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# CHAPTER 2:

## DIRECT CURRENT (DC)

CIRCUITS
(BASIC LAWS)

Chapter 2

DC SOURCE
Dc a constant flow of electric charge with time.

## For ideal voltage source and ideal current source, they

supply fixed voltage and fixed current respectively.
Ideal source do not exist. It use to simplify circuit
analysis.
Chapter 2

DC SOURCE contd.
There are two types of voltage sources independent
and dependent voltage source.
Dependent voltage source - the voltage produced may
depend on some other circuit variable such as current or
voltage.

Chapter 2

DC SOURCE contd.

## Voltage source can be connected in series. In

this connection the voltage value is added.

## But can not connect in parallel. Could easily

cause component failure.
Chapter 2

DC SOURCE contd.

There are two types of current sources independent and dependent current source.

## Dependent current source - the current

produced may depend on some other circuit
variable such as current or voltage.
Chapter 2

DC SOURCE contd.

series.

Chapter 2

DC SOURCE contd.

## However it is allowed if the sources is connected

in parallel.

Chapter 2

OHMS LAW
Free electrons that flow through a material will collide
with the materials atoms.
This collision will cause the electrons to loose some
energy and thus restrict its movement.
The more collisions, the more the flow of electrons is
restricted.
This restriction varies and is determined by the type of
material.
The property of material that restricts the flow of
electrons known as resistance.
Chapter 2

## Resistance is represented by symbol R.

Conductor (e.g. wires) have very low resistance
(< 0.1 ) that can usually be ignored.
It is assumed that wires have zero resistance.
Insulators (e.g. air) have very large resistance
(> 50M ).

Chapter 2

## The circuit element used to resist the flow of

current is known as resistor.
Resistors have medium range of resistance and
must be accounted for in the circuit analysis.

Chapter 2

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Chapter 2

11

## OHMS LAW contd.

Georg Simon Ohm (1787 1854) found the relationship
between current and voltage for a resistor. This
relationship known as Ohms law.
Ohms law the voltage v across a resistor is directly
proportional to the current i flowing through the resistor.

vi
v = mi

Chapter 2

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## The slope m, is equal to the resistance, R

of an element.
Only linear resistor obey the Ohms law.
Nonlinear does not.
Normally, resistor is assumed to be linear.

Chapter 2

13

## Thus the equation becomes:

v = iR
which is the mathematical form of Ohms law.
R is measured in the unit of ohms, designated
.
The resistance, R of an element denotes its
ability to resist the flow of electric current.
Chapter 2

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## Can also be written as:

v
R=
i
R can be ranged from zero to infinity.

Chapter 2

15

v = iR = 0

## In short circuit, the voltage is always zero but

the current is not.
In practice, a short circuit is always a connecting
wire assumed to be a perfect conductor.
Chapter 2

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i=0

voltage is not.

Chapter 2

17

## OHMS LAW contd.

Another quantity in circuit analysis conductance,
denoted by G.

1 i
G= =
R v
Conductance is a measure of how well an element will
conduct electric current.
Inverse of resistance.

Chapter 2

1S = 1

or siemens, S

= 1 A/V
18

## The same resistance can be expressed in ohm

or siemens. Example: 10 = 0.1 S
The power dissipate by the resistor can
expressed in term of R:
2

v
p = vi = i R =
R
2

Chapter 2

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## OHMS LAW contd.

Or can also be expresses in term of G:
2

i
p = vi = v G =
G
2

## Note: The power dissipated in a resistor is always

positive.
Thus resistors always absorbed power from the circuit.
The direction of current and the polarity of voltage must
conform with the passive sign convention.
Current enter at positive sign - +v, +p
Current enter at negative sign - -v, -p
Chapter 2

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RESISTOR
The resistor is far and away the simplest circuit element.
In a resistor, the voltage v is proportional to the current i,
with the constant of proportionality R known as the
resistance.
v i
v = iR
v
or R =
i

## Resistor is an element denotes its ability to resist the

flow of electric current, it is measured in ohms ().
Chapter 2

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RESISTOR contd.

Chapter 2

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RESISTOR contd.

## The above resistance is 1,000,000 or 1M.

The 10% means the actual resistance is
between 900k and 1.1M .
Chapter 2

23

RESISTOR contd.

