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Chap2 Beta1313 Part i

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DC circuit

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7 visualizzazioni85 pagineChap2 Beta1313 Part i

DC circuit

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CIRCUITS

(BASIC LAWS)

Chapter 2

DC SOURCE

Dc a constant flow of electric charge with time.

supply fixed voltage and fixed current respectively.

Ideal source do not exist. It use to simplify circuit

analysis.

Chapter 2

DC SOURCE contd.

There are two types of voltage sources independent

and dependent voltage source.

Dependent voltage source - the voltage produced may

depend on some other circuit variable such as current or

voltage.

Chapter 2

DC SOURCE contd.

this connection the voltage value is added.

cause component failure.

Chapter 2

DC SOURCE contd.

There are two types of current sources independent and dependent current source.

produced may depend on some other circuit

variable such as current or voltage.

Chapter 2

DC SOURCE contd.

series.

Chapter 2

DC SOURCE contd.

in parallel.

Chapter 2

OHMS LAW

Free electrons that flow through a material will collide

with the materials atoms.

This collision will cause the electrons to loose some

energy and thus restrict its movement.

The more collisions, the more the flow of electrons is

restricted.

This restriction varies and is determined by the type of

material.

The property of material that restricts the flow of

electrons known as resistance.

Chapter 2

Conductor (e.g. wires) have very low resistance

(< 0.1 ) that can usually be ignored.

It is assumed that wires have zero resistance.

Insulators (e.g. air) have very large resistance

(> 50M ).

Chapter 2

current is known as resistor.

Resistors have medium range of resistance and

must be accounted for in the circuit analysis.

Chapter 2

10

Chapter 2

11

Georg Simon Ohm (1787 1854) found the relationship

between current and voltage for a resistor. This

relationship known as Ohms law.

Ohms law the voltage v across a resistor is directly

proportional to the current i flowing through the resistor.

vi

v = mi

Chapter 2

12

of an element.

Only linear resistor obey the Ohms law.

Nonlinear does not.

Normally, resistor is assumed to be linear.

Chapter 2

13

v = iR

which is the mathematical form of Ohms law.

R is measured in the unit of ohms, designated

.

The resistance, R of an element denotes its

ability to resist the flow of electric current.

Chapter 2

14

v

R=

i

R can be ranged from zero to infinity.

Chapter 2

15

v = iR = 0

the current is not.

In practice, a short circuit is always a connecting

wire assumed to be a perfect conductor.

Chapter 2

16

i=0

voltage is not.

Chapter 2

17

Another quantity in circuit analysis conductance,

denoted by G.

1 i

G= =

R v

Conductance is a measure of how well an element will

conduct electric current.

Inverse of resistance.

Chapter 2

1S = 1

or siemens, S

= 1 A/V

18

or siemens. Example: 10 = 0.1 S

The power dissipate by the resistor can

expressed in term of R:

2

v

p = vi = i R =

R

2

Chapter 2

19

Or can also be expresses in term of G:

2

i

p = vi = v G =

G

2

positive.

Thus resistors always absorbed power from the circuit.

The direction of current and the polarity of voltage must

conform with the passive sign convention.

Current enter at positive sign - +v, +p

Current enter at negative sign - -v, -p

Chapter 2

20

RESISTOR

The resistor is far and away the simplest circuit element.

In a resistor, the voltage v is proportional to the current i,

with the constant of proportionality R known as the

resistance.

v i

v = iR

v

or R =

i

flow of electric current, it is measured in ohms ().

Chapter 2

21

RESISTOR contd.

Chapter 2

22

RESISTOR contd.

The 10% means the actual resistance is

between 900k and 1.1M .

Chapter 2

23

RESISTOR contd.

The 5% means the actual resistance is between

142.5k and 157.5k.

Chapter 2

24

RESISTOR contd.

The 5% means the actual resistance is between

3,135 and 3,465.

Chapter 2

25

EXAMPLE

1) An electric iron draws 2A at 120V. Find its resistance.

v 120

R= =

= 60

i

2

2) The essential of a toaster is an electrical element (a

resistor) that converts electrical energy to heat energy.

How much current is drawn by a toaster with

resistance 12 at 240V?

v 240

i= =

= 20 A

R

12

Chapter 2

26

conductance G and the power p.

Chapter 2

27

Solution:

The voltage across the resistor is the same as the source voltage

(30V) because the resistor and the voltage source are connected to

the same pair of terminals. Hence the current is

v 30

i= =

= 6mA

R 5k

The conductance is

1

1

G= =

= 0.2mS

R 5k

The power can be calculated in various ways

p = vi = 30(6m ) = 180mW

Chapter 2

28

or

or

or

v 2 302

p=

=

= 180mW

R

5k

Chapter 2

29

conductance G and the power p.

Answer:

20V, 100S, 40mW

Chapter 2

30

KIRCHHOFFS LAWS

The foundation of circuit analysis is:

The defining equations for circuit elements (e.g.

ohms law)

Kirchhoffs current law (KCL)

Kirchhoffs voltage law (KVL)

The defining equations tell how the voltage and current

within a circuit element are related.

