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# Chapter 2 Force and Motion

## 2.1 Analysing Liner Motion

1. Linear motion is motion in a straight line.

## Distance and Displacement

1. Distance is the
_________________________________________________________________by an object.
2. Distance is a ______________________________________. It has
_______________________________________ but
_____________________________________.
3. Displacement is the ___________________________ of its final position from its
initial position in ____________________________________________.
4. Displacement is a ____________________________________________. It involves
both _________________ and _________________________________.
5. Both distance and displacement have the same SI unit which is
_____________________________.

Exercise
1. A physics teacher walks 4 meters East, 2 meters South, 4 meters West,
and finally 2 meters North.
(i) what is the distance
(ii) what is the displacement

## 2. Ahmad walks to Chongs house which is situated 80 m to the east of

Ahmads house. They then walk towards their school which is 60 m to the
south of Chongs house.
(a) What is the distance traveled by Ahmad and his displacement from his
house?

## Speed and Velocity

1. Speed is the ________________________________________________________.
Speed during the course of a motion is often computed using the following
equation:

2. Velocity is______________________________________________________________.
Velocity is often computed using the equation:

## 3. Speed is a ____________________________ whereas velocity is

______________________________________.
4. Both speed and velocity have the same SI unit. They are measured in
meter per second or m s-1. Other unit may be in cm s-1 or km h-1.
5. The average speed of a motion is often computed using the following
equation:

## 6. Meanwhile, the average velocity is often computed using the equation:

Exercise
1. A man running in a race covers 60 m in 12 s.
(a) What is his speed in,
(i) m s-1
(ii) km h-1
(b) If he takes 40 s to complete the race, what is his distance covered?
(c) Another man runs with a speed of 7.5 m s -1, how long did he take to
complete the race?

## Chapter 2 Force and Motion

2.

The physics teacher walks 4 meters East, 2 meters South, 4 meters West, and
finally 2 meters North. The entire motion lasted for 24 seconds. Determine
the average speed and the average velocity.

## Acceleration and Deceleraion

1. Acceleration

is_________________________________________________________________________
___________.
2. It can be written as;

## 3. Acceleration is a____________________________.The SI unit for acceleration is

m s-2.
4. The acceleration is positive if the velocity increases with time. The
acceleration is negative if the velocity decreases with time. It is also called
deceleration.
5. Figure 2.1, shows that the car experiences acceleration, a constant
velocity and then a deceleration.

Figure 2.1

Exercise
1. A vehicle accelerates uniformly from rest to a speed of 25 m s -1 in 100 s
along a straight road. It then decelerates uniformly at 0.2 m s -2 for 60 s.
Find
(a) the initial acceleration
(b) the final speed

## Analysing of Liner Motion

Ticker-timer
1. In the laboratory, a ticker-timer as shown in figure 2.2, with a trolley is
used to study the motion of an object for a short time interval.

Figure 2.2
2. A ticker-timer consists of a small electrical vibrator which vibrates at the
frequency of 50 Hz.
3. The time taken to make 50 dots on the ticker tape is 1 s. Hence, the time
interval between 2 consecutive dots is

1
50 = 0.02 s

## Chapter 2 Force and Motion

Figure 2.3
4. To determine the time interval of motion of the object:
Time interval = Number of tick x 0.02 s
5. The following shows the different types of motion recorded on the ticker
tape.
Ticker Tape

Characteristics
distance between the
dots is equally
distributed.
distance between the
dots is equally
distributed.
distance between the
dots is equally
distributed.
the distance between
the dots increases
uniformly.
the distance between
the dots dcreases
uniformly.

Inferences
Consistent distance
=
______________________velo
city
Short Distance
=_______________________v
elocity
Long distance
=________________________
velocity
Increasing distance
=________________________
velocity
=________________________
decreasing distance
=________________________
velocity
=________________________

Exercise
1. A trolley pulled a ticker tape through a ticker timer while moving down
an inclined plane. Figure 2.4 shows the ticker tape produced

## Chapter 2 Force and Motion

Figure 2.4
Determine the average velocity of the trolley.

## 2. Figure 2.5 shows a strip of ticker tape pulled through a ticker-timer by a

freely falling metal sphere. The ticker-timer vibrates at a frequency of 50
Hz. Determine the acceleration of the sphere.

## Chapter 2 Force and Motion

Activity 2.1
Aim of the activity:
To determine displacement, average velocity, acceleration and deceleration.
Apparatus/ Materials:
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
___
Setup:

## Chapter 2 Force and Motion

Procedure:
1. Set up the apparatus as shown in the diagram.
2. Incline the runway at an angle of 10 with the horizontal.
3. Attach the ticker-timer tape to the trolley at the top of the runway.
4. Switch on the ticker-timer and release the trolley.
5. Mark the tape and cut it into five strips of ten ticks from the start of the
tape.
6. Repeat the experiment with the angles of inclination of 20 and 30 .
7. Using graph paper, build a ticker-timer tape chart for each angle of
inclination.
Collecting data:
1. The ticker tape can be cut into strip. Prepare a 10-tick strip for each
different angle produced. and paste the strip
(a) 1st strip (10)

## (c) 3rd strip (30)

2. Determine the displacement, time interval and velocity

## 1st strip (10)

The displacement of
10 ticks
The time interval for
10-ticks strip
Average velocity of
10-ticks strip

10

2nd strip
(20)

## 1st strip (10)

The displacement of first 1tick
The time interval for first 1tick
The initial velocity, u
The displacement of last 1tick
The time interval for last 1tick
The final velocity, v
acceleration, a

## 2nd strip (20)

The displacement of first 1tick
The time interval for first 1tick
The initial velocity, u
The displacement of last 1tick
The time interval for last 1tick
The final velocity, v
acceleration, a

## 3rd strip (30)

The displacement of first 1tick
The time interval for first 1tick
11

## The initial velocity, u

The displacement of last 1tick
The time interval for last 1tick
The final velocity, v
acceleration, a

4. The ticker tape can be cut into strips of equal time (equal number of ticks)
and paste together to form a chart for analysing the motion of a trolley.
Prepare 3 charts for (a) = 10, (b) = 20 (c) = 30 and calculate the

acceleration.

3. The following shows the different types of motion recorded on the ticker
tape and tape chart.
12

Characteristics

The separation
between dots
stays the
same.
The length of

the strips of
the tape
chart is
equal.

The distance
between the
dots
increases
uniformly.
The length of
the strips of
the tape
increase
uniformly

The distance

between the
dots and the
length of
strips of the
tape
decreases
uniformly.

13

Inference

## 4. Change in distance between dots indicates a changing velocity and thus,

acceleration. A constant distance between dots represents a
____________________________________________ and
_______________________________.

Exercise
Figure 2.6 shows a ticker tape chart obtained in an experiment to study the
motion of trolley on an inclined plane. Calculate the acceleration of the
trolley.

14

More Exercises

## Analysis of motion on a ticker tape.

Type of motion
Ticker tape or chart
Moving with

Calculation of
velocity /
acceleration
Velocity=

__________________
_____
Moving with

Velocity =

__________________
______
Moving with

Velocity =

__________________
_____
__________________
______ or
increasing
velocity

Initial velocity,
u=

Final velocity,
v=

Acceleration

15

## Chapter 2 Force and Motion

a=

__________________
______ or
decreasing
velocity

Initial velocity,
u=

Final velocity,
v=

Acceleration
a=

__________________
______ or
increasing
velocity

Initial velocity,
u=

Final velocity,
v=

Acceleration
a=

16

## Chapter 2 Force and Motion

__________________
______ or
decreasing
velocity

Initial velocity,
u=

Final velocity,
v=

Acceleration
a=

Exercise
Calculation of velocity /
acceleration

1

17

## Equations of Liner Motion with Uniform Acceleration

1. For an object in linear motion with uniform acceleration (change in
velocity), problems involving the displacement, velocity, acceleration and
time of motion can be solve by using the equations of motion.
(

u = initial velocity
v = final velocity
t = time
18

## Chapter 2 Force and Motion

a = acceleration
s = displacement

Equation

Variables involved

Variables not
involved

v, u, a, t
v, u, a, s
s, u, t, a
s, u, v, t
2. For motion with constant velocity (zero acceleration), the formula is

s
t

v=

Exercise
1.
u (ms1
)

v (ms1
)

t (s)

a (ms2
)

s (m)

Formula

1
s=ut + at 2
2

v 2=u 2+ 2as

16

1
s= ( u+ v ) t
2

v =u+at

12

v =u+at

1
s= ( u+ v ) t
2

10

v =u + 2as

20

1
s=ut + at 2
2

deceleration?

19

## Chapter 2 Force and Motion

3. A car starts off at 2 ms-1 and accelerates at 3ms-2 for 5s. What is its final
velocity?

## 4. An object, initially at rest, moves in a straight line with constant

acceleration and covers a distance of 250 m in 10s.
Calculate (a)
Acceleration
(b)
Final velocity

## 5. A car travels for 30 minutes and is brought to rest by application of its

brakes. The distance travelled before stopping is 9 km.
Calculate the
(a)
Average velocity in the first 30 minutes.
(b)
initial velocity of the car
(c)
deceleration of the car

20

## Chapter 2 Force and Motion

6. A bullet is fired towards a nearby tree with a speed of 200 ms -1. The bullet
is shot at a depth of 5 cm. Find the average deceleration of the bullet
inside the tree. What is the time taken for the bullet to stop after hitting
the tree?

## 7. Salina is driving her car at a velocity of 10 ms -1. On seeing an obstacle in

front, she applies the brakes to stop her car. If the deceleration of the car
is 2 ms-2, what is the distance her car travels before it comes to a halt?

21

## Chapter 2 Force and Motion

8. By applying the brakes, a driver reduce his car's velocity from 20ms -1 to
10 ms-1 after travelling a distance of 30 m. Find the deceleration of the car.

## 9. Ali is driving a car at velocity of 30 ms-1. On seeing a student crossing the

road, Ali steps on his brake to stop the car. The speed of the car decreases
uniformly and stops after travelling 150 m.
(a) What is the deceleration of the car when the brakes are applied?
(b) What is the time interval before the car stops?

