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118 visualizzazioni133 pagineModule Physics Form 4

May 10, 2015

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Module Physics Form 4

© All Rights Reserved

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Module Physics Form 4

© All Rights Reserved

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1. Linear motion is motion in a straight line.

1. Distance is the

_________________________________________________________________by an object.

2. Distance is a ______________________________________. It has

_______________________________________ but

_____________________________________.

3. Displacement is the ___________________________ of its final position from its

initial position in ____________________________________________.

4. Displacement is a ____________________________________________. It involves

both _________________ and _________________________________.

5. Both distance and displacement have the same SI unit which is

_____________________________.

Exercise

1. A physics teacher walks 4 meters East, 2 meters South, 4 meters West,

and finally 2 meters North.

(i) what is the distance

(ii) what is the displacement

Ahmads house. They then walk towards their school which is 60 m to the

south of Chongs house.

(a) What is the distance traveled by Ahmad and his displacement from his

house?

1. Speed is the ________________________________________________________.

Speed during the course of a motion is often computed using the following

equation:

2. Velocity is______________________________________________________________.

Velocity is often computed using the equation:

______________________________________.

4. Both speed and velocity have the same SI unit. They are measured in

meter per second or m s-1. Other unit may be in cm s-1 or km h-1.

5. The average speed of a motion is often computed using the following

equation:

Exercise

1. A man running in a race covers 60 m in 12 s.

(a) What is his speed in,

(i) m s-1

(ii) km h-1

(b) If he takes 40 s to complete the race, what is his distance covered?

(c) Another man runs with a speed of 7.5 m s -1, how long did he take to

complete the race?

2.

The physics teacher walks 4 meters East, 2 meters South, 4 meters West, and

finally 2 meters North. The entire motion lasted for 24 seconds. Determine

the average speed and the average velocity.

1. Acceleration

is_________________________________________________________________________

___________.

2. It can be written as;

m s-2.

4. The acceleration is positive if the velocity increases with time. The

acceleration is negative if the velocity decreases with time. It is also called

deceleration.

5. Figure 2.1, shows that the car experiences acceleration, a constant

velocity and then a deceleration.

Figure 2.1

Exercise

1. A vehicle accelerates uniformly from rest to a speed of 25 m s -1 in 100 s

along a straight road. It then decelerates uniformly at 0.2 m s -2 for 60 s.

Find

(a) the initial acceleration

(b) the final speed

Ticker-timer

1. In the laboratory, a ticker-timer as shown in figure 2.2, with a trolley is

used to study the motion of an object for a short time interval.

Figure 2.2

2. A ticker-timer consists of a small electrical vibrator which vibrates at the

frequency of 50 Hz.

3. The time taken to make 50 dots on the ticker tape is 1 s. Hence, the time

interval between 2 consecutive dots is

1

50 = 0.02 s

Figure 2.3

4. To determine the time interval of motion of the object:

Time interval = Number of tick x 0.02 s

5. The following shows the different types of motion recorded on the ticker

tape.

Ticker Tape

Characteristics

distance between the

dots is equally

distributed.

distance between the

dots is equally

distributed.

distance between the

dots is equally

distributed.

the distance between

the dots increases

uniformly.

the distance between

the dots dcreases

uniformly.

Inferences

Consistent distance

=

______________________velo

city

Short Distance

=_______________________v

elocity

Long distance

=________________________

velocity

Increasing distance

=________________________

velocity

=________________________

decreasing distance

=________________________

velocity

=________________________

Exercise

1. A trolley pulled a ticker tape through a ticker timer while moving down

an inclined plane. Figure 2.4 shows the ticker tape produced

Figure 2.4

Determine the average velocity of the trolley.

freely falling metal sphere. The ticker-timer vibrates at a frequency of 50

Hz. Determine the acceleration of the sphere.

Activity 2.1

Aim of the activity:

To determine displacement, average velocity, acceleration and deceleration.

Apparatus/ Materials:

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

___

Setup:

Procedure:

1. Set up the apparatus as shown in the diagram.

2. Incline the runway at an angle of 10 with the horizontal.

3. Attach the ticker-timer tape to the trolley at the top of the runway.

4. Switch on the ticker-timer and release the trolley.

5. Mark the tape and cut it into five strips of ten ticks from the start of the

tape.

6. Repeat the experiment with the angles of inclination of 20 and 30 .

7. Using graph paper, build a ticker-timer tape chart for each angle of

inclination.

Collecting data:

1. The ticker tape can be cut into strip. Prepare a 10-tick strip for each

different angle produced. and paste the strip

(a) 1st strip (10)

2. Determine the displacement, time interval and velocity

The displacement of

10 ticks

The time interval for

10-ticks strip

Average velocity of

10-ticks strip

10

2nd strip

(20)

The displacement of first 1tick

The time interval for first 1tick

The initial velocity, u

The displacement of last 1tick

The time interval for last 1tick

The final velocity, v

acceleration, a

The displacement of first 1tick

The time interval for first 1tick

The initial velocity, u

The displacement of last 1tick

The time interval for last 1tick

The final velocity, v

acceleration, a

The displacement of first 1tick

The time interval for first 1tick

11

The displacement of last 1tick

The time interval for last 1tick

The final velocity, v

acceleration, a

4. The ticker tape can be cut into strips of equal time (equal number of ticks)

and paste together to form a chart for analysing the motion of a trolley.

Prepare 3 charts for (a) = 10, (b) = 20 (c) = 30 and calculate the

acceleration.

3. The following shows the different types of motion recorded on the ticker

tape and tape chart.

12

Characteristics

The separation

between dots

stays the

same.

The length of

the strips of

the tape

chart is

equal.

The distance

between the

dots

increases

uniformly.

The length of

the strips of

the tape

increase

uniformly

The distance

between the

dots and the

length of

strips of the

tape

decreases

uniformly.

13

Inference

acceleration. A constant distance between dots represents a

____________________________________________ and

_______________________________.

Exercise

Figure 2.6 shows a ticker tape chart obtained in an experiment to study the

motion of trolley on an inclined plane. Calculate the acceleration of the

trolley.

14

More Exercises

Type of motion

Ticker tape or chart

Moving with

Calculation of

velocity /

acceleration

Velocity=

__________________

_____

Moving with

Velocity =

__________________

______

Moving with

Velocity =

__________________

_____

__________________

______ or

increasing

velocity

Initial velocity,

u=

Final velocity,

v=

Acceleration

15

a=

__________________

______ or

decreasing

velocity

Initial velocity,

u=

Final velocity,

v=

Acceleration

a=

__________________

______ or

increasing

velocity

Initial velocity,

u=

Final velocity,

v=

Acceleration

a=

16

__________________

______ or

decreasing

velocity

Initial velocity,

u=

Final velocity,

v=

Acceleration

a=

Exercise

Calculation of velocity /

acceleration

1

17

1. For an object in linear motion with uniform acceleration (change in

velocity), problems involving the displacement, velocity, acceleration and

time of motion can be solve by using the equations of motion.

(

u = initial velocity

v = final velocity

t = time

18

a = acceleration

s = displacement

Equation

Variables involved

Variables not

involved

v, u, a, t

v, u, a, s

s, u, t, a

s, u, v, t

2. For motion with constant velocity (zero acceleration), the formula is

s

t

v=

Exercise

1.

u (ms1

)

v (ms1

)

t (s)

a (ms2

)

s (m)

Formula

1

s=ut + at 2

2

v 2=u 2+ 2as

16

1

s= ( u+ v ) t

2

v =u+at

12

v =u+at

1

s= ( u+ v ) t

2

10

v =u + 2as

20

1

s=ut + at 2

2

deceleration?

19

Answer

3. A car starts off at 2 ms-1 and accelerates at 3ms-2 for 5s. What is its final

velocity?

acceleration and covers a distance of 250 m in 10s.

Calculate (a)

Acceleration

(b)

Final velocity

brakes. The distance travelled before stopping is 9 km.

Calculate the

(a)

Average velocity in the first 30 minutes.

(b)

initial velocity of the car

(c)

deceleration of the car

20

6. A bullet is fired towards a nearby tree with a speed of 200 ms -1. The bullet

is shot at a depth of 5 cm. Find the average deceleration of the bullet

inside the tree. What is the time taken for the bullet to stop after hitting

the tree?

front, she applies the brakes to stop her car. If the deceleration of the car

is 2 ms-2, what is the distance her car travels before it comes to a halt?