Kirchhoffs laws tell us how the voltages and currents in

different branches are related.

Chapter 2

31

Kirchhoffs current law (KCL) that the algebraic sum of currents

entering a node (or a closed boundary) is zero.

N

=0

n =1

leaving the node as negative or vice versa.

Chapter 2

32

The sum of currents entering a node is equal to the sum of the

currents leaving a node.

Common sense:

All of the electrons have to go somewhere.

The current that goes in, has to come out some place.

Example:

Applying KCL:

4 + i = 5 + 11

thus, i = 12A

Chapter 2

33

Consider the following figure where all the current

source can be combined as in figure (b).

Chapter 2

34

Kirchhoffs voltage law (KVL) the algebraic sum of all

voltages around a closed path (or loop) is zero.

M

vm = 0

m =1

1.

2.

loop either clockwise / counterclockwise.

Check which terminal the loop (the red

arrow) encounter first,

a) If positive terminal then +v.

b) If negative terminal then v.

Chapter 2

35

Thus, KVL yields

v1 + v 2 + v 3 v 4 + v 5 = 0

rearranging terms gives

v 2 + v 3 + v 5 = v1 + v 4

When voltage sources are connected in series, KVL can

be applied to obtained the total voltage.

The combined voltage is the algebraic sum of the

voltages of the individual sources.

Chapter 2

36

Chapter 2

37

Much of the circuit analysis will be based on these three

laws.

Ohms Law

: v = iR

KCL

: in = 0

KVL

: vm = 0

These laws alone are sufficient to analyze many circuits.

Important notes:

If current enter at positive terminal

v = +(iR)

p = +(vi)

If current enter at negative terminal

v = -(iR)

p = -(vi)

Chapter 2

38

1. Determine the currents direction that enter and

leaving each node.

2. Assign the +ve and ve sign for each elements.

3. Obtain the voltage across each elements by

applying Ohms law. If the current flow through:

Positive terminal/sign, thus v = +iR

Negative terminal/sign, thus v = -iR

Choose the direction of loops either clockwise or

counterclockwise. Each loops must not overlapping.

Obtain the KVL equation based on the chosen loop

(clockwise or counterclockwise). If the loop enter:

Chapter 2

Positive terminal/sign, +v

Negative terminal/sign, -v

39

a current:

Enter a node, +i

Leaving a node, -i

Chapter 2

40

EXAMPLE

1)Find voltages v1 and v2 for the given circuit.

Chapter 2

41

v1 = 2i, v2 = -3i

Applying KVL around the loop gives

-20 + v1 v2 = 0

Chapter 2

(a)

(b)

42

-20 + 2i (-3i) = 0

Thus,

i = 4A

&

v2 = -12V

v1 = 8V

Chapter 2

43

EXAMPLE

2) Find voltages v1 and v2 for the given circuit.

Chapter 2

44

EXAMPLE

3) Find voltages vx and v0 for the given circuit.

Chapter 2

45

EXAMPLE

4) Find current and voltages for the given circuit.

Chapter 2

46

Recall: The current that pass through the series

elements has the same value.

Thus,

i1 = i2 = i3

Chapter 2

47

of the individual resistances.

N

Re q = R1 + R2 + ... + RN = Rn

n =1

Chapter 2

48

where

Chapter 2

Req = R1 + R2

49

v1 = iR1 ,

v2 = iR2

(2.1)

Chapter 2

50

KVL (clockwise):

v1 + v2 v = 0

(2.2)

v = v1+ v2 = i(R1 + R2)

or

Chapter 2

v

i=

R1 + R2

(2.3)

51

eq 2.3 into 2.1

R1

v1 =

v

R1 + R2

R2

v2 =

v

R1 + R2

division.

The source voltage v is divided among the resistors in

direct proportion to their resistances; the larger the

resistance, the larger the voltage drop.

Chapter 2

52

drops across them.

Chapter 2

53

where

1

1

1

=

+

Req R1 R2

Req

Chapter 2

R1R2

=

R1 + R2

54

v = i1R1 ,

v = i2R2

Chapter 2

55

or

v

i1 =

R1

v

i2 =

R2

(2.4)

i = i1 + i2

(2.5)

Substituting eq 2.4 into 2.5, yields

1

R1 + R2

v

v

1

i=

+

=v

+

=v

R1 R2

R1 R2

R1R2

Chapter 2

(2.6)

56

From eq 2.6

R1R2

v =i

R1 + R2

(2.7)

iR2

i1 =

R1 + R2

iR1

i2 =

R1 + R2

(2.8)

Chapter 2

57

Impotant notes:

Notice that larger current flows through smaller

resistance.

In electrical circuit, current will always flow through a

path with least resistance.

If there is a short circuit, the entire current will flow

through the short circuit.

