Sei sulla pagina 1di 91

Government of Pakistan

Ministry of Education

RESEARCH STUDY
ON

TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION IN


PAKISTAN AT SECONDARY LEVEL
UNESCO, ISLAMABAD

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION


Faiz Ahmed Faiz Road, Sector H-8/1, Islamabad
Tel: +9251 9250707, Fax: +9251 9250535
URL: www.niste.edu.pk email: info@niste.edu.pk
(June 2009)

FOREWORD
The rapid technological developments have led to radical changes in the world of work. The
new technologies are rapidly replacing the old one. As the new technologies are knowledge
intensive, the countries all over the world are obliged to upgrade and enhance the skill level of
the human resource of their countries. The paradigm shift from semi-skilled economies to the
knowledge-based economies has put greater premium on Technical and Vocational Education
and Training (TVET) since this education directly relates to the world of work. The curricula of
TVET focus on the acquisition of employable skills. Therefore, in order to enhance the skill-level
of the work force, there is a need to revitalize modernize and harmonize TVET in the specialized
institution of technical education, as well as, integrate it with the general school education. It is
hoped that this would not only make the technical education and training being pursued in the
institutes of technologies meaningful and relevant, but merged with the school education
would enhance the status of technical education in the society, as well. For the purpose it is
imperative to embed TVET into a mainstream education for the youth development and human
capacity building.
I appreciate the efforts of UNESCO for taking up this issue starting with regional meeting held
on 12-13 May, 2008, in Bangkok, Thailand, for Regional Study of Secondary Level Technical and
Vocational Education and research studies in regional countries of Asia & Pacific with
culmination on a combined Research Study Report for the region.
In particular, I wish to thank Mr. Vickram Chhetri, Project Manager, UNESCO, Islamabad for his
kind efforts and special interest for the enhancement and flourishing of technical and
vocational education in Pakistan.
I would like to acknowledge with thanks the dedication, contribution and efforts of Dr Bakhtiar
Ali, Mr. Abdul Majid and Engr. Zahid Ali to complete this report on the basis of face-to-face
interviews, a questionnaire and focus discussion group meeting in which the experts from all
the four provinces participated.
I would also like to acknowledge the continued help of Mr. Tariq Mahmood, Stenotypist, NISTE
for typing this material.

Prof Dr Farid A. Khwaja


Director General (NISTE)

Islamabad, June 15, 2009


ii

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The major thrust of technical and vocational education (TVE) worldwide is to address issues of
youth unemployment, poverty and international competitiveness in skills development towards
current and projected opportunities and challenges. The World Bank (2004) has observed that:

d            
,h^
d
with education a major political priority. High quality human capital is developed in high
quality education systems, with tertiary education providing the advanced skills that


Realizing the potential benefits and role of TVE in economic development, UNESCO organized a
meeting of TVET experts at Bangkok to address the underlying issues and associated challenges
for increasing the role of secondary education and widening the scope of TVET to cover the
secondary education. Based on the outcome of the meeting, after extensive sharing of
experiences and information, four major dimensions/challenges were identified, which include;
(i) coordinated provision of available options, (ii) exploration of pre-requisites issues/tasks
related to development of TVE curriculum at the secondary schooling level, (iii) exploration of
capacity to deliver, and (iv) accreditation, quality assurance and linkages to other education.

Based on the above identified challenges and issues, this study seeks to empirically explore the
role of and available options for the introduction of TVE at secondary level. Each dimension
was further decomposed to find the latent factors. Prior to data collection literature was
reviewed to find the relevancy of identified issues with the previous findings. Research
literature indicates that these are important dimensions and in line with the previous studies.

For data collection, the triangulation research method was used, which consists of quantitative
and qualitative analysis. Therefore, to tap accurate responses of four major research questions
iii

alongwith sub-questions, data was collected in three steps, i.e., (i) one-on-one interview
method for quantification of concepts, development and validation of contents and
instruments, (ii) quantitative method through structured questionnaire, and (iii) qualitative
method through focus group study.

Result related to first dimension shows that different duration of courses in various technical
and vocational fields are being offered across the country, ranging from 3 months certificate
courses to 3 years diploma of associate engineering (DAE). Furthermore, one form of MatricTech Scheme, i.e., one optional technical subject against computer studies and biology is
available in Punjab, NWFP, Balochistan and Federal Capital Area. Moreover, option of Matric
Technical School Certificate in Sindh and customized training for industry in Punjab are also
available. All these diverse approaches serve the purpose of employment, self-employment,
and for further education. Study found that except 3-year diploma of associate engineering
programmes all other options are not working satisfactorily. The efforts to integrate TVE with
secondary school general curriculum have remained unsuccessful except in Federal Capital
Territory.

Finding related to the second question shows that different institutions are involved in
curriculum development process with the aim to provide education in the various technical and
vocational fields for employment, self-employment and for further studies. These institutions
include: TEVTA, Punjab; Centre for Curriculum Research & Development (CCRD) Sindh; NWFP
Board of Technical Education; and Balochistan Board of Intermediate & Secondary Education
(BBISE) and Ministry of Labour & Manpower. However, National Institute of Science & Technical
Education (NISTE) is the approving authority for DAE curricula and vocational subjects at
secondary school level. The 3-year DAE curriculum is uniform throughout the country while all
provinces maintain the uniformity of their vocational courses. Industry is often involved in the
curriculum development and revision process. The federal government has recently established
NAVTEC for making the uniform policies and restructuring of TEVT in the country. The
curriculum is implemented in different areas after conducting need assessment survey. Almost

iv

all of the main industry and occupation areas are covered. The science subjects such as Physics,
Chemistry, and Mathematics and social science subjects, such as Pakistan Studies, Islamiat and
Management related general education subjects are included in TVE curriculum. Similarly,
generic life and work skills like Entrepreneurship and Occupational Health & Safety are included
in the newly developed DAE curricula under Technical Education Project (2000-2004). The
vocational curriculum was last revised in 1980 whereas curricula for most of the DAE
technologies were last revised in 1996.

Result related to third dimension indicates that normally the short/ vocational courses teachers
are DAE qualified. Most of the DAE teachers are B-Tech/B. Sc. Engineering, M Sc. and PhD. The
pay scales/wages of technical teachers are almost same as general education teachers.
Industry involvement in various TVET programmes is missing except in Punjab, where
customized training for industrial workers is available.

Study also shows that there is no arrangement of in-service teachers training in terms of
professional development in the provinces. However, NISTE offers various in-service teachers
training programmes for TVE teachers of the country. Furthermore, TVE teachers have no
access to modern teaching learning materials except internet in urban areas. Nevertheless,
trade related equipment is available in all the TVET institutes and industry equipment is also
available in few institutions.

In the findings related to the last dimension, experts have the views that a lot of efforts are
required in the areas of quality assurance and linkages to other technical education boards.
Quality Assurance System is needed for TVE at national and provincial level. At present the
country does not have a National Qualification Framework (NQF) that can cover all the
secondary level TVE achievements, the Federal Government has realized the need of NQF and
Pakistan Engineering Council and NAVTEC are working towards this goal. Study also indicates
that presently there is no linkage between various options, thus it is a dire need to introduce
flexible horizontally and vertically entry in the TVET system of the country.

vi

CONTENTS

1.

Foreword

Page #
ii

2.

Executive Summary

iii

3.

Abbreviations

vii

4.

List of Tables

ix

5.

List of Figures

6.

Introduction

01

7.

Background

03

8.

Study Methods and Results

26

9.

Discussion/Conclusions and Recommendations

57

10.

References

60

11.

Appendix-1: Province/Area-wise TEVT Data

61

12.

Appendix-2: Questionnaire

67

13.

Appendix-3: Response of Focus Group in Tabular Form

75

14.

Appendix-4: List of Participants

80

vii

ABBREVIATIONS

ADB

: Asian Development Bank

B.A

: Bachelor of Arts

BBISE

: Balochistan Board of Intermediate & Secondary Education

B.Com

: Bachelor of Commerce

B.E

: Bachelor of Engineering

B-Tech

: Bachelor of Technology

B. Sc

: Bachelor of Science

CCRD

: Centre for Curriculum Research & Development

ESR

: Education Sector Reforms

GCT

: Government College of Technology

GPIB

: Government Polytechnic Institute for Boys

GPIW

: Government Polytechnic Institute for Women

HEC

: Higher Education Commission

ICT

: Islamabad Capital Territory

ILO

: International Labor Organization

M.A

: Master of Arts

M.Com

: Master of Commerce

M. Sc

: Master of Science

MOE

: Ministry of Education

NISTE

: National Institute of Science and Technical Education

SDC

: Skill Development Council

TEVTA

: Technical Education and Vocational Training Authority

TTC

: Technical Training Centers

TVE

: Technical and Vocational Education

TVET

: Technical and Vocational Education & Training

UNESCO

: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

VTC

: Vocational Training Center


viii

LIST OF TABLES

Table-1
Table-2
Table-3
Table-4
Table-5
Table-6
Table-7
Table- A1.1
Table- A1.2
Table- A1.3
Table- A1.4
Table- A1.5
Table- A1.6
Table- A1.7
Table- A1.8
Table- A1.9
Table- A1.10
Table- A1.11
Table- A1.12
Table- A1.13
Table- A1.14
Table- A1.15
Table- A1.16
Table- A1.17
Table- A1.18

Various Levels of Education System


Country - wise Detail of Government College of Technology /
Polytechnics/ Monotechnics Institutes in Pakistan
Province / area wise detail of Vocational Institutes at Public Sector
Gender- and Location-wise detail where Matric Technical Stream is to
be launched
Availability of TVE Options against the Age Group
Type of Institutions and availability of TVE Options
Province / Area Wise Availability of TVE Options
Schools in Punjab (Public Sector Only)
TVET Institutions by Gender in Punjab Province
TVET Institutions in Punjab Province
Public and Private Sector Institutions affiliated with the Punjab Board
of Technical Education in 2002
Schools in Sindh (Public Sector Only)
Technical Institutes By Type and Gender
Summary of Technical Institute Census 2004-2005
Technical Institutes - Level, Type and Shift-wise
Primary, Middle, High Schools, Intermediate, Degree & Post
Graduate Colleges in NWFP (Public Sector)
Summary of Government Polytechnic Institutes/ Enrolment in these
Institutes & Teaching Staff
Government Technical and Vocational centers in NWFP
Commercial, Technical & Vocational Centers and Polytechnic
Institutes in Private Sector
TVET Institutions in NWFP Province (Public Sector)
Schools in Baluchistan (Public Sector Only)
Public and Private Schools in Baluchistan
Gender-wise Enrolment of Schools, Public and Private Sector
Summary of TVET Institutions in Baluchistan Province
Summary of TVET Institutions in Federal area (Public Sector)

ix

Page #
4
9
9
12
17
17
18
61
61
61
61
62
62
62
63
63
64
64
64
65
65
65
65
66
66

LIST OF FIGURES
Page #
Figure-1

Educational setup in Pakistan

Figure-2

Type of Responses

28

Figure-3

Province-wise Responses

28

Figure-4

Proposed available options /approaches served

29

Figure-5

Effectiveness and efficiency of the available options

30

Figure-6

Involvement of Industry in Vocational Training at secondary school


level

30

Figure-7

How the industry is involved?

31

Figure-8

Working of existing different options together

32

Figure-9

Provision of available TVE options at secondary school level for


males / females and disadvantaged groups

33

Figure-10

Suggestions for improving coordination between various options /


approaches for TVE at secondary and higher secondary level

34

Figure-11

New options / approaches suggested for TVE at secondary school


level

35

Figure-12

Involvement of Industry / Business sector in the development of


TVE curricula

36

Figure-13

Level of Involvement of Industry in the development of TVE


curricula

36

Figure-14

Relevance of TVE curriculum with the requirements of the job


market

37

Figure-15

Realization the demand of the main industry and occupation areas


by offerings of TVE at secondary level

37

Figure-16

Proportion of general education components included in the


curriculum of TVE at secondary school level

38

Figure-17

Integration of generic life skills and work skills (employability


skills) in the curriculum of TVE at secondary level

38

Figure-18

Frequency of TVE curriculum revision to keep it up-to-date with


the changing technology

39

Figure-19

Status of the revision of present TVE curriculum at secondary level

39

Figure-20

Uniformity of curriculum in all schools offering similar options

40

Figure-21

Availability of specialized teachers for teaching technical subjects

40

Page #
Figure-22

Requirement of Industrial Experience for recruitment of Technical


subject teachers

41

Figure-23

Equivalence of pay scales of Technical Subject Teachers with


general education teachers

41

Figure-24

Organizing of professional
programmes for TVE teachers

building

42

Figure-25

Availability of modern Teaching-Learning Resources and training


equipment & tools to TVE teachers in schools for effective
teaching

42

Figure-26

Management's support to TVE teachers for execution of duties

43

Figure-27

Existence of organized Industry-School linkages / partnership to


facilitate TVE teachers to arrange workplace experience of
students

43

Figure-28

Availability of ladder of promotion to TVE teachers

44

Figure-29

How favorable avenues of promotion to TVE Teachers as


compared to general education teachers

44

Figure-30

Pre-service training of secondary level TVE teachers

45

Figure-31

Accreditation of TVE subjects at secondary level by the BISE / BTE


as other subjects

45

Figure-32

Involvement of Industry in the examination/assessment of TVE


subjects at secondary level

46

Figure-33

Availability of other system of Quality "Assurance" for TVE at


Secondary level, other than normal examination.

46

Figure-34

Influence given to prior informal learning by a candidate, at the


time of admission

47

Figure-35

Independent Accreditation System for TVE at secondary level

47

Figure-36

Availability of "National Qualification Framework" for secondary


level TVE achievements, general secondary school achievements,
and opportunities for further education

48

Figure-37

Necessity for the availability of a National Qualification


Framework

48

Figure- 38

Hurdles in further education of students studying TVE subjects at


secondary level

49

development/capacity

xi

1.

INTRODUCTION

In the meeting held on May 12-13, 2008 in Bangkok, Thailand, very fruitful information was
exchanged on the provision of technical and vocational education at secondary school level in
the Asia Pacific Region. On the basis of this information and discussion, four research questions
were developed for the follow-up regional study, which are addressed in the study report. Each
question along with sub questions is presented as follow:
Question No.1:

Challenge: Coordinated provision of available options

Main Question:

How are all the available options for technical and vocational education
at the secondary schooling level co-ordinated? Do they function efficiently
and effectively?

Sub Questions:

i)

What diverse approaches exist in the country?

ii)

What purpose do the different approaches serve?

iii)

How do they relate to stated rationales?

iv)

How are the options working?

v)

Is industry involved in the various options?

vi)

How do the options work together?

vii)

Do the options add up to provision of TVET in secondary


education being inclusive of all, and particularly of girls as well as
boys?

viii)

What can we do to improve the coordination of the various


options?

ix)

What new options might be considered?

Both the age groups, i.e., 11-15 years and 16-18 years were discussed for TVE options in the
country.
Question No.2:

What needs to be done to ensure the technical and vocational education


curriculum offered at the secondary schooling level is, and remains,
relevant to the needs of the job (employment) market?

Sub Questions:

i)

What are the core mechanisms in place for curriculum


development?

ii)

Towards what ends is the curriculum set?


1

iii)

Is industry involved and what other players are involved in


curriculum development?

iv)

Is there uniform curriculum that is used across schools and/or


across TVE options?

v)

How do the areas of TVE curriculum relate to where the skills are
needed in the job market?

vi)

Are all of the main industry and occupation areas in demand


covered?

vii)

Does the TVE curriculum include some general education


components?

viii)

Does the curriculum have embedded in it generic life and work


skills, also known as soft skills or employability skills?

ix)

How is the TVE curriculum kept up-to-date with changes in


technology and other work processes?

