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500 Drainage

Abstract
This section contains information on drainage for typical Company facilities. It
includes:

Specific suggestions for facility layout


A material selection spreadsheet
Calculation methods and design examples for hydraulic analysis
General guidelines for strength analysis
A discussion of septic system layout and design
Identification of model specification for construction

This section, however, does not cover drainage on offshore structures and is not
intended to be a comprehensive text on drainage, hydraulics, or waste treatment.

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Contents

Page

510

Introduction

500-3

511

Important Drainage Concepts

512

Surface and Underground Drainage

513

Regulations and Guidelines

514

Sources of Liquids

520

Surface Drainage

521

General Design Considerations

522

Tankfield Drainage

523

Process Area Drainage

524

Drainage of Other Areas

525

Ditches and Culverts

530

Underground Drainage

531

Layout and Design Considerations

532

Segregated Drainage Systems

533

Soil and Component Support Issues

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534

Hydraulic Analysis and Design

535

Drainage System Design Examples

536

Strength Analysis and Design

537

Component Design Considerations

538

Septic Tanks and Leach Fields

539

Material Considerations

540

Drain System Repair and Retrofit

541

Inspection/Detection for Existing Drains

542

Joint/Localized Area Repairs

543

Internal Sealing Systems

544

External Repairs

545

Complete Internal Relining

546

Complete Replacement

550

Containment and Leak Detection

551

Introduction/Summary

552

Double Pipe Systems

553

Trough Containment

554

Leakage Detection Systems

555

Enhanced Detection Only

560

Evaluation of Drainage Systems

561

General Evaluation

562

Recommended Procedure for New Drain Selection

570

Miscellaneous Data

571

Abbreviations, Acronyms, and Symbols

572

Rainfall Data

573

Model Specification

574

Standard Drawings and Engineering Forms

575

Standards and Codes

576

Sources of Information

577

Vendors and Contractors

578

Flat Slab Protection Recommendations

580

Library References

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500-63

500-76

500-78

500-102

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510 Introduction
While drainage is an important factor in most civil design work, it takes on added
importance for many Company projects. Safety and environmental issues involved
in the handling, processing and storing of hydrocarbons and other chemicals require
well-thought-out drainage systems.
This section of the manual discusses basic drainage concepts, offers recommendations for different applications, and serves as a useful reference tool in organizing
drainage design tasks.
For design considerations for drainage systems related to fire protection, see the
Fire Protection Manual, Section 1400.
Please note that this section references a variety of documents which may not be
locally available. If you need assistance in obtaining any of these references,
contact the corporate library at CTN 242-4755.

511 Important Drainage Concepts


Drainage is an important part of both fire and environmental protection. Keep these
concepts in mind during the layout and design phase of a project.
A good drainage design will:

Route flammable fluids away from ignition sources and into enclosed drains. It
also isolates flammable vapors in drainage piping from ignition sources.

Route burning liquids away from equipment that might rupture and add fuel to
the flames. It also minimizes exposure of adjacent property.

Get rid of rain water quickly and prevent flooding from outside sources.

Reduce air emissions from evaporation of volatile fluids by capturing them in


enclosed drains.

Keep wastes out of soil, groundwater, and surface water.

Segregate clean and contaminated water to minimize the amount of water that
must be treated.

Need little maintenance.

In todays regulatory and economic climate, leak-free drainage systems are almost
always essential. An investment in a leak-free drainage system today minimizes
cleanup costs tomorrow.

512 Surface and Underground Drainage


Surface drainage should route contaminated water and wastes into an underground
drainage system. The underground system will take those liquids to a treatment
facility (if necessary). Where there is no potential for contamination, liquids can
drain into open basins or sumps for later release or treatment.

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In areas where large spills of hazardous material are possible, use surface drainage
to route spills and firewater to open basins.

513 Regulations and Guidelines


You must follow all applicable government regulations including environmental
regulations concerning drainage. One of your early priorities is to identify applicable regulations, required permits, and government agencies with jurisdiction over
your work. Most facilities have a person who handles permitting. Depending on
your location and scope of work, getting permits might be quite easy or very laborious.
The extent of environmental protection required is closely tied to existing and anticipated government regulations, degree of environmental risk, and potential future
liability. Where no regulations, Chevron guidelines, or industry guidelines exist, a
risk analysis should be used to determine the proper level of protection. For septic
systems, we recommend the standards established in the Uniform Plumbing Code
(UPC), Reference [29].

514 Sources of Liquids


Some of the liquids your drainage system might collect are sanitary sewage, storm
runoff, firewater, and process liquids.
Sanitary Sewage is always handled in a segregated system.
Storm Runoff often makes up a very high percentage of the flow rate a system
must be designed for. It can be clean or oily depending on the area to be drained.
Section 534 gives information on calculation of runoff flow rates.
Firewater is a significant drainage design consideration for facilities that process
or store highly flammable materials since firewater flow rates are quite large.
Section 534 gives some rules-of-thumb for firewater flow rates.
Process liquids are by-products of processing, transporting or storing hydrocarbons
or other chemicals. They enter the drainage system as drips from pumps, drips
washed off terminal aprons, pig launcher drainage, tank water draws, valve leaks,
ship ballast, equipment wash water, distillation column water draws, cooling tower
and boiler blowdown, and liquid from a host of other sources. Confirm with the
process designers that they have minimized the volume of these liquids. Source
control, minimizing flow rates, and recycling techniques help cut treatment,
disposal, and drainage system costs. These liquids are:

June 1997

Acids

Caustics

Foul water containing malodorous or toxic gases such as hydrogen sulfide,


ammonia, mercaptans

Hydrocarbons

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Water containing dissolved or suspended solids

Water contaminated with hydrocarbon liquid or gas

520 Surface Drainage


This section reviews general drainage philosophy and provides specific recommendations for layout and design of surface drainage for a variety of facilities.

521 General Design Considerations


Lay Out Your Facilities With Drainage Concepts In Mind. The Important
Drainage Concepts given in Section 511 must be considered by the people who lay
out the facility.
Take Advantage of Local Topography. Your drainage system should take advantage of the local topography to keep site preparation and excavation costs down. In
undeveloped areas, get local topographic maps from the USGS or hire a contractor
to do some surveying for you. In developed areas, check with public works agencies or local Company engineers.
Use Recommended Slopes in Walking or Working Areas.

Paved areas should have slopes that range from 3/16 to 1/4 inch/foot (1.5-2%)
Unpaved areas should slope about 1/8 inch/foot (1%)
Absolute minimum and maximum slopes are 1/8 and 1/2 inch/foot (1-4%)

If the slope is less than 1%, deviations during construction or settlement will cause
ponding. Steeply sloped, unpaved surfaces may erode quickly. Large differences in
slopeand slopes more than 4%throughout an area make walking or rolling
equipment difficult, so you should maintain uniformity throughout high traffic areas.

522 Tankfield Drainage


Surface drainage of tankfields must get surface fluids away from tanks, equipment,
and pipes; and then contain the fluids. This section focuses on drainage of tankfields at the ends of pipelines, at bulk loading and unloading facilities, etc. Some of
the concepts also apply to drainage around vessels or tanks in process areas.
See also References [1], [6], [8], and [9]. References [6] and [9] are especially
important.

Drainage Near Tanks


Use Recommended Slope. Keep surface fluids away from tanks, control houses,
pipeways, etc. by using a slope of not less than 1% for at least 50 feet away from
the facilities. This is usually a legal requirement for slopes around tanks (see Reference [6].)

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Contain Normal Drips. Normal drips from mixers and valves create a slipping
hazard and potential soil, groundwater, or surface water contamination. These drips
should be contained near the tanks, but once contained, they present a fire hazard.
Use low curbs (about 2 inches high) to contain the drips; the curbed areas must be
cleaned frequently or drained to an underground system.
Locate Large Containment Areas Properly. Do not locate tank water draw basins
or other large-capacity containment areas under mixers, valves, or manways. References [1], [6], and [9] give basin size and minimum spacing requirements. References [1] and [8] give special considerations for LPG tankage areas.
Guide Potential Spills. Consider using slopes, berms, or low walls between tanks
to help guide spills directly to drainage channels and prevent the spill from
covering a larger area (see Reference [6].) You might need ramps or stairs for
pedestrian access.
Locate Your Primary Drainage Path Logically. The path should begin on the
opposite side of the tank from where pipelines enter it.
Size Your Drainage Channels. Size them in tank-field areas to handle the largest
of these flows:

Stormwater (See Section 534.)

Firewater (See Reference [1].)

The largest stream of liquid that could be discharged from one tank through a
broken pipe under maximum normal pump pressure or gravity.

Drainage to Handle Large Spills


Drain any spills to a remote basin that can contain the contents of the largest tank in
the field. If topography or other considerations make that unfeasible, you should
provide (in order of decreasing preference):
1.

A remote basin to contain as much of a spill as possible, and dikes or walls to


contain the remainder in the tankfield, or

2.

Dikes or walls around the tankfield.

See Figure 500-1 for an example of tankfield drainage.

Special Precautions for Fixed Roof Crude Oil Storage Tanks


In case of fire, fixed roof crude oil storage tanks will boil over after burning for a
while; the flow rate and volume of expelled oil and froth will probably exceed your
drainage systems capacity. Boilovers are very rare, but if one might cause significant damage or loss of life you should carefully consider adding protection or additional drainage capacity.

Drainage to Remote Impounding Basins


Guide the Drainage. Use surface drainage or drain pipes to guide accidental spills,
runoff, and firewater to remote impounding basins. Paved or unlined ditches can

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Fig. 500-1

500 Drainage

Example of Tankfield Drainage

carry most surface fluids to impound areas or sumps. Guide oil to keep it out of
unlined ditches. Use shallow ditches and relatively flat slopes for economy, ease of
access and maintenance, and erosion control. Route drainage away from pipeways
or manifolds.
Where drainage channels go through pipes or culverts, make provisions to re-direct
overflow in case the pipe gets plugged. You can do this by providing a low section
in an encircling roadway or diversion dike. If the low section is directly over the
culvert, make sure that there is enough cover to protect the culvert from wheel
loads on the road. See Section 360 for more information on wheel loads.
Minimize the Surface Area of Draining Liquids. The amount of evaporation and
flame area is proportional to surface area. You can reduce the surface area of small
spills by putting weirs along the drainage path.
Provide a Way to Drain Impounding Basins. Provide a manually operated gate
valve (normally closed) operable from outside the impoundment area and accessible during a fire. When the valve is open it should never be left unattended; a sign
to that effect should be near the valve handle. At the very least, you should provide
a single low point within the basin to allow easier removal of accumulated liquid.

Drainage in Diked Areas


If remote impounding cannot be used, use dikes to prevent liquid from spreading.
Dikes might be required by code in some areas.

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If possible, lay out diked areas so that spills will flow to a low point within the
dikes, yet remote from tankage. This will protect the tanks and allow easier
removal. Route drainage out from under lines and manifolds.
References [6] and [9] give information about dike capacity, surface drainage, and
subdivision requirements. Walls made from cast-in-place concrete or masonry are
alternatives to earthen dikes.

523 Process Area Drainage


Surface drainage in process areas must route surface liquids away from equipment
and into underground drainage systems.
Here are some suggestions that will help you implement the Important Drainage
Concepts of Section 511 in process areas.

June 1997

Federal regulations (Reference [9]) require that spills be contained on the


owners property. Eliminate the chance of liquid spreading to the property
of others, even if the underground system is overloaded or partially
plugged with debris. This is especially important if the facility handles or
stores hazardous or toxic chemicals, or if the facility is near a river, lake,
etc.

Where practical, divide the area to be drained into approximately 50 foot to 75


foot square areas to prevent the spread of spilled flammable liquid.

Locate catch basins or drains for each area as far as possible from equipment
and overhead pipeways. A minimum distance of 10 feet is desirable. Provide a
short drainage path by locating the basins and drains near the center of the
drainage areas.

Around pumps and other areas where leaks are anticipated, use at least 1/4
inch/foot (2%) slope.

Place a high point ridge between a very important pump and its spare to minimize the chance of a fire at one spreading to the other. Separate the pumps so
that there is enough room for the high point.

Provide a high point ridge between pumps handling flammable liquids and
adjacent equipment so that a spill from the pumps will not flow toward the
equipment.

When practical, route high points through buildings, large equipment, and
along centerlines of roads and pipeways.

Under manifolds, use an impermeable surface treatment such as gunite or


concrete (see Section 700) to eliminate soil and groundwater contamination.

Containment is normally accomplished by setting the grade of a road, access


way, or berm around a facility above the high point of grade within the facility.

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New Installations
For open surface drainage areas, concrete slabs are normally used to receive and
contain drain liquids for routing into underground drainage systems. These slabs
will absorb moisture and may be subject to attack by corrosive chemicals in the
drainage liquids. Concrete slabs that are likely to be exposed to such chemicals
must be surface-coated for protection. For effective protection:

The concrete must be properly specified and constructed to receive the coating
system.

The coating must be properly selected for the intended usage.

At present, Materials and Equipment Engineering recommends fiberglass-reinforced epoxies for most usages. For detailed recommendations, contact CRTCs
Materials and Equipment Engineering.
Expansion joints, control joints (a saw cut or scribed line intentionally placed in the
concrete), or other working (moving) or potentially movable joints in a concrete
slab must receive special treatment before and during application of any surface
coating system. The methods presently recommended by Materials and Equipment
Engineering are described in Section 578.
Diversion of the drainage liquid flow into the underground drain system requires
catch basins, drain funnels, etc. These appurtenances are usually made of the same
material as the underground drain (for example, HDPE). If they are made of
concrete like the slab, they should be surface-protected as noted above.
The National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE) has studied the subject
of coatings for concrete surfaces and is preparing recommended practices for this
purpose. A draft of Paper No. T-6H-39, Proposed NACE Standard Recommended
Practice Coatings for Concrete Surfaces in Non-Immersion and Atmospheric
Services is available from:
NACE Publications Order Department
P.O. Box 218340
Houston, TX 77208
Telephone: (713) 492-0535

Repair of Existing Slabs


Existing concrete slabs may be exposed to corrosive drainage liquids. To prevent or
halt surface deterioration (including cracks), it may be desirable to protect the
surface by application of coatings as described in New Installations above and in
Section 578.

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Foreign material on the surface (chemicals, oils, etc.) must be properly


removed before application.

Any cracks must be suitably sealed as indicated in Section 578.

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524 Drainage of Other Areas


Truck Loading Terminals
Use the guidelines below for planning a drainage system for loading terminals
where flammable liquids are transferred.

Assure that there will be no pits, depressions, catch basins, or drains below the
trucks.

Slope the loading area away from the rack.

Design any gutter that will parallel a loading rack to be on the far side of the
truck away from the rack.

Place gutters midway between multiple racks.

If there are important structures nearby, slope the area around the terminal or
have barriers that will prevent a spill from causing damage.

Buildings
Use the guidelines below for planning a drainage system around buildings that are
in or near facilities that handle flammable or toxic materials.

Consider eliminating floor drains in buildings if they are connected to a


process drainage system and if the floor drain will be infrequently used. The
seals in these drains might go dry and permit the entry of flammable or toxic
vapors into an area of ignition or restricted ventilation.

Uncontaminated surface drainage should enter storm sewers rather than


process sewers.

Use slopes that route spills away from buildings. This also reduces problems
for buildings with basements.

Roads to buildings should be higher than surrounding ground so that a spill


does not block access.

Process or oily water drains should not be located near living quarters. The
intent is to prevent the escape of process vapors to unclassified areas and to
reduce overloading of oily water sumps and treatment facilities.

525 Ditches and Culverts


As areas are developed and roads constructed, there is generally a requirement to
design and install ditches and culverts. For stormwater runoff calculations, refer to
Section 534.
Hydraulic calculations for ditches can be made using a variation of the Mannings
equation given in Section 534.

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0.666

1.49
Q = ---------- AR
n

0.5

(Eq. 500-1)

where:
Q = flow rate (cfs)
A = cross sectional area of flow (ft2)
area of flow ( ft 2 )
R = hydraulic radius (ft) = ------------------------------------------------wetted perimeter ( ft )
(Eq. 500-2)

S = channel slope (ft/ft)


n = roughness coefficient (dimensionless)
For the purpose of Equation 500-1, use the following roughness coefficients:
Concrete-lined channels

0.014

Canals and ditches:


Earth, straight and uniform
Earth with some vegetation

0.020
0.030

For design of shallow drainage ditches, the following guidelines provide information on grades:
Absolute minimum grade

0.25%

Minimum grade for good


drainage

0.50%

Preferred grade

1%

Maximum slope for silty soils to


prevent erosion

1%

Maximum slope for most other


soils to prevent erosion

2%

Culvert Design
The hydraulic design of culverts is somewhat more complicated than normal
drainage lines because entrance and exit conditions can have a significant effect on
the flow capacity. There are many references on this subject and most civil engineering handbooks have good explanations and easy-to-follow design examples.
The materials generally used for culverts are galvanized or aluminized corrugated
steel pipe or arches, reinforced concrete pipe, or reinforced concrete rigid frame
boxes. Manufacturers catalogs usually provide useful information on cover requirements for culvert pipe. For corrugated steel pipe, a minimum of 12 inches of cover
is sufficient for a HS-20 truck loading.
For culverts with a free discharge outlet (not flooded), the following culvert slopes
will provide a flow velocity of approximately 4 fps. This velocity is considered

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sufficient to carry sediment with the culvert flow. Slopes are based on corrugated
steel pipe with a Manning value for n = 0.021.
Culvert Size

Slope (Ft/Foot)

14"

0.015

18"

0.009

24"

0.007

530 Underground Drainage


The underground drainage section describes components of underground drainage
systems and gives some guidelines and suggestions for planning, layout, and design.
This section also covers a few aspects of hydraulics and strength of materials. Since
many textbooks and handbooks cover these subjects extensively, it gives only
concise information that should help you get started. Unless you have a background
in civil and hydraulic engineering, you might need help from a civil engineer to
complete a specification or a strength or hydraulic problem.
See also References [2], [3], [4], [5], [7], and [10]. Reference [5] is particularly
useful.

531 Layout and Design Considerations


Guidelines for Any Underground Drainage System
Here are some suggestions, reminders, and alternatives that will help you design a
drainage system. They are based on Company experience.

June 1997

Check and recheck for interferences. If there are non-civil underground


items (underground conduit banks, for example) near your system, you must
make sure there is interdisciplinary communication and checking. Interferences
can include existing objects and items being designed or constructed at the
same time as your drainage system.

Avoid locating lines in areas that will make access for repair or maintenance
difficult (such as in areas with heavy traffic, under concrete slabs, or under
conduit banks).

Avoid locating lines under or adjacent to foundations, since a break in the line
might wash out the foundation.

When selecting components, it is usually better to oversize than undersize,


since changes tend to increase rather than decrease requirements.

