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CHAPTER 2:

DIRECT CURRENT (DC)


CIRCUITS
(BASIC LAWS)

Chapter 2

DC SOURCE
Dc a constant flow of electric charge with time.

For ideal voltage source and ideal current source, they


supply fixed voltage and fixed current respectively.
Ideal source do not exist. It use to simplify circuit
analysis.
Chapter 2

DC SOURCE contd.
There are two types of voltage sources independent
and dependent voltage source.
Dependent voltage source - the voltage produced may
depend on some other circuit variable such as current or
voltage.

The sign of voltage can be negative.

Chapter 2

DC SOURCE contd.

Voltage source can be connected in series. In


this connection the voltage value is added.

But can not connect in parallel. Could easily


cause component failure.
Chapter 2

DC SOURCE contd.

There are two types of current sources independent and dependent current source.

Dependent current source - the current


produced may depend on some other circuit
variable such as current or voltage.
Chapter 2

DC SOURCE contd.

The sign of current can be negative.

Ideal current sources cannot be connected in


series.

Could easily cause component failure (smoke).


Chapter 2

DC SOURCE contd.

However it is allowed if the sources is connected


in parallel.

Chapter 2

OHMS LAW
Free electrons that flow through a material will collide
with the materials atoms.
This collision will cause the electrons to loose some
energy and thus restrict its movement.
The more collisions, the more the flow of electrons is
restricted.
This restriction varies and is determined by the type of
material.
The property of material that restricts the flow of
electrons known as resistance.
Chapter 2

OHMS LAW contd.

Resistance is represented by symbol R.


Conductor (e.g. wires) have very low resistance
(< 0.1 ) that can usually be ignored.
It is assumed that wires have zero resistance.
Insulators (e.g. air) have very large resistance
(> 50M ).

Chapter 2

OHMS LAW contd.

The circuit element used to resist the flow of


current is known as resistor.
Resistors have medium range of resistance and
must be accounted for in the circuit analysis.

Chapter 2

10

OHMS LAW contd.

Resistor is the simplest passive element.


Chapter 2

11

OHMS LAW contd.


Georg Simon Ohm (1787 1854) found the relationship
between current and voltage for a resistor. This
relationship known as Ohms law.
Ohms law the voltage v across a resistor is directly
proportional to the current i flowing through the resistor.

vi
v = mi

Chapter 2

12

OHMS LAW contd.

The slope m, is equal to the resistance, R


of an element.
Only linear resistor obey the Ohms law.
Nonlinear does not.
Normally, resistor is assumed to be linear.

Chapter 2

13

OHMS LAW contd.

Thus the equation becomes:

v = iR
which is the mathematical form of Ohms law.
R is measured in the unit of ohms, designated
.
The resistance, R of an element denotes its
ability to resist the flow of electric current.
Chapter 2

14

OHMS LAW contd.

Can also be written as:

v
R=
i
R can be ranged from zero to infinity.

Chapter 2

15

OHMS LAW contd.

An element with R = 0 short circuit.

v = iR = 0

In short circuit, the voltage is always zero but


the current is not.
In practice, a short circuit is always a connecting
wire assumed to be a perfect conductor.
Chapter 2

16

OHMS LAW contd.

An element with R = open circuit.

i=0

In open circuit, the current is always zero but the


voltage is not.

Chapter 2

17

OHMS LAW contd.


Another quantity in circuit analysis conductance,
denoted by G.

1 i
G= =
R v
Conductance is a measure of how well an element will
conduct electric current.
Inverse of resistance.

Chapter 2

1S = 1

The unit of conductance mho,

or siemens, S

= 1 A/V
18

OHMS LAW contd.

The same resistance can be expressed in ohm


or siemens. Example: 10 = 0.1 S
The power dissipate by the resistor can
expressed in term of R:
2

v
p = vi = i R =
R
2

Chapter 2

19

OHMS LAW contd.