Chapter 2

58

EXAMPLE

Answer: Req = 14.4

Chapter 2

59

Answer: Req = 11.2

Chapter 2

60

2)

Answer: Rab = 11

Chapter 2

61

2)

Answer: Rab = 9.632

Chapter 2

&

i = 12.458A

62

WYE-DELTA TRANSFORMATIONS

Some resistors are combined neither in series

nor parallel. For example,

Chapter 2

63

These type of connection can be simplified by using

three-terminal equivalent network.

Chapter 2

64

pi ().

The wye network can be converted into the delta

network and vice versa.

This conversion will simplify the circuit analysis.

Note: This conversion did not take anything out

of the circuit or put in anything new.

Chapter 2

65

Delta-Wye conversion:

Rb Rc

R1 =

Ra + Rb + Rc

Ra Rc

R2 =

Ra + Rb + Rc

Ra Rb

R3 =

Ra + Rb + Rc

Chapter 2

66

Wye-Delta conversion:

Ra =

R1

R1R2 + R2R3 + R3R1

Rb =

R2

R1R2 + R2R3 + R3R1

Rc =

R3

Chapter 2

67

EXAMPLE

1) Convert the delta network to wye network

Chapter 2

68

RbRc

10(25)

250

R1 =

=

=

= 5

Ra + Rb + Rc 15 + 10 + 25 50

RaRc

25(15)

375

=

=

= 7.5

R2 =

Ra + Rb + Rc 15 + 10 + 25 50

Ra Rb

15(10)

150

R3 =

=

=

= 3

Ra + Rb + Rc 15 + 10 + 25 50

Chapter 2

69

Chapter 2

70

Answer: Ra = 140 ;

Chapter 2

Rb = 70 ;

Rc = 35

71

below.

Chapter 2

72

Chapter 2

&

i = 12.458A

73

CAPACITOR

can be retrieved at later time. It is a passive elements.

Also called storage elements. The energy is stored in its electric

field.

The unit to measure the capacitance of a capacitor is farad (F).

Chapter 2

74

CAPACITOR contd.

Capacitor acts as a storage element:

Chapter 2

1.

and light bulb. The way the capacitor functions

is by acting as a very low resistance load when

the circuit is initially turned on. Note: In electrical

circuit, current will always flow through a path

with least resistance

2.

almost 0. Since electricity takes the path of

least resistance, almost all the electricity flows

through the capacitor, not the resistor, as the

resistor has considerably higher resistance.

75

CAPACITOR contd.

Chapter 2

3.

as it gains more and more charge. As the

resistance of the capacitor climbs, electricity

begins to flow not only to the capacitor, but

through the resistor as well.

4.

battery, meaning it is fully charged, it will not

allow any current to pass through it. As a

capacitor charges its resistance increases and

becomes effectively infinite (open connection)

and all the electricity flows through the resistor.

76

CAPACITOR contd.

Chapter 2

5.

capacitor will act as a voltage source itself.

6.

to drop, and so does its voltage. This means

less current flowing through the resistor.

77

CAPACITOR contd.

7.

Chapter 2

current will flow.

78

CAPACITOR contd.

Chapter 2

79

INDUCTOR

It is a passive element designed to store energy in its

magnetic field.

Inductor consists of a coil of conducting wire.

Chapter 2

80

INDUCTOR contd.

Inductance is measured in henrys (H).

Example:

What you see here is a battery, a light bulb, a coil of wire around

a piece of iron (yellow) and a switch. The coil of wire is an

inductor.

Chapter 2

81

INDUCTOR contd.

Without the inductor in this circuit, what you would

have is a normal flashlight. You close the switch and

the bulb lights up.

If there is an inductor, when the switch is closed the

bulb burns brightly and then gets dimmer. When the

switch is opened, the bulb burns very brightly and

then quickly goes out.

The reason for this strange behavior is the inductor.

When current first starts flowing in the coil, the coil

wants to build up a magnetic field.

Chapter 2

82

INDUCTOR contd.

While the field is building, the coil inhibits the flow of

current. Once the field is built, current can flow

normally through the wire (coil).

A large amount of current will flow through this coil let

only a small amount of current flow to the light bulb.

This is why the bulb gets dimmer.

When the switch gets opened, the magnetic field

around the coil keeps current flowing in the coil until

the field collapses. This current keeps the bulb lit for a

period of time even though the switch is open. In

other words, an inductor can store energy in its

magnetic field, and an inductor tends to resist any

change in the amount of current flowing through it.

Chapter 2

83

INDUCTOR contd.

Analogy:

One way to visualize the action of an inductor is to

imagine a narrow channel with water flowing through it,

and a heavy water wheel that has its paddles dipping

into the channel. Imagine that the water in the channel is

not flowing initially. Now you try to start the water

flowing. The paddle wheel will tend to prevent the water

from flowing until it has come up to speed with the water.

If you then try to stop the flow of water in the channel,

the spinning water wheel will try to keep the water

moving until its speed of rotation slows back down to the

speed of the water. An inductor is doing the same thing

with the flow of electrons in a wire - an inductor resists a

change

in

the

flow

of

electrons.

Chapter 2

84

INDUCTOR contd.

Chapter 2

85