Consider providing pipe stubs in manholes or branches in pipe if expansion is


anticipated.

Minimize changes in direction and length of tie-ins to drain hubs and catch
basins.

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Consider grouping parallel lines close enough so only one trench needs to be
excavated.

Keep excavation and backfill costs down by using shallow slopes for all lines
and making up differences in elevation between connecting lines with
manholes (drop manholes) or fittings.

Compare the cost of field cutting RCP pipe to length vs. the fabrication costs
and design manhours for nonstandard lengths.

Avoid mitered field cuts in RCP pipe: they can be very expensive.

Remember that nominal RCP pipe sizes are internal diameters.

Check that your system always flows down-slope and that there are no pockets
or low points.

Minimize the number of oily water drains by using them only for sources that
flow during regular operations. Dont install drains just for shutdown maintenance work unless alternatives are impractical.

Provide oily water drains in front of each process pump (except those handling
very heavy oils) and at all other locations where equipment or piping normally
are drained. In a segregated system, these drains are raised above the paving
level or finished grade to insure that surface liquids such as storm runoff and
firewater dont enter the system.

Make sure that the fittings you specify exist.

Use scale drawings and actual dimensions of equipment and fittings in


congested areas.

To help maintenance crews:

In congested areas, consider using an identification scheme for drainage


components.
In uncongested areas, consider using surface markers for underground
lines to prevent accidental damage from excavation.

Provide cleanouts for maintenance at the beginnings of long, straight runs.

Guidelines for Sealed Systems


The following guidelines assume you will need sealed components throughout your
system. You might not need them if the liquid in the system is not volatile or flammable at atmospheric pressure and temperature, and if gas-releasing reactions will
not occur in the system. (Be sure to consider future uses of the system.) See Reference [21] for Federal regulations on this topic.

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All oily water drains and area catch basins should be individually sealed.

Manholes should be vented to prevent accumulation of explosive vapors. For


important information on manhole vents, see Section 537.

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In oily water systems, branches and laterals should enter main lines and be
sealed in manholes.

In clean water or storm water systems, branches and laterals:

May intersect without seals unless drain hubs are used in lieu of sealed
catch basins (such as in areas where catch basins are susceptible to frost
damage.)
May enter main lines without gas seals if sealed catch basins are used.

If sealed catch basins or manholes are used at upstream junctions, main lines
may intersect without seals.

Main lines leaving a facility or operating unit should be sealed at the first
connection with another line or manhole.

Catch basin seals dry out (lose their seals) easily if liquid is not added regularly
through storms or maintenance. Manhole seals dry out less easily. In arid areas
or where catch basin seals are infrequently maintained, consider using
manholes to seal all branch, lateral, and main line intersections with other main
lines.

Main lines entering and exiting separators should be liquid sealed.

532 Segregated Drainage Systems


A segregated drainage system keeps certain wastes and reactive chemicals separate
from others. Waste compatibility depends on the effect the combination might have
on health, safety, treatment, drainage materials, and expected maintenance.
Since it is usually impractical to provide a separate drainage system for every type
of waste, your designs should combine compatible waste streams whenever
possible. Work with the process designers, operating representatives, and environmental division to set the segregation philosophy.

Examples of Segregated Systems

June 1997

A clean storm system for areas away from tanks and process facilities and not
subject to hydrocarbon or other chemical spills.

A contaminated storm system to carry rain water, firewater, and washdown


water. The water might contain other liquids from drips or spills.

An oily water system to carry hydrocarbons (or water that will frequently
contain hydrocarbons) from sources such as process drains, laboratory sinks,
tank water draws, pump base drains, and manifolds.

A blowdown system for disposal of boiler or cooling water blowdown.

A sanitary sewage system for disposal of sanitary wastes.

Chemical systems to carry all chemical drips and drains plus washdown water,
process water, and storm water collected in curbed chemical areas.

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General Notes on Segregated Systems


High Rainfall Areas. Segregated systems can reduce the load on treatment
systems. For example, process waste treatment facilities operate more efficiently if
large, relatively uncontaminated storm water flows are not combined with the
process liquids.
For underground drainage removal of surface runoff:

If annual rainfall and intensity are high, use segregated storm drainage systems.

If annual rainfall and intensity are low, consider combining storm runoff with
other waste liquids.

If rainfall is infrequent but intense, combine storm and other waste liquids. A
surge pond or other storage may be required to even out flows to treatment
facilities.

Raw Sewage. Segregate raw sewage from all wastes except clean runoff due to its
potential health hazard and its adverse effect on oil separation. Even septic tank
effluent contains suspended solids capable of forming emulsions that reduce oil
separating efficiency.
Boiler Blowdown and Caustics. Segregate them from wastes containing carbonates, such as cooling tower blowdown, to prevent plugging the lines with precipitate.
Spent Caustics and Acid Wastes. Since they might release hydrogen sulfide, segregate them from other wastes. Neutralized and degassed products from these wastes
can be added to the oily water system.
Chemical Liquids. Use curbs, high points in area paving, or troughs to keep chemical liquids (such as acids or caustics) separate from process liquids. Some facilities
prefer to drain these areas to the stormwater drainage system through a valve
(normally closed) to allow easy disposal of uncontaminated water. Portable pumps
can be used to remove chemical spills in these areas.
Chemical wastes are typically collected in covered and purged sumps. The waste is
periodically pumped to chemical tankage or disposal facilities. Drawing
GF-S99943 shows example details for acid service. Consult materials engineers for
advice on material selection for chemical drainage systems.

533 Soil and Component Support Issues


This section describes the geotechnical information you and the installation
contractor need to know to design and install a drainage system. It also discusses
the component support issues that reflect soil conditions. If results of past investigations are not available or if you are in an undeveloped area, you will need to hire a
soils consultant to get this information.
Section 200 of this manual tells how to prepare a request for geotechnical work and
tells what specific properties you should request. Include a copy of the geotechnical
report in the installation contract bid package.

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Soil Type, Composition, Strength, Weight. These soil properties affect the design
of your buried pipe and the amount of load transmitted from the surface to buried
pipe. Information on soil properties will help you determine whether:

The pipe can lie directly on the native soil at the trench bottom

The trench spoils are suitable for backfill

Conditioned (dried or mixed with other soil) trench spoils will be suitable for
backfill.

The installation contractor will also need information on soil properties to choose
trenching equipment, design bracing for trench walls, etc.
Location of Rock Outcrops. Avoid routing lines through rock. Trenching in rock
is expensive; if blasting is prohibited, it can be extremely expensive.
Water Table Location and Seasonal and Other Variations. Since moisture accelerates electrochemical corrosion, you should pay special attention to the corrosion
protection of metallic underground lines in or near the water table.
If the water table is close to or above the bottom of the underground lines, water
will enter the installation trenches. Since the trench cannot be prepared properly
when the bottom is covered with water, the water must be removed. The installation
contractors will have to plan for the removal and you will have to plan for the
disposal of the water.
Types and Extent of Contaminants in Soil and Groundwater. The installation
contractor needs this information so he can protect his workers. You need it to plan
for disposal of water and soil from trenches. Check this especially at existing facilities.
Allowable Slope for Excavation/Shoring Requirements. You and the installation
contractor need this information since it affects the methods used for trenching. For
example, if a shallow slope is required due to unstable soil conditions, the
contractor might want to use sheet piles to brace the trench walls instead of excavating a large volume of soil. See Reference [24] for Company excavation shoring
and bracing requirements.
Anticipated Overall and Differential Settlement. In areas where there might be
significant settlement due to fill, structures, or drawdown of the water table (from
groundwater cleanup wells, for example) you should anticipate changes in surface
drainage patterns and flow in non-pile-supported piping.
Pile Capacity. This information will help you select the proper pile size and length
for your pile-supported components.
Frost Line. In cold climates, bury lines and components that will contain standing
liquid at or below the frost line to prevent damage.

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Component Support
Pile Support. How you support your drainage system will depend mostly on the
soil conditions in your area. Generally, if the structures and surfaces you are
draining are piled, and large area soil settlement is expected, then your system
should also probably be pile-supported or supported by connections to pilesupported structures (see Detail 20 on CIV-EF-611).
You can connect soil-supported pipe to drains in pile-supported concrete foundation
or slabs with slip joints, but soil settlement may radically change the slopes of your
pipes, break components, or cause leaks. If liquid rises higher than the slip joint, the
joint will probably leak. Details 17 and 18 on CIV-EF-611 show an example of a
slip joint.
Bedded Support. If the soil is relatively stable and well consolidated, you will
probably use some sort of bedded support, laying the pieces of your system in
trenches on top of compacted backfill or on the native soil. See Reference [5] for
information on bedding design.
Flexible Connection. If differential settlement between drainage components is
predicted, you will need to design a compatible support system or flexible connection so that:

The components and pipe do not break or leak.


Adequate slopes and flow are maintained.

Careful selection of joint materials or joint locations help to reduce settlement


stresses. Exaggerated slopes may be necessary to prevent future slope reversal.

Intermittently Supported Pipe


Pipe supported intermittently (such as from hangers beneath pile-supported slabs or
on piles) must support its own weight and the weight of its contents as well as the
other loads described in Section 536.
If significant soil settlement is predicted and your underground system is pilesupported, your system must resist the stresses induced by the settling soil (downdrag).
Calculate bending and shear stresses in the pipe from standard equations for beams
(see Reference [7] or other civil engineering handbooks).
Check circumferential stresses at the pipe supports since the supports will tend to
crush the pipe into an oval shape. You can get approximate results by using the
formulas for circular rings in Reference [19] and by assuming some length of pipe
(about one diameter plus the support length) is effective in resisting the loads.
See Reference [10] for additional information about pile-supported and suspended
pipe.

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534 Hydraulic Analysis and Design


This section covers some of the basics of hydraulic design:

Recommended maximum and minimum velocities


Flow rate selection
Nomographs and charts for flow calculations

See References [2], [3], [4], [5], [7], and [25] for more information. References [5]
and [7] might be particularly helpful.
For complex drainage systems, hire a consultant to do hydraulic analysis and design.

General Hydraulic Design Considerations


When selecting components, it is usually better to oversize than undersize,
since future changes tend to increase requirements.
When determining design flow rates, combine flow from different sources only if
there is a reasonable chance that they will occur at the same time. For example, in a
storm water system, design for the larger of rainfall and firewater. In an oily water
system, design for the largest of the following:

Normal oily water flow plus storm (if combined system)


Vessel wash plus flow from not-shut-down processes
Normal oily water flow plus tank draw

Choosing Depth of Flow. Choose the pipe size so the pipe flows full at 100 to
200% of the design flow rate:

If you are confident that the design flow rate is accurate and that it will not
increase in the future, tend toward 100%.

To allow for future flow rate increases, use a number closer to 200%.

Sanitary sewers should flow one-half full to three-quarters full to allow for ventilation and to avoid sulfide generation. See Reference [5] for more guidance on depth
of flow selection.
Recommended Minimum Line Size. Small lines will get plugged easily and
might be hard to clean. We recommend these minimum sizes:

Branch and main lines: 6 inches


Laterals: 4 inches

Recommended Velocities
Minimum Velocity. Select pipe diameters and slopes to achieve no less than
minimum fluid velocities. This will keep suspended solids from dropping out and
clogging your system. Try to reach these minimum velocities at average (not
maximum) flow rates.

June 1997

Little or no suspended solids expected:

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1.0 fps.

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General case (except sanitary sewers):

2.0 fps.

Sanitary sewers (need to also check local codes):

2.5 fps.

Moderate amounts of sand or other particles of high


specific gravity carried (e.g., run-off from unpaved
areas):
3.0 fps.

If heavy loads of sediment or sticky particles will 4 to 5 fps.


be carried (e.g., blowdown from a clarifier):

Maximum Velocity. To avoid scouring pipes, we recommend a maximum velocity


of 8 to 10 fps.
Velocity for Cement Sanitary Sewers. Slime on sewer walls produces sulfuric
acid which causes spalling of cement products. If the sewage velocity is high
enough, the slime will be swept away and the problem will be eliminated. Sulfateresistant cements are available. For more information on this topic, see Reference
[5].

Choosing Your Flow Rate


Process Liquid. Work with the process or operations engineers to develop process
flow rates.
Firewater. You should work with your local safety or fire protection engineer to
develop the details, but in general:

Laterals and branches should be designed to carry 0.2 gpm per ft2 of contributing surface area. This is the firewater flow rate required to absorb the heat of
combustion of a hydrocarbon spill fire.

Mains should be designed to carry 3000 to 5000 gpm of firewater. This flow
rate depends on the size of your facility, its layout, the materials handled, the
extent of possible fires, the capacity of the water supply, and the number of
people available to fight a fire.

For facilities with fixed high capacity monitors or fixed water spray systems,
design flow rates will be higher.

Storm Water Runoff. The Rational Formula is a commonly used method for estimating stormwater runoff. It gives an estimate of maximum flow rates throughout
your drainage system based on certain characteristics of the system and expected
rainfall. Its most accurate for paved and other impervious areas less than 200 to
300 acres. The Rational Formula is based on the idea that runoff from rain that is
uniform over time and area will peak at the instant when all parts of the area
contribute to the flow at the design point. The peak runoff rate is assumed to occur
when the rain duration equals or exceeds the time of concentration.
If your drainage area is large or pervious or if temporary flooding might cause
significant damage, get help from an experienced hydrologist.

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Rational Formula
The Rational Formula estimates peak runoff flow rate at any location in the system:
Q = CIA
(Eq. 500-3)

where:
Q = peak runoff flow rate at some point within your system (cfs)
C = runoff coefficient (dimensionless)
I = average rainfall intensity (inch/hour) lasting for time t (time of
concentration)
A = tributary drainage area (acres)
The units on the left side of the equation (cfs) are not the same as the units on the
right side (acre inch/hour) but no correction is needed since one cfs equals one acre
inch/hour within 1 percent. (1 acre = 43,560 square feet)
Runoff Coefficient (C). Select the runoff coefficient based on the types of usage or
surfaces in the drainage area (see Figure 500-2). If the surfaces within the drainage
area arent similar, use an area-weighted coefficient.
Time of Concentration (t). To find the stormwater flow rate at a specific point in
your system, you must calculate the time of concentration at that point. The time
of concentration is the longest time required for runoff to reach that point from
anywhere in the drainage area. It is the largest sum of overland flow time and
conduit flow time.
Calculating Conduit Flow Time. Find conduit flow time by using velocities from
Figure 500-3 which is a nomograph for fluid flow calculations. The nomograph is
based on Mannings equation for water flow in pipes and the equation Q = V A
where:
Q = flow rate (cfs)
V = velocity (fps)
A = pipe flow area = (/4) (D/12)2 (ft.2)
If your situation is off the end of the nomograph scale, use these equations directly.

Mannings equation:
V = (1.49/n) * (D/48)0.666 * S0.5
(Eq. 500-4)

where:
V = velocity (fps)
n = roughness coefficient (dimensionless)

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D = inside diameter (in.)


S = pipe slope (ft./ft.)
Mannings equation is applicable only if the pipe slope is less than 0.10 and is relatively constant throughout the pipe length. In addition, the water surface must be at
atmospheric pressure; that is, no head or pressure is allowed (in practice, a few
feet of head wont matter.) See References [2], [5], a general civil engineering handbook, or texts on fluid mechanics for information on more complex situations.
Fig. 500-2

Runoff Coefficients

By Usage

By Surface Type

Industrial
Light

Streets
0.50-0.80

Asphaltic

0.70-0.95

Heavy

0.60-0.90

Concrete

0.80-0.95

Railroad yards

0.20-0.35

Brick

0.70-0.85

Roofs

0.75-0.95

Business

Lawns (sandy soil)

Downtown

0.70-0.95

Neighborhood

0.50-0.70

Residential

Flat(<2%)

0.05-0.10

Average (2-7%)

0.10-0.15

Steep (>7%)

0.15-0.20

Lawns (heavy soil)

Single-family

0.30-0.50

Flat (<2%)

0.13-0.17

Multi-unit, detached

0.40-0.60

Average (2-7%)

0.18-0.22

Multi-unit, attached

0.60-0.75

Steep (>7%)

0.25-0.35

Suburban

0.25-0.40

Apartment

0.50-0.70

Calculating Overland Flow Time. Overland flow time varies with surface slope,
type of surface material, length of flow, and rainfall intensity. The two empirical
formulas below give overland flow time for impervious areas with undefined channels. Use one formula or the other, according to the length of your overland flow.
Reference [20] gives additional formulas for a number of slope and gutter configurations.
If your drainage or rainfall characteristics are outside the range of applicability
calculated for each formula, consult a hydrologist.

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Fig. 500-3

Nomograph for Pipe, Slope, and Flow Calculation

Overland Flow Time Formula #1 (Izzards formula). (For length of overland


flow less than 100 feet.)
to = [41 * ((0.0007*I)+k) * (L/S)1/3] /(C I)2/3
(Eq. 500-5)

where:
to = overland flow time (minutes)
I = average rainfall intensity (in/hr)
k = surface coefficient (given in Figure 500-4)
L = length of overland flow (ft)
S = slope of surface (ft/ft)
C = runoff coefficient (given in Figure 500-2)
Range of applicability: I*L < 500 and S < 0.04.
Since the formula gives the overland flow time as a function of intensity, you must
iteratively find the combination of intensity and time of concentration that satisfies
this formula and the intensity/duration/ frequency relationship. Iteration to 2 significant digits is sufficient. (From References [2] and [3].)

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Fig. 500-4

Surface Coefficients

Surface

Surface Coefficient k

Smooth asphalt

0.007

Concrete pavement

0.012

Tar and gravel pavement

0.017

Grass

0.060

Overland Flow Time Formula #2 (For length of overland flow greater than 100
feet.) The terms used in the formula are defined above.
to = [1.8*(1.1-C)*L1/2] / (S*100)1/3
(Eq. 500-6)

Range of applicability: L > 100' and S < 0.025.


See References [16] and [25] for additional explanation.
Average Rainfall Intensity (I). Select average rainfall intensities from a graph or
table of intensity/duration/frequency for your geographical region. The tables
described in Section 572 (Figure 500-32) cover some Company operating areas.
The U.S. Weather Bureau or local Department of Public Works should have information for other areas.
Company practice is to design for 10-year rainfall frequency (the greatest rainfall
expected to occur, on the average, once in 10 years). Only use a 25-year return
period for very sensitive areas or if required by an outside agency. A selection of a
higher return period should only be done in conjunction with a study that looks at
the total annual cost.
Find average rainfall intensities by using durations equal to calculated times of
concentration. But only use the single longest time of concentration for several
areas that may be combined when selecting I. If a calculated time of concentration
is less than the smallest duration given, use the intensity corresponding to the
smallest duration.