Or can also be expresses in term of G:
2

i
p = vi = v G =
G
2

Note: The power dissipated in a resistor is always


positive.
Thus resistors always absorbed power from the circuit.
The direction of current and the polarity of voltage must
conform with the passive sign convention.
Current enter at positive sign - +v, +p
Current enter at negative sign - -v, -p
Chapter 2

20

RESISTOR
The resistor is far and away the simplest circuit element.
In a resistor, the voltage v is proportional to the current i,
with the constant of proportionality R known as the
resistance.
v i
v = iR
v
or R =
i

Resistor is an element denotes its ability to resist the


flow of electric current, it is measured in ohms ().
Chapter 2

21

RESISTOR contd.

Chapter 2

22

RESISTOR contd.

The above resistance is 1,000,000 or 1M.


The 10% means the actual resistance is
between 900k and 1.1M .
Chapter 2

23

RESISTOR contd.

The above resistance is 150,000 or 150k.


The 5% means the actual resistance is between
142.5k and 157.5k.
Chapter 2

24

RESISTOR contd.

The above resistance is 3,300 or 3.3k.


The 5% means the actual resistance is between
3,135 and 3,465.
Chapter 2

25

EXAMPLE
1) An electric iron draws 2A at 120V. Find its resistance.

v 120
R= =
= 60
i
2
2) The essential of a toaster is an electrical element (a
resistor) that converts electrical energy to heat energy.
How much current is drawn by a toaster with
resistance 12 at 240V?

v 240
i= =
= 20 A
R
12
Chapter 2

26

3) In the given circuit, calculate the current i, the


conductance G and the power p.

Chapter 2

27

Solution:
The voltage across the resistor is the same as the source voltage
(30V) because the resistor and the voltage source are connected to
the same pair of terminals. Hence the current is

v 30
i= =
= 6mA
R 5k
The conductance is

1
1
G= =
= 0.2mS
R 5k
The power can be calculated in various ways

p = vi = 30(6m ) = 180mW

Chapter 2

28

or

p = i 2R = (6m )2 (5k ) = 180mW

or

p = v 2G = 302 (0.2m ) = 180mW

or

v 2 302
p=
=
= 180mW
R
5k
Chapter 2

29

4) For the given circuit, calculate the voltage v, the


conductance G and the power p.

Answer:
20V, 100S, 40mW

Chapter 2

30

KIRCHHOFFS LAWS
The foundation of circuit analysis is:
The defining equations for circuit elements (e.g.
ohms law)
Kirchhoffs current law (KCL)
Kirchhoffs voltage law (KVL)
The defining equations tell how the voltage and current
within a circuit element are related.
Kirchhoffs laws tell us how the voltages and currents in
different branches are related.

Chapter 2

31

KIRCHHOFFS LAWS contd.


Kirchhoffs current law (KCL) that the algebraic sum of currents
entering a node (or a closed boundary) is zero.
N

=0

N = number of branches connected to a node.

n =1

One can assume that currents entering a node as positive while


leaving the node as negative or vice versa.

Chapter 2

32

KIRCHHOFFS LAWS contd.


The sum of currents entering a node is equal to the sum of the
currents leaving a node.
Common sense:
All of the electrons have to go somewhere.
The current that goes in, has to come out some place.
Example:
Applying KCL:
4 + i = 5 + 11
thus, i = 12A

Chapter 2

33

KIRCHHOFFS LAWS contd.


Consider the following figure where all the current
source can be combined as in figure (b).

Chapter 2

34

KIRCHHOFFS LAWS contd.


Kirchhoffs voltage law (KVL) the algebraic sum of all
voltages around a closed path (or loop) is zero.
M

vm = 0

M = number of voltages on the loop.

m =1

1.
2.

Start at any branch and go around the


loop either clockwise / counterclockwise.
Check which terminal the loop (the red
arrow) encounter first,
a) If positive terminal then +v.
b) If negative terminal then v.

Chapter 2

35

KIRCHHOFFS LAWS contd.