The core mechanism in place for curriculum development in each province, industry
involvement and related issues were discussed under each question.

Question No.3:

Challenge: Capacity to deliver

Main Question:

Who can build (policy, training institutions) teacher availability and


capacity to provide relevant TVET in secondary level education?

Sub Questions:

i)

Who are the TVE teachers? What qualifications do they have? Do


they have industry experience? Do they receive pay rates the
same as general education teachers? Is industry involved?

ii)

Are there organized professional development programmes for


TVE teachers? Do the PD programmes involve industry
placements?

iii)

Do TVE teachers have access to modem teaching and learning


materials, industry equipment and facilities?

iv)

Are TVE teachers provided the necessary support in terms of


managerial support and industry partnership building skills?

v)

Are there some groups of TVE teachers that have greater capacity
to deliver relevant TVE than others?

Teachers availability, teacher training, professional development and required facilities in each
province of the country were discussed.
2

Question No. 4:

Challenge: Accreditation, quality assurance and linkages to other


education

Main Question:

What relationships exist between secondary level TVE achievement,


general secondary schooling achievement, and opportunities for further
education? How effective are they?

Sub Questions:

i)

Are TVE secondary education achievements included in a


recognition system involving accreditation and qualifications? Is
industry involved?

ii)

Is there an associated quality assurance system? Are there other


regulations?

iii)

Are there arrangements in place for the formal recognition of


prior learning, for - example of young people who have worked in
family business or in other jobs or capacities and who have
obtained TVE skills and knowledge in this way?

iv)

Do you have multiple TVE accreditation frameworks, for example


for different industries?

v)

Is the TVE accreditation system separate from the general


academic education system?

vi)

Is the TVE accreditation system consistently applied nationally and


by geographic - area/institution?

vii)

Do you have a National Qualifications Framework that covers all


of secondary level TVE achievement, general secondary schooling
achievement and other further education opportunities and the
relationships between these? If not is there interest in a National
Qualifications Framework?

viii)

What needs to be done to ensure a TVE secondary school


graduate can go on to further study if they so desire?

Within the perspective of these questions, quality assurance, boards responsible for
examination and need for National Qualification Framework in each province of the Country
were discussed.

2.

BACKGROUND

Education system in Pakistan is comprised of primary, middle/elementary, secondary, higher


secondary and higher education. Primary education is of five (5) years of school class 1 to 5
3

with entry age of five (5) years. Middle level is from 6th to 8th class. Secondary level is of class
9th to 10th and higher secondary is of 11th & 12th class. After higher secondary, higher education
at bachelor and master level starts. Previously each degree programme consists of two years at
university level but recently Higher Education Commission has extended the time duration of all
Bachelor of Science degrees from two (2) years to four (4) years. Whereas, professional
education in engineering and medicine, the programmes are offered at university level, which
comprised of four and five years, respectively. Similarly, for other professions, various
programmes like bachelor and master degrees in home economics (for girls), agriculture,
information technology, and veterinary sciences, etc., are offered.

For the development of skilled workforce, another stream is technical and vocational
education, which is comprised of three (3) years of education after matriculation / 10th class
and vocational training certificate courses of six months, twelve months and eighteen months
duration after 8th class or 10th class. These diploma and certificates are offered in almost all
technologies for both girls and boys throughout the country.

The various levels of the education system are depicted in Table 1, whereas the integrated view
of education setup is presented through Figure 1.

TABLE-1: Various Levels of Education System


Description

Grade/Class

Duration

Remarks

Primary Education

1st to 5th class

5 years of education

Primary Pass

Secondary Education

6th to 8th Class

3 years of education

Middle Pass

9th & 10th Class

2 years of education

Secondary School Certificate


(SSC)/ Matriculation
(Subjects: Science/
Humanities/
Commerce/Technical School
Certificate)

Description

Grade/Class

Duration

Remarks

Higher Secondary

11th & 12th Class

2 years of education

Higher Secondary School

Education

Certificate / Intermediate
(Subjects: Science/Arts/
Commerce)(FA, F.Sc,I.Com)

Bachelor Degree Education

th

th

th

th

13 & 14

2 years of education

- Bachelor of Arts / commerce


(BA / B.Com)

13 to 16

(new scheme)

2 years (old scheme)

- Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.)

4 years of education
(new scheme)

Master Degree Education

15th & 16th

2 years of education

- Master of Science/
Arts/Commerce
- M.Sc./MA/M.Com

Engineering Degree

13th to 16th

4 years of education

Education

Bachelor of Engineering (BE) /


Bachelor of Science
Engineering (B.Sc. Engg.)

Medical Education

13th to 17th

5 years of education

MBBS

Technology Education

14th to 17th

2+2 years of

Bachelor of Technology(Pass)
+
Bachelor of Technology(Hons)
(old scheme)

education (old
scheme)
4 years of education
(new scheme)

( B-Tech (Honours) is at par


with B.E./ B.Sc. Engineering)

Technical Education

11th to 13th

3 years

Diploma of Associate
Engineers (DAE)
(It is at par with F. Sc.)

Vocational Education

8th to onward

6 months to 2 years

Trade Certificates
Vocational Certificate (G-II and
G-III level)

Figure-1: Educational setup in Pakistan


Class
1
to
5

Class
6
to
8

Class
9th
&
10th

Class

11
&
12

Class
13
to
16

Class
15
16

Primary Education

Age (Yrs)
5
|
10

Middle School

Age (Yrs)
11
|
13

Secondary Education
Secondary School Certificate (SSC/Matric)

Intermediate
Education
HSC/FA, F.Sc.,
I.Com

Bachelor
Degree
BA, B.Sc.,
B.Com

Age

Master
Degree
MA
MSc.
M.Com

Age

(Yrs)

18
to
21

(Yrs)

20
21

Age

Class

16
|
17

11
12
13

Class
13
14
15
16

Class
13
14
15
16

Diploma of
Associate
Engineering
(DAE)

Bachelor
of Engg.
(B.E)/
B.Sc. Engg

Medical
Degree
MBBS

PhD
6

Age
(Yrs)
18
19
20
21
22

Age
(Yrs)
18
19
20
21

Age

16
17
18

Age
(Yrs)
14
|
15

Vocational
Certificate
Courses
VTC, TTC

Class
14
15

B-Tech
(Pass)

Age
(Yrs)
19
20

Class
16
17

B-Tech
(Honours)

Age
(Yrs)
21
22

2.1

TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION IN PAKISTAN

Technical and Vocational Education & Training (TVET) is basically the skill-development of
workforce working in the industry of a country. It is also defined as marketable and
economically relevant education for people. Technical Education refers to post-secondary
courses of study and practical training aimed at preparation of technicians to work as
supervisory staff. Vocational Training, on the other hand, refers to the lower-level education
and training for the preparation of skilled or semi-skilled workers in various trades, but it does
not enhance their level with respect to general education.

There is a fresh awareness among policy makers in developing countries and the international
community of the critical role that TVET can play in national development. One of the most
important features of TVET is its orientation towards the world of work and the emphasis of the
curriculum on the acquisition of employable skills. TVET delivery systems are therefore well
placed to train the skilled and entrepreneurial workforce that the country needs to create
wealth and emerge out of poverty. Another important characteristic of TVET is that it can be
delivered at different levels of sophistication. This means that TVET institutions can respond to
the different training needs of learners from different socio-economic and academic
backgrounds, and prepare them for gainful employment and sustainable livelihoods. The youth,
the poor and the vulnerable of society can therefore directly benefit from a TVET programme.

In a developing country like Pakistan, it is extremely important to realize that vast numbers of
young people are outside the formal school system, requiring the integration of non-formal
learning methodologies and literacy programmes into national education programmes. To
revitalize, modernize and harmonize TVET in order to transform it into a mainstream activity for
the youth development and human capacity building in Pakistan, it is necessary to:
o Position TVET programmes and TVET institutions as vehicles for regional cooperation
and integration as well as socio-economic development as it relates to improvements in
infrastructure, technological progress, energy, trade, tourism, agriculture and good
governance; and
7

o Mobilize all stakeholders in a concerted effort to create synergies and share


responsibilities for the renewal and harmonization of TVET policies, programmes and
strategies.

The rapid technological developments being witnessed in the early years of the twenty-first
century, together with the forces of globalization, are already leading to radical changes in the
world of work. In fact, the changing nature of work is already perceptible both in urban as well
as rural communities. New technologies are being developed and applied, replacing existing
technologies and processes. As the new technologies are knowledge intensive, the developing
countries, being net importers of foreign technology, are obliged to upgrade and enhance the
skill level of their manpower. This step is necessary in order to absorb and maintain new
technologies, highlighting the critical role of TEVT.

A parallel aspect of globalization is the increased international competitiveness: firms have to


compete not only on the basis of price but also on the basis of quality [1]. The pressure of
competition has prompted firms to ensure price competitiveness, greater flexibility, enhanced
quality, and the capacity to introduce new products and services effectively. In 1950, 80% of the
world's jobs were classified as unskilled; now 85% of the jobs are classified as "skilled" [2].

These shifting sands of technology have put a greater premium on TEVT resources that are seen
throughout the world as essential for socio-economic progress. The nature of work and
demands for skills is also changing in Pakistan and employment opportunities are shifting across
industries and occupations. The profile of the Pakistani work force in 2005 showed 43.1 percent
engaged in agriculture, 13.8 percent in manufacturing and mining, and 43.1 in services [3].
Since 2000, there has been a shift of 5.3 % employed labour force from agriculture sector to
manufacturing /mining.
At present, there are 18 Colleges of Technology, 54 Polytechnic Institutes (11 for females) and
25 Monotechnics whereas commerce education for business sector is provided in over 200
commercial training institutes.
8

TABLE-2: Country - wise Detail of Government College of Technology / Polytechnics/


Monotechnics Institutes in Pakistan
Province
Federal Area
Punjab
Sindh
Balochistan
NWFP
Total

GCT
7
4
1
6
18

GPIB
13
15
15
43

GPIW
1
4
4
1
1
11

Monotechnic
25
25

Total
1
24
48
2
22
97

The Monotechnics/Polytechnics Institutes and College of Technology offer 3-year Diploma


Course after 10th Class (Matriculation) in over 30 Technologies. Generally, 3 to 4 technologies
are offered in institute. There are 409 Vocational Institutes operating in the provinces/area,
offering training in over 40 skills / trades. Province-wise break-up of vocational institutes are
given in Table-3 below whereas more detail is appended at Appendix-1.
TABLE-3: Province/area- wise detail of Vocational Institutes at Public Sector
Province/Area
Punjab
Sindh
NWFP
Balochistan
Islamabad Capital Territory (ICT)
Total

2.2

Boys
130
5
47
11
1
194

Girls
134
63
0
17

Co-education
1

214

Total
265
68
47
28
1
409

APPRENTICESHIP TRAINING

Apprenticeship training is another option for the development of skilled workforce. There are
many establishments registered to provide apprenticeship training, which include many state
owned organizations such as railways, national airlines, Pakistan Steel, Pakistan Air force, etc.
The programmes are usually of three years duration. The entry is competitive and the entry
requirement is effectively Secondary / higher secondary school certificate. Apprenticeship
Schemes are based on guidelines in Apprenticeship Training Ordinance 1962.

2.3

VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AT SECONDARY LEVEL

Pakistan is considered as the middle income industrialized country, which needs to be given
great attention for the vocationalization of the secondary level curriculum to increase the
capacity of its education's output for better world of work, as Daniel (2002) argues that
vocational education is powerful and effective method for bridging the gap between the world
of work and education as well as between school and society. Recognizing the importance of
the issue, various attempt have been made and a growing array of experiments which involve
vocationalization of school curricula by including various subjects throughout the world
(Grierson, Schnurr and Young, 2002). Subsequently, for the vocationalization of school
curriculum, the explorations of the potential role of TVET at the secondary school level become
the major area of debate (Maclean and Wilson, 2005).

  >   s      
 which includes vocational

 d             
occupations, clusters of occupationsand more generally for the world of work. The goal of
improving such relevance is the most important reason why governments introduce
vocationalization, which will have different rationales, depending on the main policy goals.
These categories are suggested for such goals: personal development goals, socio-political
goals, and economic goals. By reviewing literature, Lauglo also indentified various constraints in
the introduction of TVE at secondary level:
x

' skills to manage and operate


and maintain the related equipment; higher unit of costs of subjects and equipment;
lack of Government commitment;

overlapping of subjects in curriculum design;

community participation etc.)


x

   Z t     
access to jobs; not giving enough time to the vocational subjects in timetable; linkage

10

with labour market; unrealistic expectations; appreciating only those students who get
highest marks in general subjects;
x

W'>         & 
at
should count as learning;

  ^- '        
social inequality; lack of positive attitude toward TVE).

Various efforts have been made in the Pakistan include TVE subjects at secondary level of
education. For instance, the agro technical subjects like industrial arts (woodwork, metal work,
& electricity), agriculture, and home economics subjects were introduced but due to different
barriers at various levels, the objectives could not be achieved accordingly. Similarly, 2001-2 the
Matric Tech Stream was launched with the support of different international agencies like
Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) and UNESCO (Tirmazi, 2006). Despite failure of
earlier efforts, all the concerned stakeholders still support the idea of this scheme and
emphasize to make it fruitful, which indicates the importance of the topic and forcing the policy
makers and planners to make it alive not discord the project. Tirmazi (2006) has identified
various obstacles that led the Matric Tech project to failure, which include: shortage of facilities
in terms of laboratory, equipments, qualified teachers; curriculum; and lack of commitment.

Different schemes and plans were made for vocational education at secondary level in Pakistan
like Industrial Arts Scheme, Comprehensive Schools, and Technical Schools, etc. During the last
ten years various plans and schemes were made for a vocational / technical stream at
secondary level. A plan was made for establishment of 70 Model Vocational Schools in various
districts all over Pakistan for a total intake capacity of 12,250 but not materialized/
implemented due to change of government in the country.

11

According to the National Education Policy 1998 -2010, Para 8.5.12 "To expose students to the
world of work foster interest and develop an elementary level of skill in employable trades, a
stream of Matric-Tech parallel to Science and Humanities Group shall be introduced in 10% (3%
female 7% male) secondary schools (classes IX-X) in a phased manner over a period of five year,
i.e., by the year 2002".

2.3.1 Matric Technical Stream


In pursuance of NEP 1998-2010, a third stream Matric Tech was introduced at selected
secondary school under Education Sector Reforms (ESR) package that was approved in
April 2000 and launched in 2001-02. It was planned to introduce the scheme in 1100
selected secondary schools across the country. For the introduction of Technical Stream,
Rs.1277.858 million was released to the provinces, area governments and AJK under the
ESR Programme. The gender and location-wise distribution of schools formulated are
shown in Table-4 below:TABLE-4: Gender- and Location-wise detail where Matric Tech Stream is to be launched

Gender

Punjab Sindh NWFP Baluchistan FATA FANA

AJK

ICT

Total

Male

170

100

120

110

05

05

35

05

550

Female

170

100

120

110

05

05

35

05

550

Total

340

200

240

220

10

10

70

10

1100

As per scheme of studies for SSC (Classes IX-X), two technical subjects were included in
the Technical group. Whereas, one technical subject was included in the Science group
and Humanities group as an optional subject. It was observed that Technical group was
not introduced/ offered by any of the province in the country in letter and spirit,
whereas, one technical subject against Biology and Computer Science was offered in
most of the secondary schools, where technical workshop/lab was established against
the Agro-Tech scheme during the mid seventies in pursuance of the National Education
Policy of 1972.