Notes on the Rational Formula


The paragraphs below point out some problems with the Rational Formula. Reference [4] gives a thorough examination of these problems and others. The Rational
Formula is used regardless of these problems because it is relatively simple to use
and it usually gives satisfactory results.

Chevron Corporation

The peak runoff rate actually depends on whether there has been a storm
recently, the uniformity of rainfall over time and area, storage in the system,
and a host of other factors that cannot be accounted for except by arbitrary variation of the coefficient C.

The selection of overland flow time for pervious surfaces is quite arbitrary.

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The implicit assumption that frequency of rainfall equals frequency of runoff is


probably only valid for small, completely impervious areas.

Roughness Coefficients
Use the roughness coefficients in Figure 500-5 with the nomograph in Figure 500-3.
Fig. 500-5

Roughness Coefficients

Material

Roughness Coefficient

Asbestos-cement

0.013

Cast iron
New

0.014

Tuberculated

0.025

Cement-lined

0.013

Concrete

0.013

Plastics

0.012

Steel

0.013

Vitrified Clay

0.013

If your material isnt listed here, check with the supplier or manufacturer; they
usually publish roughness coefficients. The roughness coefficient increases with
time; be sure to get their estimate of the coefficient for used pipe.

Partial-depth Flow Table for Pipe Selection


Use Figure 500-6 to find the depth of flow, velocity, flow rate or flow area in a
partly full pipe. Enter with any of these ratiosy/D, Q/Qf, V/Vf, or A/Afto find
the other ratios.
This table is especially useful for finding the velocity in a pipe flowing at less than
the flow-full flow rate and for designing a pipe to flow at a certain depth.
y = Depth of fluid in partially full pipe
D = Inside diameter of pipe
A = Area of fluid (partly full pipe)
Af = Area of fluid (completely full pipe)
Q = Flow rate (partly...)
Qf = Flow rate (completely...)
V = Velocity (partly...)
Vf = Velocity (completely...)

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Fig. 500-6

500 Drainage

Partial-depth Flow for Pipe Selection

y/D

A/Af

Q/Qf

V/Vf

0.05

0.019

0.005

0.25

0.10

0.052

0.021

0.40

0.15

0.094

0.049

0.52

0.20

0.143

0.088

0.62

0.25

0.196

0.137

0.70

0.30

0.252

0.195

0.77

0.35

0.312

0.262

0.84

0.40

0.374

0.336

0.92

0.45

0.437

0.416

0.95

0.50

0.500

0.500

1.00

0.60

0.627

0.671

1.07

0.70

0.748

0.837

1.12

0.80

0.858

0.977

1.14

0.90

0.950

1.062

1.12

0.95

0.982

1.073

1.09

1.00

1.000

1.000

1.00

535 Drainage System Design Examples


The following examples demonstrate the use of the figures and equations of this
section. See Reference [5] for a more complete example of drainage system design.
Example 1 is based entirely on storm water runoff. As discussed in Section 534, fire
water runoff controls the design in many cases and should always be considered.

Example 1
Problem Statement: (See Figures 500-7, 500-8, and 500-9): Area 1, the manhole,
and Pipes 1 and 2 already exist. Area 2 and Pipe 3 are to be added. The location is
Orange, Texas. The rainfall return period is 10 years. What diameter should Pipe 3
be? Is Pipe 2 large enough?

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Fig. 500-7

Drainage System Design

Data: See Figures 500-8 and 500-9 for data on surface areas and drainpipes.
Fig. 500-8

Properties of Areas 1 and 2

Area No.

Area (acre)

Slope (ft/ft)

Average
Length (ft)

Surface Coeff.

0.01

120

C=0.2

0.5

0.01

90

k=0.009
C=0.8

Location: Orange, Texas


Rainfall Return Period: 10 yrs.

Fig. 500-9

June 1997

Properties of the Pipes

Pipe No.

Inside Diam.
(in.)

Slope (ft/ft)

Roughness
Coeff.

Length (ft.)

12

0.005

0.013

200

12

0.005

0.013

400

0.010

0.012

60

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Peak Flow at Upstream End of Pipe 1:


to = [1.8*(1.1 C)*L1/2] / (S*100)1/3
(Eq. 500-6)

= [1.8(1.1
= 18 min.

0.2)(120)1/2]

/ (0.01

100)1/3

Interpolating the rainfall chart for Orange, Texas,


I = 5.65 + (6.29 5.65)(2/5) = 5.9 in./hr
Q = CIA = 0.2(5.9)(1) = 1.2 cfs
Using Figure 500-3, check size of Pipe 1 for 12 inch ID, 0.005 slope, and 0.013
roughness:
Qf

= 2.6 cfs

Therefore, Pipe 1 size is OK.

Q/Qf = 0.46
From Fig. 500-6, depth of flow/diameter = 0.48

Peak Flow at Upstream End of Pipe 3:


to = [41((0.0007I)+k)(L/S)1/3] /(C I)2/3
(Eq. 500-5)

Assume a time of concentration = 5 min


From rainfall chart, I = 8.4 in./hr
to

= 41((0.00078.4)+0.009)(90/0.01)1/3]/(0.8 8.4)2/3
= 3.6 min

Assuming 5 min is OK

= CIA = 0.8(8.4)(0.5) = 3.4 cfs

Sizing Pipe:
Try 8 inch ID, from Fig. 500-3, Qf = 1.3 (No Good)
Try 12 inch ID, from Fig. 500-3, Qf = 3.9 (OK)
Q/Qf = 0.87
From Fig. 500-6, depth of flow/diameter = 0.73

Peak Flow at Upstream End of Pipe 2:


Use maximum time of concentration. In this case, it would be the to of Area 1 plus
the to of Pipe 1.
to (Pipe 1) = length/velocity
From Figure 500-3, Vf = 3.2 fps

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From Figure 500-6, V/Vf = 0.97, V = 3.1 fps


to = 200/3.1 = 64.5 sec, say 1 min
to Total = 18 + 1 = 19 min
From rainfall chart (see end of section),
I = 5.8 in./hr
Q

CIA

5.8(0.2 1 + 0.8 0.5) = 3.5 cfs

From Figure 500-3, Qf = 2.6 cfs

(No Good)

Summary
Pipe 3 should have a 12 inch ID. Pipe 2 does not have sufficient capacity to handle
the entire flow.

Example 2
Problem statement: For a flow rate of 4.0 cfs, find combinations of pipe diameter
and slope that give a depth of flow equal to three quarters of the diameter. Find the
fluid velocity for each combination. Pipe material is asbestos-cement. Results are
given in Figure 500-10.
Fig. 500-10 Fluid Velocity vs. Pipe Diameter, Slope
Inside
Diameter
D (in.)

Slope
(ft/ft)

Velocity
Full Vf
(fps)

Velocity V
(y/D=0.75)
(fps)

12

0.015

5.6

6.3

14

0.0067

4.1

4.6

16

0.0033

3.2

3.6

18

0.0018

2.5

2.8

Solution: From Figure 500-5, the roughness coefficient for asbestos-cement pipe is
0.013.
From Figure 500-6, if y/D = 0.75, then Q/Qf = 0.91 and V/Vc = 1.13.
So, to use the nomograph (Figure 500-3) for pipes flowing full, we need
Qf = Q/0.91 = 4.0/0.91 = 4.4 cfs.
V = 1.13 Vf using Vf from Fig. 500-3.
Enter the nomograph with flow rate = 4.4 cfs and roughness coefficient = 0.013.
One result (D = 18 inches and Slope =0.0018) is plotted on the nomograph.

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536 Strength Analysis and Design


This section reviews possible loads on pipe and the strength and cover a pipe needs
to bear those loads.
See Section 580 for a few of the textbooks and handbooks that discuss these topics.
See References [2], [5], [7], [10], [13], [14], and [17]. Reference [5] is particularly
useful. Pipe manufacturers usually publish charts or graphs that allow easy selection of their products given soil and truck loads.

Loads
Drainage pipes might have to support any combination of these loads:

Soil loads
Superimposed loads
Thrust due to water dynamics
Temperature changes
Internal pressure

Additional considerations for design of intermittently supported pipe, such as pilesupported pipe, are described in Section 533.
Soil Loads. Buried pipe must support the weight of the soil above it. The weight
increases with the depth of burial and depends on backfill properties, trench or
tunnel characteristics, pipe flexibility, etc. Reference [5] will help you calculate this
load.
If geotechnical engineers predict significant differential settlement in your area,
your system must also resist the forced deformation without leaking or breaking.
Short pipe sections with flexible joints can accommodate differential settlement
without breaking, but leaking or ponding might be a problem.
Superimposed Loads. Trucks, cranes, and trains are common superimposed loads
on drainage pipes.
Only part of a load applied to the ground over a buried pipe is transferred to the
pipe; the amount transferred decreases as the depth of burial increases. Paving also
reduces the loads considerably. Ways to calculate loads on buried pipe from surface
loads are covered in References [2], [5], [7], [13], and [17].
Section 300 gives wheel loads for trucks and cranes.
Trucks are usually specified according to AASHTO designations; for example, HS20 for a tractor truck with a semi-trailer. For design, the weight is increased by an
impact factor, since moving vehicles cause higher loads on pipe than stationary
ones.
Train loads are usually specified according to AREA designations: a typical rail
designation is Cooper E-80. Train loads and impact factors are described in References [7] and [14].

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The design loadings will depend on the traffic anticipated at the site. Talk with the
facility operators or engineers to see what loads are normally used. Local regulations may dictate design loads.
Thrust Due to Water Dynamics. Fluids produce radial forces on pipe bends. The
change in fluid velocity at size changes (reducers, for example) produces an axial
force on the pipe. Supports (commonly called thrust blocks) help the pipe resist
these forces and keep joints from separating. References [2], [7], and many civil
engineering handbooks describe how to calculate the forces.
Temperature Changes. A large difference between installation and operating
temperatures can cause movement in an unrestrained line or high stresses in a
restrained line.
See Reference [18] for help on calculating stresses in and movement of unburied
pipe due to temperature differences. Computer programs are available to do these
calculations.
The effect of temperature differences on buried pipe is more difficult to analyze
since the restraint provided by the soil must be considered. If you use crude models
of the soil restraint, you can use the computer program described in Reference [18];
some geotechnical and structural consultants have programs with sophisticated,
easy-to-use soil models.
Internal Pressure. Most drainage lines are driven by gravity, not pumps, and have
little or no internal pressure. Internal pressure causes circumferential stress in pipe.
Depending on the degree of longitudinal restraint, internal pressure can also cause
tensile longitudinal stresses from 0 to 50% of the circumferential stress. If your
lines are pressurized, you should check the circumferential and longitudinal stress.
You may need supports (thrust blocks) to keep joints from separating.

Required Cover or Strength of Pipe


Selecting a pipe or estimating how strong it needs to be is complicated. The stress
in the pipe depends on installation workmanship and other factors that are difficult
to determine or describe precisely: soil conditions, bedding and trench characteristics, pipe flexibility, paving flexibility, etc.
Fortunately, drainage pipe manufacturers usually publish charts or graphs that show
what strength is needed to support certain loads for various depths of cover, soils,
trench designs, etc. Soil and AASHTO wheel loads are the most common loads
included in these references.
Concrete pipe manufacturers have computer programs and charts that select reinforcing details, concrete strength, and wall thickness. If you are purchasing or
installing a line, call some vendors and find out exactly what they need to know to
design your pipe.
See also References [2], [5], [10], [13], and [17].

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537 Component Design Considerations


This section describes some drainage components and tells how they are commonly
used. The standard drawings and forms are located in the Standard Drawings and
Forms section at the end of this manual.

Engineering Form 611


Engineering Form 611 (CIV-EF-611) shows how you can put the components
together to make some standard drainage system building blocks. It is intended to
give you some good starting arrangements; feel free to make changes or develop
other details to suit your needs.
CIV-EF-611 shows bell-and-spigot or plain end-and-hub connections, but similar
details can be easily envisioned for materials that require butt or other types of
joints. Check the actual dimensions of the fittings to be sure the pieces will fit in the
space available and will have adequate cover.
Note that the dimensions of cast iron bell-and-spigot fittings are different from the
dimensions of cast iron butt fittings.

Catch Basins and Drains


Catch basins and drains both serve the same purpose: to let liquid wastes enter the
underground drainage system quickly and safely.
Catch basins (Figure 500-11) contain a chamber where liquid is briefly retained to
aid in settling solids. The chamber is easily accessible for removing the accumulated material. Catch basins are normally built with the inlet opening flush with or
slightly below grade.
Fig. 500-11 Typical Catch Basin

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Runoff from unpaved areas will contain suspended sediment that can clog small
catch basins, so be sure to use adequately sized basins. Experience is the best guide
for size selection.
A drain or drain hub is a simple inlet that has no retention capacity. If it protrudes
above grade, it is called a raised drain hub. If it is below grade, it is called a
recessed drain hub. Raised hubs can receive waste from vessels or pumps while
preventing surface fluids from entering. Details 3 and 4 on CIV-EF-611 show
recessed and raised drain hubs.

Sealed Drain Hubs and Catch Basins


Catch basins and drains can also provide a seal, (sometimes called a gas seal or
liquid seal) that prevents flammable or toxic gases in the downstream piping from
escaping to the atmosphere. Seals also keep heavier-than-air flammable or toxic
vapors from flowing into the system, and they prevent fire from traversing the
drainage system.
Since sealed drains will accumulate solids and are not easy to clean, do not use
them if the liquid will contain solids that might settle out. Instead, use sealed catch
basins with sufficient clearance between the bottom of seal and the bottom of basin
(Dimension E on Drawing GC-S78325).
Detail 8 on CIV-EF-611 shows a sealed drain. Drawing GC-S78325 shows a cast
iron, sealed catch basin. Fabricated steel, sealed catch basins are available (see
Drawing GD-S-99992). Adapters are available to connect the steel catch basin to
non-steel drain lines.

Manholes
Manholes provide access for inspection and cleaning (hydroblast or roto-rooter)
of drain lines, and they act as junction boxes for drains where fittings are not available or are more expensive. Manholes are also a good place to tie in future drain
lines.
If the standing water in sealed manholes is a groundwater pollution concern, then a
double wall manhole with leak monitoring between the walls might be required.
If the water table is high, ensure that the manhole weight exceeds the buoyant force
or anchor the manhole by extending its base beyond its walls.
If your manholes are in traffic areas, design them for wheel loads.
See CIV-EF-411 for typical manhole details.

Manhole Covers
Manholes in systems carrying volatile flammable or toxic liquid should have vaportight covers to prevent the release of gases near ignition sources and people. See
Reference [21] for federal regulations governing emissions from manhole covers.
If samples will be taken from manholes frequently, consider using covers with
sample windows. The sample window shown in Figure 500-12 is not vapor tight.

June 1997

500-32

Chevron Corporation

Civil and Structural Manual

500 Drainage

Fig. 500-12 Manhole Cover Sample Window

Manhole Vents
You should provide vents to relieve pressure and prevent oxygen depletion in
manholes with vapor-tight covers.

Vents should end a safe distance (usually a minimum of 25 feet horizontally


and downwind if possible) from furnaces or permanent sources of ignition.

Vents should not terminate near walkways, platforms, or air intakes.

Vents within a 10-foot radius of walkways and equipment should end 18 inches
above the highest pipe or piece of equipment and 12 feet or more above walkways.

Vents in VOC or benzene service must be at least 3 feet in length and less than
4 inches in diameter. In addition, vents in benzene service must be controlled.
See Reference [21] for federal regulations on this topic.

Ways to Change Direction, Slope, and Size


At direction, slope, and size changes, you can use either manholes or fittings.
Manholes can be cheaper than large diameter fittings. Find out if local cleaning
contractors equipment can negotiate fittings.
If the pipe joint system is flexible enough to allow misalignment without leaking,
you can make small changes in slope and direction (a few degrees) by using
purposely misaligned joints. Joint manufacturers usually publish limits of flexibility. In areas where groundwater protection is very important, you probably
should not use this technique except as required for small field adjustments.

Access for Cleaning, Inspection, and Repair


Manholes provide better access than cleanouts for inspection and repair, but
cleanouts are just as good for cleaning. Cleanouts are usually cheaper than
manholes unless the cleanouts are built from large diameter fittings. Talk with local

Chevron Corporation

500-33

June 1997

500 Drainage

Civil and Structural Manual

cleaning contractors and Company maintenance and operations people to learn their
preferences and to get advice on cleanout locations and manhole spacing.
Cleanouts in process sewers that carry waxy fluids, asphalts, or other heavy stock
should be spaced closer than cleanouts in lines with light stock or water service. A
constant trickle of hot water through lines carrying heavy stock can prevent plugging.
See Detail 2 on CIV-EF-611 for typical cleanout.

Main, Branch, and Lateral Lines


Laterals collect fluids from catch basins and drains. Branch lines gather liquids
from laterals and transfer the fluids to the main lines (or headers). In a small
system, laterals might connect directly to the main line.

538 Septic Tanks and Leach Fields


Septic tanks with leach fields are used for disposal of waste water in locations not
served by municipal sewer systems. Septic tanks allow the solid waste to settle out
of the effluent for later removal by vacuum truck. Leach fields dispose of the liquid
waste by allowing it to percolate into soil. See Figure 500-13.
This section is based on Reference [29].
Fig. 500-13 Typical Septic System

June 1997

500-34

Chevron Corporation

Civil and Structural Manual

500 Drainage

Regulations
Local governments usually regulate the design and layout of septic systems. For
example, the location of their components relative to water wells, streams, trees,
buildings, etc. is usually regulated since the tank discharge is odorous and contains
pathogens.
Agencies also commonly regulate the volume and number of compartments of
septic tanks, as well as tank and leach field materials and construction.
Be sure to find out which codes apply to your area.

