times, care of anything pointed

and of all utensils, injury by a door, washing the head

and shaving; (21) custodians and rules of a market,

giving forth pointed things and victuals lawfully and

unlawfully, horse-courses and manoeuvres, admitting

listeners, making and tying the sacred girdle, scratch-

ing with the nails, care of fire when travelling ; ( 29)

panic at night among warriors, marching in fear or

fearlessly, demanding a share, care of firewood,

warming bull's urine, selecting pasture, farm-houses, interference with the seizure of cattle, hanging things

up, stabling horses ;


40) cutting trees, washing

clothes, walking in, passing through water, canals

52) two warriors marching, sin of

and fords;


eating on the road, remedies for cattle, their breeding,



removing an ox that steals hay, danger from ill-

omened speaking, a father's sin owing to his child's

misbehaviour ; ( 60) gathering medicinal herbs, feast-

ing with idolaters, atonement for starving, ordeals,

religious secrets, evil-speaking to others' wives, extent

of communities, habits of Frash6^tar and (^amasp



39. ,#au/akanistan section of the same: sequestration of

property, sheep, horses, cattle, and their young, milk, and wool; their shelter and ill-treatment; ( n)

handing over sheep to the sequestrator and his re-

sponsibility, a free sheep among those seized, the


sheep, particulars of a seized

animal to be stated when it is kept with others, care

of a


of a man wounded in slaughtering, gain of a seques- trator of animals in various circumstances; ( 17)

treasure found in various places and at various depths

of earth and water; ( 24) nourishing a seized sheep,

disputes as to its identity, keeping it in the mountains,

and other details


40. Ziyanakistan section of the same : duty of protecting

animate and inanimate existences, and sin of injuring

them ; a damaged gift or animal, inanimate property

and its increase, merit of not rejecting a damaged






41. Vakhshistan, one of the last 22 sections of the same:

atonement, compensation, active and existent increase,

increase upon increases, righteous gifts, interest simple and compound, how loans are treated on the death

of lender or debtor; (

10) retribution, penalty for

inefficient breeding of animals, animals' milk and

hair, males preferable to females, an injured camel,

improved dog or pig, buying up supplies too much ;

( 20) giving away necessary clothing, penalty for

deprival of food, litigation about debts, unauthorised

supplies, multiplication of sheep and other details, loans and repayment by instalments, seizure of slaves

to work off a debt ; (

30) seizure of a cloak or a

water-skin, increase of grains and sheep, seizure of

clothes and implements, produce of land and orna-







42. Varistan section of the same : trial and execution of a

wizard, trial by ordeal, and particulars about ordeals .

43. A miscellaneous section of the same: assistants, wealth

causing imprisonment, confession, disciple and master,

penalties, sins owing to the wrathful, an unjust judge

and one of long experience ; (

10) a daughter con-



trolled by parents