21

8. By applying the brakes, a driver reduce his car's velocity from 20ms -1 to

10 ms-1 after travelling a distance of 30 m. Find the deceleration of the car.

road, Ali steps on his brake to stop the car. The speed of the car decreases

uniformly and stops after travelling 150 m.

(a) What is the deceleration of the car when the brakes are applied?

(b) What is the time interval before the car stops?

22

2.2

Motion Graphs

1.

(a) displacement-time

(b) velocity-time

Displacement-Time Graph

(a) the position of an object from its original position changes with time.

(b) the displacement of the object changes with time.

2. A student walks at a constant velocity from position A to reach position B

in 200 s. He rests for 100 s at position B and then walks back to position A

using the same straight path. He reaches position A after 200 s.

3. The graph below shows the change in the distance and direction with time

of the student.

23

(a).

(b).

(c).

y

x

(d).

In section II of the graph, the student remains at position B from 200

s to 300 s.

(e).

Gradient of the graph in section III,

=

y

x

(f).

the original direction. (Velocity is a vector quantity)

(g)

moment is zero that is the student has returned to the original

position.

24

4.

table.

Displacement time

Position and motion of the

Displacement and velocity

graph

object

Gradient of graph is

_____________.

The displacement is

_____________. Its velocity is

zero.

___________ over a period of

time

Gradient of graph is

_____________.

Hence, the object is

moving with uniform

velocity.

The object moves in

positives direction from its

original position.

Gradient of graph is

_____________

but

___________________________

____.

Hence, the object is moves

in negative direction

back to its original position

Gradient of graph varies

and is

___________________________

__________

Hence, the object moves in

with

___________________________

velocity.

Its displacement is

increasing linearly (at

constant rate).

Its velocity is

___________________

and

___________________________

___.

Its displacement is

decreasing linearly (at

constant rate).

Its velocity is

_____________________

and

___________________________

_____

Its displacement is

increasing at non-constant

rate.

Its velocity is

_____________________ with

time.

The is moving with

constant

___________________________

_________.

25

and is

___________________________

_________.

Hence, the object moves in

with

___________________________

velocity.

Its displacement is

increasing at non-constant

rate.

Its velocity is

_____________________ with

time. The is moving with

constant

___________________________

_________.

Exercise:

The displacement time graph shows the

motion of an object.

(a) Briefly describe the motion of the

object represented by AB, BC, CD and

DE.

(b) Find

(i)

The displacement after 20s,

(ii)

The time taken to move 35m from

the origin.

(c) Calculate the average velocity in each

of these time intervals:

(i)

0s 5s

(iii) 10s 20s

(ii)

5s 10s

(iv) 20s 28s

Solution

(a)AB: The object is at rest ________________m from the

________________________________.

BC: The object moved __________________m forward with

_________________________velocity.

CD: The object moved another ____________m forward with

______________________velocity.

DE: The object moved ____________m backwards with

_____________________velocity and returned to its starting point.

(b) (i)

When t = 20s, s = _________________________________ =

_________________________ m

(ii)

When s = 35 m, t = _________________________s

(c)(i)

object is at __________________________, hence the velocity =

_________________ms-1.

(ii)

velocity = gradient of the graph

26

v=

(iii)

velocity, v =

(iv)

velocity, v =

27

Velocity-Time Graph

1. A car starts from rest and accelerates for 20 s until it reaches a velocity of

60 ms-1. The driver maintains this velocity for 20 seconds. The velocity of

the car is then gradually reduced until it stops at t =60 s.

2. The graph below shows how the velocity of the car changes over a certain

period of time.

(a) On a velocity time graph, the gradient of the graph is equal to the

______________________ of the object.

(b) In section I, the acceleration of the car;

_________________________________.

The gradient of the graph is equal to ____________________.

(d) In section II, the car travels at a constant velocity of _______ms -1 from t =

_____s to t =_____s.

(e) In section III, gradient of the graph;

(g) On the velocity time graph, the area under the graph is equal to the

___________________.

(h) In section I, the area under the graph

28

___________________________________.

4. On the velocity time graph, the area under the graph is equal to the

_____________________.

5. The various velocity time graphs are shown below

Velocity time graph

Velocity and acceleration

(a) Object at rest

The gradient of the graph

represents acceleration.

The gradient of the graph is

__________________ and hence the

acceleration is always zero.

The area under the graph

represents ____________________

travelled.

_______________ and hence the

displacement travelled is zero.

The velocity stays the same. The

object is moving with constant

velocity.

The gradient of graph is

__________________________.

Object is moving with

_______________________ velocity.

Its acceleration (= gradient of

the graph) is ______________.

29

acceleration

uniformly with time.

The gradient of graph is

___________________________.

Hence, The object is moving

with

_________________________________

_____.

deceleration

uniformly with time.

The gradient of the graph is

constant but

________________________.

The object is moving with

constant

__________________________.

acceleration

increasing.

The acceleration of the object is

________________________________.

acceleration.

The gradient is

______________________ with time.

The object is moving with

constant

30

______________________________.

31

Exercise

1. The velocity time graph of an object

starting from rest and travelling towards

the east is as shown in figure.

(a)

towards east?

(b)

towards the west?

(c)

32

graph.

Displacement time graph

graph

Velocity time

constant velocity

Represents the velocity

of the object

Non- horizontal

straight line

Gradient

Horizontal line

original position.

+ve The object moves

in a specific

direction

-ve The object moves

in the opposite

direction

No significance

Intersection on

the time - axis

Sign of the

gradient

(positive or

negative)

graph

constant acceleration

Represents the

acceleration of the

object

The object moves at a

constant velocity

The object stops

+ve Acceleration

-ve - Deceleration

distance travelled by

the object

Displacement time

graphs

Velocity time

graphs

Acceleration time

graphs

Displacement = area under the

graph

33

v=0

(a = 0)

v=

constant

(a = 0)

v

a=

constant

v

a=

constant

v

a

v

a

34

a

increasin

g rate

a

decreasi

ng rate

200

Diagram 1

What is the displacement of the car?

200

A 5.0 km

C 8.2 km

B 6.8 km

D 9.0 km

35

Diagram 2

Which of the following describes the motion of the object?

OJ

A

201

0

JK

Uniform

Decreasing

acceleration

acceleration

Increasing

Decreasing

acceleration

acceleration

Increasing

Uniform

acceleration

deceleration

Uniform

Uniform

acceleration

deceleration

Speed

displacement

?

time

Velocity

201

C

Distance

D

Acceleration

Diagram 3 shows Ali stands at O. He walks towards A, then moves towards B

and stops at B.

201

2m towards west

5m towards east

7m towards east

Which tape shows a movement with uniform velocity and then deceleration?

36

200

200

37

Diagram 4

Which acceleration-time graph represents the same motion as the object?

A

38

200

A 18

B 24

C 32

D 64

201

Diagram 6 shows a car moving up a hill. The car decelerates as it moves up the

Which graph shows the correct relationship between the velocity, v, of the car

and the time, t, of the motion?

39

201

A 0m

B 30m

C 45m

D 75m

201

After 10 minutes, the driver steps on the brake pedal to stop the bus.

40

A 0 ms-1

B 2ms-1

C 6ms-1

D 72ms-1

1.

2.

_______________________, or if moving to continue its

_____________________________in a straight line.

3.

__________________ tends to stay at rest, and if in _______________________

tends to stay in motion unless acted upon by an

______________________________.

3.

Situation

Explanation

When a cardboard is pulled away

quickly, the coin drops straight into the

glass.

The inertia of the coin maintains its

state of

_____________.

When the card is pulled away, the coin

falls into the glass due to

__________________________.

41

The books above will drop instead of

The _______________________ of the

books above keeps them in their

original ___________________.

If the book is pulled out slowly, the

books above will move together with

the book.

Body moves forward when the car

stops suddenly.

The passengers were in a state of

motion when the car was moving.

When the car stopped suddenly, the

inertia in the passengers made them

maintain their state of motion.

Thus when the car stop, the

passengers moved

______________________..

1.

filled with sand while the other bucket is

empty.

2.

with sand compared to the empty bucket

when both are initially at rest.

3.

more difficult to stop the bucket filled with sand compared to the empty

bucket.

4.

__________________________ and also to continue to be in

______________________ compared with the empty bucket.

5.

the empty bucket. The bucket filled with sand has a bigger

42

an object is measured by its ________________________.

