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Total system

83

Battery charging discharging


Pv cell
RESULTS
TIME

0-1s

1)
2)
3)
4)

1-2s
2-3s
3-4s

4-5s

1)
2)

Characyeristics
Solar energy with full irradiance
Wind Turbine tends towards base speed of 12m s after 0.5 s
Battery gives partial supply to load
Load is 10 KW
1) Wind achieves 5.6 KW
2) Battery stores 5 KW
Solar Energy Reduced by 15
Battery stores 3.5 KW
1) Wind speed decreases by 25
to 9m

s
2) Battery gives partial supply to load
1) Load is increased by 40
2) Battery is responsible to overcome 40
load demand
84

5-6s

Load demand comes to previous point

TABLE 7.2 Verbal Description Of Solar Panel


PROPERTY

DETAILS

Company Name
Size of cells

Zhejiang Trunsun Solar Co., Ltd. (China)

Weight
Operating Temperature

19 Kg
40 to + 80

Module
No. of modules

TSP 215
2

156 mm

156 mm

TABLE 7.3 Ratings Of Solar Panel


PANEL MODEL

TSP 220
TSP 205
TSP 210
TSP 215

OPEN
CIRCUIT
VOLTAGE
V
( OC )

MAXIMUM
POWER
VOLTAGE
V
( MP )

SHORT
CIRCUIT
CURRENT
I
( SC )

MAXIMU
M
POWER
CURRENT
I
( MP )

36.60 V
36.60 V
36.60 V
36.90 V

29.7 V
30.0 V
30.0 V
30.3 V

7.52 A
7.75 A
7.75 A
8.01 A

6.73 A
6.83 A
7.00 A
7.10 A

The values yielded for the solar panel are:


Open circuit voltage (V OC ) = 36.9 V

85

MPPT voltage (V MP) = 30.3 V


Short Circuit Current (I SC ) = 8.01 A
MPPT current (I MP ) = 7.10 A
No. of cells in a row = 11
No. of cells in (2 1) PV array

11 2

22 cells

Open Circuit Voltage of PV array 22 36.9=811.8 V


22 30.3

MPPT voltage of PV array

666.6 V ~ 666 V
4

Percentage of Error in accomplishing MPPT


MPPT Voltage =

666 666

4
100

) 640

Preferred DC Link voltage 640 V


Maximum ower from single cell =

V MP

I MP

= 30.3 7.10

215.13W

Maximum Power from single row 11 215.13 W =2366.43W


Maximum Power acquired from single module (2366.43+2366.43) W
4732.86 W
Total Maximum Power acquired from two modules = ( 4732.86

2)W

9.4657 W 9.5 W
Maximum Irradiance = 1000
Maximum Power at Maximum Irradiance 9.5 W
Percentage of irradiation came down after 2 s 15 =85

86

remaining

Amount of Solar Power cut down

[ (

9.5 9.5

15
100

)] 8.1

The values yielded for the wind system are:


120 f
P

N=

Where,
f The output frequency of PMSG 50 Hz
P

Number of poles = 4

N Synchronous speed for that frequency


N=

120 50
4

= 1500 rpm (revolutions per minute)

Conversion into radians per second

1500 rpm 1500

2
60

rpm

2
60

rad s

157 rad s

Nominal mechanical output power of wind turbine = 8500 W


Power =
Base Torque =

Mechanical Output Power(Pm )


Angular Velocity()

8500
157

= 54.14 J

Actual Torque = Tm(p.u) Base Torque

Battery System:
Maximum SOC required to be obtained after charging = 80 %
Starting SOC = 60%
Maximum Power Rating for Battery Storage = 5 KW
Load
Maximum Load demand from 1-6 sec except 4-5 sec = 10 KW
Maximum Load demand from 4-5 sec = 15 KW
87

Time at which the Circuit Breaker closes switch to give current to load = [4 5] sec