22

2.2

Motion Graphs
1.

## There are two main types of linear motion graphs:

(a) displacement-time
(b) velocity-time

Displacement-Time Graph

## 1. A displacement-time graph is a graph showing how

(a) the position of an object from its original position changes with time.
(b) the displacement of the object changes with time.
2. A student walks at a constant velocity from position A to reach position B
in 200 s. He rests for 100 s at position B and then walks back to position A
using the same straight path. He reaches position A after 200 s.

3. The graph below shows the change in the distance and direction with time
of the student.

23

(a).

(b).

(c).

y
x

## the object is _______________________________.

(d).
In section II of the graph, the student remains at position B from 200
s to 300 s.
(e).
Gradient of the graph in section III,
=

y
x

(f).

## The negative sign shows that the direction of motion is opposite to

the original direction. (Velocity is a vector quantity)

(g)

## At t = 500s, the graph intersects at t-axis. The displacement at this

moment is zero that is the student has returned to the original
position.

24

4.

## The various displacement time graphs are shown in the following

table.
Displacement time
Position and motion of the
Displacement and velocity
graph
object
_____________.

The displacement is
_____________. Its velocity is
zero.

## Hence, the object is at

___________ over a period of
time
_____________.
Hence, the object is
moving with uniform
velocity.
The object moves in
positives direction from its
original position.

_____________
but
___________________________
____.
Hence, the object is moves
in negative direction
back to its original position
and is
___________________________
__________
Hence, the object moves in
with
___________________________
velocity.

Its displacement is
increasing linearly (at
constant rate).
Its velocity is
___________________
and
___________________________
___.
Its displacement is
decreasing linearly (at
constant rate).
Its velocity is
_____________________
and
___________________________
_____
Its displacement is
increasing at non-constant
rate.
Its velocity is
_____________________ with
time.
The is moving with
constant
___________________________
_________.

25

## Chapter 2 Force and Motion

and is
___________________________
_________.
Hence, the object moves in
with
___________________________
velocity.

Its displacement is
increasing at non-constant
rate.
Its velocity is
_____________________ with
time. The is moving with
constant
___________________________
_________.

Exercise:
The displacement time graph shows the
motion of an object.
(a) Briefly describe the motion of the
object represented by AB, BC, CD and
DE.
(b) Find
(i)
The displacement after 20s,
(ii)
The time taken to move 35m from
the origin.
(c) Calculate the average velocity in each
of these time intervals:
(i)
0s 5s
(iii) 10s 20s
(ii)
5s 10s
(iv) 20s 28s
Solution
(a)AB: The object is at rest ________________m from the
________________________________.
BC: The object moved __________________m forward with
_________________________velocity.
CD: The object moved another ____________m forward with
______________________velocity.
DE: The object moved ____________m backwards with
_____________________velocity and returned to its starting point.
(b) (i)
When t = 20s, s = _________________________________ =
_________________________ m
(ii)

When s = 35 m, t = _________________________s

(c)(i)
object is at __________________________, hence the velocity =
_________________ms-1.
(ii)
velocity = gradient of the graph

26

v=
(iii)

velocity, v =

(iv)

velocity, v =

27

## Chapter 2 Force and Motion

Velocity-Time Graph
1. A car starts from rest and accelerates for 20 s until it reaches a velocity of
60 ms-1. The driver maintains this velocity for 20 seconds. The velocity of
the car is then gradually reduced until it stops at t =60 s.

2. The graph below shows how the velocity of the car changes over a certain
period of time.

(a) On a velocity time graph, the gradient of the graph is equal to the
______________________ of the object.
(b) In section I, the acceleration of the car;

## (c) On the velocity time graph, a horizontal line represents a

_________________________________.
The gradient of the graph is equal to ____________________.
(d) In section II, the car travels at a constant velocity of _______ms -1 from t =
_____s to t =_____s.
(e) In section III, gradient of the graph;

(g) On the velocity time graph, the area under the graph is equal to the
___________________.
(h) In section I, the area under the graph

28

## 3. The gradient of a velocity time graph gives the

___________________________________.
4. On the velocity time graph, the area under the graph is equal to the
_____________________.
5. The various velocity time graphs are shown below
Velocity time graph
Velocity and acceleration
(a) Object at rest
represents acceleration.
The gradient of the graph is
__________________ and hence the
acceleration is always zero.
The area under the graph
represents ____________________
travelled.

## The area under the graph is

_______________ and hence the
displacement travelled is zero.
The velocity stays the same. The
object is moving with constant
velocity.
__________________________.
Object is moving with
_______________________ velocity.
the graph) is ______________.

29

acceleration

## The velocity is increasing

uniformly with time.
___________________________.
Hence, The object is moving
with
_________________________________
_____.

deceleration

## The velocity is decreasing

uniformly with time.
The gradient of the graph is
constant but
________________________.
The object is moving with
constant
__________________________.

acceleration

## The gradient of the graph is

increasing.
The acceleration of the object is
________________________________.

## (f) Object moving with decreasing

acceleration.

______________________ with time.
The object is moving with
constant

30

## Chapter 2 Force and Motion

______________________________.

31

## Chapter 2 Force and Motion

Exercise
1. The velocity time graph of an object
starting from rest and travelling towards
the east is as shown in figure.
(a)

towards east?

(b)

## How long does the object travel

towards the west?

(c)

32

## A comparison between the displacement time and the velocity time

graph.
Displacement time graph
graph

Velocity time

## The object moves at a

constant velocity
Represents the velocity
of the object

Non- horizontal
straight line

Horizontal line

## The object returns to its

original position.
+ve The object moves
in a specific
direction
-ve The object moves
in the opposite
direction
No significance

Intersection on
the time - axis
Sign of the
(positive or
negative)

graph

## The object moves at a

constant acceleration
Represents the
acceleration of the
object
The object moves at a
constant velocity
The object stops
+ve Acceleration
-ve - Deceleration

## Numerically equals the

distance travelled by
the object

## Summary of Linear Motion Graph

Displacement time
graphs

Velocity time
graphs

Acceleration time
graphs

## Acceleration = gradient of the graph

Displacement = area under the
graph

33

v=0
(a = 0)

v=
constant
(a = 0)

v
a=
constant

v
a=
constant

v
a

v
a

34

a
increasin
g rate

a
decreasi
ng rate

200

## Diagram 1 shows the path travelled by a car from P to S.

Diagram 1
What is the displacement of the car?

200

A 5.0 km

C 8.2 km

B 6.8 km

D 9.0 km

35

## Chapter 2 Force and Motion

Diagram 2
Which of the following describes the motion of the object?
OJ
A

201
0

JK

Uniform

Decreasing

acceleration

acceleration

Increasing

Decreasing

acceleration

acceleration

Increasing

Uniform

acceleration

deceleration

Uniform

Uniform

acceleration

deceleration

## Which physical quantity is equal to

Speed

displacement
?
time

Velocity

201

C
Distance
D
Acceleration
Diagram 3 shows Ali stands at O. He walks towards A, then moves towards B

and stops at B.

## What is the displacement of Ali?

201

2m towards west

5m towards east

7m towards east

Which tape shows a movement with uniform velocity and then deceleration?

36

200

200

37

## Chapter 2 Force and Motion

Diagram 4
Which acceleration-time graph represents the same motion as the object?
A

38

200

## What is the total distance, in 8s?

A 18

B 24

C 32

D 64

201

Diagram 6 shows a car moving up a hill. The car decelerates as it moves up the

## hill and accelerates as it moves down the hill.

Which graph shows the correct relationship between the velocity, v, of the car
and the time, t, of the motion?

39

201

A 0m

B 30m

C 45m

D 75m

201

## Diagram 8 shows a velocity time graph of a bus with passengers on board.

After 10 minutes, the driver steps on the brake pedal to stop the bus.

40

A 0 ms-1

B 2ms-1

C 6ms-1

D 72ms-1

1.

2.

## Inertia is the tendency of an object to maintain its state of

_______________________, or if moving to continue its
_____________________________in a straight line.

3.

## Newtons first law of motion (Law of Inertia) states that an object at

__________________ tends to stay at rest, and if in _______________________
tends to stay in motion unless acted upon by an
______________________________.

3.

## The following situations show example of inertia:

Situation

Explanation
When a cardboard is pulled away
quickly, the coin drops straight into the

glass.
The inertia of the coin maintains its

state of
_____________.
When the card is pulled away, the coin
falls into the glass due to
__________________________.

41

## the middle of a pile of books,

The books above will drop instead of

## moving along with it.

The _______________________ of the
books above keeps them in their

original ___________________.
If the book is pulled out slowly, the
books above will move together with

the book.
Body moves forward when the car
stops suddenly.
The passengers were in a state of
motion when the car was moving.
When the car stopped suddenly, the
inertia in the passengers made them
maintain their state of motion.
Thus when the car stop, the
passengers moved
______________________..

1.

## The diagram shows two buckets, one bucket

filled with sand while the other bucket is
empty.

2.

## It is more difficult to move the bucket filled

with sand compared to the empty bucket
when both are initially at rest.

3.

## When both the buckets are moving, it is also

more difficult to stop the bucket filled with sand compared to the empty
bucket.

4.

## The bucket filled with sand has a greater tendency to be at

__________________________ and also to continue to be in
______________________ compared with the empty bucket.

5.

## The bucket filled with sand has more ___________________________ than

the empty bucket. The bucket filled with sand has a bigger
42

## ____________________ than the empty bucket. Quantitatively, the inertia of

an object is measured by its ________________________.

## Experiment 2.1: Relationship between Inertia and Mass

Effects on Inertia
1.

## Chili sauce in the bottle can be easily

poured out if the bottle is moved down
fast with a sudden____________________.
When the bottle stops suddenly, the
sauce continue in its state of motion
due to the effect of its
____________________.
A boy runs away from a cow in a
zig-zag motion.
The cow has a large inertia making
it difficult to change direction.