Septic Tanks
A two-compartment, cast-in-place septic tank is shown in Figure 500-14. The
walls, roof, and floor must be designed to resist soil loads. Prefabricated septic
tanks are available and are more economical to use. Total liquid capacity should be
at least 750 gallons. Use Figure 500-15 to find the total fixture units served and the
required minimum septic tank capacity.
Fig. 500-14 Typical Septic Tank

Chevron Corporation

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June 1997

500 Drainage

Civil and Structural Manual

Fig. 500-15 Minimum Septic Tank Capacity


Fixture Units
Fixture

Fixture Units

Drinking fountain

Single stall shower

Single lavatory sink

Urinal

Toilet

Continuous flow of 1 gpm

Minimum Septic Tank Capacity


Total Fixture Units Served

Minimum Required Total Capacity (gal)

15

750

20

1000

25

1200

33

1500

45

2000

55

2250

60

2500

Leach Fields
Leach fields must provide sufficient soil area for the waste liquid to percolate into
the ground. The area needed is strongly dependent on the permeability of the soil. If
percolation test data are not available, use Figure 500-16 (from Reference [29]).
The soil area is the trench bottom area plus excess sidewall area (see
Figure 500-17). Design the system so that additional areaat least equivalent to the
original areacan be added if the original area cant absorb all the wastewater.
Fig. 500-16 Soil Area Needed for Leach Fields
Leach Field Soil Area
Required Area Per 100 gal.
of Tank Capacity (ft2)

Type of Soil

June 1997

Coarse sand or gravel

20

Fine sand

25

Sandy loam or sandy clay

40

Clay with considerable sand or gravel

90

Clay with small amount of sand or gravel

120

500-36

Chevron Corporation

Civil and Structural Manual

500 Drainage

Fig. 500-17 Excess Sidewall Area

539 Material Considerations


When selecting materials for your drainage system, see Figure 500-20 and consider:

Material composition and characteristics:


Resistance to corrosion (internal and external)
Reaction to temperature extremes (hot or cold fluids)
Strength
Durability
Weight
Hydraulic properties
Availability of material
Availability of labor with the necessary installation skills
Leakage from joints
Installed cost
Local code requirements (especially for sanitary sewers)

Types of Drainage Materials


Catch basin materials include cast iron, steel, and concrete. Manholes can be made
from cast-in-place or pre-cast concrete or Spirolite. Pipe materials include:

Chevron Corporation

Acrylonitrite-butadiene-styrene (ABS)

500-37

June 1997

500 Drainage

Civil and Structural Manual

Asbestos-cement (AC) (seeing decreasing use due to asbestos content)


Carbon or stainless steel (CS or SS)
Cast iron/ductile iron (CI)
Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC)
Concrete cylinder pipe (CCP)
Fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP)
High-density polyethylene (HDPE)
Polybutylene (PB)
Polypropylene (PP)
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
Reinforced concrete pipe (RCP)
Spirolite (a Chevron HDPE product)
Vitrified clay (VC) (Not Recommended: it is very fragile and the joints leak)

For information on non-metallic piping and cement-lined steel pipe, see References
[5] and [11]. For information on metallic piping, see References [5] and [12].
Most of the materials listed above are discussed in detail in the following paragraphs. Their relative leakage potentials are tabulated in Figures 500-18 and
500-19. Also refer to Figure 500-20 Materials for Sewer and Drain Systems.
Fig. 500-18 Relative Leakage Potential of Drain Pipe Materials
Relative Leakage Potential
1 to 5(1)

Drain Pipe Material


Asbestos Cement

Carbon Steel (interior bare)

1(2)

Carbon Steel (interior coated)(3)

1(2)

Cast Iron

Ductile Iron

Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic (FRP)

High Density Polyethylene (HDPE)

HDPE Spirolite (a Chevron product)

Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)

Reinforced Concrete

Vitrified Clay

Not recommended

(1) Lowest (1) to Highest (5)


(2) This evaluation assumes an exterior coating on the steel. The use of steel pipe without an exterior
coating is not recommended under any circumstances because of corrosion caused by earth contact.
(3) Proper selection and application of an interior coating may prevent corrosion from drain contents. Field
welding of joints destroys interior coatings. For effective corrosion resistance, some type of mechanical
joints should be used for pipe with an interior coating.

June 1997

500-38

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Civil and Structural Manual

500 Drainage

Fig. 500-19 Relative Leakage Potential of Drain Pipe Joints


Relative Leakage
Potential
Drain Pipe Joints

1 to 5(1)

Asbestos Cement
Bell and Spigot
Threaded

3
5

Carbon Steel
Flanged
Other Mechanical Joints
Welded

3
4
1

Cast Iron, Ductile Iron


Bell and Spigot
Flanged
Other Mechanical Joints

2
2
2

Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic (FRP)


Bell Socket and Adhesive
Mechanical (various types)
Threaded

2
3
5

High Density Polyethylene (HDPE)


Bell and Spigot w/rubber gasket
Heat Fusion Welding

3-4
1

Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)


Bell and Spigot
Flange and Gasket
Solvent Welds

4
3
2

Reinforced Concrete
Bell and Spigot
Bell and Spigot w/welded steel seal

2
1

Spirolite (a Chevron product)


Bell and Spigot w/rubber gasket
Bell and Spigot w/welding

Not recommended

Vitrified Clay
Note

2
1

Evaluations on this page are independent of Material Evaluations. They are intended only to indicate
the security of various joining materials or methods relative to each other for each pipe material.

(1) Lowest (1) to Highest (5)

Chevron Corporation

500-39

June 1997

Chemical/Temp.
Resistance(2)

Physical/
Mechanical
Properties

Typical
Strength
(psi x 103)

Installation
Considerations

500-40

Material(1)

Availability

Carbon Steel/Cast
Iron/Ductile Iron

CS: All sizes. May


be welded
(including ERW) or
seamless.
CI: Typically 2-15
in. diameter, 5-ft &
10-ft lengths.
Ductile iron: 4-54
in. diameter, 18-ft
lengths.

Poor against salty


water, acids, soil
corrosion. (Coatings often
required.) No
temperature limit
for CS, CI limited
by joints (150F for
oakum; higher
for push-on
gaskets).

Density 7.8
g/cm3. Lin. Expn.
6.5-6.0 x 10-6 in./in.
F. High strength.
CS resists mechanical damage; CI
more brittle but
resists mechanical
damage well.
Ductile iron is
almost as resistant
as CS, resists
thermal shock
better than CI.

25-35

Buried CS usually
coated; CI (much
thicker) not
coated. CS weld
joints reliable; CI
hub and spigot
joints usually reliable (if no soil
movement).

Thermoplastics:
ABS, PVC, CPVC

1-1/4 in. - 12-in.


readily available.
Typical joint
lengths of 20 ft.

Excellent for dilute


acids, caustics,
water. Limited
resistance to
concentrated
acids, acid gases,
chlorine gases,
some hydrocarbons (aromatics).
Temperature limit
140F (PVC) to
180F (ABS) to
210F (CPVC),
higher for short
excursions.

Density 1.05
g/cm3 (ABS), 1.35
g/cm3 (PVC), 1.5
g/cm3 (CPVC). Lin.
Expn.
30-60 x 10-6 in./in.
F. Good resistance to mechanical damage but
more rigid, brittle
than HDPE after
UV exposure.

7-8

Joints solvent
cemented
(preferred) or use
elastomeric
gaskets, can be a
leak source.
Consider thrust
blocks at changes
in direction.
Review UV resistance for aboveground installations.

Relative
Potential
Leakage(3)

Codes/
Specifications

CS: 1
CI & DI: 2

CI about the same


cost as plastic
pipe. Consider
external corrosion when determining design life.

CS: ANSI/ASME
B31.3 and B31.8,
Co. EG-2505. CI:
ASA-A40.1, ASTM
A74 (215)
Chevron Standard
Drawing EF-611.
DI: ANSI/AWWA
C-151/A21.51.

Sizes less than 6


in., plastic pipe is
the most
economic alternative. For sizes 6-12
in., plastic, CI,
HDPE, FRP, and
VC are roughly
the same.

ASTM D2661
(ABS drain,
waste, vent pipe,
and fittings).
ASTM D2680
(ABS sewer pipe).
ASTMS D2665
(PVC Drain Waste
Vent pipe &
fittings). ASTM
D3034 (PVC
Sewer pipe &
fittings). ASTM
D2846 (CPVC hot
water distribution
systems) For
buried piping, see
ASTM D2321 or
D2774 guidelines.

Civil and Structural Manual

Chevron Corporation

Relative Cost
(Installed)

500 Drainage

June 1997

Fig. 500-20 Materials for Sewer and Drain Systems (Low Pressure) (1 of 4)

Chemical/Temp.
Resistance(2)

Physical/
Mechanical
Properties

Typical
Strength
(psi x 103)

Installation
Considerations

500-41

Material(1)

Availability

HDPE
(High Density
Polyethylene
Smooth)

Readily available:
Continuous coiled
lengths 1/2-2 in.
Straight lengths
(20 and 40 ft.) 2-16
in. Available
through 48 in. on
special order.
Some trade
names: PLEXCO
a Chevron
product, Phillips
Driscopipe,
DuPont Canada
Sclairpipe, Poly
Pipe Industries
Poly Pipe.

See thermoplastics. Temperature


limit 180F
possibly higher for
short excursions.

Density 0.95
g/cm3. Lin. Expn.
1.2 10-4 in./in. F.
Not as strong as
thermoplastics but
very tough and
resists mechanical
damage.

Joined by heat
fusion of butt
ends. With UV
screen (carbon
black), good resistance for aboveground applications. See thermoplastics for other
comments.

Spirolite
(Rib-Reinforced
HDPE, smooth
wall on inside)

18 in. - 120 in.


readily available.
Standard length is
20 ft.
Chevron product.

See Plastics.

See above. Thin


wall, reinforced
design produces a
light weight
product.

Joined by proprietary gasket


system. Can be
fusion welded for
axial restraint.

Relative
Potential
Leakage(3)

Relative Cost
(Installed)

Codes/
Specifications

About the same


as Plastics.
Above 18 in.,
more expensive
than Spirolite.

See manufacturer's literature.


Also, PPI and
Chevron Piping
Manuals. ASTM
D2104; D2239;
D2447; D2683;
D3035; F714. API
15LE.

2
(1 if welded)

Usually the most


economic system
above 18 in. Ease
of handling and
installation
lowers installed
cost. Thin wall
and great flexibility requires
more care in
trench preparation than
concrete pipe
(the system relies
on transferring
stresses to soil).

See manufacturer's literature,


ASTM F894.

Civil and Structural Manual

Chevron Corporation

Fig. 500-20 Materials for Sewer and Drain Systems (Low Pressure) (2 of 4)

500 Drainage

June 1997

Chemical/Temp.
Resistance(2)

Physical/
Mechanical
Properties

Typical
Strength
(psi x 103)

Installation
Considerations

500-42

Material(1)

Availability

Fiberglass Pipe

1 in. - 16 in. readily


available. Larger
sizes available.
Typical joint length
20 ft.

Resistance varies
with resin selection; best with
vinyl ester resins.
Excellent resistance to moderate
acids, caustics,
waters, and hydrocarbons. Limited
resistance to
concentrated
acids. Temperature limit 220F;
higher for short
excursions.

Density 1.6 - 2.0


g/cm3. Lin. Expn.
10-18 x 10-6 in./in.
F. Stronger than
plastic pipe but
more susceptible
to mechanical
damage.

20-50

Variety of joining
methods; adhesive bonding of
bell and spigot
the most
common.
Requires some
training and care
to make reliable
joints. Careful
trench preparation and handling
required. See
thermoplastics
above for additional comments.

RCP (Reinforced
Concrete Pipe)
and CCP (Concrete
Cylinder Pipe)

24-108 in. readily


available. Joint
lengths typically
short (3-16 ft.), but
can be customordered to 20 ft.

Excellent water
and hydrocarbon
resistance. Not
resistant to acids,
caustics, or H2S.
Susceptible to
thermal shock.
ANSI B31.3 recommends 200F limit.

Density 2.3-2.5
g/cm3
Lin. Expn. 0.5
10-5 in./in.F.
Brittle material.

Usually bell joints


with rubber
gaskets. Heavy
equipment
needed for
handling.
Consider thrust
blocks at changes
of direction,
protective casing
under roadways.
Restrained joints
are available.

Relative
Potential
Leakage(3)

Relative Cost
(Installed)

Codes/
Specifications

About the same


as thermoplastics
in sizes to about
12 in. In larger
sizes, FRP is
generally more
expensive than
HDPE and Spirolite.

API spec 5LR,


ANSI/ASME B31.3
ASTM D3262,
D3517, D3754,
AWWA C950.

2
(1 if CCP is
welded)
RCP is not
completely impervious, and very
small cracks
caused by loads
may increase
leakage. Use
lined RCP or CCP
for lower risk of
leakage.

Low material cost


but can have high
installation costs.
Trench prep less
critical than with
FRP or Spirolite,
but beware of soil
settlement.

ASTM C14, C76,


C361; AWWA
C301, C302.

500 Drainage

June 1997

Fig. 500-20 Materials for Sewer and Drain Systems (Low Pressure) (3 of 4)

Civil and Structural Manual

Chevron Corporation

Material(1)

Availability

VC (Vitrified Clay)
Note: No longer
recommended for
any service due to
high risk of
leakage.

4-24 in. readily


available. Available to 42 in. Joint
lengths 3-1/3 - 5 ft.

Chemical/Temp.
Resistance(2)
Excellent water,
hydro-carbon, and
acid resistance.
Limited caustic
resistance.
Temperature limit
150F (with
oakum joints;
higher with
synthetic gaskets).
Susceptible to
thermal shock.

Physical/
Mechanical
Properties

Typical
Strength
(psi x 103)

Very brittle material; extra


strength is
available.

Installation
Considerations
Usually bell and
spigot joints
finished with
mortar. Synthetic
gaskets are available. Adaptors
are available to
connect VC to
other materials.
Even more brittle
and susceptible
to handling
damage than RCP
(see RCP above
for precautions).

Relative
Potential
Leakage(3)
Sizes to about 15
in., about the
same cost as thermoplastic pipe.
Large sizes more
expensive than
HDPE or RCP.

Relative Cost
(Installed)

Codes/
Specifications

See Clay Pipe


Engineering
Manual, National
Clay Pipe Institute.

Civil and Structural Manual

Chevron Corporation

Fig. 500-20 Materials for Sewer and Drain Systems (Low Pressure) (4 of 4)

500-43

(1) Other possible materials:


- Asbestos-cement (more expensive than RCP, increasingly difficult to obtain).
- Teflon and other plastic-lined pipe (can have excellent chemical resistance and mechanical properties but at high cost).
- Polypropylene and polybutylene plastic pipe (similar to thermoplastic pipes in table, not as common).
(2) Chemical resistance varies among plastics. If more than trace amounts of acids, caustics, or hydrocarbons are expected, consult Materials Division.
(3) Almost all leakage problems occur at joints, so this is really a measure of relative joint integrity. Vitrified clay pipe is so brittle that it can have problems anywhere. 1 is lowest potential
leakage; 5 is highest.

500 Drainage

June 1997

500 Drainage

Civil and Structural Manual

Asbestos-Cement
Commonly known as Transite, asbestos-cement pipe is produced primarily by
Johns Manville. In years past, it was considered to be a reasonable alternative to
cast iron or ductile iron for water mains. Recently, it has lost market share to newer
developments such as HDPE and fiberglass. Although somewhat out of favor now
because recent restrictions on the use of asbestos, this component does not affect its
use for drain lines. It is readily available and cheap.
Sections are joined by belled couplings with rubber ring gaskets. All types of
fittings are precast, some of cast iron. If the pipe is used for pressure applications,
end restraint must be provided. It can be cut easily by a number of methods
including the use of a hammer and chisel, but power-driven abrasive discs should
not be used because such cutters produce airborne asbestos dust. Because of allowable deflection at the joints (up to 13.6 inches in a 13 ft length), the line can be laid
in what amounts to a curve.
Transites one major disadvantage is that it is quite brittle; great care must be used
in handling and installing it. Trench bottom preparation and proper backfill are
extremely important.
Vendor: Johns Manville

Carbon Steel
If absolute assurance against leakage is needed, carbon steel pipe with welded
joints is probably the safest product to use. However, it is subject to corrosion problems under certain conditions:

If the pipe is in contact with most soils, the exterior surfaces must be coated
and cathodic protection must be used.

If the pipe is to handle corrosive fluids, the interior may also require coating.

These factors tend to make carbon steel pipe less desirable for drains than some
other materials unless the pressure-retaining or temperature properties of steel are
needed.
Under certain conditions, it may be preferable to join the pipe sections with
mechanical connectors (such as flanges or Victaulic or Dresser couplings). Mechanical connectors should be used if:

The interior is coated (welding will usually destroy any such coating).
Frequent inspection of the interior surfaces is required.
Replacement without welding will be necessary.

Vendors:
Carbon steel pipe is so commonly available that a listing will not be given here.

June 1997

500-44

Chevron Corporation

Civil and Structural Manual

500 Drainage

Cast Iron/Ductile Iron


These two materials are very similar. Historically, they have been more widely used
for pressure water applications than for drains. Their costs are approximately equal.
For drains, ductile irons greater strength and ductility results in:

Less fragility (easier to handle during installation).


Greater resistance to thermal or mechanical shock while in use.

For both materials, joints are usually bell and spigot type with a packing material or
gasket. The type of packing material or gasket must be carefully selected for the
application. These joints lack end restraint but this is not usually a problem for
gravity drains which are buried and stabilized with thrust blocks. If end restraint is
necessary, flanged or other special mechanical joints can be used on ductile iron
pipe.
Fittings such as ells, tees, wyes, etc., are precast. Most bell and spigot joints allow
some joint deflection which enables the line to be laid in a slight curve. Depending
on the joint type and sealing material, typical deflections might be 3 to 4 degrees
(approximately 12 to 20 inches deflection) for a 20 ft length.
If rubber gaskets are used, deflections can be larger.
Advantages of iron pipe include:

Extensive experience from a long history of use.


Greater strength than some of the newer thin-wall materials.

Disadvantages of iron pipe include:

Purchase cost can be more than some newer materials.


Heavy weight can make shipment and installation costly.

Vendors:
American Ductile Iron Pipe Company
U. S. Pipe Company

Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic (FRP)


This material, also known simply as fiberglass pipe is nearly on par with HDPE
as a preferred material for drain systems. It is made with thermosetting composite
materials or epoxy resins which contain fiberglass for reinforcing. A number of
different resin/ reinforcement combinations can be formulated to provide the corrosion resistance and strength required. The finished pipe has a relatively high
strength/weight ratio, similar to or possibly higher than HDPE. This pipe can be
used for direct burial or for slip lining or jacking into a drain to be repaired. In
Europe, FRP has been used for more than 30 years.
FRP is produced by centrifugal casting or by filament winding. Either method can
produce various wall thicknesses to satisfy the strength requirement. Filament
winding:

Chevron Corporation

Is more commonly used for the larger diameters.

500-45

June 1997

500 Drainage

Civil and Structural Manual

Can produce an externally-ribbed wall for greater structural strength.

FRP can be fabricated of composite materials for special temperature or corrosion


resistance needs. The interior of the finished pipe is very smooth with good flow
characteristics.
The most common method of joining pipe ends is by bell and spigot with a special
adhesive. Joint fit is very important and must be done properly to get a good
connection. Joints can also be made with several mechanical joint types such as
flanged, threaded, bell and spigot with O-rings, grooved joint couplings, etc. Some
joining methods (such as the bell and spigot) require end restraint. FRP can be cut
readily in the field and the ends joined with a sleeve-type coupling.
FRP fittings of all types can be fabricated. These can be made to match ductile iron
OD dimensions for use with ductile iron pipe.
Fiberglass pipe can be supplied in pressure ratings up to 300 psi and for use in
temperatures up to 225F. As with HDPE pipe, the coefficient of thermal expansion
is greater than for steel so this must be considered in the design.
Vendors:
Fibercast Company, Hobas USA Inc.
Smith Fiberglass (A. O. Smith Co.)