The funds released to the provinces against the introduction of

Technical stream were utilized mostly on the construction of the class rooms /
12

workshops /Labs of the schools. Subsequently, in 2006, Ministry of Education had


constituted a committee to find out the progress on implementation of introduction of
Technical stream in the country. On the findings of the Committee, it was decided in the
Inter-ministerial meeting to discontinue this scheme. Accordingly, the Curriculum Wing,
Ministry of Education has excluded this technical stream in the revised scheme of
studies, which is going to be implemented from the academic session 2010 in the
country.
2.3.2 NISTE Contribution in Matric Technical Stream
The Matric Technical Stream was to be introduced gradually in about 1100 secondary
schools of the country. The curricula of 17 trades, their textbooks, teacher guides, and
practical manuals had been developed by National Institute of Science and Technical
Education (NISTE) with technical and financial assistance of UNESCO Islamabad office
and got printed through Urdu Science Board, Lahore for use in schools. Details of
technical trades are listed as follows:Industrial Trades:
- Repair of House Holds Appliances
- Radio and Tape Recorder repairing
- Computer Hardware (Orientation)
- Repair and Maintenance of Refrigerators & Air-Conditioners
- Plumbing and Sanitary Fitting
- Welding (Gas and Electric)
- Auto Mechanic (Motor Cycle & Scooter)
- Motor Winding
- TV Servicing
- Electrical Wiring
Agriculture Trades:
- Fish Farming
- Food Preservation
- Poultry Farming
- Servicing & Minor Repairing of Tractors
- Wood working:
- Furniture Making
- Boat Making
13

Miscellaneous /Girls Trades:


- Dress Making and Fashion Designing
- Beauticians
2.3.3

Technical School Certificate (TSC)


In early seventies Agro-tech scheme was introduced in the country and workshops and
labs were established in various selected secondary schools. On failure of this scheme,
the Sindh Province had introduced a new scheme known as Technical School Certificate
(TSC). The main aim to introduce this scheme was to provide technical skill and an
opening in a practical career for those large numbers of students who finish education
after Secondary School Certificate. At the same time it was make certain that it will not
block the way for higher education for those who have the desired capability.

The curriculum of Technical School Certificate consists of a heavy component of Trade


Training along with courses of general education namely languages, mathematics,
science (Physics & Chemistry), religion and ideological education.

This is a two-year programme for which the entry qualification is class VIII pass. The
programme is equivalent to Matriculation (Industrial). Those completing the programme
successfully are awarded Technical School Certificate by the Sindh Board of Technical
Education. Such persons are eligible for admission to Polytechnic Diploma Course on
priority basis in order of preference. They can also join colleges in general education.

The training programme in trade courses through pre-vocational is aimed to produce


           
training they can work as middle level technicians. The vocational Institutes and
Technical high schools in Sindh are offering these courses.

The Technical School Certificate consists of two parts, i.e. Part-I & II. The scheme of
studies for Technical School Certificate is as under:
14

Part-I (Grade IX)


S. No. Course
1 (a)
(b)
(c)
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Paper Marks

COMPONENT-I
Salees Sindhi (For candidates whose mother
tongue in Urdu)
OR
Sindhi Normal (For candidates whose mother
tongue in Sindhi)
OR
Geography of Pakistan I (For foreigners only
subject to permission from the Board)
English-I
Pakistan Studies
COMPONENT-II
Chemistry (Theory 75+ Practical 25)
Mathematics -I
Technical Drawing-I (Final Exam: 30+Sessional: 20)
COMPONENT-III
Trade Theory
Trade Practical (Final Exam: 60 + Sessional: 40)
Total:

Periods
per week

75

1
1

75
75

6
4

1
1
1

100
50
50

6+2
5
4

1
1
9

50
100
575

6
9
46

Paper

Marks

Periods
per week

75

1
1

75
75

6
4

1
1
1

100
50
50

6+2
5
4

1
1
9

50
100
575

6
9
46

Part-II (Grade X)
S. No. Course
1 (a)
(b)
(c)
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

COMPONENT-I
Salees Sindhi (For candidates whose mother
tongue in Urdu)
OR
Sindhi Normal (For candidates whose mother
tongue in Sindhi)
OR
Geography of Pakistan II (For foreigners only
subject to permission from the Board)
English-II
Islamiyat
COMPONENT-II
Physics (Theory 75+ Practical 25)
Mathematics II
Technical Drawing-II(Final Exam: 30+Sessional: 20)
COMPONENT-III
Trade Theory
Trade Practical (Final Exam: 60 + Sessional: 40)
Total:

15

The trade subjects being offered against the Component-III are as under:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

2.4

Auto Mechanics
Building Construction
Building Drafting /Civil Drafting
Colour Television & VCR Technician
Computer Science
Electrical Appliances
Electronics
General Electrician
Hand & Machine Embroidery
Machinist
Mechanical Drafting
Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
Surveying
Tailoring & Dress Making
Welding
Wood Working

AVAILABILITY OF TVE OPTIONS FOR THE AGE GROUP OF 11 TO 18 YEARS IN THE


COUNTRY

Presently the following TVE options are available in the country for the age group of 11 to 18
years:1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

6)
7)

Vocational Trade Courses (after Grade-VIII)


Matric Tech (Grade IX-X)
Technical School Certificate (Grade IX-X)
Agro-Tech Courses (Grade-IX-X)
Vocational Certificate Courses (after Grade-X):
i) G-III (Basic Level)
ii) G-II (Intermediate Level)
iii) G-I (Advanced Level)
Diploma of Associate Engineers (DAE) after Grade-X
Customized Training for In-Service Workers of Industry (after Grade-X, and DAE)

The availability of the above TVE Options against the age group 11 to 18 is shown in the Table-5
below whereas the types of options available in various institutions are given in Table-6.
Furthermore, the province/area-wise availability of TVE options is indicated in Table-7 below.

16

TABLE-5:

Availability of TVE Options against the Age Group

Sr.
No.
1.

Vocational Trade Courses (after Grade VIII)

2.

Matric Tech (Grade IX-X)

3.

Technical School Certificate (Grade IX-X)

4.

Agro-Tech Courses (Grade-IX-X)

5.

Vocational Certificate Courses (after Grade-X):


iv) G-III (Basic Level)
v) G-II (Intermediate Level)
vi) G-I (Advance Level)

6.

Diploma of Associate Engineers (DAE) after Grade-X

7.

Customized Training for In-Service Workers of


Industry (after Grade-X / DAE)

Available TVE Options

TABLE-6:

2.
3.
4.
5.

6.

7.

12

13

14

Age
15 16

17

18

19

20

Type of Institutions and availability of TVE Options

Sr.
TVE Option
No.
1.

11

General
Secondary
Schools

Type of Institutions
Monotechnics/
Vocational Vocational
Polytechnics/
Training
Training
Institutes of
Centers
Institutes
Technology

Vocational Trade Courses


(after Grade VIII)
Matric Tech (Grade IX-X)
Technical School Certificate
(Grade IX-X)
Agro-Tech Courses (GradeIX-X)
Vocational Certificate
Courses (after Grade-X):
i) G-III (Basic Level)
ii) G-II (Intermediate Level)
iii) G-I (Advance Level)
Diploma of Associate
Engineers (DAE) after
Grade-X
Customized Training for InService Workers of Industry
(after Grade-X / DAE)
17

Customized
Training
Centers

TABLE-7:
Sr.
No.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.
7.

Province / Area Wise Availability of TVE options

TVE Option
Vocational Trade Courses (after Grade VIII)
Matric Tech (Grade IX-X)
Technical School Certificate (Grade IX-X)
Agro-Tech Courses (Grade-IX-X)
Vocational Certificate Courses (after
Grade-X):
i) G-III (Basic Level)
ii) G-II (Intermediate Level)
iii) G-I (Advance Level)
Diploma of Associate Engineers (DAE)
after Grade-X

Province / Area
NWFP Balochistan
9
9
9
9

Punjab
9
9

Sindh
9

9
9
9

9
9
9

9
9

Customized Training for In-Service


Workers of Industry (after Grade-X/ DAE)

AJK
9

ICT
9
9

9
9

9
9

9
9

(9 = option available, = option not available)

2.5

NATIONAL EDUCATION POLICY GUIDELINE

According to the Draft National Education Policy 2009 (NEP 2009), the country has a
comparative advantage in labour costs due to large population. However, low skill levels
dampen the potential of the labour force to significantly contribute to economic growth. The
deficit permeates all sectors: industry, agriculture, services, commerce. Improvements in the
skill levels of the labour force will increase efficiency and competitiveness of the local industry,
attract international investment and allow overseas employment of Pakistanis generating a
flow of foreign remittances.
The formal Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) system is not a major

to cater to the dynamism required by the market. Secondly the structure does not factor in
local requirements that vary across geographic units, i.e. provinces, districts, tehsils. It is critical
that skill development and market requirements match.
Like all other sectors of education in Pakistan, TVE also suffers from issues of access as well as
quality. While theoretically it caters to the market needs, practically it meets a very small
18

portion of the demand. In most countries, the relative share of the applied segment of the
tertiary sector is higher than the 18.5% in Pakistan. Hence, the base of technical and vocational
skills provided to the economy in Pakistan is narrow. The inadequate quality stems from both a
smaller number of total years of preparation and limitations of the curriculum, compared to the
more advanced systems as well as the issue of availability of quality instructors.
At the time of independence the country had a very low industrial base, inheriting only 4% of
the total industrial sector. Pakistan progressed rapidly in the 50s from this low base that
continued to early 60s. To meet the requirements of a growing manufacturing sector, technical
and vocational training systems were expanded and strengthened. However, after the initial
success subsequent investment in the sector failed to keep pace with the changes in the market
requirements.

On the demand side, jobs in the public sector continued to be a priority. Most of these jobs did
not require specialized skills and even a general matriculation certificate with no technical or
vocational content was deemed satisfactory to fill the junior level administrative and service
jobs. The academic degrees of Bachelors of Arts and Masters of Arts were sufficient to fill the
requirements for higher level jobs. This tradition has largely been maintained since the
Independence, even though the economic structure of the country has changed significantly.
The demand-pull effects have had limited effect on educational provision.
On the supply side, the certificate and diploma programmes do not seem to have a progression
ladder into higher level skills. They do not provide entry claims into the tertiary sector with
credit recognition in both the academic and applied streams. In addition to this blocked
forward linkage, the backward linkage with apprentice training in the traditional sector is
missing. There is no provision whereby the traditional apprenticeship experience in the nonformal sector could be assessed and certified for entry into the formal sector of vocational
education. The current TVE certificate stream is too narrow in its scope and does not cover the
large variety of skills training that takes place in the traditional sector. Two way cross-over

19

between the academic and the applied / professional streams is lacking in the system. The
absence of a well-articulated qualifications system is a major structural shortcoming.
The problem of a fragmented structure of governance, endemic to the education sector, also
plagues the technical and vocational sub-sector. Many institutions and jurisdictions are involved
in governance of this field without a clear demarcation of their respective responsibilities.
There is no focal point for coherent planning for the sector.
At the same time, the voices of important stakeholders such as the business sector are not
adequately taken into account in shaping the content, structures and certification of study
programmes. The TVE sector does not benefit from good collaboration and input from the
business sector, such as for updating its equipments and teaching materials. Resultantly, there
are perennial complaints from employers about the substandard quality of the skills available in
the market.
The Policy recognizes the high importance of developing a broad-based and high quality sector
for providing technical skills. As the manufacturing and services sectors have expanded, skill
requirements of the country have changed as well, and there are needs for technical and
vocational skills even in the traditional sector as it adopts more productive techniques of
production. The technical intensity of production processes will increase as new technologies
become more pervasive, thereby raising the demand for TVE skills of a higher quality.
In a global environment that permits easy flow of investments and people the TVE sector in
Pakistan needs to have a forward looking supply strategy of producing a sophisticated skill base.
Pakistan, as already stated, has a comparative advantage in the labour market due to its
population size. Unfortunately it has so far failed to optimally benefit from this endowment. In
comparison, India has developed a wider and more qualified skill base to the point that it can
export high value added services. The forecasted demographic transition over the next few
years shows the young population of 15-24 years to grow and peak in 2015. The current global
talent deficit is expected to expand rapidly and Pakistan needs to be well poised to benefit from

20

this expanding demand. This is an opportunity for the TVE to substantively contribute to the

As far as Vocational Training is concerned various experiments in the country have not
succeeded and most reform proposals invite controversy. A major deficit has been an absence
of focused research into the causes of this failure and potential remedies.
2.5.1 Policy Issues in the Draft National Education Policy - 2009
The Policy identified following issues regarding TVE:
1. Schools did not have enough budgets to meet the equipment requirements for
sustaining vocational trainings.
2. Adequately skilled teachers for these programmes are not available.
3. The curricula assume prototypes that do not cater to differentials in market
requirements across districts or other geographic divides like rural-urban, etc.
The Policy proposed to address the following three principal problems faced by the TVE
sector:
(i)

its weak linkages with other education sectors and the labour market,

(ii)

deficiencies in the governance of the sector; and

(iii) the need to expand supply of technical skills of good quality.


2.5.2 Proposed Policy Actions in the Draft National Education Policy - 2009
The Policy proposed the following Policy Actions:
1.

Inputs of all stakeholders like Industrial/Agricultural/Service sectors & Business


community, etc. shall be institutionalized to ensure their inclusion in all current
and future reforms of TVE to enable the sector to meet market needs.

2.

Skill Standards and Curriculum should be developed and standardized at


National Level.

3.

The TVE curriculum shall be developed in standardized modules for each trade to
eliminate

differentials across

21

various

training

institutions

to

provide

opportunities to the trainees for horizontal/upward mobility and also help in


assessment and certification of apprentices in non formal sectors for their entry
into formal vocational/technical sectors.
4.

TVE shall be extended according to the need of the area, irrespective of the level
i.e. Tehsil, District and Division and should be in access of every citizen.

5.

Level-wise prerequisites for entry as a teacher in TVE shall be defined and


Teacher professional development shall be focused as an ongoing process.
Terms and conditions of service for TVE teachers shall be compatible with
market demand of their services and skills.

6.

Local conditions and requirements must be considered while making any


recommendation for replication of TVE model, implemented in other countries.

7.

A study to evaluate failures of vocational training intervention at school level


shall be commissioned to make more realistic recommendations, including cost
requirements, for making it part of general education up to Secondary School
Level.

8.

Curricula for vocational education shall allow flexibility for adaptation as per
requirements of local market including absorption of future changes in the
market.

2.5.3 Proposed Possible Strategies in Draft National Education Policy - 2009


National Vocational and Technical Education Commission (NAVTEC) has already
prepared a set of strategies for this sector. These provide a basis for development of
implementation plans for the technical and vocational sector. The above policy actions
in conjunction with these strategies will assist in development of implementation plans.
Most strategic options given by NAVTEC appear as a natural progression from the above
policy actions. Some of the strategic options that have a clear link to the above policy
actions are given below (the list is inclusive and other strategic options in NAVTEC
document are also relevant to the implementation process of NEP);
1.

A National Qualifications Framework (NQF) shall be established along with a


changed programme structure that encompasses all qualifications in the
22

country, both academic and vocational/technical. The NQF shall be competency


based and provide entry points and progression routes throughout the structure
of qualifications. In particular, it shall provide the possibilities of two-way crossover between the academic and the applied streams, with clearly mapped out
recognition of credit points for each competency level.
2.