Thus, KVL yields

v1 + v 2 + v 3 v 4 + v 5 = 0
rearranging terms gives

v 2 + v 3 + v 5 = v1 + v 4
When voltage sources are connected in series, KVL can
be applied to obtained the total voltage.
The combined voltage is the algebraic sum of the
voltages of the individual sources.
Chapter 2

36

KIRCHHOFFS LAWS contd.

Chapter 2

37

KIRCHHOFFS LAWS contd.


Much of the circuit analysis will be based on these three
laws.
Ohms Law
: v = iR
KCL
: in = 0
KVL
: vm = 0
These laws alone are sufficient to analyze many circuits.
Important notes:
If current enter at positive terminal
v = +(iR)
p = +(vi)
If current enter at negative terminal
v = -(iR)
p = -(vi)
Chapter 2

38

KIRCHHOFFS LAWS contd.

Steps for circuit analysis:


1. Determine the currents direction that enter and
leaving each node.
2. Assign the +ve and ve sign for each elements.
3. Obtain the voltage across each elements by
applying Ohms law. If the current flow through:
Positive terminal/sign, thus v = +iR
Negative terminal/sign, thus v = -iR

4. Apply the KVL:


Choose the direction of loops either clockwise or
counterclockwise. Each loops must not overlapping.
Obtain the KVL equation based on the chosen loop
(clockwise or counterclockwise). If the loop enter:
Chapter 2

Positive terminal/sign, +v
Negative terminal/sign, -v

39

KIRCHHOFFS LAWS contd.

5. For KCL, obtain the equation by assuming if


a current:
Enter a node, +i
Leaving a node, -i

Chapter 2

40

EXAMPLE
1)Find voltages v1 and v2 for the given circuit.

Chapter 2

41

From Ohms law,


v1 = 2i, v2 = -3i
Applying KVL around the loop gives
-20 + v1 v2 = 0

Chapter 2

(a)

(b)

42

Substituting equation a into b


-20 + 2i (-3i) = 0
Thus,

i = 4A

Substituting i into equations a gives


&
v2 = -12V
v1 = 8V

Chapter 2

43

EXAMPLE
2) Find voltages v1 and v2 for the given circuit.

Ans: 12V & -6V


Chapter 2

44

EXAMPLE
3) Find voltages vx and v0 for the given circuit.

Ans: 10V & -5V


Chapter 2

45

EXAMPLE
4) Find current and voltages for the given circuit.

Ans: i1 = 3A, i2 = 2A, i3 = 1A, v1 = 24V, v2 = 6V, v3 = 6V


Chapter 2

46

SERIES RESISTORS AND VOLTAGE DIVISION


Recall: The current that pass through the series
elements has the same value.

Thus,
i1 = i2 = i3

Chapter 2

47

SERIES RESISTORS AND VOLTAGE DIVISION contd.

Any number of resistors connected in series is the sum


of the individual resistances.
N

Re q = R1 + R2 + ... + RN = Rn
n =1

N = number of resistors in series

Chapter 2

48

SERIES RESISTORS AND VOLTAGE DIVISION contd.

Consider the following figure:

where

Chapter 2

Req = R1 + R2

49

SERIES RESISTORS AND VOLTAGE DIVISION contd.

Consider the following figure:

Applying Ohms law to each of the resistors,


v1 = iR1 ,
v2 = iR2
(2.1)
Chapter 2

50

SERIES RESISTORS AND VOLTAGE DIVISION contd.

KVL (clockwise):
v1 + v2 v = 0

(2.2)

Combining both the above equation,


v = v1+ v2 = i(R1 + R2)
or

Chapter 2

v
i=
R1 + R2

(2.3)

51

SERIES RESISTORS AND VOLTAGE DIVISION contd.

To determine the voltage across each resistor, substitute


eq 2.3 into 2.1
R1
v1 =
v
R1 + R2

R2
v2 =
v
R1 + R2

The above equation is called the principle of voltage


division.
The source voltage v is divided among the resistors in
direct proportion to their resistances; the larger the
resistance, the larger the voltage drop.