High Density Polyethylene (HDPE)


High density polyethylene has become the material of choice for almost all drain
applications. It has been used in sanitary sewers for 25 years. Characteristics of
HDPE include:

Cost competitive.

Easy to handle and install. HDPEs specific gravity is less than 1.0; it will float
even if filled with water. Trenches must be drained before placing the pipe.

Generally good corrosion resistance (see paragraph below).

High thermal coefficient of expansion (roughly twice that of steel).

The smaller sizes can be bent to shape somewhat to conform to unusual ditch
grades or alignments.

The larger sizes lack structural strength unless special forms or shapes are used
(refer to Spirolite data).

Can be used to fabricate fittings such as manholes or catch basins to produce a


material-integrated system.

Can be used as a corrosion protection barrier for the external surfaces of steel
pipe and for some internal linings.

HDPE is generally thought to be resistant to virtually any substance in a drain.


However, high concentrations of some hydrocarbons (especially at high temperatures) can cause problems. The hydrocarbon is absorbed into the HDPE which

June 1997

500-46

Chevron Corporation

Civil and Structural Manual

500 Drainage

swells, softens, and becomes weaker. This change is not permanent; when the
hydrocarbon is removed, the strength returns (refer to vendor data; e.g., ADS).
Certain acids, chlorine gas, and other chemicals can cause permanent damage. If a
drain is likely to contain these substances, consult technical data from the vendors
or Materials and Equipment Engineering before using HDPE.
Maximum allowable operating pressures range from 225 psi in the smaller sizes to
50 psi in the larger. The usual allowable temperature ranges are:

Pressure applications: - 50F to + 140F.


Non-pressure applications: - 50F to + 180F.

HDPEs temperature range is better than PVC which has less impact resistance at
low temperature. Water can freeze in the HDPE pipe without causing permanent
damage. High temperature reduces the strength and stiffness and improves
ductility; low temperature has the opposite effects.
Joining lengths of HDPE pipe and installation of fittings in the smaller, solid wall
pipe sizes is usually done by heat fusion welding. End thrust restraint is not needed
in this case. In the larger sizes with special configurations (refer to Spirolite data),
bell and spigot-type joints with special rubber gaskets are used.
HDPE pipe is produced by many companies in many sizes.

Spirolite (a Chevron product)


Spirolite is a unique configuration of thin wall polyethylene pipe with special
hollow reinforcing rings around the circumference. This design allows large diameters to be fabricated with improved mechanical strength/weight ratio. Characteristics include:

Light weight. For 36-inch pipe:

Spirolite weighs 30 lb/ft.


Ductile iron weighs 170 lb/ft.
Reinforced concrete weighs 565 lb/ft.

Trench dewatering is necessary and backfilling must be done before water is


allowed back into the trench.

The smooth interior gives good flow characteristics. It is also available with a
smooth exterior (retaining the hollow rings for added strength); this design is
preferred if the pipe sections are to be jacked or pulled into an existing drain as
a renovation liner.

Its flexibility requires care in installation and assembly.

Manholes, sumps and other fittings such as ells, wyes, tees, etc., can be fabricated from Spirolite.

Normally, connections are made with a special rubber gasket in a press-in


male/female joint. This joint is claimed to be resistant to both exfiltration and infiltration leaks. After assembly, joints can be made extra secure by applying a thermal

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weld bead on the inside or outside or both. For a cross section view of Spirolite,
refer to Figure 500-21.
Fig. 500-21 Cross Section View of Spirolite Joint

ADS (Advanced Drainage Systems, Inc.)


This company also produces a special polyethylene drain pipe that is corrugated for
strength. In many respects it is similar to Spirolite, but to date the manufacturer
cannot guarantee watertight joints so it cannot be recommended. However, one
interesting drain fitting could be useful in special situations. This is a panel-shaped
section of perforated polyethylene that is used for interceptor drains where only a
narrow trench is allowed for installation. Sections 4 inches wide and 12 or 18
inches high are available.
Vendors of HDPE:
Solid wall: Dow Chemical, PLEXCO
Special Shapes: Spirolite, ADS Inc.

Reinforced Concrete Pipe (RCP)


Reinforced concrete pipe has been the traditional material used for drain lines, especially in the larger sizes. It has a good history of usage over many years with extensive contractor installation experience. The fabrication technology is mature and
well standardized. It is strong, has good vacuum collapse resistance, and is corrosion resistant in most systems. Although not as smooth internally as HDPE or fiberglass pipe, it still can be supplied smooth enough to give a H & W factor of
C = 140 in the new condition. At least one vendor can supply concrete pipe with an
internal plastic lining for special corrosion resistance.
Large diameter sections must be relatively short to reduce the weight for handling.
One vendor offers diameters of 12 to 96 inches in 8-foot lengths.
Joints between sections are mechanical, usually a bell and spigot configuration with
a rubber or composition sealing ring compressed between the concrete faces or
sometimes between steel joint rings cast into the concrete. The annular space inside

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and outside of the seal ring is then filled with grout. These joints are not normally
end thrust restrained but in some cases steel joint rings can be seal welded.
Disadvantages:

Its weight requires use of heavy construction equipment.

Trench bottom bedding must be precisely placed.

Backfilling requires special care.

All tees, wyes, ells, etc. as well as even minor changes in direction require
precast fittings.

Vendor: Ameron

Thermoplastics (ABS, CPVC, PVC)


Thermoplastics (herein abbreviated for convenience as PVC) have a reasonably
good history of usage, although they are now being overtaken somewhat by polyethylene (standard or special configurations) and by fiberglass. Characteristics of PVC
include:

Easy to cut and fit.

Good resistance to some substances.

More rigid and brittle than polyethylene (PE).

If stored or installed above ground, ultraviolet light from the sun will reduce its
impact strength.

Low temperature reduces its flexibility and impact resistance.

Its high coefficient of expansion requires provision for flexibility.

Joints can be made using solvent welds, flanges with gaskets, or bell and spigot.
For the latter type joint, end restraints or thrust blocks must be provided. Precast
fittings of all types are available. To some extent, the pipe can be bent to fit trench
curvature.
Vendors:
Johns Manville
Ryan Herco

Vitrified Clay
Vitrified clay pipe has been used for centuries but it is no longer recommended. It is
very fragile and the joints tend to leak. Its major advantage is its resistance to acids
and most other corrosive substances.

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540 Drain System Repair and Retrofit


This section deals with testing, inspection, repair, and retrofit of existing drains that
are leaking or are suspected to be leaking. Many contractors and vendors offer more
than one of the services listed. For example, it is common for a company that
specializes in drain repair, relining, sealing of joints, etc., to also offer televised
internal inspection service. This is natural because inspection is necessary to determine the need for repair, selection of the repair method, and monitoring the repair
procedure.
The subsequent sections include recommendations for repair of existing drains by
internal lining, sealing of joint leaks, or complete replacement. Retrofit refers to
the process by which additions are made to an existing drain to upgrade it to a
condition similar or almost equal to a newly-installed drain. In this document,
retrofit primarily means the installation of leak detection devices in an attempt to
achieve a reasonable degree of security against leaks. However, it is virtually impossible to upgrade an existing underground system to rival a new drain installation
because of the difficulty of placing the cables or detector probes where they need to
be to do their job.
In addition to the information presented in Section 540, refer to the Sewer Repair
Consumer Guide Prepared for PERF 94-12, attached to this manual as Appendix
G. It contains a catalog of recommended sewer repair methods, vendor contacts,
and a sewer repair decision tree.

541 Inspection/Detection for Existing Drains


The integrity of an existing drain line can be checked by one or more of several
methods. Generally, these can be categorized as:

Pressure testing
Visual inspection
Leakage detectors

Pressure Testing
Pressure testing of a drain line can give some indication of its condition. This test
can be done by blocking off a section between manholes, filling the manholes and
drain with water, and observing the water level for changes:

If the water level drops, water is leaking out (if the ground water level is lower
than the test water level).

If the water level rises, water is leaking in (if the ground water level is higher
than the test water level).

A change in the water level indicates leakage, but it could be difficult to determine
the location(s), type(s), and best way(s) to stop it.
Testing with air pressure is also an option, but this method has the same limitations
as the water test described above.

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If a pressure test indicates leakage, the leak location(s) must be found by one of the
following methods:

Visual inspection by worker entry or television camera.


Use of a tracer gas (refer to Leakage Detectors paragraphs below).

Visual Inspection
Visual inspection can be done in several ways. Initially, some indication of drain
condition can be obtained by visual examination of the manhole(s) and the adjacent
portions of the drain lines. If a drain line is large enough and can be taken out of
service, a worker can enter the drain and observe the interior surfaces and joints of
the drain. Deterioration effects could include the following:

Older drains (especially of concrete or vitrified clay) collapsing in places due


to lack of support or changes in exterior loads.

Separations at joints.

Corrosion.

If the adjacent ground water table is high, infiltration might be observed through
cracks, broken sections, or bad joints.

Inspection by Television Camera


Smaller drains not accessible for worker entry (up to 20 inches) can be inspected
visually by a remote-controlled closed-circuit TV camera. Television inspection is
not as reliable as direct visual but can be helpful. Some of the deterioration effects
listed above can be observed. Comprehensive inspection by television usually
requires cleaning the drain first.
Several companies offer television inspection of drain lines. The cameras are
remotely controlled from outside the drain and above ground (from a console
mounted on a truck or trailer). The camera either has self-contained mobility or is
pulled through the drain by means of a tow line. Some systems are capable of rotation of the viewing head so that viewing at an angle to or even perpendicular to the
drain axis is possible. This capability can give a more detailed view of the drain
wall or laterals entering the drain.
Almost all systems available are offered in conjunction with a leak repair system of
some sort. This allows the repair to be made on the spot, using the camera for positioning control and for visual inspection after repair.
Use of a television camera has major advantages in that the inspection(s) can be
preserved on video tape:

For detailed examination before a repair decision.


As a historical record of conditions before and after repair.

Although vendor literature contains striking photos of major infiltration leaks, some
leaks may not be obvious under all conditions:

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If the adjacent ground water level is below the drain elevation, an infiltration
leak will not be visible.

The only visual indication of a potential exfiltration or infiltration leak may be


cracks in the drain wall, parted joints, roots or other blockage, etc.

Contractors offering TV inspection services include:


Cherne Industries, Inc.
Cues, Incorporated
Heath Consultants
Brand Precision
Olympus (video image by fiber optics)
PLS International
Rodding-Cleaning Services, Inc.
Subtronic Corporation
West Coast Locators

Leakage Detectors
Descriptions of leak detection systems for new drain installations are covered at
length in Section 554. Many of the systems listed there can be used to check an
existing drain for leaks by drilling holes in the ground near the drain for placement
of probe detectors.
Several companies offer methods which claim to detect and locate leak points in
existing underground tanks or piping including drain lines. The equipment or chemicals used may be proprietary.

Some methods depend on detection of materials normally in the drain (such as


hydrocarbons).

Other methods inject a specific substance or chemical into the drain for detection when it leaks.

The detection methods used may include some combination of:

Flame ionization
Gas chromatography
Ground penetrating radar
Photoionization detectors
Soil vapor sampling systems
Tracer gas injection and detection

Vendors and contractors for leak detection systems and their general method of
operation are listed below (also see Section 554):

June 1997

Environmental Instruments Co. uses gas chromatography and flame ionization


for detection.

Geophysical Survey Systems Inc. uses subsurface interface radar for gas leak
detection.

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Heath Consultants Incorporated uses:

Hydrogen flame ionization to test for trace leaks of methane and ethane.
Helium as a tracer gas (drain must be taken out of service for test).

Detection is by gas chromatography or gas/air differential density.

Tracer Research Corporation uses proprietary tracer gas injection for leak
detection.

West Coast Locators, Inc. uses helium as a tracer gas and hydrocarbon gas
detectors.

542 Joint/Localized Area Repairs


Visual inspection of an existing drain (by television or by personnel entering the
line) may indicate that the drain is basically in good condition but that many joints
or other isolated points are leaking. In this case, you should consider several
methods available for sealing or repairing only the joints or localized areas. The
various methods are summarized below.
All of the repair systems can be classified in several ways:

By whether the repair is applied to the external or internal surfaces of the drain
line joint or local area.

If the repair is internal, whether it is applied by workers actually entering the


drain (20 inches or larger) or by devices remotely controlled from the
manholes or from above ground.

By the method of joint repair or sealing:

Mechanical
Foam grout or equivalent

For remotely controlled internal repairs, the operating system usually includes:

Confirming and locating the leak.


Cleaning of the affected surfaces.
The actual sealing mechanism or procedure.
Testing of the joint by pressure or vacuum before and after the joint repair.

If the line is large enough for worker entry, all of the above functions can be
performed manually.

543 Internal Sealing Systems


If the drain line is buried, repair of drain line joints by internal access is preferable
to external access. Access to the outside of the joint requires some excavation and
disruption of ground level traffic.

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If the drain line has conveniently located manholes, these can be used as the
primary access points.

If the system does not have manholes, special access points must be excavated.
At the end of the work, these access points can be converted into system
manholes or the drain line can be reconnected across the excavation.

Vendor claims vary for the lengths of drain line that can be worked on between
access openings. For remote controlled systems, this distance is limited by:

The available lengths of equipment control lines, cables, etc.

Certain features of the drain line such as direction changes, diameter changes,
etc.

For worker-accessible drain lines, the limitations are primarily safety (the
maximum distance from an access opening that it is safe for a person to work).
Generally, smaller diameter drains should have more closely spaced access points.
Drains up to approximately 30 inches in diameter:

Require the worker to travel in the line on a dolly or carriage.


Hinder assistance and rescue.
Limit the flow of fresh air.

The location of leaking joints must be ascertained by some means.

If ground water is leaking into the drain, the leak can probably be easily
located by worker entry or TV camera.

If the drain is leaking into the ground, the leak may be difficult to locate by an
internal inspection. If the leakage is severe, complete sealing of all joints or of
every joint within a specified section should be considered.

Sealing systems offered by various vendors (listed alphabetically by trade name)


are discussed below.
AMEX-10
Vendor or Contractor Offering:

Miller Pipeline Corp.

Method of Inspection:

Visual

Method of Testing:

Not indicated

Method of Repair:

Mechanical

Accessibility:

Worker entry

Size of Drain Limitations:

Not indicated(1)

Claimed Distance Between Openings:

Not indicated(1)

(1) Presumed to be the same as Weko-Seal.

This sealing system is very similar to Weko-Seal with somewhat more sealing
surfaces.

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Seals are available in three widths of 10.2 inches, 14.4, and 25.6 inches. Seal material for:

Gas and sewage is nitride-butadiene-rubber.


Potable water is EDPM-rubber.

Figure 500-22 shows a cross-section of an AMEX-10 seal.


Fig. 500-22 Cross Section of an AMEX-10 Seal

The manufacturer claims that these seals have been used to repair many types of
lines including ductile iron, cast iron, steel, reinforced concrete, PVC and other
synthetics, and concrete-lined steel.
Cues Reveal and Seal
Vendor or Contractor Offering:

Cues, Inc.

Method of Inspection:

Television camera

Method of Testing:

Air or water pressure

Method of Repair:

Grout

Accessibility:

None (remote control only)

Size of Drain Limitations:

Not indicated

Claimed Distance Between Openings:

Not indicated

This system for non-accessible drain repair is completely controlled from the
outside. The manufacturer claims it to be an integrated system for:

Chevron Corporation

Inspection (by TV camera) for location of leaks.


Placement of the special sealing packer (located by TV).

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Pressure testing of the joint (by air or water).


Injecting the chemical grout using the same hoses as for testing.
Testing again after the grouting.
Inspection again by TV after the packer is removed.

The manufacturer claims that bad joints in laterals coming into the drain can also be
sealed.
Details about how the system works are sketchy but apparently it is similar to the
Cherne Industries system described below.
In-Weg
Vendor or Contractor Offering:

PLCS, Inc. (for installation)

Method of Inspection:

Visual

Method of Testing:

Air/Water pressure

Method of Repair:

Grout

Accessibility:

Worker entry

Size of Drain Limitations:

18" to 72" (or larger)

Claimed Distance Between Openings:

Not stated (see below)

This seal is essentially identical to the Weko-Seal (see above). The In-Weg Seal was
developed in Europe and first used in 1964. PLCS, Inc. obtained a license to
distribute it in the USA.
For distance between openings, no claim is made but it would be comparable to the
Weko-Seal. The access distances depend more on the safety of workers than on the
design of the sealing system. On one job in Britain (a 24 inch drain line 6.2 km
long), sections of line 400 to 1500 meters long were repaired.
Weko-Seal
Vendor or Contractor Offering:

Miller Pipeline Corporation

Method of Inspection:

Visual

Method of Testing:

Air pressure

Method of Repair:

Mechanical

Accessibility:

Worker entry

Size of Drain Limitations:

14"(?) to 144" and larger

Claimed Distance Between Openings:

5000 ft (this may be extreme)

This system uses a specially designed synthetic rubber (E.P.D.M.) seal with stainless steel retaining bands. Good surface cleaning and preparation of the internal
pipe surfaces is necessary to get a well-sealed joint. After this is done, the seal is
manually placed in position across the joint to be sealed. Then stainless steel
retaining bands are fitted into place and expanded outward against the rubber seal.
The completed seal can be air tested. The finished joint repair has a very low profile
which optimizes flow characteristics.

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Apparently, actual or potential leaks other than joints could also be sealed (e.g., a
localized corroded area, deep pits, etc.) but the vendors literature does not address
this capability.

The standard Weko Seal can span gaps of up to 4 inches

An available extra wide seal can span 9 inches.

For wider gaps, special sleeves can be used.

Weko seals have been installed on steel, cast iron, ductile iron, and reinforced
concrete pipe (lined and unlined).

This seal was originally developed in Germany and was first used in Frankfurt in
1964. (See In-Weg Seal description above).
(Trade Name Not Given)
Vendor or Contractor Offering:

Cherne Industries Incorporated

Method of Inspection:

Visual

Method of Testing:

Air/water pressure (see below)

Method of Repair:

Grout

Accessibility:

Worker entry

Size of Drain limitations:

30" to 120" standard


(custom sizes are available)

Claimed Distance Between Openings:

None stated

This system uses a special testing/sealing ring placed manually across the joint.
Two balloon elements on either side of the joint opening are expanded by air pressure against the inner surfaces of the pipe to form a seal on both sides. Then water
is pumped into the cavity:

If the pressure rises and holds, the joint is considered good.

If the pressure drops, it can be assumed that the water is leaking through the
joint and into the ground outside the joint.