The business sector, in particular, shall be included in advising on the course and
programme content, and in providing training positions and job shadowing
opportunities for students in the applied streams. The business sector could also
help teachers by giving specialized lectures and short training programmes.

3.

All administrative jurisdictions and stakeholders shall be involved in a


consultative process to develop the NQF programme. Expertise shall be sought
from countries that have applied the NQF approach in recent years.

4.

To address the problem of fragmented governance structure, a coordination


mechanism between higher education, school education and technical,
vocational education shall be developed.

5.

Government shall develop a suitable framework for technical and scientific


education and training with close involvement of Chambers of Commerce and
Industry.

6.

Commerce stream should also be introduced under technical education and


vocational training regimes.

7.

Curriculum should be updated on regular basis.

8.

Public Private Partnerships (PPP) should be strengthened in this area.

9.

A regular tracking system shall be instituted for graduates to get feedback on


relevancy

10.

B-Tech technologists must also be registered by the Pakistan Engineering


Council.

11.

There shall be a:i.


ii.
iii.

Vocational training facilities at tehsil level


Polytechnic institute for every District (Agency in FATA)
Colleges of Technology in each Province/Area on a needs basis.
23

2.6

OPTIONS AND GOVERNANCE ARRANGEMENT

The main options for technical and vocational education as listed above comprised of 3 years
diploma after secondary school at Monotechnics, Polytechnics, Colleges of Technology, and
vocational certificate courses at vocational training institutes after middle and secondary school
and Technical School Certificate (TSC) and Matric- Tech at secondary level. TSC is offered only
in Sindh province.

Prior to the establishment of NAVTEC, the subjects of vocational training and technical
education were dealt with by the Labour & Manpower Division and Education Division
respectively at the federal level. The same structure had prevailed in the provinces; however,
the province of Punjab, in 1998, had taken an important step through the establishment of
Technical Education and Vocational Training Authority (TEVTA). The AJK, Provinces of Sindh and
Balochistan have also recently established their respective TEVTAs. The Government of NWFP is
also moving in the same direction.

2.7

TRADE ADVISORY COMMITTEES

In Pakistan, private sector plays negligible role in influencing what is taught in TVET institutes.
Though in past Government attempted to develop close link with industry in the development
of skill standards and endorsement of curricula. Yet this engagement was not fruitful at all. As a
result only a few skill standards were developed, which have now become obsolete since they
were not properly reviewed updated or improved according to international best practice shift
towards competency-based rather than occupations.

Many countries have institutionalized industries input into training through the establishment
of industry advisory bodies. These are employer-led, government licensed, and usually
government funded, independent organizations that cover a specific sector in the country. They
function as the communication channel between policy makers and training providers and
provide accurate industry intelligence about current and future skill needs and training
requirements.
24

In the past "Trade Advisory Committees" played very important role in the selection of trades
and curricula in the TVET institutions according to the requirement of the industry but
unfortunately these Committees could not stay alive and closed due to unknown reasons.
However, to make-up for this deficiency and provide the essential link between public and
private sector, the Government plans to establish sector specific trade Advisory Committees.
Each Advisory Committee will be represented by members of large, medium and small industry,
including all sub-industries that fall within the category as well as international employers
where relevant. Their primary responsibilities will be to identify skills needs in their sectors,
indicate new and emerging areas and occupations and determine competency standards for
the workers.
2.7.1 Restructuring of Trade Testing Board
In the light of recommendations furnished by the Trade Advisory Committees the Trade
Testing Boards were established to develop curriculum and prepare manuals for the
trainees and instructors. To organize Trade Testing Boards on modern lines, capacity
building of its staff and provision of necessary equipment is very essential. Initially the
role of Trade Testing Board confined in the public sector only but at later stage its
certification was extended to all private sector TVET institutions in order to resolve the
issue of recognition at both national and internationally and those who undergo training
do not face recognition problems vis--vis their skill.
To further draw upon this good practice and to enhance authority and acceptability of
its certificates Trade Testing Boards intends to affiliate with an internationally
recognized body and looking for recognizing it in such a manner that the board is led by
a prominent employer of the area.
2.7.2 Reform of the Apprenticeship System
A system of apprenticeships in collaboration with the industry is in place under the
Apprenticeship Ordinance 1962. However, the system is not operating effectively. The
main weakness of the present system seems to be that it is coercive and provides little
25

choice to industry in the selection of apprentices, or to trainees in how the training is


structured. There are few incentives for the industry to support the system of training
apprentices and many of the legal obligations can be circumvented in practice with
ease.

The Government, however, realizes the strength of an effective apprenticeship training


system as an effective way of addressing skill shortages, providing realistic, workplace
training, involving employers and ensuring the availability of trained workers. It is,
therefore, proposed that the existing Apprenticeship system should be reviewed against
similar, successful programmes abroad, discussed with stakeholders and modified
according to the Pakistani context, and the requirements of industry and trainees. It
should be redesigned in such a way that the Government and the private sector
perceive it not as a cost or burden but as an investment with significant returns to
workers, industry and all other stakeholders.

Trade associations of industries group will be encouraged to provide facilitating and


supportive role for promotion of the apprenticeship system importantly linkages should
be developed to ensure that apprenticeship training is recognized under a future
qualifications framework.

3.

STUDY METHODS AND RESULTS

3.1

METHODS

In order to address the objective of the study, triangulation research method was applied,
which consists of quantitative and qualitative analysis. Therefore, to tap accurate responses of
four major research questions along with sub-questions, data was collected in three steps, i.e.,
(i) one-on-one interview method for quantification of concepts, development and validation of
content and instruments, (ii) quantitative method through structured questionnaire, and (iii)
qualitative method through focus group study, which are described below:

26

3.1.1 One-on-one interview with those involved in technical and vocational education
To make the study more rigour and empirical, the constructs were operationalized. For
this purpose, a series of interviews with TVET practitioners were conducted. The context
and perspective were explained to the each interviewee, to find out the dimension of
each question. Based on the feedback, instruments were developed and face validity
test was also conducted, prior to circulation.

3.1.2 Sample/Target Group


Keeping in view the objectives of the study, only experienced educators were selected
to tap the responses. Therefore, data was collected from teachers, curriculum
developers and administrators working in the TVET sector across the country in the
mixed method, i.e., survey and focus group study. List of focus group participants is
appended at Appendix-4.

3.1.3 Instruments
For the selection of sample, purposive-method was applied. After face and content
validity, the questionnaire based on scientific operationalization method, was
developed and widely circulated throughout the country [Questionnaire is appended at
Appendix-2].

3.1.3.1 Collected Data in Tabulated Form


After collecting data/responses from the focus group on the four major research
questions alongwith sub-questions was converted into tabulated form. The data
in tabulated form is appended at Appendix-3].

3.1.3.2 Analysis of Collected Data


After collecting data, it was descriptively analyzed and presented below:

27

(i)

DEMOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS

Figure-2: Type of Responses


40%
8
7

30%

6
5

20%

4
3

10%

2
1
0
Teachers

Managers

Planners

Curriculum
Developers

Data was collected from 20 experienced people working in TVET sector. Figure-2 represents
the type of respondents in which 20% were Teachers, 30% Managers/Administrators, 40%
Planners, and 10% Curriculum Developers.
Figure-3: Province-wise Responses

Figure-3 shows the province-wise percentage of respondents.

28

(ii)

OPTIONS FOR TVE AT SECONDARY LEVEL


Figure-4: Available options /approaches served in the country

Vocational Trade Courses

Matric Tech

Technical School Certificate

8%

Agro-Tech Courses

16%

16%

11.52%

G-III (Basic Level)

12%
16%

16%

4%

G-II (Intermediate Level)

0.48%

G-I (Advance Level)

Diploma of Associate
Engineers
Customized Training for InService Workers

Figure-4 indicates the availability of TVE options against the percentage of population
(Refer Table-7 above).

29

Figure-5: Effectiveness and efficiency of the available options

63.6

70
60
50
40
27.3
30
20

9.1

10

In the context of availability of TVE options at secondary level, figure-5 shows that the
majority of respondents (63.6%) say that this option is highly ineffective and unsufficient; whereas only 27.3% have the view that it is effective.
Figure-6: Involvement of Industry in Vocational Training at secondary school level

100

90.9

80
60
40
20

9.1

Yes
No
Do not Know

More than 90% replied that industry is not involved in the TVE option in secondary
education; however 9.1% gave their views about the involvement of industry, which
shown in figure-6. This indicates strategy needs to be formulated to mobilize the
industry in the process.
30

Figure-7: How the industry is involved?

54.5

By providing financial support to schools


offering TVE.

45.5

36.4

In accreditation and assessment through


membership of examining Boards.

63.6

54.5

In implementation, through membership of


School Councils / Committees.

45.5

36.4

Through study visits to the relevant industry.

63.6

72.7

Through industrial attachment / internship.

27.3

63.6

In the development of curricula/ course


content.

36.4

72.7

In identification of trades/ courses to be


offered.

27.3

0
YES

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

NO

In the context of how the industry is involved, the majority of respondents, i.e.,72.7 %
suggested that industry should be involved In identification of trades / courses to be
offered and through industrial attachment or internship. 63.6% suggested that industry
should be involved in the development of curricula / course content, whereas. 54.5%
suggested that in implementation, through membership of School Councils /
Committees and by providing the financial support to schools offering TVE.

31

Figure-8: Working of existing different options together

100

90.9

90
72.7

80
63.6

70
60
50
36.4

40
27.3
30
20

9.1

10
0

YES
NO

As independent
streams without
affecting each other.

As independent
streams
complementing each
other for promoting
TVET.

As independent
streams antagonistic
/opposed to each
other for promoting
TVET

In the context of availability of TVE option in secondary education, majority of


respondents do not see any proper working of different option together. As 36.4%
EE
dsd


32

Figure-9: Provision of available TVE options at secondary school level for males /
females and disadvantaged groups
120

100
100
90.9

90.9

90.9

90.9
81.8

80

60
YES
NO

40

18.2

20
9.1

9.1

9.1

9.1
0

0
Provide for
both genders.

Provide for
boys only

Additive to
Provide for girls
Special
Special
only.
provision for provision for each other for
provision of
other
handicapped
TVE at
disadvantaged
persons.
secondary level
persons
(Orphans, rural
areas, etc.)

Though there is no proper provision of TVE option at secondary level, some


respondents may have observed from the available option, that male
disadvantage students have more option (i.e. upto 90%) as compared to female
students.

33

Figure-10: Suggestions for improving coordination between various options /


approaches for TVE at secondary and higher secondary level

80
72.7

72.7

70
63.6

63.6

60
54.5

50

45.5

40

36.4

36.4

YES
27.3

30

27.3

NO

20

10

0
Constitution of Interdepartmental
Coordination
Committee
representing various
departments involved
in TVE at secondary
level.

Development of a
mechanism based on
recognition of courses
under various options
for horizontal
movement of students
between various
streams / options.

Regular meetings and


consultations
between accreditation
bodies (Examining
Boards) for various
options

Regular meetings
between heads of
institutions offering
TVE at secondary level
under various options
/ approaches.

Formation of societies
of teachers of TVE at
secondary level under
various options /
approaches.

For improving of coordination between various options/approaches, top four


          
       ds     
 

ds
level under variou
34

Figure-11: New options / approaches suggested for TVE at secondary school level

70

63.6

63.6

60

54.5

50

40

45.5

36.4

36.4

YES

30

NO

20

10

Establishment of Technical
/ vocational Secondary
Schools.

Introduction of Technical /
vocational courses in
general secondary schools.

Introduction of Technical
Secondary Certificate (TSC)
programme in general
secondary schools parallel
to other programme.

For the new options/approaches, for option 1 (establishment of the


technical/vocational secondary) 63.6% recommended and 36.4% are not agree with
this option. Similarly, option 3 (introduction of technical secondary certificate
programme in general secondary schools parallel to other programme) has also been
suggested by 63.6%, whereas, with the option 2 (introduction of TVE courses in
general secondary schools) seems agree (54.4%) and not-agree (45.5).

35

(iii)

CONTENT OF TVE CURRICULUM AT SECONDARY SCHOOL LEVEL


Figure-12: Involvement of Industry / Business sector in the development of TVE
curricula
100

90.9

80
60
40
9.1

20

0
Yes

No

Do not know

Figure-13: Level of Involvement of Industry in the development of TVE curricula

In delivery of curriculum through


workplace experience.
Inclusion of experts from industry
in the curriculum development
committees.
YES
NO

Identification of skills and


theoretical knowledge required.

In identification of trades/ courses


to be offered.
0

20

40

60

80

100

In the context of DAE Curriculum, (figure-12) the majority, i.e., 90.9% of the respondents
see involvement of industry. Whereas, in case of vocational curriculum (figure-13)
majority (upto 90%) of the respondents see no     
        
        d   
contribution from industry in the process indicates there is no dynamic linkage exists
between TVE institutions and industry.
36

Figure-14: Relevance of TVE curriculum with the requirements of the job market

36.4

40

36.4
27.3
20
0
0
Highly relevant

Reasonably
relevant

Marginally
relevant

Least relevant

Figure-14 shows that the respondents do not consider the relevancy of TVE Curriculum
         
say reasonably relevant, 27.3% consider it marginally relevant and 36.4% see it least
relevant. The responses reveal that curriculum contents must be made more relevant to
the job market and requirements of the industry.
Figure-15: Realization the demand of the main industry and occupation areas by
offerings of TVE at secondary level
63.6

70
60
50
40
30
18.2

18.2

20

10

0
Highly
adequate

Reasonably
adequate

Marginally
adequate

Highly
inadequate

In the context of demand of industry and offering by TVE at secondary level, 63.6%
consider it marginally adequate, whereas nobody see highly adequate.
37

Figure-16: Proportion of general education components included in the curriculum of


TVE at secondary school level
50

45.5

40
27.3

30

27.3

20
10
0

0
90% or
70-90%
50-70%
30-50%
more
Proportion
of general education component

Less than
30%

In comparing the proportion of curriculum contents in term of general education, 45.5%


respondents say that 90% contents of general education, i.e., Physics, Chemistry,
Mathematics, Pakistan Studies, Islamiyat, and Computer Science, etc. have taken part,
while, 27.3% see it between 70%-90%, the other 27.3% replied in the category of 30%50% in the DAE/Matric Tech / TSC curricula. These findings indicate the highest portion
of education at secondary level is from general education and fewer portion has been
given to TVE subjects.
Figure-17: Integration of generic life skills and work skills (employability skills) in the
curriculum of TVE at secondary level

18%

46%

Yes
36%

No
Do not
Know

In the context of integration of generic life skill and work skill in the curriculum of TVE at
secondary level, 18% respondents consider it more balanced, 46% say no balance,
          ^  
respondents (46%) are not satisfied with balance of generic and work skill, contents of
TVE need be critically analyzed and revised.
38

Figure-18: Frequency of TVE curriculum revision to keep it up-to-date with the changing
technology

63.6

70
60
50
40
27.3

30
20
9.1
10
0

0
After 3 year

After 5 year

After 8 Year

After 10 years

After more
than 10 years

Figure-19: Status of the revision of present TVE curriculum at secondary level


80

72.7

70
60
50
40
30
18.2

20

9.1
10

0
3 year ago

5 year ago

8 Year ago

10 years ago

More than 10
years ago

Figure 18 and 19 indicate that the TVE curriculum is generally revised after more than 10
years, which indicates the poor state of curriculum, whereas the TVE is highly related to
job market and industry. Since both of the components change very rapidly, the revision
of curriculum activity needs to be practiced more regularly and the period of revision
must be minimized.
39

Figure-20: Uniformity of curriculum in all schools offering similar options

27%

55%
Yes
18%

No
Do not
Know

Figure 20 shows that no uniformity exists among all school regarding the curriculum
            E
however, 27% agreed with the statement.