TABLE 7.4 Ratings of Polycrystalline Solar Panel TSP 230


Module
Encapsulation
Size and Number of cells
Maximum power
Maximum power voltage(Vmp)
Maximum power current(Imp)
Open circuit voltage(Voc)
Short circuit current(Isc)
Model size(mm)
Weight
Operating Temperature

Polycrystalline Solar Panel TSP 230


Glass/PVB/Cells/PVB/Glass
125mm125mm
180w
36.00V
5.00A
43.20V
5.80A
1700*860*9mm
38kgs
40C to+85C

TABLE 7.5 Ratings of BIPV Double Glass Solar Panel TSBM 180
Module
Encapsulation
Size and Number of cells
Maximum power
Maximum power voltage(Vmp)
Maximum power current(Imp)
Open circuit voltage(Voc)
Short circuit current(Isc)
Model size(mm)
Weight
Operating Temperature

BIPV Double Glass Solar Panel TSBM 180


Glass/EVA/Cells/EVA/TPT
125mm125mm
230Wp
30.00V
7.67A
36.00V
8.59A
163899150
21.5Kg
-40C to 85C

The working performance of different solar panel models is represented through


simulation results. The difference in the output occurs due to the differed voltage and
current ratings of the panel. The derived voltage voltage and current ratings depend on
the physical conditions prevailing in its vicinity and on its physical characteristics.

88

Fig 7.1 Load Sharing Action Performed by the Hybrid Energy Energy in Polycrystalline Solar Panel TSP 215

87

Fig 7.2 Load Sharing Action Performed by the the Hybrid Energy Energy in BIPV Double Glass Solar Panel TSBM 180

88

Fig 7.3 Load Sharing Action Performed by the the Hybrid Energy Energy in Polycrystalline Solar Panel TSP 230

89

TABLE 7.6 Load Sharing Between Solar & Wind Systems Supported By Battery
TIME
(sec)

LOAD
4
( 10 )

SOLAR
4
( 10 )

WIND
4
( 10

01

W
1

W
0.92

0 0 0.8 s

+ 0.08

0.92

0.03 0.8 s

+ 0.05

)W

BATTERY BATTER
POWER
Y
4
ACTION
( 10 ) W

REMARK
S

Supplying

G<L

12

0.94

0 56

0.5

Charging

G>L

23

0.78

0.56

3.4

Charging

G>L

34

0.78

0.2

+ 0.02

Supplying

GL

45

1.4

0.78

0.2

+ 4.2

Supplying

G<L

56

0.78

0.2

+ 0.02

Supplying

GL

SIMULATED GRAPHS:
The load demand to fulfill is 10 KW throughout the time scale except at
4 to 5 sec when it increases to 14 KW.
Solar energy drops its irradiance to 15 % from 2 sec.
Wind turbine initially rotating at 5m/s excels to base speed 12m/s after
0.5 sec. Its rotating speed is decreased to 25 % of its base speed.
All these conditions are clearly observed in the below graph.
The Maximum Voltage is of PV Array is observed at around 640 V. the curve below
explains that the varying irradiance is the deciding factor of the maximum voltage
derived.
TABLE 7.7 Major Landmarks of Proposed Hybrid System
SOLAR
ENERGY

WIND
ENERGY

BATTERY

TIME
0-1

Speed Tends
Towards Base
Speed

1-2

Significant
Charging
90

LOAD

2-3
3-4
4-5

Irradiance Drop

Speed falls
Mainstay Load
Sharing

5-6

Fig 7.4 Phase Voltage observed at the PV array

91

Additional
Load Attached

Fig 7.6 The load current supplied to the load is sinusoidal in nature as depicted in the
simulation

Fig 7.7 Three Phase Voltage Supplied To The Load By The Inverter

92

Fig 7.8 AC Line Voltage and Phase Voltage Given By The Inverter

TABLE 7.8 Inverter Output Voltage


TIME
1s
2s
3s
4s
5s
6s

PHASE VOLTAGE
230
230
230
230
230
230

93