Effects on Inertia

1.

poured out if the bottle is moved down

fast with a sudden____________________.

When the bottle stops suddenly, the

sauce continue in its state of motion

due to the effect of its

____________________.

A boy runs away from a cow in a

zig-zag motion.

The cow has a large inertia making

it difficult to change direction.

________________________ to its handle

by knocking the end of the handle,

The head of hammer has a

__________________ mass and will remain

in its ______________________, thus fitting

The drop of water on a wet

umbrella will fall when the boy

This is because the drop of water on the

surface of the umbrella moves

simultaneously as the umbrella is

rotated.

43

_________________rotating, the inertia of

the drop of water will continue to

maintain its motion.

2.

If a car crashes while travelling, the

driver of the car is still in

____________________ even though

the car has stopped.

The driver may be

______________________against the

windscreen and suffer injuries.

This can be prevented if the drive is

wearing a ________________________

that will him back from the forward

motion.

The tank of a lorry carrying liquid

is divided into several

_______________________.

This will reduce the impact of the

______________________ of the liquid

The

___________________________________

_______ between the drivers cabin

and the load to stop the initial

movement of heavy load towards

the driver when the lorry is

brought to a halt suddenly.

44

normally is tied up together by

_____________________.

When the lorry starts to move

suddenly, the furniture is more

difficult to fall off due to their

________________________ because

their combined mass has

increased.

3.

(i) Wearing safety belts when driving.

The safety provides the external force that prevents the driver or

passengers from being thrown forward.

(ii) An air bag is fitted inside the steering wheel.

The airbag inflate automatically when a collision occurs. This prevents

the driver or passengers crashing into dashboard.

(iii) Subdivision of the mass to reduce its inertia

The oil tank of an oil tanker lorry is usually divided into few smaller

compartments so that the effects of inertia can be reduced.

(iv) Strong structure behind the drivers cabin

If a loaded lorry stops abruptly, its heavy load, for example, timber logs,

will continue to move forwards the drivers cabin because of its massive

inertia. A strong iron structure between the drivers cabin and the load

ensures the drivers safety.

45

Problem statement:

A bucket filled with sand is more _________________________ to swing compared

to the empty bucket.

What is the relationship between inertia and mass?

Inference:

The ________________________________ of an object depends on

its____________________________________.

Hypothesis:

When the mass of an object ______________________, the inertia of the object

_______________________

Aim:

To investigate the relationship between inertia and mass

Variables:

(a) Manipulated

variable:_____________________________________________________________________

_______

(b) Responding

variable:_____________________________________________________________________

________

(c) Constant variable:

______________________________________________________________________________

__

Materials:

______________________________________________________________________________

___________________________

Apparatus:

______________________________________________________________________________

___________________________

Arrangement of apparatus:

46

Procedure:

1.

2.

3.

4.

A 25 g of plasticine is fixed to the free and of the hacksaw blade.

The time for 20 complete oscillations is measured using a stopwatch and

is recorded. The step is repeated twice to calculate the average time

taken. Then the period, T is determined.

Step 3 is repeated with different mass of plasticine, m = 50 g, 75 g, 100

g and 125 g.

Tabulation of data:

Analysis of data:

(graph)

47

Discussion:

Conclusion:

48

You can catch a fast moving ping-pong ball easily with your bare hand.

A softball keeper must wear a glove to catch a hard and fast moving softball.

Why is a slow moving softball much easier to catch?

If a loaded lorry and a car are moving at the same speed, it is more difficult for

the lorry to stop.

This is because the lorry possesses a physical quantity, momentum, more than

the car.

All moving objects possess momentum.

Activity 2.2

To compare the effects of stopping two objects in motion

Apparatus / Materials:

One steel ball and one wooden ball of the same diameter, 2 slabs of

plasticine.

Arrangement of apparatus:

49

moving at different velocities.

Procedure:

1 A steel ball is first released from

a height of 50cm and then from

100cm above a slab of plasticine

as shown in Figure.

2 The depths and sizes of the

cavities caused by the steel ball

on the slab are observed and

compared.

Observations

masses moving at the same

velocity

Procedure:

1. A steel ball and a wooden

ball of the same diameter are

released from a height of

50cm above a slab of

plasticine as shown in figure.

2. The depths and sizes of the

cavities formed are observed

and compared.

Observations

Conclusion

The moving balls produce an effect on the plasticine which is there to

stop the motion.

The __________________the mass or velocity of the moving object is, the

_________________ is the effect (the depth and size of the cavity), the

_________________is the momentum.

Linear Momentum

50

defined as the product of mass and velocity.

momentum=

p = _________________________________

2. The unit of momentum is ____________________________. It can be also be

written as N s (newton second)

3. Momentum is a ________________________ quantity with the same

direction as velocity.

4. If the direction to the right is denoted as positive, an object moving

to the right possesses a positive momentum while an object moving to

the left will have a _____________________ momentum.

5. Examlple:

velocity of 2 m s

-1

moving from right to left with the same speed. Calculate the

momentum for both balls.

Solution

Momentum of ball A

= mAvA

= 0.5 x 2

= 1 kg m s-1

Momentum of ball B

= mBvB

= 0.5 x (-2)

= -1 kg m s-1

51

6. The diagram shows a baseball player hitting a ball. The mass of the

ball is 200g. What is the momentum of the ball flying with a velocity of

50ms-1?

at 6ms-1.

What is its momentum

(a) Before it strikes the wall, and

(b) After the rebound?

velocity.

Conservation of Momentum

1. The Principle of conservation of momentum states that:

constant, if no external force acts on the

system.

A closed system : the sum of external forces acting on the

system is zero.

Example of an external force is friction.

2. The principle of conservation of momentum shall be discussed in two

situations.

A collision

An explosion

52

Collision

3. There are two types of collisions.

Elastic Collisions

Two objects collide and move apart after

Inelastic collisions

Two objects combine and stop, or move

a collision.

collision.

Momentum is conserved

Total energy is conserved

Kinetic energy is conserved

Momentum is conserved

Total energy is conserved

Kinetic energy is not conserved:

the total kinetic energy (after the

Formula:

m1 u1 +m2 u 2=m1 v 1+ m2 v 2

(b4 the collision)

Formula:

m1 u1 +m2 u 2=( m1 +m 2) v

which is more common in everyday life.

5. During an inelastic collision, some of the kinetic energy, or movement

energy, is lost on impact. This energy is converted into another type of

energy, such as sound or heat.

6. An elastic collision occurs when the total kinetic energy, or movement

energy, of two or more objects is the same after a collision as before

the collision.

53

type. Completely elastic collisions dont usually happen in the real

world, aside from between subatomic particles, but the collision

between two billiard balls is a close approximation.

When the 1st ball is pulled to the side and then released so as

It is observed that the 1st ball stops, but the last ball swings out

This shows the last ball possesses the same amount of

momentum and kinetic energy as 1st ball before it struck the 2nd

ball.

The total momentum of the ball: before a collision = after

the collision

Activity 2.3

To verify the principle of conservation of momentum in

54

(b) Inelastic collisions

Apparatus / Materials:

Ticker-timer, 12 V a.c. power supply, runway, 4 trolleys, wooden block,

ticker tape, cellophane tape, and plasticine.

(A)

Elastic Collision

Arrangement of apparatus:

Procedure:

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

Trolley A with a spring-loaded piston is placed at the higher end

of the runway and trolley B is placed halfway down the runway

and stayed at rest.

Two ticker tapes are passed through the ticker timer, one

attached to trolley A and another attached to trolley B.

The ticker-timer is switched on and trolley A is given a slight push so

that it moves down the runway at a uniform velocity and collides

with trolley B which is stationery.

After collision, the two trolleys move separately.

Result:

Ticker-tape obtained:

(a) Trolley A

(b) Trolley B

55

Discussion

1. The spring-loaded piston acts as a spring buffer in the collision in

order to make the trolley bounce off the other one.

2. Strictly speaking, this collision is not a perfect elastic collision as part

of the kinetic energy of the colliding trolley changes to sound or heat

energy during the collision.

Conclusion:

Total momentum before collision = total momentum after collision

The principle of conservation of momentum is verified.

(B)

Inelastic collision

Arrangement of apparatus

Procedure:

(i)

The runway is adjusted to compensate the friction.