(iv)

IMPLEMENTATION CAPACITY
Figure-21: Availability of specialized teachers for teaching technical subjects

90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

81.8

18.2
0
Yes

No

Do not Know

In the context of Implementation capacity of TVE at secondary level, the majority of


respondent (81.8%) shown their observation that teacher with specialization of
technical subjects are available. The cause of shortage of teachers in TVET institutions is
due to poor salary structure of technical teachers.
40

Figure-22: Requirement of Industrial Experience for recruitment of Technical subject


teachers

72.7

80
70

60
50
40

27.3

30
20
10

0
Yes

No

Do not Know

In the context of Implementation capacity of TVE at secondary level, when asked from
the respondents about the requirement of industrial experience for the recruitment of
technical subject teachers, 27.3% said yes and 72.7% do not see any pre-requirement.
This might be the simplicity of the content as it is offered at secondary level.
Figure-23: Equivalence of pay scales of Technical Subject Teachers with General
Education Teachers

100

81.8

80
60
40
18.2
20
0

0
Same

Less

More

Do not Know

In the context of Implementation capacity of TVE at secondary level, the majority of


respondent (81.8%) consider that the pay scale of technical subject teacher is equal to
the pay scale of general subjects teachers. However, 18.2% observed that less pay scales
as compared to general subject teachers.
41

Figure-24: Organizing of professional development/capacity building programmes for


TVE teachers

9.1
27.3
63.6

Yes

No

Do not Know

For the professional development and capacity building of TVE teachers, majority
(63.6%) has the view that this option already exists in TVET system, whereas 9.1% do
not see any option and 27.3% are not aware of any programme in this category.
Figure-25: Availability of modern Teaching-Learning Resources and training equipment
& tools to TVE teachers in schools for effective teaching
80

72.7

70
60
50

40
30
18.2

20

9.1

10
0
0
Adequate

Satisfactory

Inadequate

Not available

Figure 25 shows that modern teaching learning resources and training equipment and
tools for the TVE teachers in schools are inadequate (i.e. 72.7%), however, 18.2% found
it satisfactory.
42

Figure-26: Management's support to TVE teachers for execution of duties

Negative

9.1

No support/Neutral

18.2

Very Little Support

54.5

Reasonable Support

Full Support

18.2
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Support from the management In the execution of duties, figure 26 shows that 54.% has
the view that the          
,
Figure-27: Existence of organized Industry-School linkages / partnership to facilitate
TVE teachers to arrange workplace experience of students

100
100
80
60
40
20
0

0
Yes

No

Do not Know

Though, proper linkage between industry and TVE schools does not exist, industry
provides support to the technical teachers in terms of workplace experience
opportunity to their students, as in the figure 27, 100% respondents select the options

43

Figure-28: Availability of ladder of promotion to TVE teachers

60

54.5

50
36.4

40
30
20

9.1
10
0
Yes

No

Do not Know

/    ds   majority of the respondents (54.5%)


observed the availability of ladder for further promotion, where 36.6% do not see any
further ladder, as shown in Figure 28.
Figure-29: How favorable avenues of promotion to TVE Teachers as compared to
general education teachers
50

45.5

45
40
35

36.4

30

25
20
15
10
5
0

18.2

Same as general teachers

Less than general


teachers

More than general


teachers

Figure 29 is concerned with the comparison of TVE teachers and general education
teachers in terms of favorable avenue for promotion. Result indicates that 18.2%
 
and 45.5% has the observation that comparatively, TVE teachers have more favorable
avenue for promotions.
44

Figure-30: Pre-service training of secondary level TVE teachers


60

54.5

50
36.4

40
30
20
10

9.1

0
Education Institutes Agro-Technical
of Universities
Teacher Training
Centres

Others

For analysis of availability of pre-service teacher training facility for TVE teachers,

-          
Generally, it indicates that presently only agro-technical teachers training centers are
catering the need of pre-service teacher training, as there is no other proper
arrangement in the country to train technical teachers before employment in TVET
institutions. Consequently, most of teachers join TVE institution directly after getting
DEA from TVET institution, without going through pre-service technical teachers
training.
(v)

ACCREDITATION, QUALITY ASSURANCE AND ARTICULATION


Figure-31: Accreditation of TVE subjects at secondary level by the BISE / BTE as other
subjects
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

81.8

18.2
0
Yes

No

Do not Know

In the context of accreditation, figure 31 is concerned with accreditation of TVE subjects


at secondary level by the BISE/BTE. Result indicates that 81.8% respondents have
s that the TVE subjects are accredited by BISEs/BTEs.
45

Figure-32: Involvement of Industry in the examination/assessment of TVE subjects at


secondary level
100

100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10

0
Yes

No

Do not Know

Figure 32 is concerned with the data regarding involvement of industry in the


examination/ assessment of TVE subjects. Result reveals that this component is
E
Figure-33: Availability of other system of Quality "Assurance" for TVE at Secondary
level, other than normal examination
100

100

90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10

0
Yes

No

Do not Know

To find other options/system of quality assurance, figure 33 indicates that there is no


alternate/other system exists in the country for quality assurance of TVE at secondary
E
46

Figure-34: Influence given to prior informal learning by a candidate, at the time of


admission
100
90.9
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20

9.1

10

0
Yes

No

Do not Know

Figure 34 shows the result regarding influence given to informal learning by a candidate
at the time of admission. Majority of respondents (90.9%) say no influence given, while
9.1% replied with yes.
Figure-35: Independent Accreditation System for TVE at secondary level
80

72.9

70
60
50
40

30

27.3

20
10
0
0

Yes

No

Do not Know

In the context of availability of independent accreditation system for TVE at secondary


school level, figure 35 shows that the majority of respondents, i.e., 72.9% s EK
   z^ Presently, other than the technical school certificate (TSC)
which is accredited by Sindh Board of Technical Education, remaining TVE programmes
at secondary school level are accredited by the same general education boards.
47

Figure-36: Availability of "National Qualification Framework" for secondary level TVE


achievements, general secondary school achievements, and opportunities for further
education
72.7

80
70
60
50
40
30

18.2

20

9.1

10
0
Yes

No

Do not Know

d     E Y &   
achievement, result in figure 36 reveals that 72.7% respondents say missing of the
framework, whereas 9.1% see the existence of the framework. National Vocational and
Technical Education Commission (NAVTEC) is working nowadays on the development of
National Qualification Framework.
Figure-37: Necessity for the availability of a National Qualification Framework

90

81.8

80
70

60
50
40
30

18.2

20

10

0
Yes

No

No opinion

Figure 37 shows the necessity of the National Qualification Framework for TVE, which
has been highly recommended by the majority of respondents (81.8%).

48

Figure-38: Hurdles in further education of students studying TVE subjects at secondary


level
54.5

60
50
40
30

18.2

18.2

20

9.1

10

0
Not at all

To some
extent

To a great Better off


extent
for further
TVET

Do not
know

In figure 38, result indicates the level of hurdles in further education of students
studying TVE subjects at secondary level, majority of respondents (54.5%) replied with


3.1.4 Focus Groups, comprising of persons from all the provinces, meeting at NISTE
In addition to questionnaire based structured data collection, a focus group session was
conducted, for which more than 20 highly experienced participants representing all
provinces (i.e., Punjab, Sindh, NWFP, and Balochistan) and Islamabad Capital Territory
and Azad Jammu and Kashmir were invited to discuss and give their feedback. List of
participants is appended at Appendix-3. Each participant was handed over all questions
along with sub-questions. Participants were given an opportunity to freely share their
views and give their feedback in an un-structured manner.

3.1.3.1 Analysis of Data Collected through Focus Group


After collection of descriptive answers, data were qualitatively analyzed using focus
group research method technique by coding of key concepts and categorizing similar
and dissimilar responses. Each questions and its relevant response is elaborated as
follow:

49

Question 1: Challenge: Coordinated provision of available options.


Main Question:
How are all the available options for technical and vocational education at the
secondary schooling level co-ordinated? Do they function efficiently and effectively?
Sub Questions:
(1.1)

What diverse approaches exist in the province?


There are various courses in all provinces at short, certificate, vocational, Matric
tech, and DAE level are offered covering different trades and technologies.
However, in AJK various trades also offered under the agro-tech scheme.
Furthermore, industries also offer different customized training in their respect
trades.

(1.2)

What purpose do the different approaches serve?

(1.3)

iEmployment
iiSelf-employment
iiiFurther study
ivPromotion
How do they relate to stated rationales?
No relations, all are independent schemes.

(1.4)

How are the options working?


All the options are working poorly except DAE which is working satisfactory in all
provinces.

(1.5)

Is industry involved in the various options?


Not involved except in customized training for industry.

(1.6)

How do the options work together?


They all are independent of each other.

(1.7)

Do the options add up to provision of TVET in secondary education being


inclusive of all, and particularly of girls as well as boys?
Almost all of the options are for both boys and girls.

50

(1.8)

What can we do to improve the coordination of the various options?


A district-wise Institutional Management Committees should be established.

(1.9)

What new options might be considered?


The federal government has recently established NAVTEC for making the policies
for restructuring of TEVT in the country.

Question 2: Challenge: Content of TVE curriculum relevant to work opportunities


Main Question:
What needs to be done to ensure the technical and vocational education curriculum
offered at the secondary schooling level is, and remains, relevant to the needs of the
job (employment) market?
Sub Questions:
(2.1)

What are the core mechanisms in place for curriculum development?


Each province has their own arrangements for the development of curriculum
for various courses including DAE, as in the province of Punjab, ICT and AJK,
Punjab TEVTA Curriculum Wing; in Sindh, Centre for Curriculum Research &
Development (CCDR); in NWFP, BTE; in Baluchistan, Baluchistan Board of
Intermediate and Secondary Education and Directorate of Labour & Manpower;
in ICT, are responsible in this regard. However, all responsible agencies are
bound to get approval of their curriculum from the NISTE, Ministry of Education,
as it is the only approving authority for curriculum of DAE and technical subjects
at secondary school level.

(2.2)

Towards what ends is the curriculum set?


It is set to educate people in various TEVT fields and provide them opportunity to
either enter in job market or continue their further study.

(2.3)

Is industry involved and what other players are involved in curriculum


development?
Industry is often involved in the curriculum development / revision process.

(2.4)

Is there uniform curriculum that is used across schools and/or across TVE
options?
In the province the curriculum is uniform for short courses whereas DAE is
uniform throughout the country.
51

(2.5)

How do the areas of TVE curriculum relate to where the skills are needed in the
job market? Are all of the main industry and occupation areas in demand
covered?
The curriculum is implemented in different areas after conducting need
assessment survey. Almost all of the main industry and occupation areas are
covered.

(2.6)

Does the TVE curriculum include some general education components?


Yes to some extent.

(2.7)

Does the curriculum have embedded in it generic life and work skills, also known
as soft skills or employability skills?
Yes to some extent, the curriculum includes work and soft skills. The subjects
Entrepreneurship Development, and Occupational Health and safety are added
to all new / revised curriculums.

(2.8)

How is the TVE curriculum kept up-to-date with changes in technology and other
work processes?
The vocational curriculum was last revised in 1980 whereas DAE curricula were
last revised in 1996.

Question 3: Challenge: Capacity to deliver


Main Question:
Who can build (policy, training institutions) teacher availability and capacity to
provide relevant TVET in secondary level education?
Sub Questions:
(3.1)

Who are the TVE teachers? What qualifications do they have? Do they have
industry experience? Do they receive pay rates the same as general education
teachers? Is industry involved?
Normally the short/ vocational courses teachers are DAE qualified. Most of the
DAE teachers are B-Tech/B. Sc. Engineering qualified. DAE with 3 year experience
teachers are also working as junior instructors in technical institutions. Almost
the pay scale is equal in general and technical education. Industry takes part in
the pre and in-service technical teacher training.
52

(3.2)

Are there organized professional development programmes for TVE teachers?


Do the PD programmes involve industry placements?
PUNJAB: There is in-service technical teacher training institute in Faisalabad. In
Lahore there are one in-service vocational teacher training institute and one preservice women vocational teacher training institute.
ALL: Sindh, NWFP, Baluchistan, ICT, AJK: There is no pre-service or in-service
technical teacher training institute in the province.

(3.3)

Do TVE teachers have access to modern teaching and learning materials,


industry equipment and facilities?
Presently the main source of learning material to them is the internet.
Trade/Course related equipment is available in all TEVT institutions.

(3.4)

Are TVE teachers provided the necessary support in terms of managerial support
and industry partnership building skills?
No support is available to TVE teachers.

(3.5)

Are there some groups of TVE teachers that have greater capacity to deliver
relevant TVE than others?
No almost all of TVE teachers are low qualified.

Question 4: Challenge: Accreditation, quality assurance and linkages to other


education.
Main Question:
What relationships exist between secondary level TVE achievement, general
secondary schooling achievement, and opportunities for further education? How
effective are they?
Sub Questions:
(4.1)

Are TVE secondary education achievements included in a recognition system


involving accreditation and qualifications? Is industry involved?
No, TVE secondary education achievements are not well recognized.

(4.2)

Is there an associated quality assurance system? Are there other regulations?


No, there is no quality assurance system.
53

(4.3)

Are there arrangements in place for the formal recognition of prior learning, for
example of young people who have worked in family business or in other jobs or
capacities and who have obtained TVE skills and knowledge in this way?
Prior learning recognition system exists. NTB awards the competency certificate
according to the ILO standards to anyone who desires for it.

(4.4)

Do you have multiple TVE accreditation frameworks, for example for different
industries? Is the TVE accreditation system separate from the general academic
education system?
PUNJAB, SINDH, NWFP: There is a separate TVE accreditation system, i.e., Board
of Technical Education.
BALUCHISTAN, ICT, AJK: There is no separate TVE accreditation system.

(4.5)

Is the TVE accreditation system consistently applied nationally and by geographic


area/institution?
Yes: applied on geographic area/ institutions.

(4.6)

Do you have a National Qualifications Framework that covers all of secondary


level TVE achievement, general secondary schooling achievement and other
further education opportunities and the relationships between these? If not is
there interest in a NQF?
The federal government has recently established NAVTEC that is working on the
establishment of National Qualifications Framework for TVE teachers.

(4.7)

What needs to be done to ensure a TVE secondary school graduate can go on to


further study if they so desire?
At presently there is no linkage between various options and there is a dire need
to introduce flexible horizontally and vertically entry system.

3.2

RESULTS
3.2.1 Coordinated provision of available options
There are diverse options exist in the provinces like short courses of 3 to 6
months duration, vocational certificate courses of 12 months, 3 years diploma,
54

Matric Tech Scheme in Punjab, NWFP, Baluchistan and Federal Capital Area and
Technical School Certificate in Sindh. In Punjab, customized training for industry
is also available.
These approaches serve the purpose of employment self-employment,
promotion and for further study. The available options are working poorly in the
provinces except DAE which is satisfactory. The available options at secondary
level in Federal Capital are working satisfactory.
Industry is not involved in various options except in Punjab where customized
training for industry is also available. All the available options are working
independently. All of the available approaches / options are for both boys and
girls.
For improving the coordination, district-wise management committees be
established. Regarding the new options, Punjab is working on Hobby Courses
prior to 8th class and on Matric (Vocational) Schemes.
3.2.2 Content of TVE curriculum relevant to work opportunities
The curriculum is set to prepare people for job market and/or to continue
further education. DAE curriculum is uniform throughout the country while
vocational courses curriculum uniformity is maintained province-wise. Needs
assessment survey for skills demand is conducted and almost all the occupation
areas are covered.