## The head of hammer is

________________________ to its handle
by knocking the end of the handle,

## held vertically, on a hard surface.

The head of hammer has a
__________________ mass and will remain
in its ______________________, thus fitting

## it tighter on the handle.

The drop of water on a wet
umbrella will fall when the boy

## rotates the umbrella.

This is because the drop of water on the
surface of the umbrella moves
simultaneously as the umbrella is
rotated.
43

## When the umbrella

_________________rotating, the inertia of
the drop of water will continue to
maintain its motion.

2.

## The negative effects of inertia

If a car crashes while travelling, the
driver of the car is still in
____________________ even though
the car has stopped.
The driver may be
______________________against the
windscreen and suffer injuries.
This can be prevented if the drive is
wearing a ________________________
that will him back from the forward

motion.
The tank of a lorry carrying liquid
is divided into several

_______________________.
This will reduce the impact of the
______________________ of the liquid

## if the lorry stops suddenly.

The
___________________________________
_______ between the drivers cabin
and the load to stop the initial
the driver when the lorry is
brought to a halt suddenly.

44

## Furniture carried by a lorry

normally is tied up together by

_____________________.
When the lorry starts to move
suddenly, the furniture is more
difficult to fall off due to their
________________________ because
their combined mass has
increased.

3.

## Ways of reducing the negative effects of inertia.

(i) Wearing safety belts when driving.
The safety provides the external force that prevents the driver or
passengers from being thrown forward.
(ii) An air bag is fitted inside the steering wheel.
The airbag inflate automatically when a collision occurs. This prevents
the driver or passengers crashing into dashboard.
(iii) Subdivision of the mass to reduce its inertia
The oil tank of an oil tanker lorry is usually divided into few smaller
compartments so that the effects of inertia can be reduced.
(iv) Strong structure behind the drivers cabin
If a loaded lorry stops abruptly, its heavy load, for example, timber logs,
will continue to move forwards the drivers cabin because of its massive
inertia. A strong iron structure between the drivers cabin and the load
ensures the drivers safety.

45

## Experiment 2.1 relationship between inertia and mass

Problem statement:
A bucket filled with sand is more _________________________ to swing compared
to the empty bucket.
What is the relationship between inertia and mass?
Inference:
The ________________________________ of an object depends on
its____________________________________.
Hypothesis:
When the mass of an object ______________________, the inertia of the object
_______________________
Aim:
To investigate the relationship between inertia and mass
Variables:
(a) Manipulated
variable:_____________________________________________________________________
_______
(b) Responding
variable:_____________________________________________________________________
________
(c) Constant variable:
______________________________________________________________________________
__
Materials:
______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________
Apparatus:
______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________
Arrangement of apparatus:

46

Procedure:
1.
2.
3.
4.

## The apparatus is set up as shown above.

A 25 g of plasticine is fixed to the free and of the hacksaw blade.
The time for 20 complete oscillations is measured using a stopwatch and
is recorded. The step is repeated twice to calculate the average time
taken. Then the period, T is determined.
Step 3 is repeated with different mass of plasticine, m = 50 g, 75 g, 100
g and 125 g.

Tabulation of data:

Analysis of data:
(graph)

47

Discussion:

Conclusion:

48

## 2.4 Analysing Momentum

You can catch a fast moving ping-pong ball easily with your bare hand.
A softball keeper must wear a glove to catch a hard and fast moving softball.
Why is a slow moving softball much easier to catch?

If a loaded lorry and a car are moving at the same speed, it is more difficult for
the lorry to stop.
This is because the lorry possesses a physical quantity, momentum, more than
the car.
All moving objects possess momentum.

Activity 2.2
To compare the effects of stopping two objects in motion
Apparatus / Materials:
One steel ball and one wooden ball of the same diameter, 2 slabs of
plasticine.
Arrangement of apparatus:

49

## (a) Two objects of the same mass

moving at different velocities.
Procedure:
1 A steel ball is first released from
a height of 50cm and then from
100cm above a slab of plasticine
as shown in Figure.
2 The depths and sizes of the
cavities caused by the steel ball
on the slab are observed and
compared.
Observations

## (b)Two objects of different

masses moving at the same
velocity
Procedure:
1. A steel ball and a wooden
ball of the same diameter are
released from a height of
50cm above a slab of
plasticine as shown in figure.
2. The depths and sizes of the
cavities formed are observed
and compared.
Observations

Conclusion
The moving balls produce an effect on the plasticine which is there to
stop the motion.
The __________________the mass or velocity of the moving object is, the
_________________ is the effect (the depth and size of the cavity), the
_________________is the momentum.

Linear Momentum

50

## 1. The linear momentum, p, of a mass, m, moving at a velocity, v, is

defined as the product of mass and velocity.

momentum=

p = _________________________________
2. The unit of momentum is ____________________________. It can be also be
written as N s (newton second)
3. Momentum is a ________________________ quantity with the same
direction as velocity.
4. If the direction to the right is denoted as positive, an object moving
to the right possesses a positive momentum while an object moving to
the left will have a _____________________ momentum.
5. Examlple:

## A billiard ball A of mass 0.5 kg is moving from left to right with a

velocity of 2 m s

-1

## while another billiard ball B of equal mass is

moving from right to left with the same speed. Calculate the
momentum for both balls.
Solution
Momentum of ball A
= mAvA
= 0.5 x 2
= 1 kg m s-1

Momentum of ball B
= mBvB
= 0.5 x (-2)
= -1 kg m s-1

51

## Chapter 2 Force and Motion

6. The diagram shows a baseball player hitting a ball. The mass of the
ball is 200g. What is the momentum of the ball flying with a velocity of
50ms-1?

## 7. A ball of mass 0.8kg strikes a wall at a velocity of 10ms -1 and rebounds

at 6ms-1.
What is its momentum
(a) Before it strikes the wall, and
(b) After the rebound?

## 8. A bull of mass 250kg is moving at a momentum of 750kg ms -1. Find the

velocity.

Conservation of Momentum
1. The Principle of conservation of momentum states that:

## The total momentum of in a closed system is

constant, if no external force acts on the
system.

## the same before and after the occurrence of an event.

A closed system : the sum of external forces acting on the

system is zero.
Example of an external force is friction.
2. The principle of conservation of momentum shall be discussed in two
situations.
A collision

An explosion

52

## as zero after an explosion.

Collision
3. There are two types of collisions.
Elastic Collisions
Two objects collide and move apart after

Inelastic collisions
Two objects combine and stop, or move

a collision.

## together with a common velocity after a

collision.

Momentum is conserved
Total energy is conserved
Kinetic energy is conserved

Momentum is conserved
Total energy is conserved
Kinetic energy is not conserved:
the total kinetic energy (after the

Formula:

m1 u1 +m2 u 2=m1 v 1+ m2 v 2

## collision) the total kinetic energy

(b4 the collision)
Formula:

m1 u1 +m2 u 2=( m1 +m 2) v

## 4. There are two types of collisions. The first is an inelastic collision,

which is more common in everyday life.
5. During an inelastic collision, some of the kinetic energy, or movement
energy, is lost on impact. This energy is converted into another type of
energy, such as sound or heat.
6. An elastic collision occurs when the total kinetic energy, or movement
energy, of two or more objects is the same after a collision as before
the collision.

53

## 7. Unlike an inelastic collision, no energy is transformed into another

type. Completely elastic collisions dont usually happen in the real
world, aside from between subatomic particles, but the collision
between two billiard balls is a close approximation.

## 8. Another example of approximate elastic collisions

When the 1st ball is pulled to the side and then released so as

## fall back and strike the 2nd ball.

It is observed that the 1st ball stops, but the last ball swings out

## to the same height from which the ball P was released.

This shows the last ball possesses the same amount of
momentum and kinetic energy as 1st ball before it struck the 2nd

ball.
The total momentum of the ball: before a collision = after
the collision

Activity 2.3
To verify the principle of conservation of momentum in

54

## (a) Elastic collisions, and

(b) Inelastic collisions

Apparatus / Materials:
Ticker-timer, 12 V a.c. power supply, runway, 4 trolleys, wooden block,
ticker tape, cellophane tape, and plasticine.
(A)

Elastic Collision

Arrangement of apparatus:

Procedure:
(i)
(ii)

(iii)
(iv)

(v)

## The runway is adjusted to compensate the friction.

Trolley A with a spring-loaded piston is placed at the higher end
of the runway and trolley B is placed halfway down the runway
and stayed at rest.
Two ticker tapes are passed through the ticker timer, one
attached to trolley A and another attached to trolley B.
The ticker-timer is switched on and trolley A is given a slight push so
that it moves down the runway at a uniform velocity and collides
with trolley B which is stationery.
After collision, the two trolleys move separately.

Result:
Ticker-tape obtained:
(a) Trolley A

(b) Trolley B

55

## Chapter 2 Force and Motion

Discussion
1. The spring-loaded piston acts as a spring buffer in the collision in
order to make the trolley bounce off the other one.
2. Strictly speaking, this collision is not a perfect elastic collision as part
of the kinetic energy of the colliding trolley changes to sound or heat
energy during the collision.
Conclusion:
Total momentum before collision = total momentum after collision
The principle of conservation of momentum is verified.
(B)
Inelastic collision
Arrangement of apparatus

Procedure:
(i)
The runway is adjusted to compensate the friction.
(ii)
The spring loaded piston of trolley A is removed and some
plasticine is pasted onto trolley A and B.
(iii)
A ticker tape is attached to trolley A only.
(iv)
The ticker-timer is switched on and trolley A is given a slight push so
that it moves down the runway at a uniform velocity and collides
with trolley B which is stationery.
(v)
After collision, the two trolleys are move together.
Result

Conclusion:
56

## Total momentum before collision = total momentum after collision

The principle of conservation of momentum is verified.

Exercise:

## 1. Block A of mass 5 kg is moving with velocity 2 m s-1 and collides

with another stationery block B of unknown mass. After the
collision, block A moves with velocity 0.5 m s-1. Given that the
collision is elastic. Find the momentum of block B after the
collision.