## The above resistance is 150,000 or 150k.

The 5% means the actual resistance is between
142.5k and 157.5k.
Chapter 2

24

RESISTOR contd.

## The above resistance is 3,300 or 3.3k.

The 5% means the actual resistance is between
3,135 and 3,465.
Chapter 2

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EXAMPLE
1) An electric iron draws 2A at 120V. Find its resistance.

v 120
R= =
= 60
i
2
2) The essential of a toaster is an electrical element (a
resistor) that converts electrical energy to heat energy.
How much current is drawn by a toaster with
resistance 12 at 240V?

v 240
i= =
= 20 A
R
12
Chapter 2

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## 3) In the given circuit, calculate the current i, the

conductance G and the power p.

Chapter 2

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Solution:
The voltage across the resistor is the same as the source voltage
(30V) because the resistor and the voltage source are connected to
the same pair of terminals. Hence the current is

v 30
i= =
= 6mA
R 5k
The conductance is

1
1
G= =
= 0.2mS
R 5k
The power can be calculated in various ways

p = vi = 30(6m ) = 180mW

Chapter 2

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or

or

or

v 2 302
p=
=
= 180mW
R
5k
Chapter 2

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## 4) For the given circuit, calculate the voltage v, the

conductance G and the power p.

20V, 100S, 40mW

Chapter 2

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KIRCHHOFFS LAWS
The foundation of circuit analysis is:
The defining equations for circuit elements (e.g.
ohms law)
Kirchhoffs current law (KCL)
Kirchhoffs voltage law (KVL)
The defining equations tell how the voltage and current
within a circuit element are related.
Kirchhoffs laws tell us how the voltages and currents in
different branches are related.

Chapter 2

31

## KIRCHHOFFS LAWS contd.

Kirchhoffs current law (KCL) that the algebraic sum of currents
entering a node (or a closed boundary) is zero.
N

=0

n =1

## One can assume that currents entering a node as positive while

leaving the node as negative or vice versa.

Chapter 2

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## KIRCHHOFFS LAWS contd.

The sum of currents entering a node is equal to the sum of the
currents leaving a node.
Common sense:
All of the electrons have to go somewhere.
The current that goes in, has to come out some place.
Example:
Applying KCL:
4 + i = 5 + 11
thus, i = 12A

Chapter 2

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## KIRCHHOFFS LAWS contd.

Consider the following figure where all the current
source can be combined as in figure (b).

Chapter 2

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## KIRCHHOFFS LAWS contd.

Kirchhoffs voltage law (KVL) the algebraic sum of all
voltages around a closed path (or loop) is zero.
M

vm = 0

m =1

1.
2.

## Start at any branch and go around the

loop either clockwise / counterclockwise.
Check which terminal the loop (the red
arrow) encounter first,
a) If positive terminal then +v.
b) If negative terminal then v.

Chapter 2

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## KIRCHHOFFS LAWS contd.

Thus, KVL yields

v1 + v 2 + v 3 v 4 + v 5 = 0
rearranging terms gives

v 2 + v 3 + v 5 = v1 + v 4
When voltage sources are connected in series, KVL can
be applied to obtained the total voltage.
The combined voltage is the algebraic sum of the
voltages of the individual sources.
Chapter 2

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Chapter 2

37

## KIRCHHOFFS LAWS contd.

Much of the circuit analysis will be based on these three
laws.
Ohms Law
: v = iR
KCL
: in = 0
KVL
: vm = 0
These laws alone are sufficient to analyze many circuits.
Important notes:
If current enter at positive terminal
v = +(iR)
p = +(vi)
If current enter at negative terminal
v = -(iR)
p = -(vi)
Chapter 2

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## Steps for circuit analysis:

1. Determine the currents direction that enter and
leaving each node.
2. Assign the +ve and ve sign for each elements.
3. Obtain the voltage across each elements by
applying Ohms law. If the current flow through:
Positive terminal/sign, thus v = +iR
Negative terminal/sign, thus v = -iR

## 4. Apply the KVL:

Choose the direction of loops either clockwise or
counterclockwise. Each loops must not overlapping.
Obtain the KVL equation based on the chosen loop
(clockwise or counterclockwise). If the loop enter:
Chapter 2

Positive terminal/sign, +v
Negative terminal/sign, -v

39

## 5. For KCL, obtain the equation by assuming if

a current:
Enter a node, +i
Leaving a node, -i

Chapter 2

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EXAMPLE
1)Find voltages v1 and v2 for the given circuit.