General Education Component is also included in TVE

curriculum. Generic life and work skills like Entrepreneurship and Occupational
Health & Safety are now included in all the new & revised curriculums.
The vocational courses curriculum was last revised in 1980 and naturally now
require attention for updating, while the DAE curricula last revised in 1996
although few technology curriculum revised after 2000 as well.
55

3.2.3 Capacity to deliver


The technical education teachers in polytechnics have diploma / DAE
qualification in all the provinces. B-Tech and B.Sc. Engineering qualified are also
teaching at Polytechnics and Colleges of Technology. Vocational Teachers are
required to have vocational training diploma plus one year vocational teacher
training course at Vocational Teacher Training Institutes in Punjab. There are no
pre-service or in-service teacher training facilities in other three provinces.
No modern teaching and learning materials are available for teachers. Only in
   K,W    d      
the institutes and in very few institutes industry equipment facility is also
available.
TVE teachers do not have any support for industry partnership building skills.
The vocational trade teachers pay grades are very low and they required
improvement.

Almost all the teachers have the same qualification and

experience for delivering TVE.


3.2.4 Quality assurance and linkages to other education
In- general TVE secondary level education achievements are not well recognized.
Boards of Technical Education in Punjab, Sindh & NWFP whereas Board of
Intermediate and Secondary Education in Baluchistan and Federal Board of
Education in Islamabad are responsible for award of diplomas, vocational
certificates and Matric Tech. There is not any Quality Assurance System in place
for TVE quality assurance.
For vocational education trades, there is a Trade Testing Board in Lahore, Punjab
Province. National Training Bureau (NTB), Islamabad has the facility of a prior
learning recognition system and they award certificate after testing the relevant
skills.
56

The country does not have a National Qualification Framework at present that
can cover all the secondary level TVE achievements. The Federal Government
has realized the need of NQF and is working towards this goal.

Presently there are no linkages available for different options but some working
needs to be initiated for flexible education model.

4.

DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS


After review and analysis of information this section details the discussion, conclusion
and recommendations which are as follows:

4.1

DISCUSSIONS
Previously, technical education and vocational training programmes were used to
administer by a number of federal, provincial and private agencies, whereas after restructuring of TVET system in the country, each province has established their own
TVETA, except NWFP, where the res-structuring is under process. Similarly, at national
level NAVTEC has been established for making policies to provide a national framework
to the all concerned agencies. Each TEVTA is responsible to administer all TVET
institutions working in their respective province. As far as apprenticeship training is
concerned, it is presently in-effective due to cost effectiveness of the training. In lieu of
Apprenticeship Training, the Ministry of Labour & Manpower established five (5) Skill
Development Councils (SDCs) in all provincial headquarters and Islamabad for the
training of the workers of the industry. The SDCs assess the training needs of their
geographical areas, prioritize them on the basis of market demand and facilitate training
of workers through training provision in the public and private sectors.

The enrolment in TEVT institutions is 105,000 which corresponds to only 1.4 percent of
numbers in age group 14-15, with another 115,000 engaged in tertiary level diploma
57

and certificate programmes, compared with over 326,000 enrolled in programmes for
Bach   source: the State of Education in Pakistan, 2004, Ministry of
Education).

During the interviews and discussion, one aspect that the technical and vocational
courses need to cover a very extensive range of options, e.g., Business and Secretarial
Skills, Computer Studies, Computer Animation, Construction, Art Craft and Design,
Multi-Media Production, Child-care and Community Care, Sport and Leisure, Tourism,
Hotel and Catering, Horticulture, and Information Technology, etc.

4.2

CONCLUSIONS
3

There is a dire need of spreading of technical and vocational education in Pakistan to


boost economy and to take care of un-employment.

The available options of TVE are working poorly in the province except DAE which is
satisfactory.

There are options available for technical and vocational education but they need
through improvement.

The available options for TVE need integration and interlinking.

Industry involvement is missing in various options except in Punjab where


customized training for industry is also available.

Vocational curriculum non requires updating and DAE curricula need revision as
well.

9
4.3

There is a need to have a National Qualification Framework.

RECOMMENDATIONS
Following are the recommendations in light of the study report:
4.3.1 At the Class Room level
10 The class room instructions should be guided by curriculum.
11 The class room learning time must be used effectively.
58

12 Due attention must be given to practicals (hands-on-training or OJT) as per the


curriculum.
4.3.2 At the Institution level
13 Strong leadership should be provided for TVET instructional programmes.
14 The instructors must check students progress frequently.
15 There must be professional development of staff programmes on regular basis.
4.3.3 At the Provincial level
16 The Province-wise curriculum should be updated and revised on regular basis.
17 The good governance of Institutions must be maintained.
18 There should be Interlinking between different vocational & training courses.
19 There should be legislation to involve industry in all types of TVET programmes.
20 There should be R&D Departments for finding & assessing skill need &
requirement of the Industry.
4.3.4 At National level
21 The GOP should allocate more funds for TVET in Federal budget.
22 The DAE curricula should be revised and updated by all the provincial technical
boards with a financial assistance from NAVTEC.

There should be some

permanent mechanism to revise the DAE curricula on regular basis.


23 The Committee of Chairmen and Directors of Technical Education (CCDTE) may
be re-notified in the light of the changes in the provinces as well as at national
level.
24 A National Qualification Framework should be developed.
25 A National Policy on Technical & Vocational Education should be announced on
top priority basis.
26 From rigid education system to flexible horizontally and vertically entry system
should be introduced in the country.

59

REFERENCES
Draft National Education Policy 2009, Ministry of Education, Government of Pakistan.
Benavot, A. d Z    s  ^   s-56,
No.2, April 1993.
Cantor, L. s   d d :  
Education, Vol-21, No.1, 1985.
Coe, B. D. s,^dWs-3, No.5, The New
Look in Vocational Education, December 1964.
':^:zZDW>^d
the World of t/:dsd
Twenty-First Century: New Roles and Challenges for Guidance and Counselling, Division of
Secondary, Technical and Vocational Education, UNESO, Paris, 2002
Groff, W. H. /,dsd
of the American Academy of Social Science, Vol-470, November 1983.
Khwaja, F. A. and Baloch, A. W. W  WW Wships in Pakistan for
Sustainable DeveW^/-Country Programme, NISTE, March 2-13, 2009.

Lauglo & R. Maclean (2005) Vocationalized Secondary Education Revisited. Dordrecht: Springer,
2005
DZtE/^/>:D R.,
(Eds). Vocationalisation of secondary education revisited. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.
2005
Peshkin, A. d^^W,Y
Vol-3, No.1, 1963.
d ^ / , Z   d Strategies for Introduction of Technical Subjects at
D  ^ ^ >, Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA):
Islamabad, 2006
d>s'/s-28, No.3,
1998.
Wilson, D.N. Z  d s   /  D
Comparative Education, Vol-27, No.2, 1999.
60

Appendix-1

PROVINCE/AREA-WISE TEVT DATA


PUNJAB PROVINCE
Table-A1.1: Schools in Punjab (Public Sector Only)
S. No. Type of Institutions
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Number

Primary Schools
Middle Schools
High Schools
Higher Secondary Schools
Total

Enrollment

44,175
5,974
4,425
304
54,878

Teachers

6,659,790
1,716,144
682,045
28,801
9,086,780

117,958
43,388
69,061
7,995
238,402

Source: AEPAM, Ministry of Education

Table- A1.2: TVET Institutions by Gender in Punjab Province


Institute Type

Commerce
Technical
Vocational
Total

Boys

Girls

Co-Education

No. of Institutes

%age

No. of Institutes

%age

No. of Institutes

%age

91
23
130
244

79.82
76.67
49.06
59.66

12
5
134
151

10.53
16.67
50.57
36.92

11
2
1
14

9.65
6.67
0.38
3.42

Table- A1.3: TVET Institutions in Punjab Province


Sr.
Type of Institutions
No.
1
Colleges of Technology
2
Polytechnic Institutes
3
Commercial Training Institutes
4
Short-courses Vocational Institutes
5
Vocational Institutes (under Labour Department)
6
Institute of Punjab Small Industries
7
Institute of Agriculture
8
Institute of Cooperative Department
Total

Men

Women

7
24
102
08
42
51
29
260
523

0
6
12
101
4
6
19
146
294

Total

114
30
265
409

Total
7
30
114
109
46
57
48
406
817

Table-A1.4: Public and Private Sector Institutions affiliated with the Punjab Board of Technical
Education in 2002
Institutions
Government
Private
Total
Polytechnics
30
38
68
Dip. In Information Technology
3
98
101
Dip. Business & Diploma Commerce
118
75
193
Vocational (Girls)
101
24
125
Vocational/Short Courses (Boys)
8
24
32
61

Institutions
Institution of Labour & Manpower Dept.
Institutes of Punjab Small Industry Corporation
Institutes of Agriculture & Barani Area Development
Institute of Industries Department
Institute of Agriculture
Institute of Cooperative
Institute of Punjab Vocational Training Council
Institutes of Textile Courses
Land Surveying
Institute of Biomedical
Institute of Special Education
Total

Government
46
57
48
2
7
1
20
2
1
1
2
447

Private
3
1
263

Total
46
57
48
2
7
1
20
5
1
1
3
710

SINDH PROVINCE
Table- A1.5: Schools in Sindh (Public Sector Only)
S. No. Type of Institutions
Primary Schools
1.
2.
Middle Schools
High Schools
3.
4.
Higher Secondary Schools
Total
5.

Number
25,778
2,073
1,449
129
29,429

Enrollment
2,235,145
520,132
290,759
34,225
3,080,261

Teachers
81,453
8,947
30,229
5,224
125,853

Source: AEPAM, Ministry of Education

Table- A1.6: Technical Institutes By Type and Gender


Sr. No.
Vocational
1
Boys
5
2
Girls
63
3
Co-education
4
Institutes
68

Commercial
20
21
41

Table- A1.7: Summary of Technical Institute Census 2004-2005


No. of
Enrolment
Type of
Institute
Gender
Institute
Total
Boys
Girls
Total
Boys

Girls

Technical
40
4
6
50

Total
65
67
27
159

Teachers
Male

Female

Total

Vocational

779

779

27

15

42

Commercial

20

868

868

91

91

Technical

40

16,622

16,626

561

561

Total

65

18,269

18,273

679

15

694

Vocational

63

131

2,258

2,389

185

190

62

Gender

Coeducation

Total

No. of
Institute

Type of
Institute

Enrolment

Teachers

Total

Boys

Girls

Total

Male

Female

Total

Technical

617

617

42

44

Total

67

131

2,875

3,006

227

234

Commercial

21

1,877

137

2,014

120

125

Technical

1,119

161

1,280

23

25

Total

27

2,996

298

3,294

143

150

Vocational

68

910

2,258

3,168

32

200

232

Commercial

41

2,745

137

2,882

211

216

Technical

50

17,741

782

18,523

586

44

630

Total

159

21,396

3,177

24,573

829

249

1,078

Table- A1.8: Technical Institutes - Level, Type and Shift-wise


Number of Technical Institutions
(Type Wise)
Sr.
Level of Institute
No.
Vocational
Commercial
Technical
Total

Shift wise Status

52
16

Single
Shift
52
14

27

27

27

14

14

13

28

28

24

Polytechnic Institute

18

18

10

College of Technology

50

159

1.
2.

Vocational School
Vocational Institute

3.

Commercial Practices

4.

Commercial Institute

5.

Monotechnic Institute

6.
7.

Total

52
16

68

41

Double
Shift
2

4
138

21

NORTH WEST FRONTIER PROVINCE


Table- A1.9: Primary, Middle, High Schools, Intermediate, Degree & Post Graduate Colleges in NWFP
(Public Sector)
Sr.
Item
Nos.
%age share of NWFP to country
No.
1
Total Primary Schools
3,473,481
13.50
2
Primary Schools for Male
1,969,445
13.94
3
Primary Schools for Female
1,504,036
12.74
63

Sr.
No.
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Item

Nos.

Total Middle Schools


Middle Schools for Male
Middle Schools for Female
Total High Schools
High Schools for Male
High Schools for Female
Total Intermediate, Degree & Post Graduate
Colleges
Intermediate, Degree & Post Graduate
Colleges for Men
Intermediate, Degree & Post Graduate
Colleges for Women

%age share of NWFP to country

2,034
1,299
735
1,527
1,209
318
81

10.82
12.37
08.86
11.84
14.74
06.77
09.11

60

11.30

21

05.87

Table- A1.10: Summary of Government Polytechnic Institutes/ Enrolment in these Institutes &
Teaching Staff
Sr. No. Description
Total
1
12
Number of polytechnic institutes in NWFP
2

Total enrolment

Total number of teaching staff

4,920
447

Table- A1.11: Government Technical and Vocational centers in NWFP


Total (Nos.)
Sr. No.
Institution

Enrolment

Government Technical and Vocational centers for boys


in Settle area

30

2,548

Government Technical and Vocational centers for


women in Settle area

11

568

Technical and Vocational Centers in FATA

127

47

3,243

Total:

(Source: PEDD, Govt. of NWFP further validated by Director TE with latest primary source statistics)

Table- A1.12: Commercial, Technical & Vocational Centers and Polytechnic Institutes in Private Sector
Total (Nos.)
Enrolment
Sr. No.
Institution
1
Commercial Colleges/Institutes
27
5,730
2
Technical & Vocational Centers
41
3,750
3
Polytechnic Institutes
27
1486
Total:
95
10,966
Source: Director Technical Education and BTE NWFP gazette 2003 as reported by DTE.

64

Table- A1.13: TVET Institutions in NWFP Province (Public Sector)


Sr.
Type of Institutions
Total
Men
Women
No.
1
Colleges of Technology
1
1
0
2
Polytechnic Institutes
11
10
1
3
Commercial Training Institutes
20
20
0
4
Vocational/Technical Centers
47
36
11
Total
79
67
12
Percentage
100
84.81
15.19

Enrolment
Men

Women

4,828
4,350
2,675
11,853
94.72

92
0
568
660
5.28

BALOCHISTAN PROVINCE

Table- A1.14: Schools in Balochistan (Public Sector Only)


S. No. Type of Institutions
Number
1.
Primary Schools
9,243
Middle Schools
2.
696
High Schools
3.
424
Total
5.
10,363

Enrollment
652,462
96,756
40,650
789,868

Teachers
6,549
8,431
9,269
24,249

Source: AEPAM, Ministry of Education

Table- A1.15: Public and Private Schools in Balochistan


S/No. Educational Institutions
Boys
Girls
1
Rural Area
7,163
2,471
2
3

Mixed Gender

Total

114

9,748

Urban Area

1,009

423

292

1,724

Total schools in Public and


private sector

8,172

2,894

406

11,472

Source: Pakistan School Education Statistics of Ministry of Education.

Table- A1.16: Gender-wise Enrolment of Schools, Public and Private Sector


S/No.
1
2
3

Educational Institutions

Boys

Girls

Total

Percentage
Boys
Girls

Rural Area

312,082

173,974

486,056

64.2

35.8

Urban Area

226,341

128,636

354,977

63.76

36.24

Total schools in Public and


private sector

538,423

302,610

841, 033

64

36

Source: Pakistan School Education Statistics of Ministry of Education.