Chapter 2

52

PARALLEL RESISTORS AND CURRENT DIVISION

Note that elements in parallel have the same voltage


drops across them.

Chapter 2

53

PARALLEL RESISTORS AND CURRENT DIVISION contd.

Consider the following figure:

where

1
1
1
=
+
Req R1 R2
Req

Chapter 2

R1R2
=
R1 + R2
54

PARALLEL RESISTORS AND CURRENT DIVISION contd.

Consider the following figure:

Applying Ohms law to each of the resistors,


v = i1R1 ,
v = i2R2
Chapter 2

55

PARALLEL RESISTORS AND CURRENT DIVISION contd.

or

v
i1 =
R1

v
i2 =
R2

(2.4)

Applying KCL at node a gives the total current i as


i = i1 + i2
(2.5)
Substituting eq 2.4 into 2.5, yields

1
R1 + R2
v
v
1
i=
+
=v
+
=v

R1 R2
R1 R2
R1R2

Chapter 2

(2.6)

56

PARALLEL RESISTORS AND CURRENT DIVISION contd.

From eq 2.6

R1R2
v =i

R1 + R2

(2.7)

Substituting eq 2.7 into 2.4 gives,

iR2
i1 =
R1 + R2

iR1
i2 =
R1 + R2

(2.8)

Equation 2.8 is known as the principle of current division.

Chapter 2

57

PARALLEL RESISTORS AND CURRENT DIVISION contd.

Impotant notes:
Notice that larger current flows through smaller
resistance.
In electrical circuit, current will always flow through a
path with least resistance.
If there is a short circuit, the entire current will flow
through the short circuit.

Chapter 2

58

EXAMPLE

1) Find Req for the above figure.


Answer: Req = 14.4
Chapter 2

59

2) Find Req for the above figure.


Answer: Req = 11.2
Chapter 2

60

2)

Find Rab for the above figure.

Answer: Rab = 11
Chapter 2

61

2)

Find Rab and current i for the above figure.


Answer: Rab = 9.632

Chapter 2

&

i = 12.458A
62

WYE-DELTA TRANSFORMATIONS
Some resistors are combined neither in series
nor parallel. For example,

Chapter 2

63

WYE-DELTA TRANSFORMATIONS contd.


These type of connection can be simplified by using
three-terminal equivalent network.

Chapter 2

64

WYE-DELTA TRANSFORMATIONS contd.

The wye (Y) / tee (T) network and the delta () /


pi ().
The wye network can be converted into the delta
network and vice versa.
This conversion will simplify the circuit analysis.
Note: This conversion did not take anything out
of the circuit or put in anything new.
Chapter 2

65

WYE-DELTA TRANSFORMATIONS contd.


Delta-Wye conversion:

Rb Rc
R1 =
Ra + Rb + Rc
Ra Rc
R2 =
Ra + Rb + Rc

Ra Rb
R3 =
Ra + Rb + Rc
Chapter 2

66

WYE-DELTA TRANSFORMATIONS contd.


Wye-Delta conversion:

R1R2 + R2R3 + R3R1


Ra =
R1
R1R2 + R2R3 + R3R1
Rb =
R2
R1R2 + R2R3 + R3R1
Rc =
R3
Chapter 2

67

EXAMPLE
1) Convert the delta network to wye network

Chapter 2

68

RbRc
10(25)
250
R1 =
=
=
= 5
Ra + Rb + Rc 15 + 10 + 25 50

RaRc
25(15)
375
=
=
= 7.5
R2 =
Ra + Rb + Rc 15 + 10 + 25 50

Ra Rb
15(10)
150
R3 =
=
=
= 3
Ra + Rb + Rc 15 + 10 + 25 50
Chapter 2

69

Converted delta to wye network:

Chapter 2

70

2) Convert the wye network to delta network

Answer: Ra = 140 ;
Chapter 2

Rb = 70 ;

Rc = 35
71

3) Obtain the equivalent resistance Rab for the circuit


below.