Chapter 2

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## From Ohms law,

v1 = 2i, v2 = -3i
Applying KVL around the loop gives
-20 + v1 v2 = 0

Chapter 2

(a)

(b)

42

## Substituting equation a into b

-20 + 2i (-3i) = 0
Thus,

i = 4A

## Substituting i into equations a gives

&
v2 = -12V
v1 = 8V

Chapter 2

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EXAMPLE
2) Find voltages v1 and v2 for the given circuit.

## Ans: 12V & -6V

Chapter 2

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EXAMPLE
3) Find voltages vx and v0 for the given circuit.

## Ans: 10V & -5V

Chapter 2

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EXAMPLE
4) Find current and voltages for the given circuit.

Chapter 2

46

## SERIES RESISTORS AND VOLTAGE DIVISION

Recall: The current that pass through the series
elements has the same value.

Thus,
i1 = i2 = i3

Chapter 2

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## Any number of resistors connected in series is the sum

of the individual resistances.
N

Re q = R1 + R2 + ... + RN = Rn
n =1

Chapter 2

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where

Chapter 2

Req = R1 + R2

49

v1 = iR1 ,
v2 = iR2
(2.1)
Chapter 2

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KVL (clockwise):
v1 + v2 v = 0

(2.2)

## Combining both the above equation,

v = v1+ v2 = i(R1 + R2)
or

Chapter 2

v
i=
R1 + R2

(2.3)

51

eq 2.3 into 2.1
R1
v1 =
v
R1 + R2

R2
v2 =
v
R1 + R2

## The above equation is called the principle of voltage

division.
The source voltage v is divided among the resistors in
direct proportion to their resistances; the larger the
resistance, the larger the voltage drop.

Chapter 2

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## Note that elements in parallel have the same voltage

drops across them.

Chapter 2

53

where

1
1
1
=
+
Req R1 R2
Req

Chapter 2

R1R2
=
R1 + R2
54

v = i1R1 ,
v = i2R2
Chapter 2

55

or

v
i1 =
R1

v
i2 =
R2

(2.4)

## Applying KCL at node a gives the total current i as

i = i1 + i2
(2.5)
Substituting eq 2.4 into 2.5, yields

1
R1 + R2
v
v
1
i=
+
=v
+
=v

R1 R2
R1 R2
R1R2

Chapter 2

(2.6)

56

From eq 2.6

R1R2
v =i

R1 + R2

(2.7)

iR2
i1 =
R1 + R2

iR1
i2 =
R1 + R2

(2.8)

Chapter 2

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## PARALLEL RESISTORS AND CURRENT DIVISION contd.

Impotant notes:
Notice that larger current flows through smaller
resistance.
In electrical circuit, current will always flow through a
path with least resistance.
If there is a short circuit, the entire current will flow
through the short circuit.

Chapter 2

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EXAMPLE

Chapter 2

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Chapter 2

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2)

Chapter 2

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2)

## Find Rab and current i for the above figure.

Chapter 2

&

i = 12.458A
62

WYE-DELTA TRANSFORMATIONS
Some resistors are combined neither in series
nor parallel. For example,

Chapter 2

63

## WYE-DELTA TRANSFORMATIONS contd.

These type of connection can be simplified by using
three-terminal equivalent network.

Chapter 2

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## The wye (Y) / tee (T) network and the delta () /

pi ().
The wye network can be converted into the delta
network and vice versa.
This conversion will simplify the circuit analysis.
Note: This conversion did not take anything out
of the circuit or put in anything new.
Chapter 2

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## WYE-DELTA TRANSFORMATIONS contd.

Delta-Wye conversion:

Rb Rc
R1 =
Ra + Rb + Rc
Ra Rc
R2 =
Ra + Rb + Rc

Ra Rb
R3 =
Ra + Rb + Rc
Chapter 2

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## WYE-DELTA TRANSFORMATIONS contd.