65

Table- A1.17: Summary of TVET Institutions in Balochistan Province


Sr. No.
1
2
3
4
5

Type of Institutions
Colleges of Technology
Polytechnic Institutes
Commercial Training Institutes/colleges
Special Technical/Vocational Training Centers for
females
Vocational Institutes (under Directorate of Labour and
Manpower)
Total
Percentage

Men

Women

Total

1
0
10

0
1
0

1
1
10

17

17

11

11

22
55%

18
45%

40
100%

In addition to above there are 23 Computer Training Institutes for Mixed Gender in Private Sector

FEDERAL AREA

Table- A1.18: Summary of TVET Institutions in Federal area (Public Sector)


Sr. No.
1
2
3
4
5

Type of Institutions
Colleges of Technology
Polytechnic Institutes
Commercial Training Institutes/Colleges
Special Technical/Vocational Training Centers for
females
Vocational Institutes (under Directorate of Labour and
Manpower)
Total
Percentage

66

Men

Women

Total

0
0
1

0
1
0

0
1
1

2
50%

2
50%

4
100%

Appendix-2

QUESTIONNAIRE
STUDY OF TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AT SECONDARY SCHOOL LEVEL
Instructions: This study refers to Technical-Vocational Education at Secondary level which should
be borne in mind while answering these questions. Please "Tick" the option which best depicts
your response to a certain question.
A.

IDENTIFICATION PARTICULARS
(a)

Name of Respondent:_________________________________________________

(b)

Designation: ________________________________________________________

(c)

Organization: ________________________________________________________

(d)

Address: ____________________________________________________________

(e)

Phone No: _____________Fax No. _________________E-Mail_________________

1.

OPTIONS FOR TVE AT SECONDARY LEVEL

1.1

Are any options / approaches for TVE at Secondary Level available in the province?
Yes

1.1.1

No

Do not Know

If answer to Q # 1.1 is "Yes" Please enlist the option (s) available:


(i)
________________________________________________________________
(ii)

________________________________________________________________

(iii)

________________________________________________________________

1.2 What purpose do the available option (s) / approach (s) serve?
(i)

Pre-vocational Training (Orientation)___________________________________

(ii) Vocational Training (Preparing for employment /self employment) _____________________


(iii)

Technical Education (Preparing for employment /self employment) __________________

(iii)

Any other purpose _________________________________________________

67

1.3

How effectively and efficiently the available option(s) is / are working?


Very Good

Good

Satisfactorily

Poorly

Very Poorly

1.4 Is Industry involved in Vocational Training at secondary school level?


Yes

No

Do not Know

1.4.1 If answer to Q # 1.4 is "Yes" how the industry is involved?


SN.

1.5

The way industry is involved

In identification of trades/ courses to be offered.

In the development of curricula/ course content.

Through industrial attachment / internship.

Through study visits to the relevant industry.

5
6

In implementation, through membership of School Councils / Committees.


In accreditation and assessment through membership of examining Boards.

By providing financial support to schools offering TVE.

Any other way (s), Please Specify:

How different options (If existing) work together? (Answer if more than one option is
available).
SN

Description of their working together

1 As independent streams without affecting each other.


2 As independent streams complementing each other for promoting TVET.
3 As independent streams antagonistic /opposed to each other for promoting TVET.
4 Any other: (i)
(ii)

1.6

How the available options add up towards provision of TVE at secondary school level for
males / females and disadvantaged groups?
SN Description as to catering for gender equity
1

Provide for both genders.

Provide for boys only

Provide for girls only.

68

Special provision for handicapped persons.

5
6

Special provision for other disadvantaged persons (Orphans, rural areas, etc.)
Additive to each other for provision of TVE at secondary and higher secondary
level.
Any other:

1.7

What are your suggestions for improving coordination between various options /
approaches for TVE at secondary and higher secondary level?
SN

Suggestions for improving coordination between various options

Constitution of Inter-departmental Coordination Committee representing


various departments involved in TVE at secondary level.

Development of a mechanism based on recognition of courses under various


options for horizontal movement of students between various streams / options.

Regular meetings and consultations between accreditation bodies (Examining


Boards) for various options

Regular meetings between heads of institutions offering TVE at secondary level


under various options / approaches.

Formation of societies of teachers of TVE at secondary level under various


options / approaches.
Any other:

1.8

What new options / approaches for TVE at secondary and higher secondary level do
you suggest?
SN New options suggested
1

Establishment of Technical / vocational Secondary Schools.

Introduction of Technical / vocational courses in general secondary schools.

Introduction of Technical Secondary Certificate (TSC) programme in general


secondary schools parallel to other programme.

69

2.

CONTENT OF TVE CURRICULUM AT SECONDARY SCHOOL LEVEL

2.1

What organizations are responsible for development of curriculum for various options
for TVE at secondary school level? (Please indicate the option for TVE in column 1 and
organization responsible for curriculum in column 2 against this)

2.2

Option for Vocational Training at SSL

Organization Responsible for Curriculum Development

Option for Technical Education

Organization Responsible for Curriculum Development

What are the envisaged objectives of the curriculum?


Option for TVE at SS level (e.g.
Technical Stream, TSC etc.)

2.3

Objectives the Curriculum is set to achieve

Are the Industry / Business sector involved in the development of curricula?


Yes

No

Do not Know

2.3.1 If answer to Q. # 2.3 is "Yes", how they are involved?


SN The way industry / business sector is involved
1 In identification of trades/ courses to be offered.
2

Identification of skills and theoretical knowledge required.

Inclusion of experts from industry in the curriculum development committees.

In delivery of curriculum through workplace experience.

Any other way:

2.3.2 To what extent the curriculum content are related to the requirements of the job
market?
Highly relevant

2.4

Reasonably relevant

Marginally relevant Least relevant

How adequately the main industry and occupation areas in demand are covered by
offerings of TVE at secondary level?
Highly adequate

Reasonably adequate

70

Marginally
adequate

Highly
inadequate

2.5

How much components of general education are included in the curriculum of TVE at
secondary school level?
Option of TVE
at Secondary
School level

2.6

Proportion of general education component


90% or more

70-90%

50-70%

30-50%

Lessthan30%

Does the TVE at secondary level curriculum have generic life skills and work skills
(employability skills) integrated in to it?
Yes

No

Do not Know

2.6.1 If answer to Q. # 2.6 is "Yes" what skills are included? Please enlist important skills.
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
2.7

How often the TVE at secondary School Level curriculum is revised to keep it up-to-date
with the changing technology?
After 3 year

After 5 year

After 8 Year

After more than 10


years

After 10 years

2.7.1 When the present curriculum was last revised?


3 year ago

2.8

5 year ago

8 Year ago

10 years ago

More than 10 years ago

Is there uniform curriculum used in all schools offering same option?


Yes

No

Do not Know

3.

IMPLEMENTATION CAPACITY

3.1

Are there specialized teachers for teaching technical subjects?


Yes

No

Do not Know

3.1.1 If answer to Q. # 3.1 is "Yes" what are the prescribed qualifications for these teachers?
M. Ed
(Ind. Arts)

B. Ed
(Tech)

B. Sc
(Agri)

B.Sc (Home
Economics)
71

FA (Ind.
Arts)

Polytechnic
Diploma

Any other
(Specify PI)

3.2

Is there any requirement of Industrial Experience for recruitment of Technical subject


teachers?
Yes

3.3

No

Are the pay scales of Technical Subject Teachers same as those of general education
teachers?
Same

3.4

Less

More

Do not Know

Are there organized Professional Development / Capacity building Programmes for TVE
teachers?
Yes

3.5

Do not Know

No

Do not Know

Are modern Teaching-Learning Resources including training equipment and tools


available to TVE teachers in schools for effective teaching?
Facility

Availability
Satisfactory
Inadequate

Adequate

Not available

Training Equipment
Training materials
Audio Visual Aids

3.6

Do TVE teachers have the management's support for execution of duties?


Full Support Reasonable Support Very L ittle Support No

3.7

Do the organized Industry- School linkages / partnership exist to facilitate TVE teachers
to arrange for workplace experience of students?
Yes

3.8

Negative

No

Do not Know

Is there any ladder of promotion available to TVE teachers?


Yes

No

Do not Know

3.8.1 If answer to Q. # 3.8 is "Yes" how favourable are the avenues of promotion as compared
to general education teachers?
Same as general teachers

Less than general teachers

72

More than general teachers

3.9

Where pre-service training of secondary level TVE teachers is carried out?


Education Institutes of
Universities

Agro-Technical Teacher
Training Centres

Any other. Name


Please.

4.

ACCREDITATION, QUALITY ASSURANCE AND ARTICULATION

4.1

Are the TVE subjects at secondary level examinable by the BISE / BTE as other subjects
and included in the marks sheet?
Yes

4.2

Do not Know

Is Industry involved in the examination/assessment of TVE subjects at secondary level?


Yes

4.3

No

No

Do not Know

Is there any other system of Quality "Assurance" for TVE at Secondary level, other than
normal examination?
Yes

No

Do not Know

4.3.1 If answer to Q. # 4.3 is "Yes" what is the other Accreditation System?


_______________________________________________________________________
4.4

Is there any weight given to prior informal learning by a candidate, at the time of
admission?
Yes

4.5

No

Do not Know

Is TVE Accreditation System for TVE at secondary level separate from general academic
education?
Yes

No

Do not Know

4.5.1 If answer to Q.# 4.5 is "Yes" what is that Accreditation System/Body?


_______________________________________________________________________
4.6

Is there a "National Qualification Framework" covering secondary level TVE


achievements, general secondary school achievements, and opportunities for further
education?
Yes

No

Do not Know
73

4.6.1 If answer to Q. # 4.6 is "NO" do you consider that there should be a National
Qualification Framework?
Yes
4.7

No

No opinion

Is there any hurdle in further education of students studying TVE subjects at secondary
level?
Not at

To some extent To a great extent Better off for further

Do not know

Please elaborate on hurdles, if any: ___________________________________________


4.8

If TVE students at Secondary School Level are handicapped for further education, what
needs to be done to overcome this problem?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________

5.

Any comments / suggestions in the context of this study you may like?
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________

74

75

PUNJAB
SINDH
NWFP
BOLUCHISTAN
ICT
Question 1: Challenge: Coordinated provision of available options
How are all the available options for technical and vocational education at the secondary schooling level co-ordinated? Do they function efficiently and effectively?
What diverse
iShort Courses
iShort Courses
i- Short Courses
iShort Courses
iShort Courses
approaches exist in the
ii- Certificate
ii- Certificate Courses
ii- Certificate Courses
ii- Certificate Courses
ii- Certificate Courses
province?
Courses
iii- Vocational Courses
iii- Vocational Courses
iii- Vocational Courses
iii- Vocational Courses
iii- Vocational
iv- Technical School
iv- Matric Tech
iv- Matric Tech
iv- Matric Tech
Courses
Certificate
v- DAE
v- DAE
v- DAE
iv- Matric Tech
v- DAE
v- DAE
vi- Customized
training for
industry
What purpose do the
v- Employment
iEmployment
iEmployment
i- Employment
i.
Employment
different approaches
vi- Self-employment
ii- Self-employment
ii- Self-employment
ii- Self-employment
ii.
Self-employment
serve?
vii- Further study
iii- Further study
iii- Further study
iii- Further study
iii. Further study
viii- Promotion
iv- Promotion
iv- Promotion
iv- Promotion
iv. Promotion
How do they relate to
No relation, all are
No relation, all are
No relation, all are
No relation, all are
No relation, all are
stated rationales?
independent schemes
independent schemes
independent schemes
independent schemes
independent schemes
How are the options
Working poorly except
Working poorly except
Working poorly except
Working poorly
Working satisfactory
working?
DAE which is working
DAE which is working
DAE which is working
satisfactory
satisfactory
satisfactory
Is industry involved in
Not involved except in
Not involved except in
Not involved
Not involved
Not involved except in
the various options?
customized training for
customized training for
customized training for
industry.
industry.
industry.
How do the options
They all are independent They all are independent
They all are independent They all are independent They all are independent
work together?
of each other.
of each other.
of each other.
of each other.
of each other.
Do the options add up
Almost all of the options
Almost all of the options
Almost all of the options
Almost all of the options
Almost all of the options
to provision of TVET in
are for both boys and
are for both boys and
are for both boys and
are for both boys and
are for both boys and
secondary education
girls.
girls.
girls.
girls.
girls.
being inclusive of all,
and particularly of girls
as well as boys?
What can we do to
A district-wise
A district-wise
improve the
Institutional
Institutional Management
coordination of the
Management
Committees should be
various options?
Committees should be
established.
established.
What new options
The federal government The federal government The federal government The federal government The federal government
might be considered?
has recently established has recently established has recently established has recently established has recently established
NAVTEC for making the NAVTEC for making the NAVTEC for making the NAVTEC for making the NAVTEC for making the
policies for restructuring policies for restructuring policies for restructuring policies for restructuring policies for restructuring
of TEVT in the country.
of TEVT in the country.
of TEVT in the country.
of TEVT in the country.
of TEVT in the country.

Study on Technical and Vocational Education at Secondary School Level

Short Courses
Certificate Courses
Vocational Courses
Agro-Tech
DAE

The federal government


has recently established
NAVTEC for making the
policies for restructuring
of TEVT in the country.

They all are independent


of each other.
Almost all of the options
are for both boys and
girls.

i- Employment
ii- Self-employment
iii- Further study
iv- Promotion
No relation, all are
independent schemes
Working poorly except
DAE which is working
satisfactory
Not involved

i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.