-1
2. A truck travels at a velocity of 15 m s
-1
car that travels at 30 m s . The mass of the truck and the car are
6000 kg and 1500 kg respectively. What is the final velocity of
the two vehicles after the collision if they stick together?

## 3. An astronaut of mass 90kg moves at a velocity of 6ms -1 and bumps

into a stationary astronaut of mass 100kg. How fast do the two
astronauts move together after collision?

57

## 4. A 50kg skater is moving due east at a speed of 3ms -1 before

colliding into another skater of mass 60kg moving in the opposite
direction at a speed of 7 ms-1. After the collision, the two skater
hold on to each other. In which direction will they move? What is
the speed of the two skaters?

## 5. A trolley of mass 3 kg moving at a velocity of 2 ms -1 collides with

another trolley of mass 0.5 kg which is moving at a velocity of 1
ms-1 in the same direction. If the 0.5 kg trolley moves at a velocity
of 2.5 ms-1 in the same direction after collision, what is the velocity
of the 3 kg trolley?

## 6. The diagram shows two trolleys of different masses before and

after a collision. Find the velocity of the 3 kg trolley after the
collision.

58

## Momentum and Explosions

1. Rifle
2. The explosion creates a
backward momentum on the
rifle. This causes the rifle to

## Total momentum of the rifle

and the bullet is zero as they
are stationary.

## 1. When the rifle is fired, the

explosion of the gunpowder
forces the bullet out of the
barrel. A momentum in the
forward direction is created.
(a) Before
2. Air escapes
explosion
from a deflating balloon

Total momentum
of the balloon is
zero as it is

## Air has mass and moves

with a velocity. This creates
a momentum in the
downward direction.

59

The balloon
shoots
upwards,
moving with
an upward

## It produces two fragments of masses m (shell) and M (cannon) with

velocities u and v respectively.
4. An explosion is a closed system which does not involve any external
force.
The total momentum is conserved in an explosion.

0=m1 v 1 +m2 v 2
m1 v 1=m2 v 2

## The two momenta have the same magnitude but different

direction.
Exercise
1. The diagram show a boy of 60kg and a girl
of 50kg on the roller skates. Initially, they
hold each others hand. Then, the boy
pushes the girl and both of them release
their hands. If the velocity of the girl is 3
ms-1 after being pushed, find the velocity
of the boy. (Assume that no frictional force)

2.
Jane and John go ice skating. With their
skates on, Jane and John push against
each other on level ice. Jane, of mass
50kg, moves away at a velocity of 3ms-1 to
the right. What is Johns velocity if he is
75kg?

60

## 3. Harfeez alight a boat at a velocity of v

ms-1 and lands on the dock. The boat
bounces backwards with a speed of v.
If the masses of Harfeez and the boat
are m and 3m respectively, find the
speed of the boat (ignoring friction
due to water).
Activity 2.4
To verify the principle of conservation of momentum in an
explosion

Apparatus / Materials:
4 trolleys, wooden block, 2 wooden blocks, a hammer and a metre rule.
Notes
The positions of the wooden blocks are adjusted so that each trolley collides
with the corresponding wooden blocks at the same time, t. Substitute

v=

d
t

in

0=mA v A =mB v B
0=mA

dA
d
+mB B
t
t

Arrangement of apparatus:

Procedure:
(i)
(ii)

## The apparatus is arranged as shown in figure.

Two trolleys A and B of equal mass are placed in contact with each
other on a smooth surface. The spring-loaded piston in trolley B is
compressed.

61

(iii)

(iv)
(v)

(vi)

## The release pin on trolley B is given a light tap to release the

spring-loaded piston which then pushes the trolleys apart. The
trolleys collide with the wooden blocks.
The experiment is repeated and position of the wooden blocks are
adjusted so that both trolleys collide with them at the same time.
The distance dA and dB are measured and recorded. Note: dA is
positive while dB is negative since d, displacement is a vector
quantity.
The experiment is repeated using
(a) 1 trolley with 2 stacked trolleys
(b) 3 stacked trolleys with 1 trolley

Tabulation of data
Discussion
Conclusion

1. Rocket

62

## Chapter 2 Force and Motion

5
In accordance with
the principle of
conservation of
momentum, the
rocket gains a
forward momentum
and moves forward at

1
A rocket carries liquid
hydrogen and liquid
oxygen
2
The mixture of
hydrogen fuel and
oxygen burns
vigorously in the
3
The gases formed
expand rapidly and are
forced to discharge
through the exhaust
nozzle at a high velocity

4
A backward
momentum is
Hot exhaust
gases at high
velocity
Demonstration to show the principle in rocket
Water rocket

2. Jet engine
1

## Air from the atmosphere is

drawn into the engine and
compressed by a compressor
before it is forced into
combustion chamber at high

63

In the combustion
chamber, kerosene
fuel burns vigorously
with the compressed
air

## Chapter 2 Force and Motion

Jet of
exhaust
gases

Moves
forwards

5
The hot gases formed expand
rapidly and are forced out of
the nozzle at high speed
through the turbine which
4 rotates the compressor

## The ejected high speed

exhaust gases create a
backward momentum
6

## In accordance with the principle of the

conservation of momentum, a forward
momentum for the engine is produced. The
plane thus flies forwards.
3. The principle of the conservation of momentum occurs in nature.
A squid uses it to propel itself in the water.
The squid moves forward by discharging a jet of water from its body.
An equal and opposite momentum created thus propel the squid in the
opposite direction.
Diagram show how does a
squid escape.
The squid fills its body up with
water which it forces through a
tube. This makes the squid
move on the opposite direction
very quickly. This is called jet
propulsion.

## 4. The shower of burning fragments from an

exploding fireworks launched into the sky is governed by the principle
of the conservation of momentum. The symmetrical pattern indicates
that the total momentum is conserved.

64

## Chapter 2 Force and Motion

5. The large volume of water that rushes out from a water hose with a
very high speed has a large momentum. In accordance with the
principle of conservation of momentum, an equal and opposite
momentum is created causing the fireman to fall backwards. Thus,
several firemen are needed to hold the water hose.

Exercise
1. A pigeon of mass 120 g is flying at a velocity of 2 ms -1. What is its
momentum?

## 2. Calculate the momentum of a car of car of mass 2 000 kg moving with

a velocity of 30 ms-1.

65

## Chapter 2 Force and Motion

3. A bull of mass 250 kg is moving at a momentum of 750 kgms -1. Find its
velocity.

## 4. A bullet with mass of 50 g is fired from a 2 kg pistol with a velocity of

120 ms-1. What is the total momentum of the bullet and the pistol after
explosion?

## A bullet with a mass of 30 g is released at a velocity of 300 ms -1. What

is recoil velocity of the pistol?

## 6. A 500 kg car travelling at 30 ms-1 collides with a 3000kg lorry which is

at rest. After the collision, both the car and lorry move together. What
is the common velocity after the collision?

## Jamal with a mass of 20 kg is moving at a

7. Hizam and his son Jamal
are atofan
velocity
2 ice
ms-1rink.
while Hizam with a mass of 60
kg, is directly behind Jamal and moving at 6 ms 1
. Hizam decides to pick Jamal up and continues
66
moving without
stopping. Determine the final
velocity of Hizam and Jamal.

## 8. Trolley A of mass 3 kg moving at 4 ms-1 collides with trolley B of mass

4 kg which is moving in the opposite direction. If both the trolleys
move together at 3 ms-1 in the direction of trolley B after the collision,
find the initial velocity of trolley B.

## 9. A butterfly rests on a leaf floating on the surface of a pond.

The butterfly then starts moving to the tip of the
leaf at a speed of 5 cms-1 relative to the water. The
leaf, in accordance with the principle of the
conservation of momentum, moves at 3 cms-1
relative to the water in the opposite direction. If
the mass of the leaf is 8g, determine the mass of
the butterfly.

67

## 10.Boat A and boat B are moving at a speed of 2 ms -1 and 1 ms-1

respectively before the two collide head on. The masses of boat A and
B (including the passengers) are 150 kg and 250 kg respectively.

If boat A bounces back with a velocity of 0.5 ms -1, what is the velocity
of boat B?

11.Sau Fei and Siew Ling, each with a mass of 60 kg and 49.5 kg
respectively, are standing at rest on an ice rink. Sau Fei throws a ball of
mass 0.5 kg towards Siew Ling.

What is the recoil velocity of Sau Fei if the velocity of the ball is 8 ms -1?
What is the velocity of Siew Ling after she receives the ball?

68

## Chapter 2 Force and Motion

What is Force?
A force is a push or a
pull

Pressing a switch

Lifting objects

Kicking a ball
Pulling off the ring of a soft drink
Stretching
tin
a chest expander
1. When you push or pull on an object, you need to know
(a) The strength or magnitude of your force, and
(b) The direction in which you are pushing and pulling.
2. Force is a _________________________ quantity. Since it has both
_____________________ and direction.
3.

## A spring balance, which is used to measure the weight (or the

gravitational pull of object) can be used to measure the magnitude of
a force.

## The force pulling a cup can be measured as shown in above figure.

The Effect of a Force
1. A force can change the shape of an object. (deformation of an object).

69

## Can change the shape of an

object
A platicine is flattened

## Can change the size of an

object
A can is crushed.

A spring lengthens or
compresses when you stretch
or compress it.

## A plastic ruler can be bent

when a force exerted on it.

## 2. A force can change the original state of motion of an object.

(from stationary to move / from moving state to stationary)

70

## To move a stationary object.

A pushing force is required to
move a stalled car

## To stop a moving object

A goalkeeper stop the ball

## Can change the speed of a moving

object
A ping-pong ball moves faster

## Can change the direction of a

moving object
A ping-pong ball changes its
direction

## Relationship between Acceleration, Mass and Force

Experiment 2.2
Relationship between acceleration and force applied on a
constant mass.
71

## Chapter 2 Force and Motion

Situation:

Figure (a) shows car A and car B of the same mass at the same starting line.
Car B is a sport car.
The engine capacity of sport car B is much bigger than car A. (a car with a
bigger car capacity can provide greater engine thrust.)
Figure (b) shows that sport car B has built up a higher velocity than car A
after 3 seconds.
Can you make an inference about the situation?