(ii)

The spring loaded piston of trolley A is removed and some

plasticine is pasted onto trolley A and B.

(iii)

A ticker tape is attached to trolley A only.

(iv)

The ticker-timer is switched on and trolley A is given a slight push so

that it moves down the runway at a uniform velocity and collides

with trolley B which is stationery.

(v)

After collision, the two trolleys are move together.

Result

Conclusion:

56

The principle of conservation of momentum is verified.

Exercise:

with another stationery block B of unknown mass. After the

collision, block A moves with velocity 0.5 m s-1. Given that the

collision is elastic. Find the momentum of block B after the

collision.

-1

2. A truck travels at a velocity of 15 m s

collides head-on with a

-1

car that travels at 30 m s . The mass of the truck and the car are

6000 kg and 1500 kg respectively. What is the final velocity of

the two vehicles after the collision if they stick together?

into a stationary astronaut of mass 100kg. How fast do the two

astronauts move together after collision?

57

colliding into another skater of mass 60kg moving in the opposite

direction at a speed of 7 ms-1. After the collision, the two skater

hold on to each other. In which direction will they move? What is

the speed of the two skaters?

another trolley of mass 0.5 kg which is moving at a velocity of 1

ms-1 in the same direction. If the 0.5 kg trolley moves at a velocity

of 2.5 ms-1 in the same direction after collision, what is the velocity

of the 3 kg trolley?

after a collision. Find the velocity of the 3 kg trolley after the

collision.

58

1. Rifle

2. The explosion creates a

backward momentum on the

rifle. This causes the rifle to

and the bullet is zero as they

are stationary.

explosion of the gunpowder

forces the bullet out of the

barrel. A momentum in the

forward direction is created.

(a) Before

2. Air escapes

explosion

from a deflating balloon

Total momentum

of the balloon is

zero as it is

with a velocity. This creates

a momentum in the

downward direction.

59

The balloon

shoots

upwards,

moving with

an upward

velocities u and v respectively.

4. An explosion is a closed system which does not involve any external

force.

The total momentum is conserved in an explosion.

0=m1 v 1 +m2 v 2

m1 v 1=m2 v 2

direction.

Exercise

1. The diagram show a boy of 60kg and a girl

of 50kg on the roller skates. Initially, they

hold each others hand. Then, the boy

pushes the girl and both of them release

their hands. If the velocity of the girl is 3

ms-1 after being pushed, find the velocity

of the boy. (Assume that no frictional force)

2.

Jane and John go ice skating. With their

skates on, Jane and John push against

each other on level ice. Jane, of mass

50kg, moves away at a velocity of 3ms-1 to

the right. What is Johns velocity if he is

75kg?

60

ms-1 and lands on the dock. The boat

bounces backwards with a speed of v.

If the masses of Harfeez and the boat

are m and 3m respectively, find the

speed of the boat (ignoring friction

due to water).

Activity 2.4

To verify the principle of conservation of momentum in an

explosion

Apparatus / Materials:

4 trolleys, wooden block, 2 wooden blocks, a hammer and a metre rule.

Notes

The positions of the wooden blocks are adjusted so that each trolley collides

with the corresponding wooden blocks at the same time, t. Substitute

v=

d

t

in

0=mA v A =mB v B

0=mA

dA

d

+mB B

t

t

Arrangement of apparatus:

Procedure:

(i)

(ii)

Two trolleys A and B of equal mass are placed in contact with each

other on a smooth surface. The spring-loaded piston in trolley B is

compressed.

61

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

(vi)

spring-loaded piston which then pushes the trolleys apart. The

trolleys collide with the wooden blocks.

The experiment is repeated and position of the wooden blocks are

adjusted so that both trolleys collide with them at the same time.

The distance dA and dB are measured and recorded. Note: dA is

positive while dB is negative since d, displacement is a vector

quantity.

The experiment is repeated using

(a) 1 trolley with 2 stacked trolleys

(b) 3 stacked trolleys with 1 trolley

Tabulation of data

Discussion

Conclusion

1. Rocket

62

5

In accordance with

the principle of

conservation of

momentum, the

rocket gains a

forward momentum

and moves forward at

1

A rocket carries liquid

hydrogen and liquid

oxygen

2

The mixture of

hydrogen fuel and

oxygen burns

vigorously in the

3

The gases formed

expand rapidly and are

forced to discharge

through the exhaust

nozzle at a high velocity

4

A backward

momentum is

Hot exhaust

gases at high

velocity

Demonstration to show the principle in rocket

Water rocket

2. Jet engine

1

drawn into the engine and

compressed by a compressor

before it is forced into

combustion chamber at high

63

In the combustion

chamber, kerosene

fuel burns vigorously

with the compressed

air

Jet of

exhaust

gases

Moves

forwards

5

The hot gases formed expand

rapidly and are forced out of

the nozzle at high speed

through the turbine which

4 rotates the compressor

exhaust gases create a

backward momentum

6

conservation of momentum, a forward

momentum for the engine is produced. The

plane thus flies forwards.

3. The principle of the conservation of momentum occurs in nature.

A squid uses it to propel itself in the water.

The squid moves forward by discharging a jet of water from its body.

An equal and opposite momentum created thus propel the squid in the

opposite direction.

Diagram show how does a

squid escape.

The squid fills its body up with

water which it forces through a

tube. This makes the squid

move on the opposite direction

very quickly. This is called jet

propulsion.

exploding fireworks launched into the sky is governed by the principle

of the conservation of momentum. The symmetrical pattern indicates

that the total momentum is conserved.

64

5. The large volume of water that rushes out from a water hose with a

very high speed has a large momentum. In accordance with the

principle of conservation of momentum, an equal and opposite

momentum is created causing the fireman to fall backwards. Thus,

several firemen are needed to hold the water hose.

Exercise

1. A pigeon of mass 120 g is flying at a velocity of 2 ms -1. What is its

momentum?

a velocity of 30 ms-1.

65

3. A bull of mass 250 kg is moving at a momentum of 750 kgms -1. Find its

velocity.

120 ms-1. What is the total momentum of the bullet and the pistol after

explosion?

is recoil velocity of the pistol?

at rest. After the collision, both the car and lorry move together. What

is the common velocity after the collision?

7. Hizam and his son Jamal

are atofan

velocity

2 ice

ms-1rink.

while Hizam with a mass of 60

kg, is directly behind Jamal and moving at 6 ms 1

. Hizam decides to pick Jamal up and continues

66

moving without

stopping. Determine the final

velocity of Hizam and Jamal.

4 kg which is moving in the opposite direction. If both the trolleys

move together at 3 ms-1 in the direction of trolley B after the collision,

find the initial velocity of trolley B.

The butterfly then starts moving to the tip of the

leaf at a speed of 5 cms-1 relative to the water. The

leaf, in accordance with the principle of the

conservation of momentum, moves at 3 cms-1

relative to the water in the opposite direction. If

the mass of the leaf is 8g, determine the mass of

the butterfly.

67

respectively before the two collide head on. The masses of boat A and

B (including the passengers) are 150 kg and 250 kg respectively.

If boat A bounces back with a velocity of 0.5 ms -1, what is the velocity

of boat B?

11.Sau Fei and Siew Ling, each with a mass of 60 kg and 49.5 kg

respectively, are standing at rest on an ice rink. Sau Fei throws a ball of

mass 0.5 kg towards Siew Ling.

What is the recoil velocity of Sau Fei if the velocity of the ball is 8 ms -1?

What is the velocity of Siew Ling after she receives the ball?

68

What is Force?

A force is a push or a

pull

Pressing a switch

Lifting objects

Kicking a ball

Pulling off the ring of a soft drink

Stretching

tin

a chest expander

1. When you push or pull on an object, you need to know

(a) The strength or magnitude of your force, and

(b) The direction in which you are pushing and pulling.

2. Force is a _________________________ quantity. Since it has both

_____________________ and direction.

3.

gravitational pull of object) can be used to measure the magnitude of

a force.

The Effect of a Force

1. A force can change the shape of an object. (deformation of an object).

69

object

A platicine is flattened

object

A can is crushed.

A spring lengthens or

compresses when you stretch

or compress it.

when a force exerted on it.

(from stationary to move / from moving state to stationary)

70

A pushing force is required to

move a stalled car

A goalkeeper stop the ball

object

A ping-pong ball moves faster

moving object

A ping-pong ball changes its

direction

Experiment 2.2

Relationship between acceleration and force applied on a

constant mass.