If the joint needs sealing, grout is pumped into the same space to displace the water
and seal the joint. After the grout hardens, the joint can again be tested as before.
The type of grout used is not stated.
Grout can also be used to seal leaking joints in manholes by injection with a probe
to the back side of the manhole rings.
This system appears to be of Swiss origin.
(Trade Name Not Given)

Chevron Corporation

Vendor or Contractor Offering:

Cherne Industries, Inc.

Method of Inspection:

TV camera

Method of Testing:

Not indicated

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Method of Repair:

Grout (see below)

Accessibility:

None (remote control only)

Size of Drain Limitations:

Not indicated (would be for small lines)

Claimed Distance Between Openings:

Not given

This system is similar to Cues Reveal and Seal but more details are given. It uses a
remotely controlled TV camera to inspect and control the cleaning and repair work.
Two seal mediums are used:

Urethane
Vari Seal (various grouts)

A special packer allows the joint to be tested before any work is done. The system
was developed in Switzerland.
(Trade Name Not Given)
Vendor or Contractor Offering:

Rodding/Cleaning Services Inc. (Agent


for Carylon Company)

Method of Inspection:

Internal TV camera

Method of Testing:

Not specified

Method of Repair:

Grout

Accessibility:

Worker entry or remote TV

Size of Drain Limitations:

Not specified; one case history was for


sizes up to 42"

Claimed Distance Between Openings:

Not specified

This general services contractor does maintenance work on existing sewer and
drain lines. They offer:

A remote-controlled TV inspection service.


Cleaning of the drains by various means.
Repair of leaks by several grouting methods.

The equipment used is not clearly specified and probably includes devices reviewed
elsewhere in this document.

544 External Repairs


As previously noted, external repair of a joint in a buried drain line requires that the
joint be excavated. Determination of which joints are leaking may be difficult.

June 1997

If ground water is infiltrating the drain, the locations of the leaks may not be
obvious.

If the drain is leaking from the inside to the surrounding ground, there may be
some obvious indication such as drainage liquids coming to the surface.

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For a line that gives some indication of 50% or more of joints leaking, standard
practice has been to excavate and seal all joints. Once the joint is uncovered
(depending on the type of joint), sealing will usually consist of:

Some type of repair or replacement of the original seal, or


Complete encapsulation of the joint.

The drain line may be leaking somewhere other than the joints (for example, at a
corroded/pitted area or the pipe section may be cracked). For these cases, uncovering of the joints only will not suffice and the only alternative may be to uncover
the entire line. Such a procedure could approach or surpass the cost of complete
line replacement.
One advantage of external repair of joints (compared to internal methods) is that
usually the drain can remain in service during the repair.

Materials and Methods Available


Miller Pipeline Corporation offers two joint sealing methods for use on bell and
spigot joints, on flanged or other mechanical-type joints, or on compression
couplings:

Encapseal uses a flexible, disposable fabric mold which encircles the leaking
joint. A two-part polyurethane mixture sealing medium is injected into the
mold. For operating pressures up to 60 psi, various materials can be used for
the mold.

Millerseal is primarily intended for sealing leaking bell joints on cast iron
mains. It uses a polymeric sealing material with heat sensitive properties that is
mechanically squeezed into the leaking joint.

Either seal system can be used with the slot and vacuum excavation technique
which minimizes digging.

545 Complete Internal Relining


Several systems on the market install a new internal lining in a drain that is leaking
or is suspected to be leaking. Vendors or contractors involved in this work offer
various combinations of materials, equipment and services. These include:

Testing or inspection devices or services to confirm and locate leaks in drains.


Measuring the volume or rate of the leaks.
Cleaning the drain (if necessary).
Installing the lining and stopping the leaks.
Testing and inspection to ascertain that the job is done well.

Most inspections use a closed circuit television camera. If the line to be inspected is
steel, magnetic flux current devices can be used to measure wall thickness, detect
corrosion pits, etc.

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Cleaning is done by the use of scraping pigs pulled by a cable or pushed by


compressed air through the line.
Subsequent paragraphs describe various internal relining methods and identify
vendors/contractors offering these services.

Sliplining/Swagelining
Sliplining is a somewhat generic term for the process by which an internal liner
(usually of HDPE) is pulled or pushed into an existing installed drain.
The inserted liner is slightly smaller in diameter than the existing drain, the OD/ID
differences being sufficient to minimize installation friction between the two. In
most cases, the improved flow characteristics of the HDPE compared to the deteriorated original drain usually compensates for the reduced cross section.
Insertec is a sliplining process offered by Miller Pipeline Corp. for live insertion
(without taking the line out of service). It is intended primarily for relining gas
mains and appears to be of little use for drains. The slip-liner is pushed into the
main through a special fitting which holds pressure on the main. The information
available is limited.
Phillips Driscopipe 9100 (offered by Miller Pipeline Corp) has been used for
relining of steel pipes from 2 to 30 inches in diameter. On one job, the pull lengths
ranged from 100 ft to 3700 ft. Production averaged 1800 ft/day with a crew of 12.
The HDPE pipe sections are delivered to the site and fusion-butt welded together
on the job to form a continuous string for pulling into the drain to be relined. After
insertion, the liner is pressurized and expanded against the inner wall of the steel
pipe. The liner is held in this position until it viscoelastically stress relieves itself
and accepts the expanded diameter as its permanent diameter. In some cases, hot
water or steam can be used to assist this process.
Swagelining (offered by Dowell Schlumberger for drains of 3 to 24 inches in diameter) is very similar to Driscopipe. The HDPE is heated and pulled through a
swaging die to reduce its diameter as it enters the steel pipe. As the in-place HDPE
liner cools, it expands to its original diameter to fit tightly against the steel. Service
laterals would have been located earlier by TV camera. After the Swagelining
process, openings at the laterals are cut out by a remote-controlled high pressure
water jet cutter.
Vendors/Contractors:
Dowell Schlumberger (Trade name: Swagelining)
Miller Pipeline Corp. (Trade names: Driscopipe 9100 and Insertec)
Plexco, Inc. (for sliplining material)
Rodding-Cleaning Services, Inc. (division of Carylon Corp.)

Insituform
This is a rather unique process for lining the inside of a deteriorated drain line. The
lining material is a polyester fiber felt tube impregnated with a thermosetting resin.

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The liner is installed in the drain section by inverting (turning it inside out) with
hydrostatic water pressure. This pressure also forces the tube outward to mold itself
to the interior surfaces of the drain line. The resin is then cured by circulating and
heating the water. The resulting lining:

Is molded tightly against the inner wall of the drain.

Has a smooth interior surface with virtually no reduction in drain line ID but
improved flow characteristics.

The lining is installed manhole-to-manhole so access to the drain through permanent or temporary manholes is necessary.
This system has been used on lines from 4 to 96 inches in diameter and in sections
up to 2000 ft long. Even non-circular conduits (e.g., egg-shaped) can be lined in
this way. The tube can negotiate direction changes in the drain up to 90 degrees. To
some extent, the lining will correct minor irregularities in the interior wall of the
existing drain because the hydrostatic pressure tends to force it outward slightly.
The manufacturer also claims that the lining will strengthen the drain.
After the lining is cured, lateral outlets are cut either manually (if the drain is large
enough to be accessible) or with special remote controlled cutting equipment.
The system was developed in the United Kingdom in 1971 and brought to the USA
in 1977. More than 8 million feet of pipe have been relined in this way.
Figure 500-23 shows how the Insituform internal lining is installed.

Spirolite (a Chevron product)


This semi-rigid form of HDPE can be used to reline bad drains by jacking it into
the old drain horizontally, section by section. The procedure requires an open pit
long enough for the sections and the jacking equipment. Gaskets are used between
the sections. After each drain run between manholes is jacked into place, the
annular space between the two pipes can be grouted.
The vendor claims that either Core Wall (smooth inside and outside) or Profile Wall
(smooth inside and corrugations outside) can be used. However, Core Wall would
apparently be easier to install and grout. A clearance of 5% of the Spirolite OD is
necessary for grouting.
Spirolite can also be used for relining circular section manholes.

XPANDIT
This is a method specifically designed to replace vitrified clay pipes (up to 20 inch
diameter) that are badly broken but not completely collapsed. Although intended
for clay drains, it presumably could also be used for plain concrete pipe (not reinforced), and probably even asbestos-cement (Transite) pipe.
A specially designed head walks its way into the conduit of the existing clay pipe.
As the head advances:

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Fig. 500-23 How Insituform Internal Lining is Installed

STAGE 2

STAGE 1
The resin saturated material is installed in the existing pipe through
a manhole or other access point via an inversion standpipe and
inversion elbow. The Insitutube is cuffed back and banded to the
inversion elbow, creating a a closed system that allows the water
inversion process to take place.

Water from nearby hydrants, or other convenient source, is used to


fill the inversion standpipe. The force of the column of water turns
the wet-out Insitutube inside-out and into the pipe being reconstructed. As the Insitutube travels through the pipe, water is continually added to maintain a constant pressure. The water pressure
keeps the Insitutube pressed tightly against the walls of the old pipe.

STAGE 3
After the Insitutube reaches the termination point, the water in the
line is circulated through a heat exchanger where it is heated and
returned to the Insitutube. The hot water cures the thermosetting
resin, causing it to harden into a structurally sound, jointless pipewithin-a-pipe an Insitupipe.

STAGE 4
Once the Insitupipe has hardened and cooled, the water pressure is
released and the ends are trimmed. Service connections are reinstated internally with a remote control cutting device or by manentry techniques. The Insituform operation is then completed, and
the newly installed pipe is ready for immediate use. All this is accomplished without excavation.

It expands to break the clay pipe and forces it out into the surrounding soil.
It pulls the special design HDPE replacement pipe into place.

The replacement pipe can be the same size as the original clay line or even the next
larger size.
Vendor/Contractor: Miller Pipeline Corp.
Figure 500-24 shows the XPANDIT head in operation.

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Fig. 500-24 The XPANDIT Head in Operation

546 Complete Replacement


One option for correcting a bad drain line is complete replacement. Generally, this
would be done only:

In the event of a major collapse or failure of the drain.


If substantially greater flow capacity is also necessary.

The required excavation, disruption of surface traffic, etc. are major disadvantages.
Replacement is effectively a new installation; relevant information is given elsewhere in this manual (for Material Considerations, refer to Section 539).

550 Containment and Leak Detection


551 Introduction/Summary
Some new drain installations require enhanced or absolute containment and/or
detection of leakage. Present state-of-the-art techniques include three broad and
general approaches:

Double pipe systems. This concept uses concentric (pipe-within-a-pipe)


designs so that:

The inner pipe is the actual liquid drain.


The outer pipe will contain any leakage from the inner pipe.

Troughs or trenches. This containment system consists of some type of trough


so that any leakage from the drain will be contained.

Enhanced detection. If less than absolute containment is allowable, a high level


of detection capability can be used.

Appendix F (Secondary Containment for New Construction and Existing Facilities)


reviews the regulations, requirements, and recommendations for secondary containment in both new and existing facilities. It provides guidance on secondary contain-

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ment for equipment that processes, conveys, and stores solids and liquids. The
general principles relating to secondary containment are reviewed, followed by
guidelines for specific cases. References are provided to direct the reader to the
appropriate environmental regulations. This appendix also provides example
designs typically used for both new construction and existing facilities. The reader
should review the Introduction, Legal Requirements, and Environmental Factors
sections of this appendix before proceeding to a specific section. Each of the
sections contain information on applicable regulations, recommendations for
secondary containment in absence of regulations, and a discussion on designs for
both new and existing facilities.

552 Double Pipe Systems


Double wall pipe systems use the inner pipe as the actual drain (carrier) and the
outer pipe as the containment. Construction can be of almost any of the listed pipe
materials. Different materials usually have different thermal coefficients of expansion. Therefore, it is more common to use the same material for both pipes. For twomaterial systems, the most common combination is steel for the carrier and fiberglass for the containment.
Expansion can be handled by flexibility or by restraint. For carrier/containment
pipes differing by only one standard pipe size, it is difficult to adjust lengths for a
proper fit and still allow for the required expansion. The annular space between the
two pipes will need supports and guides. A different approach (especially in the
proprietary systems) is to restrain the movement, creating tension or compression in
the components. This is acceptable if the stress levels are within allowable limits.
Hydrostatic testing of the inner/outer pipes can be complicated. The better systems
allow for complete assembly and testing of the inner pipe before the outer pipe is
installed over it.
These double pipe system designs assume provision for leakage detection (from the
inner drain pipe to the outer containment pipe) either continuously or intermittently
(refer to Section 554).
For comprehensive containment protection, double walls would also be required at
manholes, catch basins, etc.

Carbon Steel Double Pipes


Carbon steel double containment drain systems are in use. The design is similar to
that used for jacketed lines carrying liquid sulphur which contain steam in the
annular space. Fabrication and assembly is very difficult and costly. Carbon steel
would be preferable to some of the other materials only if its higher temperature
characteristics or pressure-retaining capabilities are necessary.

Proprietary Systems
Several partially pre-assembled double pipe systems are on the market as proprietary designs. Most of these systems use fiberglass pipe. Available technology
seems to be limited to a maximum size of about 12 inches/16 inches (inner/outer)

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pipe. Since each of the proprietary systems available are somewhat different in
design, they will be reviewed here by name.

AmeronFiberglass Pipe Division


This vendor offers something very similar to the Fibercast system, also in fiberglass
but in sizes only up to 4 inches/6 inches. Its target market appears to be fuel
systems of small terminals and service stations rather than drain systems. The
sealing system of the outer pipe seems to be simpler and easier to install than Fibercast but it may not be as secure in containment.

Containment Technologies Corporation


This company offers secondary containment piping fittings referred to as a clamshell, snap-on design. The tees, ells, etc., are formed in two halves which are
hinged and wrapped around the carrier pipe fitting to be enclosed and then secured
mechanically by connector rods and band clamps. Sealing of the two halves of the
clamshells and to the straight sections of containment pipe is by gaskets imbedded
in the two halves. The clamshells are HDPE. For the straight runs of containment
pipe, regular plastic pipe is used. Figure 500-25 shows several fittings.
Fig. 500-25 Five Containment Pipe Fittings

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The largest size of containment fittings available is 6 inches for enclosing 4 inch
carrier pipe. As with Ameron, it is geared more to containment of fuel piping
systems.
Although the containment system is tested to 5 psi after installation, the vendor
does not claim it to be a pressure-containing system. It is expected that any leaks
from the carrier pipe into the containment system would flow by gravity and at
atmospheric pressure to a low point for detection.
The carrier pipe can be any material (steel, fiberglass, etc.). It is installed in the
usual way and can be pressure tested before the containment system is closed up
around it.
This system appears to be easier and quicker to install than some of the others but it
may be less secure. The manufacturer claims that it is reusable (if changes or
repairs are needed on the carrier pipe system, the fittings can be disassembled and
reassembled).
Note that there is no specific provision for differential expansion and contraction of
the inner and outer pipe systems; some care would be needed in assembly to give it
the required flexibility.
This vendor also offers plastic HDPE sumps for use with the containment system to
collect and detect any leakage retained in the containment piping. Detection devices
can also be used in the pipe.

Fibercast Dualcast
This system is fabricated entirely of fiberglass. Various materials in the fiberglass
family can be used. All components offered for the double containment systems are
specially fabricated for that purpose including pipe lengths, couplings, ells, tees,
wyes, and drain traps. The sizes available are:

Carrier pipe: 1 inch to 12 inches


Containment pipe: 3 inches to 16 inches

All connections are by close-fit sockets and joint adhesive. Fabrication and
assembly appears to be quite complicated. Some field cut and fit work may be
possible but most pieces are prefabricated (including pipes cut to length) before the
field assembly work is done. Pressure and temperature ratings normally conform to
fiberglass piping limits. The containment pipe is rated up to 150 psi.
As with all double pipe systems, careful consideration must be given to differential
thermal expansion of the carrier and containment pipe. Generally, this system
restrains such movement in the components but minor movement of the inner pipe
within the outer pipe can be allowed.
The system allows the use of leak detection devices (either cable or single point) in
the annular space between pipes but Fibercast does not provide this equipment.
Hydrostatic testing of this system is very difficult. The vendors procedure must be
fully understood and carefully followed. Even so, it is likely that some joints will
not be observable during testing and leaks could be missed.

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The Fibercast system should be considered for:

Installations demanding the most absolutely tight system.


Handling of special liquids (such as laboratory drainage).

Ryan Herco Products Corporation


This vendor offers several types of double containment piping systems.
Polyethylene double containment fittings in sizes up to 4 inches are available.
Expansion/contraction allowances are less critical with PE because it is less rigid
and will flex to some extent.
Clear PVC is available in sizes up to 6 inches. Clear PVC allows leaks from the
inner pipe to be visible, thereby possibly eliminating the need for detection devices
if the drain is above ground.
Split pipe and fittings allow testing of the carrier pipe before the outer pipe is
installed. This can also be used for retrofitting existing systems. Bolt-on fittings in
sizes up to 16 inches are also available for retrofit applications.

Smith Fiberglass (Representative: Ryan Herco)


This system also uses fiberglass. The joints can be threaded as well as bonded.
Outer containment fittings:

For pipe sizes 10 to 16 inches are split longitudinally. After testing of the inner
pipe, they are joined with resin and fiberglass.

For pipe sizes 2 to 8 inches are bolted on. These are easier to install but probably not as secure against leaks.

The manufacturers catalog shows a maximum size of 16 inches. It seems possible


that sizes larger than 16 inches could be used.

Total Containment, Inc.


This vendors system is similar to the others. A separate containment system is
installed over the carrier pipe which can be steel, fiberglass or other material.
However, the fittings (ells, tees, etc.) are one-piece units so they must be in place
before the carrier pipe is joined.
Another difference is that they provide telescoping (flexible corrugated polyethylene) pipe sections for the straight runs of the containment system. These must
also be in place before the inner pipe is welded. All connections of the outer pipe
system are made mechanically by stainless steel clamps and seals. After assembly,
the containment can be pressure tested using air or water.
No indication is given of sizes available but it seems to be a maximum of 3 to 4
inches.
Figure 500-26 shows the relative leakage potential of double pipe containment
systems.

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Fig. 500-26 Relative Leakage Potential of Double Pipe Containment Systems


Relative Leakage
Potential
Double Pipe Containment Systems

1 to 5(1)

Ameron

2-3

Carbon Steel double pipes

1(2)

Containment Technology Corporation with clamshell


fittings

Fiberglass Dual-Cast

Ryan Herco Products Corporation

Smith Fiberglass
with resin bonding

Fiberglass Dual-Cast

threaded

Total Containment Incorporated


Note

For this evaluation to be valid, double pipe systems must be properly installed in accordance with the
manufacturers recommendations.
This evaluation refers generally to the security of the outer containment pipe. For relative security of
pipe materials in general, refer to the Drain Pipe Materials tabulation (Figure 500-18).