Inference:

______________________________________________depends on
_____________________________________________.

Hypothesis

## When the mass of an object is constant, the greater

______________________________________________, the greater
_______________________________________________.

Aim:

## To investigate the relationship between acceleration and the force applied on

a constant mass.

Variables:

(a) Manipulated:
________________________________________________________________________
_________
(b) Responding:
________________________________________________________________________
__________
(c) Constant:
________________________________________________________________________
_____________

72

## Chapter 2 Force and Motion

Notes:
The force in this experiment is the stretching force in an elastic cord used to
pull the trolley. A length of elastic cord attached to the trolley and stretched
to a fixed length represents one unit of force acting on the trolley.

Apparatus/Materials:
Trolley, 3 identical elastic cords, runway, ticker-timer, carbonised ticker-tape,
cellophane tape, 12 V a.c. power supply and a wooden block.

Arrangements of apparatus:

73

## Chapter 2 Force and Motion

Procedure:
1. A friction-compensated inclined runway is prepared.
2. The apparatus is then set up as shown in figure.
3. The ticker-timer is switched on and the trolley is pulled down the
runway by an elastic cord attached to the hind post of the trolley.

74

## Chapter 2 Force and Motion

4. The elastic cord is stretched until the other end is level with the front
end of the trolley. The length is maintained as the trolley run down the
runway.
5. The ticker tape obtained is cut into strips of 10-tick. A tape chart is
constructed and the acceleration, a, is determined.
6. The experiment is repeated with 2, and 3 elastic cords to double and
triple the pulling force to the same constant extension as when one
elastic cord is stretched.

Result:
(build your own ticker tape chart)

Tabulation of data:

Conclusion:

Experiment 2.3
Relationship between acceleration and mass of an object under
a constant force

75

## Chapter 2 Force and Motion

Situation:

Figure (a) shows two similar lorries, A and B in front of a traffic light. When
the light turns green, both drivers step on the accelerator simultaneously
with the same pressure to provide the same engine thrusts, F.
Figure (b) shows that within 3 seconds, the empty lorry has built up a higher
velocity than the heavy one.
Can you make an inference about the situation?

Inference:

____________________________________________ depends on
_______________________________________________

Hypothesis

## When the force applied on an object is constant, the greater

____________________________________, the
____________________________________________________.

Aim:

## To investigate the relationship between acceleration and the mass of an

object under a constant force

Variables:

## (a) Manipulated: _________________________________________________

(b) Responding: __________________________________________________
(c) Constant: _____________________________________________________

Notes:
(a)The mass in this experiment is represented by the number of identical
trolley used.
The constant force is applied by stretching the elastic cord with the

(b)

## same extension for each repetition of the experiment .

Apparatus/Materials:

76

## Ticker-timer, 12 V a.c power supply, 3 trolleys, elastic cord, runway, wooden

block, ticker-tape and cellophane tape.

Arrangements of apparatus:

Procedure:
1. A friction-compensated inclined runway is prepared.
2. The apparatus is then set up as shown in figure.
3. The ticker-timer is attached to the trolley and passed through the
ticker-timer.
4. The ticker-timer is switched on and the trolley is pulled down the
runway by an elastic cord attached to the hind post of the trolley.
5. The elastic cord is stretched until the other end is level with the front
end of the trolley. The length is maintained as the trolley run down the
runway.
6. The ticker tape obtained is cut into strips of 10-tick. A tape chart is
constructed and the acceleration, a, is determined.
7. The experiment is repeated using 2 trolleys (with a second trolley
stacked on the first trolley) and 3 trolleys. The elastic cord is stretched
to the same fixed length as in the first experiment.

77

## Chapter 2 Force and Motion

Result:
Tabulation of data

Conclusion:

## Newtons Second Law of Motion

From the experiment 2.2:
The acceleration is directly proportional to the force

a F
From the experiment 2.3:
The acceleration is inversely proportional to its mass.

78

## Chapter 2 Force and Motion

1
m

a=

F
m

F ma
F=k ma
The unit of force is Newton, N.
In order to make the formula as simple as possible, we make = 1.

F=ma
Force of 1N is defining as,

## 1 N is the force which gives a mass of 1 kg an

acceleration of 1 ms-2

F=k ma

1 N =k 1 kg 1ms2

79

## Chapter 2 Force and Motion

k =1
F=ma

Exercise
1. A force of 10 N acts on an object of mass 5 kg on a smooth floor. Find
the acceleration.

## 2. A car of mass 1200 kg travelling at 15 ms -1 comes rest over a distance

of 30 m. Find
(a) The average retardation, and
(b) The average braking force.

## 1. In general, there may be several forces acting on the mass, whether

parallel or anti-parallel, or in different directions.
2. Thus, the force, F, must be replaced with net or resultant force when
there are several forces acting on the mass.
Where a is in

Fnet =ma

## net or resultant force.

3. However, for simplicity,

F=ma

## as net force acting on the object (whether a single force or several

forces are acting on it.)

80

Balanced Forces

## 1. When the forces acting on an object are balanced, ( net force =

0)
2. The object then behave s as if there is no forces acting on it.
3. Since Fnet = 0, the acceleration of the object, a =0. Thus, the object
remains at rest or moves at________________________________ when
there is no net force acting on it.
4. This is Newtons first law of motion.
5. Example of balanced forces:
(a) Balanced forces on a stationary gymnast

## The weight of the gymnast, W, is

balanced by the reaction force, R,

## from the beam.

The two forces are of equal
magnitude but opposite in

direction.
Without the beam (that is, no
reaction force), the gymnast will
fall to the ground because of her

## (b) Balanced forces on a car

moving at a constant velocity.

## There are 3 horizontal forces acting on a car moving at a

constant velocity.
The forward thrust, T, provided by the car engine is balanced
by the frictional force on the wheels and the air resistance.

## T =ofGthe car, W, is vertically balanced by the

The weight
reaction force, R, from the road.

Balanced

W=R

forces (Fnet = 0, a = 0)

81

## Chapter 2 Force and Motion

Fnet = 0
(as no force acting on it)

F1 = F 2
From Fnet = ma
0 = ma
a=0

## (since mass, m, cannot be

zero)
Object at rest
(v = 0 ms-1)

Object in motion
(v 0, object is moving at
constant velocity)

## does not move.

Find the frictional force acting on the

cupboard.

## the frictional force acting on the

Solution

book.
Solution:

Using Fnet = ma
But Fnet = 0, since a = 0

Using Fnet = ma
But Fnet =
0, since
= 0 move with a uniform velocity
Because
theabook

Because
200F friction
=0 the cupboard does not move
5F friction=0

friction= 200 N
F
(the frictional force here is known as
static friction)

friction= 5 N
F
(the frictional force here is known as
dynamic friction)

Unbalanced Forces
82

## Chapter 2 Force and Motion

1. When the forces acting on an object are not balanced, the object
will accelerate in the direction of the net force.
2. The net force is known as the resultant force.
Effect of Balanced Forces and Unbalanced Forces on an Object
Balanced forces (Fnet = 0, a = 0)

## Balanced forces on an aircraft allow it to move at constant

velocity at a constant altitude.
The engine thrust is balanced by the drag due to air resistance
while the weight of the aircraft is balanced by a lift from the wings.

## Unbalanced forces (Fnet 0, a 0)

T G

W L

When the forces acting on an aircraft do not cancel out each other,
a net force known as unbalanced force is acting on the object.
Unbalanced forces produce an acceleration to the mass on
which force are acting.
However, the object will accelerate in the direction of the net
force.
When an airplane is moving at a constant velocity, if the pilot
increases the engine thrust, the forces acting horizontally are no
longer balanced. There is a net force and plane will accelerate in
the forward direction.
83

## Newtons Third Law of Motion

1. When you are practising arm wrestling with your friend, you will
feel a force acting on you.
2. Your friend will also be feeling a force acting on him.
3. This is because while he is applying a force on you, you are also
applying a force on him.
4. Hence, there is a pair of forces acting and Newtons third law of
motion states:
5.

T
If object A exerts a force, F on object B, the object B will exert an
equal but opposite force, - F on object A.

## s law is also known as the action reaction law. Hence,

To every action, there is an equal but opposite reaction.

## Newtons third law of motion can be quoted as:

6. Everyday phenomena that are governed by newtons third law of
motion:
(a)
A swimmer pushes the
water backward with his
hands and legs with a force,
F, while the reaction force
of water, F, pushes the
swimmer forward.
(b)
When a boy presses on the
wall with a force, F, the wall
presses on his hand with a
normal reaction force, F.
(c)
When a man paddles with a
backward force, + F
(action), the reaction force,

84

h
i

## F, pushes the boat

forwards.
The principle used in

(d)

## rockets and jet engines can

be also be explained by
newtons third law of
motion. The action that
pushes the exhaust gases
out through the nozzle
results in a forward force
(reaction forces) that
propels the rocket or jet
engine forwards.
Summary of Newtons Law of Motion
Newtons First Law of Motion
Every object in a state of uniform motion tends to remain in that state of
motion unless an external force is applied to it.
This is often termed simply the "Law of Inertia"
Newtons Second Law of Motion
The relationship between an object's mass, m, its acceleration, a, and the
applied force, F is

F = ma.

In this law the direction of the force vector is the same as the direction of
the acceleration vector.
Newtons Third Law of Motion
For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.

Exercise
1. Find the acceleration of the objects.
(a)

85

(b)

## 4. A 10 kg object accelerates from rest to 5ms-1 in 2 s. What is the

net force acting on the object?

## 5. A force of 10 N acts on a 2 kg stationary object. Calculate the

distance travelled by the object in 5 s.

86

## 6. An object with a mass of 5 kg moves at a constant velocity when

it is pulled by a horizontal force of 5 N on a level surface. What is
the acceleration of the object if pulled with a force of 25 N

7. Figure shows a small rocket of mass 300 kg at the point of takeoff. Find its initial acceleration.

## If the carton moves an acceleration of 2 ms-2, what is the

frictional force acting on the carton?