71

Situation:

Figure (a) shows car A and car B of the same mass at the same starting line.

Car B is a sport car.

The engine capacity of sport car B is much bigger than car A. (a car with a

bigger car capacity can provide greater engine thrust.)

Figure (b) shows that sport car B has built up a higher velocity than car A

after 3 seconds.

Can you make an inference about the situation?

Inference:

______________________________________________depends on

_____________________________________________.

Hypothesis

______________________________________________, the greater

_______________________________________________.

Aim:

a constant mass.

Variables:

(a) Manipulated:

________________________________________________________________________

_________

(b) Responding:

________________________________________________________________________

__________

(c) Constant:

________________________________________________________________________

_____________

72

Notes:

The force in this experiment is the stretching force in an elastic cord used to

pull the trolley. A length of elastic cord attached to the trolley and stretched

to a fixed length represents one unit of force acting on the trolley.

Apparatus/Materials:

Trolley, 3 identical elastic cords, runway, ticker-timer, carbonised ticker-tape,

cellophane tape, 12 V a.c. power supply and a wooden block.

Arrangements of apparatus:

73

Procedure:

1. A friction-compensated inclined runway is prepared.

2. The apparatus is then set up as shown in figure.

3. The ticker-timer is switched on and the trolley is pulled down the

runway by an elastic cord attached to the hind post of the trolley.

74

4. The elastic cord is stretched until the other end is level with the front

end of the trolley. The length is maintained as the trolley run down the

runway.

5. The ticker tape obtained is cut into strips of 10-tick. A tape chart is

constructed and the acceleration, a, is determined.

6. The experiment is repeated with 2, and 3 elastic cords to double and

triple the pulling force to the same constant extension as when one

elastic cord is stretched.

Result:

(build your own ticker tape chart)

Tabulation of data:

Conclusion:

Experiment 2.3

Relationship between acceleration and mass of an object under

a constant force

75

Situation:

Figure (a) shows two similar lorries, A and B in front of a traffic light. When

the light turns green, both drivers step on the accelerator simultaneously

with the same pressure to provide the same engine thrusts, F.

Figure (b) shows that within 3 seconds, the empty lorry has built up a higher

velocity than the heavy one.

Can you make an inference about the situation?

Inference:

____________________________________________ depends on

_______________________________________________

Hypothesis

____________________________________, the

____________________________________________________.

Aim:

object under a constant force

Variables:

(b) Responding: __________________________________________________

(c) Constant: _____________________________________________________

Notes:

(a)The mass in this experiment is represented by the number of identical

trolley used.

The constant force is applied by stretching the elastic cord with the

(b)

Apparatus/Materials:

76

block, ticker-tape and cellophane tape.

Arrangements of apparatus:

Procedure:

1. A friction-compensated inclined runway is prepared.

2. The apparatus is then set up as shown in figure.

3. The ticker-timer is attached to the trolley and passed through the

ticker-timer.

4. The ticker-timer is switched on and the trolley is pulled down the

runway by an elastic cord attached to the hind post of the trolley.

5. The elastic cord is stretched until the other end is level with the front

end of the trolley. The length is maintained as the trolley run down the

runway.

6. The ticker tape obtained is cut into strips of 10-tick. A tape chart is

constructed and the acceleration, a, is determined.

7. The experiment is repeated using 2 trolleys (with a second trolley

stacked on the first trolley) and 3 trolleys. The elastic cord is stretched

to the same fixed length as in the first experiment.

77

Result:

(build your ticker tape chart)

Tabulation of data

Conclusion:

From the experiment 2.2:

The acceleration is directly proportional to the force

a F

From the experiment 2.3:

The acceleration is inversely proportional to its mass.

78

1

m

a=

F

m

F ma

F=k ma

The unit of force is Newton, N.

In order to make the formula as simple as possible, we make = 1.

F=ma

Force of 1N is defining as,

acceleration of 1 ms-2

F=k ma

1 N =k 1 kg 1ms2

79

k =1

F=ma

Exercise

1. A force of 10 N acts on an object of mass 5 kg on a smooth floor. Find

the acceleration.

of 30 m. Find

(a) The average retardation, and

(b) The average braking force.

parallel or anti-parallel, or in different directions.

2. Thus, the force, F, must be replaced with net or resultant force when

there are several forces acting on the mass.

Where a is in

Fnet =ma

3. However, for simplicity,

F=ma

forces are acting on it.)

80

Balanced Forces

0)

2. The object then behave s as if there is no forces acting on it.

3. Since Fnet = 0, the acceleration of the object, a =0. Thus, the object

remains at rest or moves at________________________________ when

there is no net force acting on it.

4. This is Newtons first law of motion.

5. Example of balanced forces:

(a) Balanced forces on a stationary gymnast

balanced by the reaction force, R,

The two forces are of equal

magnitude but opposite in

direction.

Without the beam (that is, no

reaction force), the gymnast will

fall to the ground because of her

moving at a constant velocity.

constant velocity.

The forward thrust, T, provided by the car engine is balanced

by the frictional force on the wheels and the air resistance.

The weight

reaction force, R, from the road.

Balanced

W=R

forces (Fnet = 0, a = 0)

81

Fnet = 0

(as no force acting on it)

F1 = F 2

From Fnet = ma

0 = ma

a=0

zero)

Object at rest

(v = 0 ms-1)

Object in motion

(v 0, object is moving at

constant velocity)

Find the frictional force acting on the

cupboard.

Solution

book.

Solution:

Using Fnet = ma

But Fnet = 0, since a = 0

Using Fnet = ma

But Fnet =

0, since

= 0 move with a uniform velocity

Because

theabook

Because

200F friction

=0 the cupboard does not move

5F friction=0

friction= 200 N

F

(the frictional force here is known as

static friction)

friction= 5 N

F

(the frictional force here is known as

dynamic friction)

Unbalanced Forces

82

1. When the forces acting on an object are not balanced, the object

will accelerate in the direction of the net force.

2. The net force is known as the resultant force.

Effect of Balanced Forces and Unbalanced Forces on an Object

Balanced forces (Fnet = 0, a = 0)

velocity at a constant altitude.

The engine thrust is balanced by the drag due to air resistance

while the weight of the aircraft is balanced by a lift from the wings.

T G

W L

When the forces acting on an aircraft do not cancel out each other,

a net force known as unbalanced force is acting on the object.

Unbalanced forces produce an acceleration to the mass on

which force are acting.

However, the object will accelerate in the direction of the net

force.

When an airplane is moving at a constant velocity, if the pilot

increases the engine thrust, the forces acting horizontally are no

longer balanced. There is a net force and plane will accelerate in

the forward direction.

83

1. When you are practising arm wrestling with your friend, you will

feel a force acting on you.

2. Your friend will also be feeling a force acting on him.

3. This is because while he is applying a force on you, you are also

applying a force on him.

4. Hence, there is a pair of forces acting and Newtons third law of

motion states:

5.

T

If object A exerts a force, F on object B, the object B will exert an

equal but opposite force, - F on object A.

To every action, there is an equal but opposite reaction.

6. Everyday phenomena that are governed by newtons third law of

motion:

(a)

A swimmer pushes the

water backward with his

hands and legs with a force,

F, while the reaction force

of water, F, pushes the

swimmer forward.

(b)

When a boy presses on the

wall with a force, F, the wall

presses on his hand with a

normal reaction force, F.

(c)

When a man paddles with a

backward force, + F

(action), the reaction force,

84

h

i

forwards.

The principle used in

(d)

be also be explained by

newtons third law of

motion. The action that

pushes the exhaust gases

out through the nozzle

results in a forward force

(reaction forces) that

propels the rocket or jet

engine forwards.

Summary of Newtons Law of Motion

Newtons First Law of Motion

Every object in a state of uniform motion tends to remain in that state of

motion unless an external force is applied to it.

This is often termed simply the "Law of Inertia"

Newtons Second Law of Motion

The relationship between an object's mass, m, its acceleration, a, and the

applied force, F is

F = ma.

In this law the direction of the force vector is the same as the direction of

the acceleration vector.

Newtons Third Law of Motion

For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.

Exercise

1. Find the acceleration of the objects.

(a)

85

(b)

net force acting on the object?

distance travelled by the object in 5 s.