Chapter 2

72

Answer: Rab = 9.632


Chapter 2

&

i = 12.458A
73

CAPACITOR

Unlike resistor which dissipate energy, capacitor store energy, which


can be retrieved at later time. It is a passive elements.
Also called storage elements. The energy is stored in its electric
field.
The unit to measure the capacitance of a capacitor is farad (F).
Chapter 2

74

CAPACITOR contd.
Capacitor acts as a storage element:

Chapter 2

1.

There is a capacitor in parallel with the resistor


and light bulb. The way the capacitor functions
is by acting as a very low resistance load when
the circuit is initially turned on. Note: In electrical
circuit, current will always flow through a path
with least resistance

2.

Initially, the capacitor has a very low resistance,


almost 0. Since electricity takes the path of
least resistance, almost all the electricity flows
through the capacitor, not the resistor, as the
resistor has considerably higher resistance.

75

CAPACITOR contd.

Chapter 2

3.

As a capacitor charges, its resistance increases


as it gains more and more charge. As the
resistance of the capacitor climbs, electricity
begins to flow not only to the capacitor, but
through the resistor as well.

4.

Once the capacitor's voltage equals that of the


battery, meaning it is fully charged, it will not
allow any current to pass through it. As a
capacitor charges its resistance increases and
becomes effectively infinite (open connection)
and all the electricity flows through the resistor.
76

CAPACITOR contd.

Chapter 2

5.

Once the voltage source is disconnected, the


capacitor will act as a voltage source itself.

6.

As time goes on, the capacitor's charge begins


to drop, and so does its voltage. This means
less current flowing through the resistor.

77

CAPACITOR contd.
7.

Chapter 2

Once the capacitor is fully discharged, no


current will flow.

78

CAPACITOR contd.

Chapter 2

79

INDUCTOR
It is a passive element designed to store energy in its
magnetic field.
Inductor consists of a coil of conducting wire.

Chapter 2

80

INDUCTOR contd.
Inductance is measured in henrys (H).

Example:
What you see here is a battery, a light bulb, a coil of wire around
a piece of iron (yellow) and a switch. The coil of wire is an
inductor.
Chapter 2

81

INDUCTOR contd.
Without the inductor in this circuit, what you would
have is a normal flashlight. You close the switch and
the bulb lights up.
If there is an inductor, when the switch is closed the
bulb burns brightly and then gets dimmer. When the
switch is opened, the bulb burns very brightly and
then quickly goes out.
The reason for this strange behavior is the inductor.
When current first starts flowing in the coil, the coil
wants to build up a magnetic field.

Chapter 2

82

INDUCTOR contd.
While the field is building, the coil inhibits the flow of
current. Once the field is built, current can flow
normally through the wire (coil).
A large amount of current will flow through this coil let
only a small amount of current flow to the light bulb.
This is why the bulb gets dimmer.
When the switch gets opened, the magnetic field
around the coil keeps current flowing in the coil until
the field collapses. This current keeps the bulb lit for a
period of time even though the switch is open. In
other words, an inductor can store energy in its
magnetic field, and an inductor tends to resist any
change in the amount of current flowing through it.
Chapter 2

83

INDUCTOR contd.
Analogy:
One way to visualize the action of an inductor is to
imagine a narrow channel with water flowing through it,
and a heavy water wheel that has its paddles dipping
into the channel. Imagine that the water in the channel is
not flowing initially. Now you try to start the water
flowing. The paddle wheel will tend to prevent the water
from flowing until it has come up to speed with the water.
If you then try to stop the flow of water in the channel,
the spinning water wheel will try to keep the water
moving until its speed of rotation slows back down to the
speed of the water. An inductor is doing the same thing
with the flow of electrons in a wire - an inductor resists a
change
in
the
flow
of
electrons.

Chapter 2

84

INDUCTOR contd.

Chapter 2

85