87

## Chapter 2 Force and Motion

Note:
When a floor is _____________________, friction force is
____________________.

## When an object on a ________________________ moves at

uniform velocity with a horizontal force acting on it,
friction is ____________ in magnitude to the applied force
(but acts in the ______________________ direction.)

## 9. A shopper pushes a trolley with a force of 20 N. The trolley with a

mass of 5 kg, moves at a uniform velocity of 1 ms-1. He then
increases his force to accelerate the trolley. What force should he
apply in order to give the trolley an acceleration of 2 ms-2?

10.

88

## Chapter 2 Force and Motion

He is in the barrel of the canon for 0.9 s. Find the average net
force exerted on him.

11.

## an acceleration of 2 ms-2. If the frictional force acting on the car

is 750 N, find its engine thrust.

accelerati
on
Frictional force, 750
N

12.

89

13.

## a force of F is applied to the box, it moves at an acceleration of

3ms-2.
Find the acceleration of another box with mass of 6 kg if the
same force is exerted on it.

14.

## 30 N. The trolley moves with a uniform velocity of 1 ms-1. When

she doubles her force, the trolley accelerates at 2 ms-2. Find the
mass of the trolley.

15.

## stops pedaling and the bicycle stops completely after 6 s. Given

the total mass of Faizal and his bicycle is 72 kg, find the average
opposing force on Faizal and his bicycle.

16.

## velocity of 72kmh-1 in 8s.

(a) Find the acceleration of the car.
(b)Find the net force acting on the car.

90

17.

## right, it accelerates with an acceleration of 3 ms-2. In which

direction does friction act? Find its magnitude.

## (b) An additional force of 20 N to the left then acts on the block.

In which direction does friction now act? Find the new
acceleration of the block.

18.

## A car with a mass of 1560 kg decelerates from a velocity

of 22.5 ms-1 to a stop in front of a traffic light. The time taken for
the deceleration is 4.5 s.

91

## (a) Calculate the deceleration.

(b)What is the net force needed to give this deceleration?

92

## 2.6 Analysing Impulse and Impulsive Force

Impulse and Impulsive Force

## badminton racket delivers a large

time t
During the time t, an average force F
acts on the ball which makes the
ball fly off with a momentum.
Thus, the force F, acting for a

## force that acts on the shuttle

cock for a short time t.
The shuttle cock bounces off in the
opposite direction. Again, there is

a change in momentum.
The change in momentum is due
change in momentum to the ball,
to the force F acting on the
since the ball with a mass of m
object for a time t.
acquires velocity after the time t.
period of time t, produces a

F=ma

vu
F=m
t

( )

Impulse

substitu
te

a=

vu
t

Change in momentum

Impulsive
Force
= isdefined as the
Impulsive
force

changemomentum
time
1. Bothrate
impulse
andof momentum
oftaken
change

## product of a force, F and the

time interval, t during which
force acts.
Impulse = Force Time
= F t

quantities.

93

## 1. An object might rebound from a wall, or stick to it without

rebounding after striking it.
2. In which situation will the wall exert a greater impulse?
3. A tennis ball and a piece of mud with the same mass (0.060 kg)
which are moving at 9 ms-1 strike a wall. The mud sticks to the
wall while the ball rebounds at 6 ms-1. Find the impulse on each
object.

## 4. Thus, a greater impulse is exerted on an object if it

________________________ after a collision.
Exercise:
1. Figure shows a 2 kg wooden block initially at rest on a smooth
surface. A force of 8 N is applied on the wooden block.

## If the force acts for 3 s,

(a) What is the impulse on the block?
94

## 2. A player spikes an oncoming volleyball moving towards him at a

speed of 5 ms-1 to reserve its direction at a speed of 20 ms-1. The
mass of the ball is 0.36 kg.

## (a) Find the impulse on the ball.

(b)If the average force acting on the ball is 300 N, how long is the
time of contact between the hand and the ball?

1. From F

mvmu
t

1
t

t small,

changemomentum
timeof impact

95

F large

t large, F small

## If the change in momentum is constant, then: F

1
t

2. A student throw a raw egg at a high speed at a wall, and another egg
against a towel held by his friends. In which case will the egg break?

## does not break. The movement of

the egg is stopped in a longer time
interval, resulting in a small force.

## 3. To understand the effect of time in a collision, look at the following

example.
Herman (mass, m = 50 kg) jumps down from a wall. He lands on a cement
ground at a velocity of 6 ms-1.
Herman bends his knees upon
Herman didnt bend his knees upon
landing.
The time taken to stop his motion is

landing.
The time taken to stop his motion is

1.0 s.

0.05 s.

## In both cases, the eggs are stopped. Thus, the change in

momentum is the same.
96

u= 6 ms-1

u= 6 ms-1

v=0
ms-1

v=0
ms-1

## This example clearly shows that an effective way to reduce the

impulsive force is to lengthen the collision time.

## The effects of time on the magnitude of the impulsive force

Increasing the impulsive force by reducing the time of impact
1. In all sports shown below, the time of impact with thet small
ball is very small and the impulsive force produced
is large.
F large

A footballer kicking a
football

A golfer driving a
golfball with a club

97

A tennis player
hitting a tennis ball

## It should be noted that impulsive forces

always exits in pairs.
In the figure, the change in momentum of
the tennis ball produces a large impulsive
force on the racket which reacts to give
F1 rise to an equal but opposite impulsive
force to the ball this s on accordance with
Newtons third Law of motion)
Both the racket and the tennis ball are
formed temporarily due to the large force
being exerted on each other.

F2

2.

3.

4.

## A massive hammer head moving at

a fast speed is bought to rest
upon hitting the nail. The large
change in momentum within a
short time interval produces a
large impulsive force which drives
the nail into the wood.

## An expert in karate can split a thick

wooden slab with his bare hand
which is moving at a very fast
speed. The momentary contact
between the fast-moving hand and
the wooden slab produces a large
impulsive force which split the
Food such as chillies and onions can be
pounded using a mortar and pestle. The
pestle is brought downwards at a fast
speed and stopped by a mortar in a very
short time. This produces a large
impulsive force which cruses the food.

98

large

F small

## Chapter 2 Force and Motion

1.

Cardboard egg
polystyren
carton
e
Polystyrene and cardboard egg containers stiff but
compressible. They will absorb and reduce impulsive
force by lengthening the time of impact.
2.

3.

## In sports, the effects of impulsive

forces are reduced to prevent
injuries to athletes.
Thick mattresses with soft surfaces
are used in events such as the
high jump and pole-vaulting so
that the time of impact on
landing is extended, thus
The use of padding in certain reducing the resultant impulsive
sports equipment like baseball
gloves, goalkeeping mitts, pole
vaulting pits, boxing gloves,
and gymnastic mats is to
prevent injuries to players by
reducing the impulsive
In baseball, a player must catch the
ball in the direction of the motion of
the ball.
If the ball is caught by stopping it in its
path, the impulsive force acting on
the hand will be considerable.
Moving his hand backwards when
catching the ball prolongs the time
for the momentum change to occur
When a boxer sees that his
so the impulsive force is reduced.
opponents fist is going to hit
his head, he will move his
will increase the stopping
time, hence reducing the 99
since the momentum change

4.

## Playgrounds are covered with

a coarse fabric material which
prolongs the time of
impact when the children
fall, thus reducing the
impulsive force

Exercise
1. A tennis player hits an oncoming 0.06 kg
tennis ball with a velocity of 60 ms-1. The ball
bounces off in the opposite direction at 90
ms-1.
Find the time of impact between the racket
and the ball if the impulsive force acting on
the ball is 125 N.

## 2. Tiger Woods hits a golf ball of mass 0.045

kg at a velocity of 30 ms-1.

100

## If the time of impact is 0.005 s, what is the

average impulsive force applied on the ball
by the club?

## 3. A force F acts on a 6 kg object at rest on a smooth surface. If the

velocity of the object increases to 2 ms-1 in 6 s, what is the value of F?

## 4. An object of mass 2 kg is acted on by a force which causes the velocity

of the object to increase from 1 ms-1 to 9 ms-1. What is the impulse on
the object?

## 5. The figure shows a helicopter dropping a box

of mass 60 kg which touches a sandy ground
at a velocity of 12 ms-1. The box takes 2
seconds to stop after it touches the ground.
What is the magnitude of the impulsive force on the box?

101

## Chapter 2 Force and Motion

6. Beckham kicks a ball with a force of 1500 N. The time of contact of his
boot with the ball is 0.008 s. what is the impulse delivered to the ball?
If the mass of the ball is 0.5 kg, what is the velocity of the ball?

## 7. A 0.045 kg golf ball strikes a wall at a

speed of 30 ms-1 and rebounds at a speed
of 20 ms-1.
What is the impulse on the ball? If the
force on the ball is 500 N, find the contact
time of the ball with the ball.

## 8. A baseball of mass 0.14 kg

moving at 40 ms-1 is stuck by a
bat and rebounds at 60 ms-1.
Given that the time of contact is 5
10-2 s, find the force exerted on
the ball.

## 9. In a crash test, a car of mass 1500 kg crashes

into a wall at 15 ms-1. It rebounds at 2 ms-1.
If the collision time is 0.18 s, find the force
exerted on the car.

102

## 10.A pole-vaulter (mass, m = 50 kg) falls onto a

foam mattress which exerts a force of 250 N
on him over a time interval of 2.0 s
Find his velocity just before landing on the
mattress.

11.A hockey player uses a hockey stick to hit a hockey ball, causing the
ball to travel with a velocity of 30 ms-1. If the mass of the hockey ball is
100 g and the time of impact between the hockey stick and the ball is
5 10-3 s, calculate the impulsive force exerted by the hockey ball.

12.A boy with a mass of 60 kg jumps over a fence. His velocity just before
landing on the ground is 10 ms-1. What is the impulsive force on the
boys legs if he
(a) Takes 0.5 s to stop,
(b) Bends his legs and stops in 2.5 s?