86

it is pulled by a horizontal force of 5 N on a level surface. What is

the acceleration of the object if pulled with a force of 25 N

7. Figure shows a small rocket of mass 300 kg at the point of takeoff. Find its initial acceleration.

frictional force acting on the carton?

87

Note:

When a floor is _____________________, friction force is

____________________.

uniform velocity with a horizontal force acting on it,

friction is ____________ in magnitude to the applied force

(but acts in the ______________________ direction.)

mass of 5 kg, moves at a uniform velocity of 1 ms-1. He then

increases his force to accelerate the trolley. What force should he

apply in order to give the trolley an acceleration of 2 ms-2?

10.

88

He is in the barrel of the canon for 0.9 s. Find the average net

force exerted on him.

11.

is 750 N, find its engine thrust.

accelerati

on

Frictional force, 750

N

12.

89

13.

3ms-2.

Find the acceleration of another box with mass of 6 kg if the

same force is exerted on it.

14.

she doubles her force, the trolley accelerates at 2 ms-2. Find the

mass of the trolley.

15.

the total mass of Faizal and his bicycle is 72 kg, find the average

opposing force on Faizal and his bicycle.

16.

(a) Find the acceleration of the car.

(b)Find the net force acting on the car.

90

17.

direction does friction act? Find its magnitude.

In which direction does friction now act? Find the new

acceleration of the block.

18.

of 22.5 ms-1 to a stop in front of a traffic light. The time taken for

the deceleration is 4.5 s.

91

(b)What is the net force needed to give this deceleration?

92

Impulse and Impulsive Force

time t

During the time t, an average force F

acts on the ball which makes the

ball fly off with a momentum.

Thus, the force F, acting for a

cock for a short time t.

The shuttle cock bounces off in the

opposite direction. Again, there is

a change in momentum.

The change in momentum is due

change in momentum to the ball,

to the force F acting on the

since the ball with a mass of m

object for a time t.

acquires velocity after the time t.

period of time t, produces a

F=ma

vu

F=m

t

( )

Impulse

substitu

te

a=

vu

t

Change in momentum

Impulsive

Force

= isdefined as the

Impulsive

force

changemomentum

time

1. Bothrate

impulse

andof momentum

oftaken

change

time interval, t during which

force acts.

Impulse = Force Time

= F t

quantities.

93

rebounding after striking it.

2. In which situation will the wall exert a greater impulse?

3. A tennis ball and a piece of mud with the same mass (0.060 kg)

which are moving at 9 ms-1 strike a wall. The mud sticks to the

wall while the ball rebounds at 6 ms-1. Find the impulse on each

object.

________________________ after a collision.

Exercise:

1. Figure shows a 2 kg wooden block initially at rest on a smooth

surface. A force of 8 N is applied on the wooden block.

(a) What is the impulse on the block?

94

speed of 5 ms-1 to reserve its direction at a speed of 20 ms-1. The

mass of the ball is 0.36 kg.

(b)If the average force acting on the ball is 300 N, how long is the

time of contact between the hand and the ball?

1. From F

mvmu

t

1

t

t small,

changemomentum

timeof impact

95

F large

t large, F small

1

t

2. A student throw a raw egg at a high speed at a wall, and another egg

against a towel held by his friends. In which case will the egg break?

the egg is stopped in a longer time

interval, resulting in a small force.

example.

Herman (mass, m = 50 kg) jumps down from a wall. He lands on a cement

ground at a velocity of 6 ms-1.

Herman bends his knees upon

Herman didnt bend his knees upon

landing.

The time taken to stop his motion is

landing.

The time taken to stop his motion is

1.0 s.

0.05 s.

momentum is the same.

96

u= 6 ms-1

u= 6 ms-1

v=0

ms-1

v=0

ms-1

impulsive force is to lengthen the collision time.

Increasing the impulsive force by reducing the time of impact

1. In all sports shown below, the time of impact with thet small

ball is very small and the impulsive force produced

is large.

F large

A footballer kicking a

football

A golfer driving a

golfball with a club

97

A tennis player

hitting a tennis ball

always exits in pairs.

In the figure, the change in momentum of

the tennis ball produces a large impulsive

force on the racket which reacts to give

F1 rise to an equal but opposite impulsive

force to the ball this s on accordance with

Newtons third Law of motion)

Both the racket and the tennis ball are

formed temporarily due to the large force

being exerted on each other.

F2

2.

3.

4.

a fast speed is bought to rest

upon hitting the nail. The large

change in momentum within a

short time interval produces a

large impulsive force which drives

the nail into the wood.

wooden slab with his bare hand

which is moving at a very fast

speed. The momentary contact

between the fast-moving hand and

the wooden slab produces a large

impulsive force which split the

Food such as chillies and onions can be

pounded using a mortar and pestle. The

pestle is brought downwards at a fast

speed and stopped by a mortar in a very

short time. This produces a large

impulsive force which cruses the food.

98

large

F small

1.

Cardboard egg

polystyren

carton

e

Polystyrene and cardboard egg containers stiff but

compressible. They will absorb and reduce impulsive

force by lengthening the time of impact.

2.

3.

forces are reduced to prevent

injuries to athletes.

Thick mattresses with soft surfaces

are used in events such as the

high jump and pole-vaulting so

that the time of impact on

landing is extended, thus

The use of padding in certain reducing the resultant impulsive

sports equipment like baseball

gloves, goalkeeping mitts, pole

vaulting pits, boxing gloves,

and gymnastic mats is to

prevent injuries to players by

reducing the impulsive

In baseball, a player must catch the

ball in the direction of the motion of

the ball.

If the ball is caught by stopping it in its

path, the impulsive force acting on

the hand will be considerable.

Moving his hand backwards when

catching the ball prolongs the time

for the momentum change to occur

When a boxer sees that his

so the impulsive force is reduced.

opponents fist is going to hit

his head, he will move his

head backwards or duck. This

will increase the stopping

time, hence reducing the 99

average force on his head

since the momentum change

4.

a coarse fabric material which

prolongs the time of

impact when the children

fall, thus reducing the

impulsive force

Exercise

1. A tennis player hits an oncoming 0.06 kg

tennis ball with a velocity of 60 ms-1. The ball

bounces off in the opposite direction at 90

ms-1.

Find the time of impact between the racket

and the ball if the impulsive force acting on

the ball is 125 N.

kg at a velocity of 30 ms-1.

100

average impulsive force applied on the ball

by the club?

velocity of the object increases to 2 ms-1 in 6 s, what is the value of F?

of the object to increase from 1 ms-1 to 9 ms-1. What is the impulse on

the object?

of mass 60 kg which touches a sandy ground

at a velocity of 12 ms-1. The box takes 2

seconds to stop after it touches the ground.

What is the magnitude of the impulsive force on the box?

101

6. Beckham kicks a ball with a force of 1500 N. The time of contact of his

boot with the ball is 0.008 s. what is the impulse delivered to the ball?

If the mass of the ball is 0.5 kg, what is the velocity of the ball?

speed of 30 ms-1 and rebounds at a speed

of 20 ms-1.

What is the impulse on the ball? If the

force on the ball is 500 N, find the contact

time of the ball with the ball.

moving at 40 ms-1 is stuck by a

bat and rebounds at 60 ms-1.

Given that the time of contact is 5

10-2 s, find the force exerted on

the ball.

into a wall at 15 ms-1. It rebounds at 2 ms-1.

If the collision time is 0.18 s, find the force

exerted on the car.

102

foam mattress which exerts a force of 250 N

on him over a time interval of 2.0 s

Find his velocity just before landing on the

mattress.

11.A hockey player uses a hockey stick to hit a hockey ball, causing the

ball to travel with a velocity of 30 ms-1. If the mass of the hockey ball is

100 g and the time of impact between the hockey stick and the ball is

5 10-3 s, calculate the impulsive force exerted by the hockey ball.

12.A boy with a mass of 60 kg jumps over a fence. His velocity just before

landing on the ground is 10 ms-1. What is the impulsive force on the

boys legs if he

(a) Takes 0.5 s to stop,

(b) Bends his legs and stops in 2.5 s?

103

trolley is then given a horizontal impulsive of 5 Ns. What is the velocity

of the trolley after the impact?

mass of 2 kg. What is the velocity of the trolley after the impact?

15.A baseball with an initial velocity of 20 ms-1 is hit by a player and sent

moving in the opposite direction. After the ball is hit, it moves with a

velocity of 36 ms-1. The ball has a mass of 0.16 kg and the time of

impact is 8.0 10-3 s.