AJK

Appendix-3

76

PUNJAB
SINDH
NWFP
BOLUCHISTAN
ICT
AJK
Question 2: Challenge: Content of TVE curriculum relevant to work opportunities
What needs to be done to ensure the technical and vocational education curriculum offered at the secondary schooling level is, and remains, relevant to the needs of the job (employment)
market?
What are the core
TEVTA curriculum board
Centre for Curriculum
NWFP Board of
BBISE and Directorate of
TEVTA curriculum board
NWFP Board of Technical
mechanisms in place for is responsible for the
Research &
Technical Education is
Labour & Manpower is
is responsible for the
Education is responsible
curriculum
development of
Development (CCDR) is
responsible for the
responsible for the
development of
for the development of
development?
curriculum for short/
responsible for the
development of
development of
curriculum for short/
curriculum for short/
vocational courses. PBTE
development of
curriculum for short/
curriculum for short/
vocational courses. PBTE
vocational and Technical
is responsible for the
curriculum for short
vocational and
vocational courses and
is responsible for the
Education whereas NISTE,
development of curricula
courses. SBTE is
Technical Education
development of
development of curricula
Ministry of Education is
for Technical Education
responsible for the
whereas NISTE, Ministry
curricula for Technical
for Technical Education
the approving authority
whereas NISTE, Ministry
development of
of Education is the
Education whereas
whereas NISTE, Ministry
for DAE national
of Education is the
curricula for Technical
approving authority for
NISTE, Ministry of
of Education is the
curricula.
approving authority for
Education whereas
DAE national curricula.
Education is the
approving authority for
DAE national curricula.
NISTE, Ministry of
approving authority for
DAE national curricula.
Education is the
DAE national curricula.
approving authority for
DAE national curricula.
Towards what ends is
It is set to educate people It is set to educate
It is set to educate
It is set to educate
It is set to educate people It is set to educate people
the curriculum set?
in various TEVT fields and
people in various TEVT
people in various TEVT
people in various TEVT
in various TEVT fields and
in various TEVT fields and
provide them with
fields and provide them
fields and provide them
fields and provide them
provide them with
provide them with
employment and to
with employment and to with employment and to
with employment and to
employment and to
employment and to
continue further study.
continue further study.
continue further study.
continue further study.
continue further study.
continue further study.
Is industry involved and
Industry is often involved
Industry is often
Industry is often
Industry is often involved
what other players are
in the curriculum
involved in the
involved in the
in the curriculum
involved in curriculum
development / revision
curriculum development
curriculum development
development / revision
development?
process.
/ revision process.
/ revision process.
process.
Is there uniform
In the province the
In the province the
In the province the
In the province the
In the province the
In the province the
curriculum that is used
curriculum is uniform for
curriculum is uniform for curriculum is uniform for curriculum is uniform for curriculum is uniform for
curriculum is uniform for
across schools and/or
short courses whereas
short courses whereas
short courses whereas
short courses whereas
short courses whereas
short courses whereas
across TVE options?
DAE is uniform
DAE is uniform
DAE is uniform
DAE is uniform
DAE is uniform
DAE is uniform
throughout the country.
throughout the country.
throughout the country.
throughout the country.
throughout the country.
throughout the country.
How do the areas of
The curriculum is
The curriculum is
The curriculum is
The curriculum is
The curriculum is
The curriculum is
TVE curriculum relate to implemented in different
implemented in
implemented in
implemented in
implemented in different
implemented in different
where the skills are
areas after conducting
different areas after
different areas after
different areas after
areas after conducting
areas after conducting
needed in the job
need assessment survey.
conducting need
conducting need
conducting need
need assessment survey.
need assessment survey.
market? Are all of the
Almost all of the main
assessment survey.
assessment survey.
assessment survey.
Almost all of the main
Almost all of the main
main industry and
industry and occupation
Almost all of the main
Almost all of the main
Almost all of the main
industry and occupation
industry and occupation
occupation areas in
areas are covered.
industry and occupation
industry and occupation
industry and occupation
areas are covered.
areas are covered.
demand covered?
areas are covered.
areas are covered.
areas are covered.
Does the TVE
Yes to some extent
Yes to some extent
Yes to some extent
Yes to some extent
Yes to some extent
Yes to some extent
curriculum include
some general education
components?

PUNJAB
Yes to some extent, the
curriculum includes work
and soft skills. The
subjects
Entrepreneurship
Development, and
Occupational Health and
safety are added to all
new / revised
curriculums.
The vocational curriculum
was last revised in 1980
whereas DAE curricula
were last revised in 1996.

SINDH
Yes to some extent, the
curriculum includes
work and soft skills. The
subjects
Entrepreneurship
Development, and
Occupational Health and
safety are added to all
new/revised
curriculums.
The
vocational
curriculum was last
revised in 1980 whereas
DAE curricula were last
revised in 1996.

NWFP
Yes to some extent, the
curriculum includes
work and soft skills. The
subjects
Entrepreneurship
Development, and
Occupational Health and
safety are added to all
new/revised
curriculums.
The
vocational
curriculum was last
revised in 1980 whereas
DAE curricula were last
revised in 1996.

BOLUCHISTAN
Yes to some extent, the
curriculum includes
work and soft skills. The
subjects
Entrepreneurship
Development, and
Occupational Health and
safety are added to all
new/revised
curriculums.
The
vocational
curriculum was last
revised in 1980 whereas
DAE curricula were last
revised in 1996.

77

PUNJAB
SINDH
NWFP
BOLUCHISTAN
Question 3: Challenge: Capacity to deliver
Who can build (policy, training institutions) teacher availability and capacity to provide relevant TVET in secondary level education?
Who are the TVE
Normally the short/ Normally
the
short/ Normally the short/ Normally the short/
teachers? What
vocational
courses vocational
courses vocational
courses vocational
courses
qualifications do they
teachers
are
DAE teachers
are
DAE teachers
are
DAE teachers
are
DAE
have? Do they have
qualified. Most of the qualified. Most of the qualified. Most of the qualified. Most of the
industry experience? Do DAE teachers are B- DAE teachers are B- DAE teachers are B- DAE teachers are Bthey receive pay rates
Tech/B. Sc. Engineering Tech/B. Sc. Engineering Tech/B. Sc. Engineering Tech/B. Sc. Engineering
the same as general
qualified. DAE with 3 qualified. DAE qualified qualified. DAE qualified qualified. DAE qualified
education teachers? Is
year experience teachers with 3 years experience with 3 years experience with 3 years experience
industry involved?
are also working as teachers are also working teachers
are
also teachers
are
also
junior instructors in as junior instructors in working
as
junior working
as
junior
technical
institutions. technical
institutions. instructors in technical instructors in technical
Almost the pay scale is Almost the pay scale is institutions. Almost the institutions. Almost the
equal in general and equal in general and pay scale is equal in pay scale is equal in
technical
education. technical education.
general and technical general and technical
Industry takes part in the
education.
education.
pre
and
in-service
technical teacher training.
Are there organized
There
is
in-service There is no pre-service or
There is no pre-service
There is no pre-service
professional
technical
teacher in-service technical
or in-service technical
or in-service technical
development
training institute in teacher training institute
teacher training institute
teacher training institute
programmes for TVE
Faisalabad. In Lahore in the province.
in the province.
in the province.
teachers? Do the PD
there are one in-service
programmes involve
vocational
teacher
industry placements?
training institute and
one pre-service women
vocational
teacher
training institute.

How is the TVE


curriculum kept up-todate with changes in
technology and other
work processes?

Does the curriculum


have embedded in it
generic life and work
skills, also known as
soft skills or
employability skills?

Normally
the
short/
vocational
courses
teachers
are
DAE
qualified. Most of the
DAE teachers are BTech/B. Sc. Engineering
qualified. DAE qualified
with 3 years experience
teachers are also working
as junior instructors in
technical
institutions.
Almost the pay scale is
equal in general and
technical education.

Normally
the
short/
vocational
courses
teachers
are
DAE
qualified. Most of the
DAE teachers are BTech/B. Sc. Engineering
qualified. DAE qualified
with 3 years experience
teachers are also working
as junior instructors in
technical
institutions.
Almost the pay scale is
equal in general and
technical
education.
Industry takes part in the
pre
and
in-service
technical teacher training.
There is one pre-service
and in-service technical
teacher training institute
in the ICT.

There is no pre-service or
in-service technical
teacher training institute
in the province.

AJK

AJK
Yes to some extent, the
curriculum includes work
and soft skills. The
subjects
Entrepreneurship
Development, and
Occupational Health and
safety are added to all
new / revised
curriculums.
The vocational curriculum
was last revised in 1980
whereas DAE curricula
were last revised in 1996.

ICT

ICT
Yes to some extent, the
curriculum includes work
and soft skills. The
subjects
Entrepreneurship
Development, and
Occupational Health and
safety are added to all
new / revised
curriculums.
The vocational curriculum
was last revised in 1980
whereas DAE curricula
were last revised in 1996.

No almost all of TVE


teachers are low
qualified.

PUNJAB
Presently the main
source of learning
material to them is the
internet. Trade/Course
related equipment is
available in all TEVT
institutions.
No support is available
to TVE teachers.

No almost all of TVE


teachers are low
qualified.

No support is available to
TVE teachers.

SINDH
Presently the main source
of learning material to
them is the internet.
Trade/Course related
equipment is available in
all TEVT institutions.

No almost all of TVE


teachers are low
qualified.

NWFP
Presently the main
source of learning
material to them is the
internet. Trade/Course
related equipment is
available in all TEVT
institutions.
No support is available
to TVE teachers.

No almost all of TVE


teachers are low
qualified.

BOLUCHISTAN
Presently the main
source of learning
material to them is the
internet. Trade/Course
related equipment is
available in all TEVT
institutions.
No support is available
to TVE teachers.

No almost all of TVE


teachers are low
qualified.

No support is available to
TVE teachers.

ICT
Presently the main source
of learning material to
them is the internet.
Trade/Course related
equipment is available in
all TEVT institutions.

No almost all of TVE


teachers are low
qualified.

No support is available to
TVE teachers.

AJK
Presently the main source
of learning material to
them is the internet.
Trade/Course related
equipment is available in
all TEVT institutions.

No, there is no quality


assurance system

Prior
learning
recognition
system
exists. NTB awards the
competency certificate
according to the ILO
standards to anyone
who desires for it.

Is there an associated
quality assurance
system? Are there other
regulations?

Are there arrangements


in place for the formal
recognition of prior
learning, for example of
young people who have
worked in family
business or in other
jobs or capacities and

Prior learning recognition


system exists. NTB
awards the competency
certificate according to
the ILO standards to
anyone who desires for it.

No, there is no quality


assurance system

78

Prior learning
recognition system
exists. NTB awards the
competency certificate
according to the ILO
standards to anyone
who desires for it.

No, there is no quality


assurance system

Prior learning
recognition system
exists. NTB awards the
competency certificate
according to the ILO
standards to anyone
who desires for it.

No, there is no quality


assurance system

Prior learning recognition


system exists. NTB
awards the competency
certificate according to
the ILO standards to
anyone who desires for it.

No, there is no quality


assurance system

No, there is no quality


assurance system

BOLUCHISTAN
ICT
AJK
PUNJAB
SINDH
NWFP
Question 4: Challenge: Accreditation, quality assurance and linkages to other education
What relationships exist between secondary level TVE achievement, general secondary schooling achievement, and opportunities for further education? How effective are they?
Are TVE secondary
No, TVE secondary
No, TVE secondary
No, TVE secondary
No, TVE secondary
No, TVE secondary
No, TVE secondary
education
education achievements
education achievements
education achievements
education achievements
education achievements
education achievements
achievements included
are not well recognized.
are not well recognized.
are not well recognized.
are not well recognized.
are not well recognized.
are not well recognized.
in a recognition system
involving accreditation
and qualifications? Is
industry involved?

Are there some groups


of TVE teachers that
have greater capacity to
deliver relevant TVE
than others?

Are TVE teachers


provided the necessary
support in terms of
managerial support and
industry partnership
building skills?

Do TVE teachers have


access to modern
teaching and learning
materials, industry
equipment and
facilities?

Do you have a National


Qualifications
Framework that covers
all of secondary level
TVE achievement,
general secondary
schooling achievement
and other further
education opportunities
and the relationships
between these? If not is
there interest in a NQF?
What needs to be done
to ensure a TVE
secondary school
graduate can go on to
further study if they so
desire?

who have obtained TVE


skills and knowledge in
this way?
Do you have multiple
TVE accreditation
frameworks, for
example for different
industries?
Is the TVE accreditation
system separate from
the general academic
education system?
Is the TVE accreditation
system consistently
applied nationally and
by geographic
area/institution?
There is a separate TVE
accreditation system, i.e.,
Sindh Board of Technical
Education and Trade
Testing Board.

The TVE accreditation


system, i.e., Sindh Board
of Technical Education
applied on geographic
area/ institutions.
The federal government
has recently established
NAVTEC that is working
on the establishment of
National Qualifications
Framework for TVE
teachers.

At presently there is no
linkage between various
options and there is a
dire need to introduce
flexible horizontally and
vertically entry system.

The TVE accreditation


system, i.e., Punjab
Board of Technical
Education applied on
geographic area/
institutions.
The federal government
has recently established
NAVTEC that is working
on the establishment of
National Qualifications
Framework for TVE
teachers.

At presently there is no
linkage between various
options and there is a
dire need to introduce
flexible horizontally and
vertically entry system.

SINDH

There is a separate TVE


accreditation
system,
i.e., Punjab Board of
Technical Education and
Trade Testing Board.

PUNJAB

79

At presently there is no
linkage between various
options and there is a
dire need to introduce
flexible horizontally and
vertically entry system.

The federal government


has recently established
NAVTEC that is working
on the establishment of
National Qualifications
Framework for TVE
teachers.

The TVE accreditation


system, i.e., NWFP Board
of Technical Education
applied on geographic
area/ institutions.

There is a separate TVE


accreditation
system,
i.e., NWFP Board of
Technical Education and
Trade Testing Board.

NWFP

The federal government


has recently established
NAVTEC that is working
on the establishment of
National Qualifications
Framework for TVE
teachers.

At presently there is no
linkage between various
options and there is a
dire need to introduce
flexible horizontally and
vertically entry system.

At presently there is no
linkage between various
options and there is a
dire need to introduce
flexible horizontally and
vertically entry system.

There is no separate TVE


accreditation system.

ICT

The federal government


has recently established
NAVTEC that is working
on the establishment of
National Qualifications
Framework for TVE
teachers.

There is no separate TVE


accreditation system

BOLUCHISTAN

At presently there is no
linkage between various
options and there is a dire
need to introduce flexible
horizontally and vertically
entry system.

There is no separate TVE


accreditation system.

AJK

Appendix-4

Discussion Group Meeting Regarding Technical Vocational Education at


Secondary Level
(Monday, March 30, 2009)

LIST OF PARTICIPANTS
S. No.
1.

Name of Participant
Raja M. Khurshid

Designation
Principal

2.

Dr. Tariq Mahmood

3.

Raja Ghulam Hussain

Deputy Educational
Advisor
Consultant

4.
5.

Dr. Masroor Ahmed Shaikh


Khawaja Sabir Hussain

Principal
DD(Research)

6.

Mr. Munir Gul

DD(Training)

7.
8.

Prof. Dr. Farid A. Khwaja


Engr. Zahid Ali

9.

Prof. Abdul Majid

10.
11.
12.

Dr. Bakhtiar Ali


Dr. Irshad Hussain Tirmazi
Prof. Fazal Bari

13.

Malik Muhammad Ali

14.

Syed Najjam-ul-Hassan

15.

Ch. Muhammad Anwar

16.

Prof. Syed Aleem Haider


Zaidi

17.

Mr. Muhammad Ali Khattak

18.
19.
20.

Mr. Fazal-e-Ghani
Mr. Imran Wasim
Mrs. Rafia Nazir

Director General
Deputy Director
General (Tech)
Associate Professor/ In- NISTE, Ministry of Education, Islamabad
Charge Training
In-Charge (MIS Cell)
NISTE, Ministry of Education, Islamabad
TVET Specialist
UNESCO, Islamabad
Ex-Chairman
Balochistan Board of Intermediate and
Secondary Education, Quetta
Deputy Director
Federal Directorate of Education,
Islamabad
Instructor (Electrical)
Directorate General of Manpower &
Training, Quetta
Ex-Principal
Federal Directorate of Education,
Islamabad
Consultant, ADB /
TEP/NISTE, Ministry of Education,
Associate Professor
Islamabad
(Rtd)
Principal
Government Agro Technical Teacher
Training Centre, Gul Bahar, Peshawar
Instructor
NISTE, Ministry of Education, Islamabad
In-Charge( TLR & Curri) NISTE, Ministry of Education, Islamabad
Secretary
TEVTA, Government of the Punjab,
Lahore

80

Organization
Agro Technical Teachers Training
Centre, Muzaffarabad, AJK
Curriculum Wing, Ministry of
Education, Islamabad
Sindh Technical Education and
Vocational Training Authority (STEVTA),
Karachi
Technical Education, Sindh, Karachi
AEPAM, Ministry of Education,
Islamabad
Directorate General Technical
Education and Manpower Training,
NWFP, Peshawar
NISTE, Ministry of Education, Islamabad
NISTE, Ministry of Education, Islamabad