(1) Lowest (1) to Highest (5)


(2) Assumes external coating on outer containment pipe.

553 Trough Containment


A trough can be installed under one or more drain lines to catch and contain any
leakage from the drains. Such a trough:

Will operate at atmospheric pressure.

Will most likely have some type of cover.

May be backfilled with some material such as sand or pea gravel to avoid
creation of a hazardous air-hydrocarbon vapor mixture.

As with double pipe systems, consistent secondary containment would require


specially equipped manholes, catch basins, etc.
After assembly, a trough can be tested by filling it with water. Present EPA regulations require double pipe containment systems to be tested for leaks regularly after
usage. At present, such testing is not required for trough containment systems.
A major advantage of the use of troughs versus double pipes for secondary containment is that all lines within the trough can be completely assembled and tested
before backfilling.

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Leak detection devices or test location points are installed at low points in the
trough. A leak from any of the lines in the trough will be detected. For easier location of leaks, detection devices can be installed at many places in the system.
Generally, a trough system would cost less than a double pipe system only if two or
more drain lines can be contained in the same trough. Therefore, the relative costs
of troughs versus double containment pipes should be investigated for each installation.
Several proprietary secondary containment systems use troughs. Most of these
troughs are made of fiberglass. Such systems are being promoted for containment
of regular hydrocarbon lines (not necessarily drain lines) at service stations, bulk
plants, etc.
The fiberglass troughs have a snug-fitting cover nominally to keep out rain and
surface drainage. The interior of the trough (around the pipe or pipes contained) is
filled with a granular material such as pea gravel. Pipe expansion/contraction movements caused by temperature changes are absorbed by the gravel.
Although fiberglass troughs are designed mainly for underground installation, they
can be used for above-ground drains (even in a pipe rack). Pipe rack installations
would probably not be backfilled with pea gravel because of the added weight.
Another method of trough containment is the use of reinforced flexible synthetic
trench liner such as a thermoplastic elastomer sheeting, polyurethane rubber, or
polyethylene. This material would line the excavated ditch and be suitably backfilled after the drain line is installed. The installation procedure requires special
attention:

The bare trench must not contain sharp rocks or other material that could
damage the liner.

Joints between sheeting sections must be carefully sealed to prevent leaks.

Detection devices can be installed at low points as with the fiberglass troughs.
Other materials (such as concrete) can be used for the trough. The use of a concrete
trough solely for secondary containment of one drain line may not be cost effective.
However, an open trench storm drain system could be used as secondary containment for hydrocarbon drain pipes placed in it. The concrete trough would not have
a cover and would not be backfilled with granular material. If enhanced containment capability of the secondary (storm drain) system is required, it can be lined
with fiberglass resin as is done on flat slabs (refer to Section 523).

Fiber-Trench Inc.
This vendor uses rectangular U-shaped modular fiberglass units which can contain
one or more pipelines. Standard sizes up to 30 inches wide are available; larger
troughs can be made on special order. Tee-shapes, ells, crosses, and other forms are
also available.
Special sections (for installation at low points in the system) have sumps for leak
detection monitors. Joints between sections are retained mechanically by aluminum

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pop rivets and sealed with resin glues and fiberglass. This vendor also offers sumps
and underground tank top containment units for use with the containment troughs.
Figure 500-27 shows:

Several typical cross sections of Fiber-Trench troughs with piping installed.


A monitoring well for leak checking.
A cross section of a riveted and sealed joint.

Fig. 500-27 Fiber-Trench Trough Sections

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MCP Containment Systems


This company offers flexible trench liner materials in reinforced polyurethane
rubbers, polyethylene, and other materials. Edge-to-edge joining of the material is
accomplished by a glued zipper-type connection.

Western Fiberglass Inc.


This vendor offers a containment system of fiberglass troughs very similar to FiberTrench except that the sections are half-elliptical in shape instead of rectangular.
The manufacturer claims that this shape is better because any leakage will collect at
the bottom center of the trough for more precise detection.
The system has a water/vapor tight fiberglass lid. The largest standard size trench
cross section is 32 inches wide by 18 inches deep. Straight sections are 20' long.
Ells, tees, sumps, drip boxes, tank pits, etc. are also available.
Figure 500-28 shows Western Fiberglass trough sections including a typical leak
monitoring well.
Figure 500-29 shows relative leakage potential of trough-type containment materials.
Fig. 500-28 Western Fiberglass Trough Sections

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Fig. 500-29 Relative Leakage Potential of Trough-type Containment Materials


Relative Leakage
Potential
1 to 5(1)

Trough-Type Containment
Concrete Trench:
Bare concrete

Lined with fiberglass

Fiberglass:
Fiber-Trench Inc.

1-2

Western Fiberglass, Inc.

1-2

Flexible Membrane:
MCP Containment Systems

(1) Lowest (1) to Highest (5)

554 Leakage Detection Systems


The design of any new drain installation should consider the addition of a detection
system.

For a double pipe containment system, the leakage detectors would be installed
in the annular space between the two pipes.

For a trough containment system, the leakage detectors would be placed at one
or more low points in the system.

For either system, the leak detectors could be continuous cables or probes. For
enhanced detection only (no containment), refer to Section 555.
Many types of leakage detectors are on the market. Some of these devices depend
on detection of leakage of the material normally carried in the line:

If the drain material is volatile (such as a gas) and would normally rise to the
surface, the detector must be placed:

Somewhere in the ground near the drain, or


Between the drain and the surface, or
At the surface.

If the drain material is a liquid, it would normally go down so the detectors


must be located somewhere below the drain.

Some systems depend on a trace gas such as helium being injected into the drain;
leaks are detected by a specific sensor.
Some vendors offer a complete double containment package with a detection
system.
Leakage detectors have various principles of operation. These include:

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Closure of electrical circuit contacts (usually by liquid in the drain material).


Such closure could occur by:

The drain liquid short-circuiting the contacts.


The drain liquid dissolving a material separating the spring-loaded
contacts.
Liquid-induced swelling of some material forcing the contacts together.

Detection of hydrocarbons (liquid or vapor) by various means.

Detection of level of a liquid which has drained into a catchment volume.

Sensing the presence of a foreign fluid (gas or liquid) based on changes in the
electrical characteristics of the sensor (cable or probe) from a base (no-leak)
standard.

Each vendors system must be evaluated to determine its suitability for use in a
proposed new drain.
In some systems, a component degrades to cause the alarm. If this happens, replacement of some parts would be necessary for continued use of the system (See TCI
Leak Detection System). The physical installation must allow for easy replacement.
Sonic detectors are useful for locating leaks in high pressure piping. For drain
piping, sonic detectors would probably be ineffective because of the relatively low
exit velocity of the leaking material.

Bacharach Inc.
This vendor offers only detectors for continuous monitoring for gas leaks.

LASP (Teledyne Control Applications)


This system uses a special sensor tubing approximately 1/2 inch in diameter. This
tubing is installed in the trench near the line or drain to be monitored. Sensing
depends on diffusion of hydrocarbon vapors through the wall of the tubing into the
interior.

The inlet end of the tube is fitted with an air dryer unit.
The exhaust end of the tube is fitted with a vacuum pump and a gas detector.

As dry air is pulled through the tube, the gas detector unit continuously compares
the passing sample to previous base level samples. If hydrocarbon is leaking into
the tube, the detector triggers an alarm. The sensor tube wall is impervious to water
so only hydrocarbon leaks will be detected.
The system can monitor line lengths of 5 to 10 miles. However, time-to-alarm is
dependent on travel distance in the tube so shorter lengths may be advisable.
The manufacturer offers two versions of the system:

Chevron Corporation

Continuous monitoring provides rapid leak detection and alarm.


Intermittent monitoring can be used to pinpoint the location of a leak.

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Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corporation


This vendor offers a very simple flexible dipstick for detecting presence of water in
a containment. The dipstick is coated with a water-finding paste.

Ronan Engineering Company


This vendor offers:

A level detector (float switch) system for installation in low points of a double
pipe system or a containment trough.

Hydrocarbon vapor detectors (solid state diffusion-type).

Several detector systems for loss of pressure (for example, in a pressurized


annulus of a double wall pipe or tank).

TCI Leak Detection System (Total Containment, Inc.)


This leak detection system is similar to Leak-X but is offered in conjunction with
TCIs double pipe secondary containment system. The manufacturer claims that the
system can detect:

Leaks in underground monitoring wells, double wall tanks, double wall piping,
and similar applications.

The presence of liquid hydrocarbons, a variety of hazardous chemicals, and


water.

Audible and visible alarms are given.

For detection of hydrocarbons, two electrical conductors are sheathed with


insulation jackets that will dissolve in hydrocarbons. This dissolution causes
the conductor wires to make contact, signaling the alarms. Disadvantage of this
system: hydrocarbon dissolution permanently damages the sensor cable which
must be replaced.

For water detection, the sensor cable can be equipped with an optional watersensitive probe.

TraceTek (Raychem Corporation)


This system is used primarily for monitoring leaks in double pipe or trench-type
double containment systems. Its use with direct-burial drains would appear to be
limited.
A detector cable is installed in the outer pipe of a double pipe system or on the
bottom of a containment trench. Depending on the type of liquid likely to leak, one
or more of three types of cables can be used for detection of:

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Water leaks
Aqueous liquids (acids, bases, and water)
Fuels and solvents (hydrocarbons)

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Each type of cable operates on the principle of electrical circuit completion causing
an alarm. The hydrocarbon detector cable uses a swellable conductive polymer to
mechanically close the circuit. All cables contain extra wires for continuity checks
and testing.
The manufacturer claims that in addition to determining that a leak exists, the location of such leak along the length of a cable can be determined by the instrumentation provided.

Universal Sensors and Devices


This vendor offers liquid and vapor sensing probes for underground tanks and
double containment piping. The sensors available include:

A thermal element capable of detecting the presence of any liquid.

A metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) that recognizes the presence of most


combustible and organic gases.

W. L. Gore and Associates, Inc.


This vendor offers leak detection cables for installation in the drain system to be
monitored. The system can detect leaks of water-based or hydrocarbon liquids.
Absorption of hydrocarbons by the cable insulation alters the cables capacitance,
characteristic impedance, and propagation speed. The change in capacitance indicates a leak.
Figure 500-30 shows detection effectiveness of permanent leak detection systems
and Figure 500-31 shows detection effectiveness of temporary leak detection
systems.

555 Enhanced Detection Only


In some cases, it may be preferable to install a drain with enhanced detection but no
secondary containment. If leakage occurs, it is not contained but is detected at an
early stage so that corrective measures can be taken. The degree of protection
achieved falls between drains with no leak detection and those with both detection
and extra containment.
For enhanced detection:

Chevron Corporation

Detectors are installed along the underside of the drain line, at manholes, etc.
Generally, continuous-cable-type detectors are more effective than spot-type
detectors.

With no secondary containment, leakage and ground contamination can occur


anywhere. For comprehensive coverage and prompt warning of leaks, more
detection points must be installed than for a double containment system.

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Fig. 500-30 Detection Effectiveness of Permanent (Installed) Leak Detection Systems


Permanent (Installed)
Leak Detection Systems (1)

Detection Effectiveness
1 to 5 (2)

Bacharach Inc.

For gas leaks


only

LASP (Teledyne Control)

2-3

Owens-Corning

Ronan Engineering Company

Total Containment, Inc. (3)

3-4

TraceTek

1-2

Universal Sensors

3-4

W. L. Gore and Associates, Inc.

3-4

(1) These systems are designed for installation in a new drain system or for retrofitting to an existing drain
system for continuous or intermittent monitoring of leaks.
(2) Lowest (1) to Highest (5)
(3) The Total Containment system includes insulation which degrades to indicate a leak. After a leak indication, the degraded parts must be replaced.

Fig. 500-31 Detection Effectiveness of Temporary (Non-installed) Leak Detection Systems


Temporary (Non-Installed)
Leak Detection Systems (1)

Detection Effectiveness
1 to 5 (2)

Environmental Instruments Co.

2-3

Geophysical Survey Systems Inc.

Heath Consultants Inc.

2-3

Tracer Research Corp.

West Coast Locators, Inc.

3-4

(1) These systems are meant to detect drain leaks by methods or equipment not permanently installed (by
detection of fluids normally in the drain or by means of a tracer gas injected specially for the purpose).
(2) Lowest (1) to Highest (5)

560 Evaluation of Drainage Systems


561 General Evaluation
This section:

Evaluates drainage and detection systems, materials, etc.


Categorizes them to indicate several degrees of protection.

Generally:

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The most secure system will probably be the most expensive.

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The less secure systems will probably cost less.

For a new drainage system, the first design consideration must be what level of
assurance is required that the system will not leak. To facilitate this, a hierarchy
system has been established as follows:
Degree 1: (System absolutely must not leak to the environment.)

A bulletproof design.

Must be almost 100% good for all possible services (can handle virtually all
types of drainage liquids it could receive).

Includes continuously operating leak detection devices with alarms.

Cost of installation and maintenance is virtually no object.

Degree 3: (Integrity somewhat less than Degree 1 but has many of the same
features.)

Detection devices installed or installable on site when needed but not necessarily monitored continuously.

Degree 5: (Least expensive option.)

Installation will satisfy most requirements at moderate cost.

If leak testing is required, it must be done by means not permanently installed.

Degrees 2 and 4 are intermediate categories which have some of the features of the
categories on either side.
The hierarchy system described above is used to express current opinion about the
integrity of several elements of a drain system.
Note that the evaluations herein do not compare costs of alternative materials or
systems. A final decision on which to use must be based on a risk analysis and cost
comparison as well as the evaluations listed here.

562 Recommended Procedure for New Drain Selection


1.

Select degree of integrity required, considering:

2.

Select suitable materials:

3.

Chevron Corporation

Drainage material handled.


Location of drain.
Environmental consequences of a leak, etc.

Eliminate non-candidates.
Observe limiting factors (e.g., sizes available).
Compare costs.

For drain material selected, select suitable joint type. Consider:

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Degree of integrity required.


Cost.

4.

If secondary containment is required, select method of containment.

5.

If leak detection is required, select system.

A final selection of all components of the drain system may require more than one
iteration of the above steps.

570 Miscellaneous Data


571 Abbreviations, Acronyms, and Symbols
Symbols
Acronyms of Organizations and Codes
AASHTO

American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials

API

American Petroleum Institute

AREA

American Railway Engineering Association

AWWA

American Water Works Association

NFPA

National Fire Protection Association

UBC

Uniform Building Code

UPC

Uniform Plumbing Code

USGS

United States Geological Survey

572 Rainfall Data


This Section gives tables of rainfall intensity versus duration and frequency for the
locations listed below. The data in Figure 500-32 were derived from the information in References [26], [27], and [28].
California
Bakersfield/Cymric/McKittrick/Kern River/Taft
El Segundo
Gaviota
Richmond
Colorado
Rangely

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Hawaii
Barbers Point/Honolulu
Louisiana
Venice/Leeville/Oak Point/Morgan City/Cameron
(combined with Orange/Port Arthur, Texas)
Mississippi
Pascagoula
New Jersey
Perth Amboy
Ohio
Marietta
Oregon
Willbridge
Pennsylvania
Philadelphia
Texas
Cedar Bayou/Houston/Mont Belvieu
El Paso
Orange/Port Arthur
Utah
Salt Lake City
Washington
Kennewick
Wyoming
Evanston
Rock Springs

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Fig. 500-32 Rainfall Tables (1 of 9)


BAKERSFIELD/CYMRIC/MCKITTRICK/
KERN RIVER/TAFT, CALIFORNIA
Rainfall Intensity (in./hr.)

EL SEGUNDO, CALIFORNIA
Rainfall Intensity (in./hr.)

Return Period

Duration
(min).

5-yr.

10-yr.

5.0

1.06

5.5

Return Period

25-yr.

Duration
(min.)

5-yr.

10-yr.

25-yr.

1.29

1.56

5.0

2.37

2.92

3.57

1.03

1.25

1.51

5.5

2.29

2.83

3.45

6.0

1.00

1.21

1.46

6.0

2.22

2.74

3.34

6.5

0.97

1.18

1.42

6.5

2.16

2.66

3.25

7.0

0.94

1.15

1.38

7.0

2.10

2.59

3.16

7.5

0.92

1.12

1.35

7.5

2.05

2.53

3.08

8.0

0.90

1.09

1.32

8.0

2.00

2.47

3.01

8.5

0.88

1.07

1.29

8.5

1.96

2.41

2.95

9.0

0.86

1.05

1.26

9.0

1.92

2.36

2.88

9.5

0.84

1.02

1.24

9.5

1.88

2.31

2.82

10.0

0.83

1.00

1.21

10.0

1.84

2.27

2.77

11.0

0.80

0.97

1.17

11.0

1.77

2.19

2.67

12.0

0.77

0.93

1.13

12.0

1.71

2.11

2.57

13.0

0.74

0.90

1.09

13.0

1.66

2.04

2.49

14.0

0.72

0.87

1.06

14.0

1.60

1.98

2.41

15.0

0.70

0.85

1.02

15.0

1.56

1.92

2.34

20.0

0.61

0.74

0.89

20.0

1.35

1.67

2.04

25.0

0.54

0.65

0.79

25.0

1.20

1.48

1.81

30.0

0.48

0.59

0.71

30.0

1.08

1.33

1.62

40.0

0.40

0.49

0.59

40.0

0.90

1.10

1.35

50.0

0.35

0.42

0.51

50.0

0.77

0.95

1.16

60.0

0.31

0.37

0.45

60.0

0.68

0.84

1.03

June 1997

500-80

Chevron Corporation

Civil and Structural Manual

500 Drainage

Fig. 500-32 Rainfall Tables (2 of 9)


GAVIOTA, CALIFORNIA
Rainfall Intensity (in./hr.)

RICHMOND, CALIFORNIA
Rainfall Intensity (in./hr.)

Return Period

Duration
(min.)

5-yr.

10-yr.

5.0

2.91

5.5

Return Period

25-yr.

Duration
(min.)

5-yr.

10-yr.

25-yr.

