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ASIA WATER MANAGEMENT FORUM 29 th October, 2012 Seoul, Korea

WATER MANAGEMENT IN MYANMAR

Bo Ni

Director

Watershed Management Division

Forest Department Ministry of Environmental Conservation and Forestry

Presentation Outlines

Brief Introduction to Myanmar

Water Resources & Water Resource Management in Myanmar

Water Related Policies and Laws

Water utilization and challenges

Integrated Water Resource Management in Myanmar

 Integrated Water Resource Management in Myanmar  Water Supply & Waste Water Treatment Facilities 

Water Supply & Waste Water Treatment Facilities

Issues and Challenges

Conclusion

Brief Introduction to Myanmar

Brief Introduction to Myanmar Topographic map of Myanmar  Situated in South East Asia and total

Topographic map of Myanmar

Situated in South East Asia and total land area is about 676,577 km 2

Population : 58.38 million (2008-09), Growth rate :1.52% Density : about 86 people /km 2

Climate : Sub-tropical climate with three distinct weather namely; Summer, Rainy and

Winter season

Temperature : Maximum 43°C Rainfall : Maximum > 5,000 mm Minimum < 800 mm

About 70% of the people living in rural areas

Water Resources in Myanmar

Water Resources in Myanmar  Total Drainage Area : about 737,600 km 2 comprise of major

Total Drainage Area : about 737,600 km 2 comprise of major four rivers namely Ayeyarwady, Chindwin, Sittaung and Thanlwin

Discharge from the total drainage area:

1082 km 3 / annum

Monthly distribution of river flow closely

follow the pattern of Rainfall; 80% during

the rainy season (May-October) and 20% in dry season (November April)

Estimated groundwater potential : 495 km 3

Water Resource Management in

Myanmar

The following Institutions are responsible for water resource management in Myanmar;

No.

Institutions

Responsibility

1

Irrigation Department

water level recording and discharge measurement, especially for irrigation dams and canals

2

Meteorology and Hydrology Department

discharge stations, sediment discharge stations on main rivers and big tributaries, water quality stations on Ayeyarwady delta for measuring discharge and sediment flows and monitoring salt intrusion

3

Forest Department

rehabilitation and conservation of forests and watersheds and maintaining the stability of Environment in order to develop the social and economic conditions of the nation, especially in rural areas

Water Related Policies

No.

Source

Statement

1

Guidelines on development of rural areas

Ensuring adequate supplies of safe drinking water

2

Roundtable Workshop on the

Sustainability of water resources to

National Water Vision in Myanmar

ensure sufficient water quality of

cooperation with UNESCAP and FAO, 2003

acceptable quality to meet the needs of the population in terms of health,

food security, economy and environment

3

Mission statement for the water

To establish a beneficial framework

sector

and effective mechanism for managing, developing, and protecting water and related resources in an

environmentally and economically

sound manner in order to meet the

needs of the people of Myanmar

Water Related Policies

No.

Source

Statement

4

National Health Policy

To intensify and expand environmental health activities including prevention and control of

air and water pollution

5

National Policies in water sector

To expand safe drinking water supply and adequate sanitation facilities in order to fulfill the basic needs of the people with priority

attached to the rural areas to

narrow up gap of disparity of social and economic development between the urban and rural

Water Related Laws

The Rangoon Water Works Act, 1885

The Burma Municipal Act, 1898

The Burma Canal Act, 1905 as amended by Burma Act, 1914, 1924, 1928 and

1934

The Burma Embankment Act, 1905 as amended by Burma Act 1923 and 1931

The City of Rangoon Municipal Act, 1922

The Underground Water Act, 1930

The Burma Water Power Rules, 1932

Environmental Law, 2012

It has been noted that laws, regulations and legislation set out in the early 1900s needed to be reviewed and amended except newly promulgated Environmental Law

Opportunities and threats in water

resources development

Opportunities

Threats

Rich in water resources

Total utilization of the nation’s water resources : only 5% (56 km 3 )

Sedimentation is one of the major adverse effects of storage dams and in the lower courses of rivers

The development of industry and

increasing population density will cause increasing river pollution and health risks for people living close to the rivers

Changing in landuse

will cause increasing river pollution and health risks for people living close to the rivers 
will cause increasing river pollution and health risks for people living close to the rivers 

Water Utilization and Challenges

total water withdrawal in 2000 was 33.2 km³ , 98.3% used in agriculture sector, 1.2% used for domestic and 0.5% used for industry sector*

Dam Irrigation more than 1 million ha, river pumping about 150,000ha

and tube wells irrigation 36,000 ha

domestic water withdrawal per capita is 8.9 m 3 /year (24.4 liter/day)*

Committee responsible for Urban Water Supply

1.