Calculate

(a) The impulse applied to the ball

(b) The impulsive force exerted on the ball by the bat

12 ms-1

and hits the roof of a parked car. The lock bounces back vertically from

the roof with a velocity of 5 ms-1. The time of impact is 1.2 10-2 s.

Calculate the magnitude of the impulsive force acted by the lock on

the roof.

104

17.A golfer hits a golf ball of mass 50 g and the ball leaves the club with a

velocity of 75 ms-1. The contact time between the ball and the club is

0.008 s. find

(a) The final momentum of the ball,

(b) The average force exerted on the ball by the club.

Vehicles.

1. It is important to increase the time interval of collision to reduce the

impulsive force in an accident.

2. A good car safety system that can prevent injuries to passengers of an

accident is of utmost importance.

3. To protect passengers from harm in a car crash, the car must be able

to absorb as much forces from the impact as possible.

Safety feature

Bumper / Crumple

zone

Importance

The front and rear parts of a vehicle are designed to

________________________ slowly upon collision so that

the impact time is _____________________ to

_________________________ the ______________________ on

the vehicle. Hence a ______________________ force will

act on the passenger to minimise the possibility of

getting serious injury.

Safety belts

Most vehicles are equipped with safety belts. The

105

_______________________________ the windscreen or

being thrown out of the vehicle and

_______________________ the forward movement of the

passenger when the vehicle stops suddenly.

Air bags

Air bags will prevent our head from striking the

___________________ or __________________________ in a

head-on collision. Air bags will act

_________________________ and take less than 0.05 s to

inflate. The protection from air bags will reduce the

__________________________ acting on the head.

Anti-lock braking

system(ABS)

____________________________the vehicle even when the

brake are applied. The system ______________________

wheels from locking automatically which can cause

the vehicle to skid.

Headrest

In rear-end collision, our head will snap back due to

_________________. All passenger vehicles are equipped

with headrests to support the head and prevent

injuries on neck when the head

____________________________ strongly.

Windscreen with

safety glass

into ___________________ instead of shattering. This will

prevent the driver and the passengers from being

______________________ by the pieces of broken glass.

Padded dashboard

The dashboard is covered with soft materials to

___________________ the time interval of collision. This

can ______________________ injuries on head of

passenger because the impulsive force produced

during impact has been __________________________.

106

Side collision can be _____________________ since it

involves the weakest part of a car body. The

_________________________ give good protection from

side collision. The strong metal bars help to protect

the driver and passengers from a ___________________

hit on the side.

107

Newton who, on seeing an apple falls on his head.

2. According to Newton, objects fall because they are pulled towards the

Earth by the force of gravity.

(a) Keeps things on the earth

(b) Brings things down to earth when they are thrown upwards

(c) Holds the moon in its orbit round the Earth

(d) Captures returning space capsules and pulls them into orbit

4. The pull of gravity causes objects to fall with acceleration. This

means that objects that fall are moving with increasing velocity.

5. The magnitude of the acceleration due to gravity depends on the

strength of the gravitational field.

Stroboscopic Photograph

Inference 2

1. A stroboscopic photograph is a photograph that shows the images of

Both feather

and apple

Inference

1

an object

in motion. The images are taken at regular

time intervals.

are

falling

with

2. Figure below shows a stroboscopic photograph of a feather the

and an

Both feather and apple

same

apple falling under gravity. Both feather and apple

areacceleration.

dropped

are falling with an

Thus, a heavy object

simultaneously from the same height.

acceleration.

The

3. The time intervals

between two successive images

theobject

same.fall

and are

a light

distance between two

with the same

successive images

gravitational

increases, showing that

acceleration.

the two objects are

gravitational

108

falling with increasing

velocity, (=

acceleration is not

acceleration)

depends on mass.

Free Fall

1. A free falling object is an object falling under the force of

gravity only.

2. A free falling object does not encounter other forces like air

resistance or friction that would oppose its motion.

does not exist) of a coin and a piece of paper. Both objects reach the

bottom of the cylinder at the same time.

4. A piece of tissue paper (fall in atmosphere) does not fall freely because

its fall is affected by air resistance.

5. A heavier golf ball can be considered to be free falling because the air

resistance is small compared to pull of gravity and therefore is

negligible.

Tips:

When an object falls; g = 9.8 ms-2

When an object is thrown upwards; g= -9.8 ms-2

At the highest point, v = 0 ms-1

109

7. This acceleration is known as the gravitational

acceleration, g

8. The value of g is 9.8 ms-2. In calculation, the value of g is often

taken to be 10 ms-2 for simplicity.

9. The acceleration due to gravity does not depend on the mass

and shape of the falling object.

10.All objects falling freely with the same acceleration.

acceleration, g

Apparatus/material:

Ticker timer, ticker tape, 12 V a.c electrical power supply, retort stand,

weights (50 g- 250 g), G-clamp, cellophane tape and soft board.

Procedure:

1. A ticker-timer is clamped to a retort stand with a G-clamp and

placed on a tabletop.

2. One end of a carbonised ticker tape (approximately 1 m in

length) is attached to a weight holder with a total mass of 200

g.

3. The other end of the ticker tape is passed through the tickertimer.

4. A soft board is placed on the floor below the weight to stop its

fall.

5. The ticker-timer is switched on and the weight is released so

that it falls squarely onto the soft board.

6. Six strips are cut off from the middle section of the ticker tape

with each strip containing 2 dot-spaces.

7. A tape chart is construed. Form the chart, the acceleration of

gravity is calculated.

110

in Experiments Report.

111

1. A Gravitational field is a region around the earth in which an

object experiences a force towards the centre of the earth. This force

is the gravitational attraction between the object and the earth.

2. The gravitational field strength is defined as the ratio of the

weight to the mass of the object or weight per unit mass.

3. Gravitational field strength =

weight

mass

W = N kg-1

Unit

= m

W =m g

W =m

W =m

4. The gravitational field strength at the surface of the earth is 9.8 N

kg-1.

5. The weight of an object is defined as the force of gravity which is

exerted on it by Earth.

6. From the formula,

F=ma

m that makes it fall with an acceleration, g,

F=ma

W =mg

g =gravitational

acceleration

Weight of object

= Mass of object

112

The differences between mass, m and weight, W:

Mass, m

The mass of an

object is the amount

of matter in the

object

The mass of an

object is constant

everywhere

A scalar quantity

A base quantity

Kilogram (kg)

Definition

Changing of value

Physical quantity

Type of quantity

SI unit

Weight, W

The weight of an object

is the force of gravity

on the object

The weight of an object

varies with the

magnitude of

gravitational field

strength, g, of the

location

A vector quantity

A derived quantity

Newton (N)

v =u+at

1

s=ut + a t 2

2

v 2=u 2+ 2as

1

s= (u+v )t

2

involving free fall, the acceleration, a in the

equations has a value of:

a = 10 ms-2 (for downward motion)

a = - 10 ms-2 (for upward motion)

Exercise:

113

1. Wei is a basketball player. His vertical leap is 0.75 m. What is his take-off

speed?

(a) its speed when it strikes the ground?

(b) the height of the coconut tree?

velocity of 30 ms-1.

(a) What is the time taken for the baseball to reach the maximum height?

(b) What is the speed of the baseball when it returns to his hand?

(c) How long is the ball in the air before it comes back to his hands?

114

4. An iron ball is dropped from the top of a building and takes 2 s to reach

the surface of the earth. What is the height of the building? (g = 9.8 m s-2)

planet.

(a) What is the gravitational field strength on the surface of the planet?

(b) What are the mass and the weight of the rock on the surface of the

Earth where its gravitational field strength is 9.8 N kg -1?

6. Have you ever seen an astronaut walking on the Moon? It is known that

the acceleration due to gravity near the surface of Moon is just

1

6

of

(a) Find the weight of a 50 kg man on the surface of Moon.

(b) If the 50 kg man can jump to a height of 50 cm on the Earth, find the

maximum height reached by him on the surface of moon. (Assume

that his initial speed is the same on the earth and on the moon)

115

116

Lift

force, R

W = true weight = mg

R = normal reaction force exerted on the girl

by the platform of the scale

Weighing machine

1. When a girl stands on the platform of a weighing scale, there are two

forces acting on her:

(a) the girls weight, W (= mg) acting downwards,

(b) the upward normal reaction force, R exerted on her feet by the

platform of the scale

2. The reading of the scale gives the value of the normal reaction force, R.

3. Different situation in the lift,

(a) Lift at rest or moves up or down at a constant velocity

a=0

117

Help! I am floating!