103

## 13.A trolley with a mass of 500 g is at rest on a smooth surface. The

trolley is then given a horizontal impulsive of 5 Ns. What is the velocity
of the trolley after the impact?

## 14.A horizontal impulse of 500 N is exerted on a stationary trolley with a

mass of 2 kg. What is the velocity of the trolley after the impact?

15.A baseball with an initial velocity of 20 ms-1 is hit by a player and sent
moving in the opposite direction. After the ball is hit, it moves with a
velocity of 36 ms-1. The ball has a mass of 0.16 kg and the time of
impact is 8.0 10-3 s.
Calculate
(a) The impulse applied to the ball
(b) The impulsive force exerted on the ball by the bat

## 16.A 0.6 kg metal lock falls straight down with a velocity of

12 ms-1

and hits the roof of a parked car. The lock bounces back vertically from
the roof with a velocity of 5 ms-1. The time of impact is 1.2 10-2 s.
Calculate the magnitude of the impulsive force acted by the lock on
the roof.

104

## Chapter 2 Force and Motion

17.A golfer hits a golf ball of mass 50 g and the ball leaves the club with a
velocity of 75 ms-1. The contact time between the ball and the club is
0.008 s. find
(a) The final momentum of the ball,
(b) The average force exerted on the ball by the club.

## 2.7 Being Aware of the Need for Safety Features in

Vehicles.
1. It is important to increase the time interval of collision to reduce the
impulsive force in an accident.
2. A good car safety system that can prevent injuries to passengers of an
accident is of utmost importance.
3. To protect passengers from harm in a car crash, the car must be able
to absorb as much forces from the impact as possible.
Safety feature
Bumper / Crumple
zone

Importance
The front and rear parts of a vehicle are designed to
________________________ slowly upon collision so that
the impact time is _____________________ to
_________________________ the ______________________ on
the vehicle. Hence a ______________________ force will
act on the passenger to minimise the possibility of
getting serious injury.

Safety belts
Most vehicles are equipped with safety belts. The
105

## safety belts will prevent the passenger from

_______________________________ the windscreen or
being thrown out of the vehicle and
_______________________ the forward movement of the
passenger when the vehicle stops suddenly.
Air bags
Air bags will prevent our head from striking the
___________________ or __________________________ in a
head-on collision. Air bags will act
_________________________ and take less than 0.05 s to
inflate. The protection from air bags will reduce the
Anti-lock braking
system(ABS)

## ABS allows the driver to

____________________________the vehicle even when the
brake are applied. The system ______________________
wheels from locking automatically which can cause
the vehicle to skid.

In rear-end collision, our head will snap back due to
_________________. All passenger vehicles are equipped
injuries on neck when the head
____________________________ strongly.
Windscreen with
safety glass

## The windscreen glass in specially designed to break

into ___________________ instead of shattering. This will
prevent the driver and the passengers from being
______________________ by the pieces of broken glass.

The dashboard is covered with soft materials to
___________________ the time interval of collision. This
can ______________________ injuries on head of
passenger because the impulsive force produced
during impact has been __________________________.

106

## Side- impact bars

Side collision can be _____________________ since it
involves the weakest part of a car body. The
_________________________ give good protection from
side collision. The strong metal bars help to protect
the driver and passengers from a ___________________
hit on the side.

107

## 1. The concept of gravitational force was introduced by Sir Isaac

Newton who, on seeing an apple falls on his head.
2. According to Newton, objects fall because they are pulled towards the
Earth by the force of gravity.

## 3. The pull of gravitational force

(a) Keeps things on the earth
(b) Brings things down to earth when they are thrown upwards
(c) Holds the moon in its orbit round the Earth
(d) Captures returning space capsules and pulls them into orbit
4. The pull of gravity causes objects to fall with acceleration. This
means that objects that fall are moving with increasing velocity.
5. The magnitude of the acceleration due to gravity depends on the
strength of the gravitational field.

Stroboscopic Photograph
Inference 2
1. A stroboscopic photograph is a photograph that shows the images of
Both feather
and apple
Inference
1
an object
in motion. The images are taken at regular
time intervals.
are
falling
with
2. Figure below shows a stroboscopic photograph of a feather the
and an
Both feather and apple
same
apple falling under gravity. Both feather and apple
areacceleration.
dropped
are falling with an
Thus, a heavy object
simultaneously from the same height.
acceleration.
The
3. The time intervals
between two successive images
theobject
same.fall
and are
a light
distance between two
with the same
successive images
gravitational
increases, showing that
acceleration.
the two objects are
gravitational
108
falling with increasing
velocity, (=
acceleration is not
acceleration)
depends on mass.

## Chapter 2 Force and Motion

Free Fall
1. A free falling object is an object falling under the force of
gravity only.
2. A free falling object does not encounter other forces like air
resistance or friction that would oppose its motion.

## 3. Figure shows a free fall in a vacuum cylinder (where air resistance

does not exist) of a coin and a piece of paper. Both objects reach the
bottom of the cylinder at the same time.
4. A piece of tissue paper (fall in atmosphere) does not fall freely because
its fall is affected by air resistance.
5. A heavier golf ball can be considered to be free falling because the air
resistance is small compared to pull of gravity and therefore is
negligible.
Tips:
When an object falls; g = 9.8 ms-2
When an object is thrown upwards; g= -9.8 ms-2
At the highest point, v = 0 ms-1

109

## accelerate at a constant rate.

7. This acceleration is known as the gravitational
acceleration, g
8. The value of g is 9.8 ms-2. In calculation, the value of g is often
taken to be 10 ms-2 for simplicity.
9. The acceleration due to gravity does not depend on the mass
and shape of the falling object.
10.All objects falling freely with the same acceleration.

## To determine the value of the gravitational

acceleration, g
Apparatus/material:
Ticker timer, ticker tape, 12 V a.c electrical power supply, retort stand,
weights (50 g- 250 g), G-clamp, cellophane tape and soft board.

Procedure:
1. A ticker-timer is clamped to a retort stand with a G-clamp and
placed on a tabletop.
2. One end of a carbonised ticker tape (approximately 1 m in
length) is attached to a weight holder with a total mass of 200
g.
3. The other end of the ticker tape is passed through the tickertimer.
4. A soft board is placed on the floor below the weight to stop its
fall.
5. The ticker-timer is switched on and the weight is released so
that it falls squarely onto the soft board.
6. Six strips are cut off from the middle section of the ticker tape
with each strip containing 2 dot-spaces.
7. A tape chart is construed. Form the chart, the acceleration of
gravity is calculated.

110

## Show your result, calculation of g, discussion and Conclusion

in Experiments Report.

111

## Weight, W and Gravitational Field, g

1. A Gravitational field is a region around the earth in which an
object experiences a force towards the centre of the earth. This force
is the gravitational attraction between the object and the earth.
2. The gravitational field strength is defined as the ratio of the
weight to the mass of the object or weight per unit mass.
3. Gravitational field strength =

weight
mass

W = N kg-1
Unit

= m

W =m g

W =m

W =m

## 9.8 Nkg-1 = 9.8 ms-2

4. The gravitational field strength at the surface of the earth is 9.8 N
kg-1.
5. The weight of an object is defined as the force of gravity which is
exerted on it by Earth.
6. From the formula,

F=ma

## Since weight, W, is the force of gravity acting on an object of mass,

m that makes it fall with an acceleration, g,

F=ma
W =mg

g =gravitational
acceleration

Weight of object
= Mass of object

112

## Mass and Weight

The differences between mass, m and weight, W:
Mass, m
The mass of an
object is the amount
of matter in the
object
The mass of an
object is constant
everywhere

A scalar quantity
A base quantity
Kilogram (kg)

Definition

Changing of value

Physical quantity
Type of quantity
SI unit

Weight, W
The weight of an object
is the force of gravity
on the object
The weight of an object
varies with the
magnitude of
gravitational field
strength, g, of the
location
A vector quantity
A derived quantity
Newton (N)

v =u+at

1
s=ut + a t 2
2

v 2=u 2+ 2as

1
s= (u+v )t
2

## Changing the a to g while solving problem

involving free fall, the acceleration, a in the
equations has a value of:
a = 10 ms-2 (for downward motion)
a = - 10 ms-2 (for upward motion)

Exercise:

113

## Chapter 2 Force and Motion

1. Wei is a basketball player. His vertical leap is 0.75 m. What is his take-off
speed?

## 2. A coconut take 1.5 seconds to fall to the ground. What is

(a) its speed when it strikes the ground?
(b) the height of the coconut tree?

## 3. After winning a game, a pitcher throws a baseball vertically up with a

velocity of 30 ms-1.
(a) What is the time taken for the baseball to reach the maximum height?
(b) What is the speed of the baseball when it returns to his hand?
(c) How long is the ball in the air before it comes back to his hands?

114

## Chapter 2 Force and Motion

4. An iron ball is dropped from the top of a building and takes 2 s to reach

the surface of the earth. What is the height of the building? (g = 9.8 m s-2)

## 5. A rock has a mass of 20.0 kg and weight of 90.0 N on the surface of a

planet.
(a) What is the gravitational field strength on the surface of the planet?
(b) What are the mass and the weight of the rock on the surface of the
Earth where its gravitational field strength is 9.8 N kg -1?

6. Have you ever seen an astronaut walking on the Moon? It is known that
the acceleration due to gravity near the surface of Moon is just

1
6

of

## that on the surface of earth.

(a) Find the weight of a 50 kg man on the surface of Moon.
(b) If the 50 kg man can jump to a height of 50 cm on the Earth, find the
maximum height reached by him on the surface of moon. (Assume
that his initial speed is the same on the earth and on the moon)

115

116

Lift

## reading on the scale shows the normal reaction

force, R
W = true weight = mg
R = normal reaction force exerted on the girl
by the platform of the scale
Weighing machine

1. When a girl stands on the platform of a weighing scale, there are two
forces acting on her:
(a) the girls weight, W (= mg) acting downwards,
(b) the upward normal reaction force, R exerted on her feet by the
platform of the scale
2. The reading of the scale gives the value of the normal reaction force, R.
3. Different situation in the lift,
(a) Lift at rest or moves up or down at a constant velocity

a=0

117

## (c) Lift moves down at an acceleration of a ms-2

Help! I am floating!
What is the apparent weight of a girl on a weighing scale in a lift if the
cable of the lift suddenly breaks?