Nay Pyi Taw Development Committee(NPTDC)

2.

Yangon City Development Committee (YCDC)

3.

Mandalay City Development Committee(MCDC)

4.

Township Development committee in each townships (TDCs)

Water sector faces several problems including climate change effects, flooding and drought, impact of shifting cultivation, deforestation in watershed areas, management conflicts of interest and weak coordination within the agencies

* ESCAP Statistical Yearbook for Asia and the Pacific 2007, http://www.unescap.org/stat/data/syb2007/

Integrated Water Resource Management

Stakeholder Mapping

Integrated Water Resource Management Stakeholder Mapping

Integrated Water Resource Management

Proposed Myanmar Water Commission for Integrated Water Resource Management

Integrated Water Resource Management Proposed Myanmar Water Commission for Integrated Water Resource Management

Integrated Water Resource Management

It has been suggested that Myanmar Water Commission should comprise of a senior minister as chairman and the ministers from water-related ministries as member

Suggested duties and responsible of MWC are;

(1) To lay down and prescribe the Policies and Guidelines concerning with water and water

resources and required assessment

(2) The preparation of water Laws

(3) The introduction of new laws, and the enforcement and amendment of existing laws

(4) To act as coordinator for water users of both consumptive and non -consumptive nature and to give necessary instructions to the different water sectors

(5) To take necessary action where relevant

Integrated Water Resource Management

It has been also suggested that to establish a working (coordination) committee comprise of heads of departments in the ministries concerned as members

Suggested duties and responsible of the working (coordination) committee are;

(1) To deal with international organizations as well as regional and national organizations

(2) Conduct coordination work between water sectors

(3) The preparation of standardization works for water quality of each sector of water usage

(4) To prepare and implement a National Water Vision

(5) To monitor and make the necessary assessments, e.g. environmental impact assessment for water usage

(6) Recommendations for water and benefit sharing and resolving conflicts over

transboundary water usage between neighboring countries

(7) Decision-making and establishing the cause and effect of water use and development of water resources

Water supply and waste water

treatment facilities

In

Myanmar,

the

following

governmental

agencies

are

taking

responsible

and

committing all-out measures for provision of urban water supply services.

1.

Nay Pyi Taw Development Committee(NPTDC)

2.

Yangon City Development Committee (YCDC)

3.

Mandalay City Development Committee(MCDC)

4.

Township Development committee in each townships (TDCs)

Regarding to achieve improved water supply system, many agencies have been involved such as three Development Committees, Department of Development Affairs (DDA), Water Resource Utilization Department (WRUD), National Health Laboratory (NHL), Environmental Sanitation of Department (ESD) and Department of Health (DoH).

These agencies have been carrying out water supply and sanitation activities and

drinking water quality surveillance and monitoring pilot projects, Water Safety Plans, Low Cost Water Treatment, Awareness and Capacity Building of community through trainings, workshop and IEC Materials.

Water supply and waste water

treatment facilities

The NayPyiTaw (New Capital of Myanmar) Development Law was enacted in 2009. Altogether 23 functions and duties are prescribed in the Law and the following Water

works in this Law are being used.

1. Carrying out works for water supply;

2. Carrying out works for construction and maintenance of reservoirs, water storage reservoirs and pipelines;

3. Carrying out works for sanitation and sewage;

pipelines; 3. Carrying out works for sanitation and sewage; Slow sand filter Pumps at slow sand

Slow sand filter

out works for sanitation and sewage; Slow sand filter Pumps at slow sand filter Purified water

Pumps at slow sand filter

out works for sanitation and sewage; Slow sand filter Pumps at slow sand filter Purified water

Purified water collecting

ground tank

Water supply in Yangon

Profile of Yangon (former capital city)

age : more than three hundred years old

topography : slightly undulating and hilly land in the center of the city and low flat on the fringes

drainage : originate in the highest parts

run in all directions and finally drain into

the Yangon and Bago rivers

population : more than 5 million in 33 townships

city authority : Yangon City Development Committee (YCDC)

33 townships city authority : Yangon City Development C o m m i t t e

Yangon city area map

Water supply in Yangon

a long history of more than 150 years.

