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CHAINING

In all chaining operations two men, called


chainmen, are required.
The chainman at the forward end of the chain
is called the leader or head chainman.
The chainman at the rear end of the chain is
known as the follower or rear chainman.

Contd
The duties of the leader are :

(i) to drag the chain forward


(ii) to insert arrows at the end of every chain, and
(iii) to obey instructions of the follower

The duties of the follower are :

(i) to place the leader in line with the ranging rod or pole
at the forward station,
(ii) to call out instructions to the leader,
(iii) always to carry the rear handle in his hand and not to
allow it to drag on the ground and
(iv) to pick up the arrows inserted by the leader.

The chainman who is more intelligent and experienced


should be selected as the follower, as upon his care and
judgment depends the accuracy of measurements.

Unfolding the Chain :


To lay out the chain on the ground, remove the
leather belt.
Take both the handles in the left hand and
Throw the chain well forward with the right hand.
The leader, taking one handle of the chain, moves
forward until the chain is extended to its full
length.
The chain may then be examined to see if there
are any kinks or bent links.
This operation is also called Undoing the Chain.

Folding the Chain :


After the work is over, the chain should folded
into a bundle with a leather belt.
To do this, bring the two halves of the chain as to
lie alongside each other by pulling the chain by a
middle.
Commencing from the middle, take two pairs of
links at a time with the right hand and place them
obliquely across the others in the left hand.
This operation is also known as Doing the Chain.

CHAINING ON SLOPING GROUND


Since the distances required for plotting purposes are the
horizontal distances, all measurements must be made
horizontally.
There are two methods determining horizontal distances
when chaining on uneven or sloping grounds

Direct
Indirect

Direct Method (By Stepping) :


In this method, commonly known as the method of
stepping, horizontal distances are directly measured on
the ground by the process of stepping which consists in
measuring the line in short horizontal lengths.
The horizontal or vertical distances are measured by taking
direct readings from the tape or chain used.

Indirect Method (By measuring along Slope) :


When the slope of the ground is long and gentle, distances
may be measured more quickly and accurately along the
surface of the ground than by the method of stepping.
The various slopes are measured by a clinometer (usually
by Abney level).
Knowing the angle of slope of the ground and the slope (or
inclined) distance, horizontal distances may be computed
in several ways.

METHOD I

METHOD II

(HYPOTENUSAL ALLOWANCE)

METHOD III

ERROR DUE TO INCORRECT CHAIN


LENGTH

Where,

AREA

VOLUME

L = the incorrect length of a chain or tape


L = the true length of a chain or tape

NOTE:
If the chain is too long, the measured length of a line is too short, i.e. less than its true
length. Consequently, the error is negative and the correction is positive. (and Vice
Versa)

CORRECTION FOR SLOPE


Horizontal distances may be determined by applying corrections
negatively to the distances measured along the slope.
Let l denote the slope distance(AB); h the vertical distance(BB1)
between two points A and B; D be the horizontal distance (AB1);
and Ch be the correction (B1C1) to the slope distance, all being
expressed in meters.
1).
2).
3).

. . . . . (approx)

0.00015
1

cos

. . . . . (approx)
. . . . . (exact)

ERRORS IN CHAINING
Can be classified as:
COMPENSATING ERRORS
Which are liable to occur in either direction and hence tend to
compensate i.e. they are not likely to make the apparent result too large
or too small.

CUMULATIVE ERRORS
Which occur in the same direction and tend to add up or accumulate i.e.
either to make the apparent measurement always too long or too short.

ANY QUERIES

thank you . . . !