Exercise

118

## 1. Subra stands on a weighing machine in a lift. If the mass of Subra is 58

kg, determine the reading of the weighing machine when the lift is.
(a) stationary
(b) moving upward with a uniform velocity of 2 ms-1
(c) moving upwards with a uniform acceleration of 1 ms -2
(d) moving downward with a uniform acceleration of 1 ms -2
(consider gravitational acceleration, g to be 10 ms-2)

## A box of mass 1.6 kg is suspended from a spring balance hanging from

the ceiling of a lift.
What is the reading on the spring balance if
(a) the lift is stationary?
(b) the lift moves upwards at an acceleration of 2 ms-2?
(c) the lift moves downwards at an acceleration of 3 ms -2?

Pulley System
1. A frictionless pulley serves to change the direction of a force.
119

## Chapter 2 Force and Motion

2. The tension, T that results from pulling at the ends of the string or rope
has the same magnitude along its entire length.
(A) A force pulling a mass over a pulley
In this situation, the tension, T, is equal to the pulling force F, even if the
rope is slanting.
A boy is pulling a bucket filled a bucket
filled with sand. The mass of the
bucket with the sand is 3 kg. Find the
tension in the rope if the bucket is
(i) stationary, or
(ii) moving up with a constant velocity
of 2 ms-1

## The boy increases his force to move

the bucket upwards with an
acceleration of 2 ms-2. Find the applied
force, F

120

## (B) A pulley with two masses

1. The heavier mass will accelerate downwards while the lighter one will
accelerate upwards with the same magnitude.
2. The tension is not equal to the weight of either mass.
Exercise
1. Two masses of 5 kg and 3 kg are connected to a rope which passes over
a frictionless pulley.
Find the tension in the rope and the acceleration of the 3 kg mass when
the 5 kg mass is released.

## 2. A 1.5 kg trolley is being pulled by a 0.5 kg weight with the help of a

pulley system.
Calculate the acceleration of the trolley.
(Take g = 10 ms-2)

121

## 3. Figure shows a pulley system with two loads, A and B, connected by a

non-elastic rope that passes over a frictionless pulley. (Take g = 10 ms-2)
(a) Determine the resultant force, F, of the system and state the
direction of the movement of each load.
(b) Calculate the magnitude of the acceleration of load A.

## 4. A 2 kg weight is connected by a rope to a 3 kg wooden block. The rope

passes over a smooth pulley as shown in figure.
The weight is then released. Find the tension in the rope if a friction of 5
N acts against the wooden block.

122

123

## 2.9 Forces in Equilibrium

1. When forces act upon an object and it remains stationary or moves at
a constant velocity, the object is said to be in a state of
equilibrium.
2. When equilibrium is reached, the resultant force acting on the object
is zero. i.e, there is no net force acting upon it.
3. Newtons Third Law of Motion states that if a force acts upon an object,
then there will be an equal and opposite reaction acting upon the same
object.

velocity if,
Lift Force
=
Thrust Force =

5.

Gravity Force
Drag Force

## Another figure shows a stationery block of wood resting on a

table. The forces acting on the block of wood are:

124

(a)
(b)
6.
7.
8.

## The weight, W is acting downwards.

The normal reaction, R is acting upwards.

## The weight, W, is balanced by the normal reaction, R.

Hence, the block of wood is in a state of equilibrium
Figure below shows a weight hanger attached to a string and which is in a
stationary state. The force acting on the weight hanger are:
(a) The weight, W, which is acts downwards
(b) The tension, T which acts upwards.

## 9. In this section, we shall study more about the equilibrium of forces,

including an object at rest on an inclined plane where three forces are
in equilibrium. The resultant force on the object is zero.

10. The cat resting on an inclined plane as shown in above figure is also
in equilibrium. The three forces acting on the cat cancel out each
other so that the resultant force is zero.
11.A tilted surface is called an inclined plane.
12.To understand better how three forces work in equilibrium, we need to
understand
(a) the resultant force of two forces, and
(b) the resolution of a force.

Resultant Force

125

## 1. A resultant force is a single force that represents the combined

effect of two or more forces by taking into account both magnitude
and the direction of the forces.

## To find the Resultant Force

(i) Two parallel Forces
The resultant force is obtained by simple arithmetic.
Forces acting in the same
Forces acting in opposite
direction
directions

## Add the magnitudes of two forces.

The resultant force is in the same
direction as the two forces.
Resultant force, F = F1 +

## Subtract the magnitude of the

smaller force by the larger one (to
find the difference in magnitude
between the two forces).
The resultant force is in the
direction of the larger force.
Resultant force, F = F2

## (ii) Two Non-parallel Forces (forces at an angle to each other acting at a

point)
1. Simple arithmetic cannot be applied to find the resultant force
of two non-parallel forces.
2. Determine the resultant force by drawing scaled diagrams using
Two method below.
Method (I) - The Triangle Method (Tail - to - Tip Method)
A scaled diagram of triangle of forces constructed to determine the
resultant force of the two forces, F1 and F2, acting at an angle

to

each other.
choose a suitable scale for the two forces, for example, 1 cm = 20 kN.
Follow the steps below to determine the resultant force.

126

## Method (II) The Parallelogram Rule (Parallelogram of Forces)

A scaled diagram of the parallelogram of forces constructed to
determine the resultant force of two forces, F1 and F2, acting at an
angle

to each other

## choose a suitable scale for the two forces, for example, 1 cm = 50

N.
Follow the steps below to determine the resultant force.

Note that the tails of both forces, F1 and F2 and the tail of the
resultant force, FR are all at the same point, O and FR is in between
F1 and F2

(iii)

## This is a special situation for

two non-parallel forces
acting on an object at a right
angle to each other.

Resultant force, FR =

2
1

+ F 22

tan =
Two forces (F1 and F2) together
with the resultant force, FR using
parallelogram rule. The

127

F2
F1

## resultant force is obtained using

Pythagoras theorem.

Resolution of Forces
1. A single force can be resolved into two perpendicular components.
2. Figure above shows how a force, F can be resolved into two perpendicular
components, the horizontal force, Fx and the vertical force, Fy

## 3. The magnitudes of the vertical and horizontal components can be

determined with knowledge of simple trigonometry.
For

OAB :

cos=

Fx
F

For

OBC :

sin =

Fy
F

## 1. Consider a box resting on an inclined plane at an angle

to the

horizontal.
2. The weight of the box is W = mg. The weight can be resolved into two
perpendicular components:
(a) the component vertical or perpendicular to the plane = mg cos

128

## (b) the component down or parallel to the plane = mg sin

To solve problems involving inclined planes, weight is replaced with its two
perpendicular components.
Object in equilibrium on a rough
Acceleration of an object on a smooth
inclined plane
inclined plane
The figure below shows a box at
The figure below shows a box on a
rest on an inclined plane
smooth inclined plane.

## Since the box is at rest:

The net force perpendicular to the
plane = 0

Rmgcos=0
The net force parallel to the plane
=0

## For an object on a smooth inclined

plane, the vertical components of
the forces are balanced. However,
the force down the plane is not
balanced.
Applying

F frictionmg sin=0

Fnet =ma

mg sin=ma

Therefore:

a=gsin

R=mgcos

F friction=mg sin

If

=30 ,

If

a=10 sin30

a=10 sin60

a=5 ms2
a=8.66 ms2

129

=60 ,

## Chapter 2 Force and Motion

Example:
A workman pushes a carton of mass 50 kg
up an inclined plane into a lorry. The inclined

## plane makes an angle of 45

with
the horizontal floor and the frictional
force
between the inclined plane and the carton is
135 N. If the workman pushes the carton
with a force of 500 N
(a) Can the carton move
up the inclined plane?
(b) What is the acceleration of the carton?
Solution
(a) Applied force on the carton towards
the top of the inclined plane, F =
500 N.
- Opposing force along the entire
length of the inclined plane
= component of weight down the plane
+ frictional force
= 500 sin 45 + 135 N
= 488.6 N
- The carton is able to move upwards
because the applied force, F = 500 N is larger than the
opposing downward force.
(b)

## The resultant force acting on an inclined plane,

= 500 N 488.6 N
= 11.4 N
From formula; F = ma

a=

F
m

11.4
50

0.23 ms2
Three Forces in Equilibrium
Figure shows a wooden block supported by two strings. The tensions of
the strings are T1 and T2 respectively. Since the wooden block is in
equilibrium, the resultant forces is zero.
Hence,
by taking the horizontal components of forces, T1 sin = T2
sin
by taking the vertical components,W = T1 cos + T2 cos

130

## Chapter 2 Force and Motion

131

T1 cos + T2 cos

T2

T1

T1 sin

T2 sin

W
Problems involving three forces in equilibrium can be solved either by:
(a) Method A: Resolution of forces
(b) Method B: Drawing a closed triangle of forces
Example
Figure shows an aeroplane model with a mass of 500 g is hung from a
ceiling with two strings.

## Calculate the tension on each string. Assume that the system is in

equilibrium.
[g = 9.8 ms-2]
Solution
Weight of aeroplane, W = 0.5 x 9.8
= 4.9 N
By resolve the forces vertically,

T sin 30
+ T sin 30
= 4.9
2 T sin 30 = 4.9
2 T (0.5) = 4.9
T = 4.9 N for each string.

Example:
A mirror of weight 12 N is hung on the wall using a string as shown.
Draw a scale drawing of a triangle of forces to determine
the tension, T in the string.
(Use the scale 1 cm : 2N)
Solution

## Measure the length of BC.

BC= 3.4 cm

Tension, T = 3.4 2N

6.8 N