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17-22,25 FINAL review

Chapter 17
Nicholas Copernicus: a mathematician that believed that the Sun is the center of
the universe and that planets revolved around the sun (heliocentricity).
John Locke: an intellectual that wrote an essay that argued that every person was
born with a blank mind and that people were molded by experiences that come
through their senses from the surrounding world.
Constitutional Convention: The meeting in Philadelphia by delegates to revise the
Articles of Confederation.
Montesquieu: French nobility that wrote The Spirit of the Laws and tried to use the
scientific method to find the natural laws that govern the social and political
relationships of human beings
Adam Smith: A philosopher that wrote The Wealth of Nations and believed in the
laissez-faire, which meant to have the state leave the economy alone.
Laissez Faire: Meaning To let (people) do (what they want), which in the context of
the economy and government meant that the state should leave the economy
Articles of Confederation: was the United States first constitution, and was later
changed due to the lack of providing a strong central government.

Chapter 18
Tennis Court Oath: When the Third Estate (commoners, peasants) named itself the
National Assembly and met at a tennis court and swore that they would continue to
meet until they had produced a French Constitution.
Sans-culottes: meaning without breeches, they were the members of the Paris
Commune and they were ordinary patriots without fine clothes.
Directory: A group of five people selected by the Council of 500 and the Council of
Elders, to govern and rule. This lasted b/t 1795 and 1799.
Napoleon Bonaparte: Once a brigadier general, he became dictator and ruled France
between 1799 to 1815.
Duke of Wellington: was in command of the combined British and Prussian army
against Napoleons army at Waterloo and defeated the French troops.

Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen: inspired by the American Declaration
of Independence and Constitution, and the English Bill of Rights, the National
Assembly adopted this.
Maximilien Robespierre: a French revolutionary that is considered to be one of the
most important revolutionary leaders and was later arrested and guillotined.
Scorched earth policy: the act of burning own villages and countryside by the
Russians to keep Napoleons army from finding food.

Chapter 19
**New labor system: With the Industrial Revolution came new ways to work and
manufacture items.
Textiles: flexible, woven material made with natural or artificial fibers.
Prince Klemens von Metternich: the leader of the Congress of Vienna in Sept. 1814
that was the Austrian foreign minister.
Congress of Vienna: A meeting of great powers (GB, Austria, Prussia, and Russia) to
restore the old order in Europe.
Liberalism: a political philosophy based largely on Enlightenment principles and held
that people should be as free as possible from government restraint.
Otto von Bismarck: was appointed new prime minister of Germany in the 1860s
when Prussian legislature refused to levy new taxes for proposed military changes.
Realpolitik: politics of reality, or politics based on practical matters rather than on
theory or ethics.
US Civil War: From 1861 to 1865, The North (Union) fought the South (Confederacy)
for abolitionism and the South feeling that their way of life is threatened.
Charles Darwin: Naturalist that published On the Origin of Species by Means of
Natural Selection that believed in evolution and natural selection of organisms.
Charles Dickens: a British Novelist that became very successful with his realistic
James Watt: Scottish engineer that improved the steam engine to be used to drive
**Social change in the Industrial Revolution: from the Industrial Revolution rose two
classes, the Industrial Middle Class and Working Class.

Working Conditions: Industrial workers faced wretched working conditions, with

work hours ranging from 12-16 hours a day, six days a week, with a half hour for
lunch and dinner.
Germ Theory: proposed by Louis Pasteur, the germ theory stated that diseases do
not appear out of nowhere but from an external source.

Chapter 20
Karl Marx: Co-author of The Communist Manifesto and believed that all of world
history was a history of class struggles.
Trade Unions: Groups of workers who have united together to achieve common
Social Classes: Classes in which people are in depending on wealth, social status,
Sigmund Freud: a doctor from Vienna that proposed a series of theories that raised
questions about the nature of the human mind.
Triple Entente: A military alliance b/t Great Britain, France, and Russia
Guglielmo Marconi: an Italian inventor that worked on long distance radio
Triple Alliance: A military alliance b/t Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy
Discovery of Radium: The French scientist Marie Curie discovered it and it
apparently came from within the atom itself.
Vincent van Gogh: a famous Postimpressionist that believed art was a spiritual
experience and that artists should paint what they feel.

Chapter 21
Direct Rule: colonial gov. in which local elites are removed from power and replaced
by a new set of officials brought from the mother country.
Mestizos: a person of mixed European and Native American Indian descent.
White Mans Burden: Poem by Rudyard Kipling.

Chapter 22

Extraterritoriality: living in a section of a country set aside for foreigners but not
subject to the host countrys laws.

Chapter 25
Mohandas Gandhi: was an active non-violent protest leader in India for Indian selfrule.
Mao Zedong: a Communist organizer that soon became the sole leader of the
Chinese Communist Party and created the Peoples Republic of China.
Iran-1935: Persia became the modern state of Iran in 1935.
Shanghai Massacre: When Chiang Kai-shek and his men struck against Communists
and their supporters in Shanghai, killing thousands.
oligarchy: a form of gov. in which a small group of people exercises controls.