Wye-Delta conversion:

## R1R2 + R2R3 + R3R1

Ra =
R1
R1R2 + R2R3 + R3R1
Rb =
R2
R1R2 + R2R3 + R3R1
Rc =
R3
Chapter 2

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EXAMPLE
1) Convert the delta network to wye network

Chapter 2

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RbRc
10(25)
250
R1 =
=
=
= 5
Ra + Rb + Rc 15 + 10 + 25 50

RaRc
25(15)
375
=
=
= 7.5
R2 =
Ra + Rb + Rc 15 + 10 + 25 50

Ra Rb
15(10)
150
R3 =
=
=
= 3
Ra + Rb + Rc 15 + 10 + 25 50
Chapter 2

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Chapter 2

70

Chapter 2

Rb = 70 ;

Rc = 35
71

below.

Chapter 2

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Chapter 2

&

i = 12.458A
73

CAPACITOR

## Unlike resistor which dissipate energy, capacitor store energy, which

can be retrieved at later time. It is a passive elements.
Also called storage elements. The energy is stored in its electric
field.
The unit to measure the capacitance of a capacitor is farad (F).
Chapter 2

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CAPACITOR contd.
Capacitor acts as a storage element:

Chapter 2

1.

## There is a capacitor in parallel with the resistor

and light bulb. The way the capacitor functions
is by acting as a very low resistance load when
the circuit is initially turned on. Note: In electrical
circuit, current will always flow through a path
with least resistance

2.

## Initially, the capacitor has a very low resistance,

almost 0. Since electricity takes the path of
least resistance, almost all the electricity flows
through the capacitor, not the resistor, as the
resistor has considerably higher resistance.

75

CAPACITOR contd.

Chapter 2

3.

## As a capacitor charges, its resistance increases

as it gains more and more charge. As the
resistance of the capacitor climbs, electricity
begins to flow not only to the capacitor, but
through the resistor as well.

4.

## Once the capacitor's voltage equals that of the

battery, meaning it is fully charged, it will not
allow any current to pass through it. As a
capacitor charges its resistance increases and
becomes effectively infinite (open connection)
and all the electricity flows through the resistor.
76

CAPACITOR contd.

Chapter 2

5.

## Once the voltage source is disconnected, the

capacitor will act as a voltage source itself.

6.

## As time goes on, the capacitor's charge begins

to drop, and so does its voltage. This means
less current flowing through the resistor.

77

CAPACITOR contd.
7.

Chapter 2

## Once the capacitor is fully discharged, no

current will flow.

78

CAPACITOR contd.

Chapter 2

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INDUCTOR
It is a passive element designed to store energy in its
magnetic field.
Inductor consists of a coil of conducting wire.

Chapter 2

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INDUCTOR contd.
Inductance is measured in henrys (H).

Example:
What you see here is a battery, a light bulb, a coil of wire around
a piece of iron (yellow) and a switch. The coil of wire is an
inductor.
Chapter 2

81

INDUCTOR contd.
Without the inductor in this circuit, what you would
have is a normal flashlight. You close the switch and
the bulb lights up.
If there is an inductor, when the switch is closed the
bulb burns brightly and then gets dimmer. When the
switch is opened, the bulb burns very brightly and
then quickly goes out.
The reason for this strange behavior is the inductor.
When current first starts flowing in the coil, the coil
wants to build up a magnetic field.

Chapter 2

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INDUCTOR contd.
While the field is building, the coil inhibits the flow of
current. Once the field is built, current can flow
normally through the wire (coil).
A large amount of current will flow through this coil let
only a small amount of current flow to the light bulb.
This is why the bulb gets dimmer.
When the switch gets opened, the magnetic field
around the coil keeps current flowing in the coil until
the field collapses. This current keeps the bulb lit for a
period of time even though the switch is open. In
other words, an inductor can store energy in its
magnetic field, and an inductor tends to resist any
change in the amount of current flowing through it.
Chapter 2

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INDUCTOR contd.
Analogy:
One way to visualize the action of an inductor is to
imagine a narrow channel with water flowing through it,
and a heavy water wheel that has its paddles dipping
into the channel. Imagine that the water in the channel is
not flowing initially. Now you try to start the water
flowing. The paddle wheel will tend to prevent the water
from flowing until it has come up to speed with the water.
If you then try to stop the flow of water in the channel,
the spinning water wheel will try to keep the water
moving until its speed of rotation slows back down to the
speed of the water. An inductor is doing the same thing
with the flow of electrons in a wire - an inductor resists a
change
in
the
flow
of
electrons.

Chapter 2

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INDUCTOR contd.

Chapter 2

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