What is the apparent weight of a girl on a weighing scale in a lift if the

cable of the lift suddenly breaks?

Exercise

118

kg, determine the reading of the weighing machine when the lift is.

(a) stationary

(b) moving upward with a uniform velocity of 2 ms-1

(c) moving upwards with a uniform acceleration of 1 ms -2

(d) moving downward with a uniform acceleration of 1 ms -2

(consider gravitational acceleration, g to be 10 ms-2)

the ceiling of a lift.

What is the reading on the spring balance if

(a) the lift is stationary?

(b) the lift moves upwards at an acceleration of 2 ms-2?

(c) the lift moves downwards at an acceleration of 3 ms -2?

Pulley System

1. A frictionless pulley serves to change the direction of a force.

119

2. The tension, T that results from pulling at the ends of the string or rope

has the same magnitude along its entire length.

(A) A force pulling a mass over a pulley

In this situation, the tension, T, is equal to the pulling force F, even if the

rope is slanting.

A boy is pulling a bucket filled a bucket

filled with sand. The mass of the

bucket with the sand is 3 kg. Find the

tension in the rope if the bucket is

(i) stationary, or

(ii) moving up with a constant velocity

of 2 ms-1

the bucket upwards with an

acceleration of 2 ms-2. Find the applied

force, F

120

1. The heavier mass will accelerate downwards while the lighter one will

accelerate upwards with the same magnitude.

2. The tension is not equal to the weight of either mass.

Exercise

1. Two masses of 5 kg and 3 kg are connected to a rope which passes over

a frictionless pulley.

Find the tension in the rope and the acceleration of the 3 kg mass when

the 5 kg mass is released.

pulley system.

Calculate the acceleration of the trolley.

(Take g = 10 ms-2)

121

non-elastic rope that passes over a frictionless pulley. (Take g = 10 ms-2)

(a) Determine the resultant force, F, of the system and state the

direction of the movement of each load.

(b) Calculate the magnitude of the acceleration of load A.

passes over a smooth pulley as shown in figure.

The weight is then released. Find the tension in the rope if a friction of 5

N acts against the wooden block.

122

123

1. When forces act upon an object and it remains stationary or moves at

a constant velocity, the object is said to be in a state of

equilibrium.

2. When equilibrium is reached, the resultant force acting on the object

is zero. i.e, there is no net force acting upon it.

3. Newtons Third Law of Motion states that if a force acts upon an object,

then there will be an equal and opposite reaction acting upon the same

object.

velocity if,

Lift Force

=

Thrust Force =

5.

Gravity Force

Drag Force

table. The forces acting on the block of wood are:

124

(a)

(b)

6.

7.

8.

The normal reaction, R is acting upwards.

Hence, the block of wood is in a state of equilibrium

Figure below shows a weight hanger attached to a string and which is in a

stationary state. The force acting on the weight hanger are:

(a) The weight, W, which is acts downwards

(b) The tension, T which acts upwards.

including an object at rest on an inclined plane where three forces are

in equilibrium. The resultant force on the object is zero.

10. The cat resting on an inclined plane as shown in above figure is also

in equilibrium. The three forces acting on the cat cancel out each

other so that the resultant force is zero.

11.A tilted surface is called an inclined plane.

12.To understand better how three forces work in equilibrium, we need to

understand

(a) the resultant force of two forces, and

(b) the resolution of a force.

Resultant Force

125

effect of two or more forces by taking into account both magnitude

and the direction of the forces.

(i) Two parallel Forces

The resultant force is obtained by simple arithmetic.

Forces acting in the same

Forces acting in opposite

direction

directions

The resultant force is in the same

direction as the two forces.

Resultant force, F = F1 +

smaller force by the larger one (to

find the difference in magnitude

between the two forces).

The resultant force is in the

direction of the larger force.

Resultant force, F = F2

point)

1. Simple arithmetic cannot be applied to find the resultant force

of two non-parallel forces.

2. Determine the resultant force by drawing scaled diagrams using

Two method below.

Method (I) - The Triangle Method (Tail - to - Tip Method)

A scaled diagram of triangle of forces constructed to determine the

resultant force of the two forces, F1 and F2, acting at an angle

to

each other.

choose a suitable scale for the two forces, for example, 1 cm = 20 kN.

Follow the steps below to determine the resultant force.

126

A scaled diagram of the parallelogram of forces constructed to

determine the resultant force of two forces, F1 and F2, acting at an

angle

to each other

N.

Follow the steps below to determine the resultant force.

Note that the tails of both forces, F1 and F2 and the tail of the

resultant force, FR are all at the same point, O and FR is in between

F1 and F2

(iii)

two non-parallel forces

acting on an object at a right

angle to each other.

Resultant force, FR =

2

1

+ F 22

tan =

Two forces (F1 and F2) together

with the resultant force, FR using

parallelogram rule. The

127

F2

F1

Pythagoras theorem.

Resolution of Forces

1. A single force can be resolved into two perpendicular components.

2. Figure above shows how a force, F can be resolved into two perpendicular

components, the horizontal force, Fx and the vertical force, Fy

determined with knowledge of simple trigonometry.

For

OAB :

cos=

Fx

F

For

OBC :

sin =

Fy

F

to the

horizontal.

2. The weight of the box is W = mg. The weight can be resolved into two

perpendicular components:

(a) the component vertical or perpendicular to the plane = mg cos

128

To solve problems involving inclined planes, weight is replaced with its two

perpendicular components.

Object in equilibrium on a rough

Acceleration of an object on a smooth

inclined plane

inclined plane

The figure below shows a box at

The figure below shows a box on a

rest on an inclined plane

smooth inclined plane.

The net force perpendicular to the

plane = 0

Rmgcos=0

The net force parallel to the plane

=0

plane, the vertical components of

the forces are balanced. However,

the force down the plane is not

balanced.

Applying

F frictionmg sin=0

Fnet =ma

mg sin=ma

Therefore:

a=gsin

R=mgcos

F friction=mg sin

If

=30 ,

If

a=10 sin30

a=10 sin60

a=5 ms2

a=8.66 ms2

129

=60 ,

Example:

A workman pushes a carton of mass 50 kg

up an inclined plane into a lorry. The inclined

with

the horizontal floor and the frictional

force

between the inclined plane and the carton is

135 N. If the workman pushes the carton

with a force of 500 N

(a) Can the carton move

up the inclined plane?

(b) What is the acceleration of the carton?

Solution

(a) Applied force on the carton towards

the top of the inclined plane, F =

500 N.

- Opposing force along the entire

length of the inclined plane

= component of weight down the plane

+ frictional force

= 500 sin 45 + 135 N

= 488.6 N

- The carton is able to move upwards

because the applied force, F = 500 N is larger than the

opposing downward force.

(b)

= 500 N 488.6 N

= 11.4 N

From formula; F = ma

a=

F

m

11.4

50

0.23 ms2

Three Forces in Equilibrium

Figure shows a wooden block supported by two strings. The tensions of

the strings are T1 and T2 respectively. Since the wooden block is in

equilibrium, the resultant forces is zero.

Hence,

by taking the horizontal components of forces, T1 sin = T2

sin

by taking the vertical components,W = T1 cos + T2 cos

130

131

T1 cos + T2 cos

T2

T1

T1 sin

T2 sin

W

Problems involving three forces in equilibrium can be solved either by:

(a) Method A: Resolution of forces

(b) Method B: Drawing a closed triangle of forces

Example

Figure shows an aeroplane model with a mass of 500 g is hung from a

ceiling with two strings.

equilibrium.

[g = 9.8 ms-2]

Solution

Weight of aeroplane, W = 0.5 x 9.8

= 4.9 N

By resolve the forces vertically,

T sin 30

+ T sin 30

= 4.9

2 T sin 30 = 4.9

2 T (0.5) = 4.9

T = 4.9 N for each string.

Example:

A mirror of weight 12 N is hung on the wall using a string as shown.

Draw a scale drawing of a triangle of forces to determine

the tension, T in the string.

(Use the scale 1 cm : 2N)

Solution

BC= 3.4 cm

Tension, T = 3.4 2N

6.8 N

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