340 000 m 3 per day (1.5 million m 3 per day in

2020)

4 reservoirs (Hlawga, Gyobyu, Phugyi, and Ngamoyeik) and over 200 tube wells

water is supplied by the long-distance pipelines

only 37% of city area benefits and water pressure is very low ( JICA study report, 2002)

pipelines • only 37% of city area benefits and water pressure is very low ( JICA

Hlawga reservoir

pipelines • only 37% of city area benefits and water pressure is very low ( JICA

Water supply in Yangon

the existing water supply facilities were constructed during the colonial era

YCDC’s water supply system is very low in terms of water quality, quantity and pressure.

water supply is sometimes suspended.

consumers have installed their own pumps to draw water from YCDC’s distribution pipes to

ground or elevated tanks

consequently conditions of the distribution pipe become negative pressure

some distribution pipes are contaminated by

ground water.

some distribution pipes are contaminated by ground water. water transmission pipe from Gyo-phyu reservoir 4th January,

water transmission pipe from Gyo-phyu reservoir

Water supply in Yangon

Water treatment

water treatment plant installed at only Gyobyu reservoir (coagulation and sedimentation)

treatment facility does not fully function because

coagulant is not injected.

supply water is without treatment

a lot of deposits settle in the pipes and the

reservoirs

the distribution pipes are blocked up by massive floating water plants

pipes are blocked up by massive floating water plants Hlawga reservoir, operated since 1904 • disinfection

Hlawga reservoir, operated since 1904

disinfection is implemented intermittently due to limited budget.

E-coli are detected in the water of the distribution pipe and in reservoirs ( JICA study report, 2002)

Water supply in Yangon

Water supply program for out of YCDC water supply area

tube wells dug on basis of self help

YCDC has to provide required technology & equipments, machinery and engineers

the local residents/companies provide financing

• contributes significantly to Yangon’s water supply system

•…

partnership.

this

is the main feature of public-private

Public- Private partnership for water supply

Public- Private partnership for water supply Residential area Industrial zone
Public- Private partnership for water supply Residential area Industrial zone
Public- Private partnership for water supply Residential area Industrial zone
Public- Private partnership for water supply Residential area Industrial zone

Residential

area

Industrial

zone

the main feature of public -private Public- Private partnership for water supply Residential area Industrial zone

Water supply in Yangon

Urban water supply rate : YCDC‘s current water tariff structure

water supply rate : YCDC‘s current water tariff structure Rural water supply rate FROM VISION TO

Rural water supply rate

current water tariff structure Rural water supply rate FROM VISION TO ACTION, A SYNTHESIS OF EXPERIENCES
current water tariff structure Rural water supply rate FROM VISION TO ACTION, A SYNTHESIS OF EXPERIENCES
current water tariff structure Rural water supply rate FROM VISION TO ACTION, A SYNTHESIS OF EXPERIENCES
current water tariff structure Rural water supply rate FROM VISION TO ACTION, A SYNTHESIS OF EXPERIENCES

FROM VISION TO ACTION, A SYNTHESIS OF EXPERIENCES IN LEAST-DEVELOPED COUNTRIES IN SOUTHEAST ASIA THE FAO-ESCAP PILOT PROJECT ON NATIONAL WATER VISIONS PHASE 2, Bangkok, December 2004

http://www.fao.org/docrep/008/ae546e/ae546e00.HTM

Issues and Challenges

Strengthening the legal framework to ensure effective and harmonious integration of water resources management, development and protection

activities into the socio-economic development process of the country

Enhancement and consolidation of the existing systems

The operation, maintenance and rehabilitation of facilities safely, reliably and efficiently

Prioritizing capacity-building needs in order to enhance organizational

capacity and effectiveness of the water resources coordination system

Conclusion

The pressure of rapid population growth and attendant demands for more food will inevitably strain in the country’s water resources further.

Therefore, it will be necessary to establish a high-level Water Commission as well as an effective National Water Policy covering water laws, disaster preparedness, efficient water use, ecosystem conservation, institutional strengthening and sectoral coordination of all relevant aspects.

Moreover, It is desirable to establish much more private water supply firms in the course of development so as to reduce the burden on the government