3.49

4.16

5.0

1.94

2.30

2.70

2.81

3.37

4.02

5.5

1.88

2.22

2.61

6.0

2.72

3.27

3.89

6.0

1.82

2.15

2.53

6.5

2.65

3.17

3.78

6.5

1.77

2.09

2.46

7.0

2.58

3.09

3.68

7.0

1.72

2.04

2.39

7.5

2.51

3.01

3.59

7.5

1.68

1.99

2.33

8.0

2.45

2.94

3.51

8.0

1.64

1.94

2.28

8.5

2.40

2.88

3.43

8.5

1.61

1.90

2.23

9.0

2.35

2.82

3.36

9.0

1.57

1.86

2.18

9.5

2.30

2.76

3.29

9.5

1.54

1.82

2.14

10.0

2.26

2.71

3.23

10.0

1.51

1.78

2.09

11.0

2.17

2.61

3.11

11.0

1.45

1.72

2.02

12.0

2.10

2.52

3.00

12.0

1.40

1.66

1.95

13.0

2.03

2.43

2.90

13.0

1.36

1.60

1.88

14.0

1.96

2.36

2.81

14.0

1.31

1.55

1.82

15.0

1.90

2.29

2.72

15.0

1.27

1.51

1.77

20.0

1.66

1.99

2.37

20.0

1.11

1.31

1.54

25.0

1.47

1.76

2.10

25.0

0.98

1.16

1.36

30.0

1.32

1.58

1.89

30.0

0.88

1.04

1.23

40.0

1.10

1.32

1.57

40.0

0.73

0.87

1.02

50.0

0.94

1.13

1.35

50.0

0.63

0.74

0.87

60.0

0.84

1.00

1.19

60.0

0.56

0.66

0.78

Chevron Corporation

500-81

June 1997

500 Drainage

Civil and Structural Manual

Fig. 500-32 Rainfall Tables (3 of 9)


RANGELY, COLORADO
Rainfall Intensity (in./hr.)

BARBERS POINT, HAWAII


Rainfall Intensity (in./hr.)

Return Period

Duration
(min.)

5-yr.

10-yr.

5.0

2.40

5.5

Return Period

25-yr.

Duration
(min.)

2-yr.

10-yr.

50-yr.

2.74

3.10

5.0

3.49

5.65

6.97

2.32

2.64

3.00

5.5

3.37

5.46

6.75

6.0

2.25

2.56

2.91

6.0

3.28

5.31

6.56

6.5

2.19

2.49

2.82

6.5

3.20

5.18

6.39

7.0

2.13

2.42

2.75

7.0

3.12

5.06

6.25

7.5

2.08

2.36

2.68

7.5

3.06

4.95

6.11

8.0

2.03

2.31

2.62

8.0

3.00

4.85

5.99

8.5

1.98

2.26

2.56

8.5

2.94

4.76

5.88

9.0

1.94

2.21

2.51

9.0

2.89

4.67

5.77

9.5

1.90

2.17

2.45

9.5

2.83

4.59

5.67

10.0

1.86

2.12

2.41

10.0

2.79

4.51

5.57

11.0

1.79

2.04

2.32

11.0

2.69

4.36

5.39

12.0

1.73

1.97

2.24

12.0

2.61

4.22

5.21

13.0

1.67

1.91

2.16

13.0

2.52

4.09

5.05

14.0

1.62

1.85

2.10

14.0

2.45

3.96

4.89

15.0

1.57

1.79

2.03

15.0

2.37

3.84

4.74

20.0

1.37

1.56

1.77

20.0

2.04

3.31

4.09

25.0

1.21

1.38

1.57

25.0

1.78

2.88

3.56

30.0

1.09

1.24

1.41

30.0

1.57

2.54

3.14

40.0

0.91

1.03

1.17

40.0

1.29

2.08

2.57

50.0

0.78

0.89

1.01

50.0

1.14

1.85

2.28

60.0

0.69

0.79

0.89

60.0

1.10

1.78

2.20

June 1997

500-82

Chevron Corporation

Civil and Structural Manual

500 Drainage

Fig. 500-32 Rainfall Tables (4 of 9)


PASCAGOULA, MISSISSIPPI
Rainfall Intensity (in./hr.)

PERTH AMBOY, NEW JERSEY


Rainfall Intensity (in./hr.)

Return Period

Duration
(min.)

5-yr.

10-yr.

5.0

7.39

5.5

Return Period

25-yr.

Duration
(min.)

5-yr.

10-yr.

25-yr.

8.24

9.33

5.0

5.79

6.64

7.72

7.32

8.19

9.28

5.5

5.64

6.48

7.56

6.0

7.23

8.09

9.19

6.0

5.49

6.33

7.40

6.5

7.11

7.97

9.06

6.5

5.36

6.19

7.25

7.0

6.99

7.83

8.91

7.0

5.23

6.05

7.09

7.5

6.86

7.69

8.75

7.5

5.10

5.92

6.95

8.0

6.73

7.55

8.59

8.0

4.99

5.79

6.81

8.5

6.61

7.41

8.43

8.5

4.87

5.67

6.67

9.0

6.48

7.27

8.27

9.0

4.77

5.55

6.54

9.5

6.36

7.14

8.12

9.5

4.67

5.44

6.42

10.0

6.25

7.01

7.97

10.0

4.57

5.33

6.30

11.0

6.03

6.77

7.70

11.0

4.40

5.13

6.07

12.0

5.84

6.55

7.45

12.0

4.24

4.95

5.86

13.0

5.66

6.35

7.23

13.0

4.09

4.79

5.67

14.0

5.50

6.17

7.03

14.0

3.95

4.63

5.49

15.0

5.35

6.01

6.85

15.0

3.83

4.49

5.33

20.0

4.78

5.40

6.19

20.0

3.32

3.91

4.65

25.0

4.40

5.00

5.77

25.0

2.95

3.48

4.15

30.0

4.11

4.71

5.47

30.0

2.66

3.15

3.76

40.0

3.66

4.23

4.97

40.0

2.25

2.66

3.19

50.0

3.24

3.76

4.43

50.0

1.95

2.31

2.77

60.0

2.80

3.24

3.80

60.0

1.72

2.04

2.45

Chevron Corporation

500-83

June 1997

500 Drainage

Civil and Structural Manual

Fig. 500-32 Rainfall Tables (5 of 9)


MARIETTA, OHIO
Rainfall Intensity (in./hr.)

WILLBRIDGE, OREGON
Rainfall Intensity (in./hr.)

Return Period

Duration
(min.)

5-yr.

10-yr.

5.0

5.71

5.5

Return Period

25-yr.

Duration
(min.)

5-yr.

10-yr.

25-yr.

6.51

7.52

5.0

1.11

1.21

1.32

5.55

6.34

7.34

5.5

1.07

1.17

1.27

6.0

5.39

6.18

7.17

6.0

1.04

1.14

1.23

6.5

5.26

6.03

7.02

6.5

1.01

1.10

1.20

7.0

5.13

5.90

6.87

7.0

0.98

1.08

1.17

7.5

5.01

5.77

6.73

7.5

0.96

1.05

1.14

8.0

4.90

5.64

6.60

8.0

0.94

1.02

1.11

8.5

4.79

5.53

6.47

8.5

0.92

1.00

1.09

9.0

4.69

5.42

6.34

9.0

0.90

0.98

1.06

9.5

4.59

5.31

6.23

9.5

0.88

0.96

1.04

10.0

4.50

5.21

6.11

10.0

0.86

0.94

1.02

11.0

4.33

5.02

5.90

11.0

0.83

0.91

0.98

12.0

4.17

4.84

5.70

12.0

0.80

0.88

0.95

13.0

4.03

4.68

5.51

13.0

0.77

0.85

0.92

14.0

3.89

4.53

5.33

14.0

0.75

0.82

0.89

15.0

3.76

4.38

5.17

15.0

0.73

0.80

0.86

20.0

3.23

3.77

4.46

20.0

0.63

0.69

0.75

25.0

2.82

3.31

3.92

25.0

0.56

0.61

0.67

30.0

2.51

2.94

3.49

30.0

0.50

0.55

0.60

40.0

2.05

2.41

2.88

40.0

0.42

0.46

0.50

50.0

1.76

2.07

2.48

50.0

0.36

0.39

0.43

60.0

1.58

1.86

2.22

60.0

0.32

0.35

0.38

June 1997

500-84

Chevron Corporation

Civil and Structural Manual

500 Drainage

Fig. 500-32 Rainfall Tables (6 of 9)


ORANGE/PORT ARTHUR, TEXAS AND ST.
JAMES/VENICE/LEEVILLE/OAK POINT/MORGANCITY/CAMERON, LOUISIANA
Rainfall Intensity (in./hr.)

PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA
Rainfall Intensity (in./hr.)
Return Period

Duration
(min.)

5-yr.

10-yr.

5.0

5.96

5.5

Return Period

25-yr.

Duration
(min.)

5-yr.

10-yr.

25-yr.

6.81

7.89

5.0

7.49

8.38

9.51

5.81

6.66

7.75

5.5

7.45

8.35

9.49

6.0

5.66

6.52

7.61

6.0

7.38

8.28

9.41

6.5

5.53

6.38

7.47

6.5

7.29

8.17

9.30

7.0

5.40

6.25

7.33

7.0

7.18

8.06

9.17

7.5

5.28

6.12

7.19

7.5

7.07

7.93

9.02

8.0

5.17

6.00

7.06

8.0

6.96

7.80

8.87

8.5

5.06

5.89

6.93

8.5

6.84

7.67

8.71

9.0

4.96

5.77

6.81

9.0

6.73

7.53

8.56

9.5

4.86

5.66

6.69

9.5

6.61

7.41

8.41

10.0

4.76

5.56

6.58

10.0

6.51

7.28

8.27

11.0

4.59

5.36

6.35

11.0

6.30

7.05

8.00

12.0

4.42

5.18

6.15

12.0

6.11

6.83

7.75

13.0

4.27

5.01

5.95

13.0

5.93

6.63

7.53

14.0

4.13

4.85

5.77

14.0

5.77

6.45

7.33

15.0

4.00

4.71

5.60

15.0

5.62

6.29

7.14

20.0

3.46

4.09

4.89

20.0

5.02

5.65

6.46

25.0

3.06

3.62

4.34

25.0

4.60

5.22

6.01

30.0

2.74

3.26

3.91

30.0

4.28

4.90

5.69

40.0

2.29

2.72

3.27

40.0

3.77

4.38

5.14

50.0

1.98

2.36

2.84

50.0

3.34

3.89

4.59

60.0

1.76

2.10

2.53

60.0

2.90

3.36

3.94

Chevron Corporation

500-85

June 1997

500 Drainage

Civil and Structural Manual

Fig. 500-32 Rainfall Tables (7 of 9)


HOUSTON/BAYTOWN/CEDAR BAYOU/MONT BELVIEU,
TEXAS
Rainfall Intensity (in./hr.)

EL PASO, TEXAS
Rainfall Intensity (in./hr.)
Return Period

Duration
(min.)

5-yr.

10-yr.

5.0

3.71

5.5

Return Period

25-yr.

Duration
(min.)

5-yr.

10-yr.

25-yr.

4.41

5.29

5.0

7.36

8.19

9.25

3.67

4.38

5.29

5.5

7.28

8.13

9.21

6.0

3.62

4.35

5.27

6.0

7.18

8.04

9.12

6.5

3.58

4.31

5.24

6.5

7.06

7.92

9.00

7.0

3.53

4.27

5.21

7.0

6.94

7.78

8.85

7.5

3.48

4.22

5.17

7.5

6.81

7.64

8.70

8.0

3.43

4.18

5.13

8.0

6.68

7.50

8.54

8.5

3.38

4.13

5.08

8.5

6.55

7.36

8.38

9.0

3.33

4.08

5.03

9.0

6.43

7.22

8.23

9.5

3.28

4.03

4.97

9.5

6.31

7.09

8.08

10.0

3.23

3.98

4.92

10.0

6.20

6.96

7.93

11.0

3.14

3.87

4.81

11.0

5.98

6.72

7.66

12.0

3.05

3.77

4.69

12.0

5.78

6.50

7.42

13.0

2.96

3.67

4.57

13.0

5.61

6.31

7.20

14.0

2.87

3.57

4.45

14.0

5.44

6.13

7.00

15.0

2.79

3.47

4.33

15.0

5.30

5.97

6.82

20.0

2.44

3.03

3.78

20.0

4.73

5.37

6.17

25.0

2.16

2.66

3.31

25.0

4.35

4.97

5.76

30.0

1.93

2.37

2.92

30.0

4.06

4.68

5.46

40.0

1.60

1.93

2.35

40.0

3.61

4.21

4.96

50.0

1.38

1.66

2.02

50.0

3.20

3.74

4.43

60.0

1.24

1.51

1.85

60.0

2.77

3.22

3.80

June 1997

500-86

Chevron Corporation

Civil and Structural Manual

500 Drainage

Fig. 500-32 Rainfall Tables (8 of 9)


SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH
Rainfall Intensity (in./hr.)

KENNEWICK, WASHINGTON
Rainfall Intensity (in./hr.)

Return Period

Duration
(min.)

5-yr.

10-yr.

5.0

2.22

5.5

Return Period

25-yr.

Duration
(min.)

5-yr.

10-yr.

25-yr.

2.63

3.09

5.0

1.36

1.72

2.15

2.15

2.54

2.99

5.5

1.31

1.66

2.08

6.0

2.08

2.46

2.90

6.0

1.27

1.61

2.01

6.5

2.02

2.39

2.82

6.5

1.23

1.56

1.96

7.0

1.97

2.33

2.74

7.0

1.20

1.52

1.91

7.5

1.92

2.27

2.67

7.5

1.17

1.49

1.86

8.0

1.87

2.22

2.61

8.0

1.14

1.45

1.82

8.5

1.83

2.17

2.55

8.5

1.12

1.42

1.77

9.0

1.79

2.12

2.50

9.0

1.10

1.39

1.74

9.5

1.76

2.08

2.45

9.5

1.07

1.36

1.70

10.0

1.72

2.04

2.40

10.0

1.05

1.33

1.67

11.0

1.66

1.96

2.31

11.0

1.01

1.28

1.61

12.0

1.60

1.90

2.23

12.0

0.98

1.24

1.55

13.0

1.55

1.83

2.16

13.0

0.95

1.20

1.50

14.0

1.50

1.78

2.09

14.0

0.92

1.16

1.45

15.0

1.45

1.72

2.03

15.0

0.89

1.13

1.41

20.0

1.27

1.50

1.77

20.0

0.77

0.98

1.23

25.0

1.12

1.33

1.56

25.0

0.69

0.87

1.09

30.0

1.01

1.19

1.41

30.0

0.62

0.78

0.98

40.0

0.84

0.99

1.17

40.0

0.51

0.65

0.81

50.0

0.72

0.85

1.00

50.0

0.44

0.56

0.70

60.0

0.64

0.76

0.89

60.0

0.39

0.49

0.62

Chevron Corporation

500-87

June 1997

500 Drainage

Civil and Structural Manual

Fig. 500-32 Rainfall Tables (9 of 9)


CARTER CREEK GAS PLANT, WYOMING
Rainfall Intensity (in./hr.)

ROCK SPRINGS, WYOMING


Rainfall Intensity (in./hr.)

Return Period

Duration
(min.)

5-yr.

10-yr.

5.0

1.56

5.5

Return Period

25-yr.

Duration
(min.)

5-yr.

10-yr.

25-yr.

1.85

2.17

5.0

1.37

1.67

2.02

1.51

1.78

2.10

5.5

1.32

1.61

1.95

6.0

1.46

1.73

2.04

6.0

1.28

1.56

1.89

6.5

1.42

1.68

1.98

6.5

1.24

1.52

1.84

7.0

1.38

1.64

1.93

7.0

1.21

1.48

1.79

7.5

1.35

1.60

1.88

7.5

1.18

1.44

1.74

8.0

1.31

1.56

1.84

8.0

1.15

1.41

1.70

8.5

1.29

1.52

1.79

8.5

1.13

1.38

1.67

9.0

1.26

1.49

1.76

9.0

1.10

1.35

1.63

9.5

1.23

1.46

1.72

9.5

1.08

1.32

1.60

10.0

1.21

1.43

1.69

10.0

1.06

1.29

1.57

11.0

1.16

1.38

1.63

11.0

1.02

1.25

1.51

12.0

1.12

1.33

1.57

12.0

0.98

1.20

1.46

13.0

1.09

1.29

1.52

13.0

0.95

1.16

1.41

14.0

1.05

1.25

1.47

14.0

0.92

1.13

1.36

15.0

1.02

1.21

1.42

15.0

0.89

1.09

1.32

20.0

0.89

1.05

1.24

20.0

0.78

0.95

1.15

25.0

0.79

0.93

1.10

25.0

0.69

0.84

1.02

30.0

0.71

0.84

0.99

30.0

0.62

0.76

0.92

40.0

0.59

0.70

0.82

40.0

0.51

0.63

0.76

50.0

0.50

0.60

0.71

50.0

0.44

0.54

0.65

60.0

0.45

0.53

0.62

60.0

0.39

0.48

0.58

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573 Model Specification


CIV-MS-4747 Construction of Underground Drainage Systems is located in the
Specification section of this manual.

574 Standard Drawings and Engineering Forms


You can use the following standard drawings and engineering forms as part of your
bid package or just to help generate ideas. These are located in the Standard Drawings and Forms section.
CIV-EF-411

Manholes For Drainage System

CIV-EF-611

Drainage Details

GC-S78325

Standard Cast Iron Catch Basin

GD-S99992

Standard Fabricated Steel Catch Basin

GF-S99943

Design/Construction Details for Sumps, Pump Foundations


and Drainage Surfaces in Sulfuric Acid and Sodium
Hydroxide Service

575 Standards and Codes


In addition to the Standards and Codes listed below, note also items listed in
Section 580, Library References in the Civil and Structural Manual Vol. I.
Reference should also be made to specification CIV-MS-4747 Construction of
Underground Drainage Systems (in Vol. II).

Codes and Restrictions:


ANSI/ASME B31.3 Chemical Plant and Petroleum Refinery Piping.
HDPE, PVC, ABS, PP shall not be used in flammable service above ground
and shall be safeguarded in other service.
FRP shall be safeguarded when used in toxic or flammable fluid service.
Metal-to-nonmetal should be flat faced with full faced gaskets preferred.
Does not allow lap joint flanges for severe cyclic service.
ANSI/ASME B31.4 Liquid Transportation Systems for Hydrocarbons, Liquid Petroleum Gas, Anhydrous Ammonia, and Alcohols.
Nonmetallics are not allowed for liquid transportation systems for Hydrocarbons, LPG, Anhydrous NH3, or Alcohol.

Material Standards:
ASTM D 1248 Polyethylene Plastics Molding and Extrusion Materials
ASTM D 3350 Polyethylene Plastics Pipe and Fittings Material

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ASTM D 2581 Polybutylene Plastics Molding and Extrusion Materials

Piping Standards:
ASTM D 2104 PE Plastic Pipe, Schedule 40
ASTM D 2239 PE Plastic Pipe, SDR-PR
ASTM D 2447 PE Plastic Pipe, Sch. 40 & 80 based on O.D.
ASTM D 2683 Socket Type Fittings for O.D. controlled PE Pipe
ASTM D 2609 Plastic Insert Fittings
ASTM D 2513 Thermoplastic Gas Pressure Pipe, Tubing and Fittings
ASTM D 2737 PE Plastic Tubing
ASTM D 3035 PE Plastic Pipe (SDR-PR), O.D. Controlled
ASTM D 3261 Butt Heat Fusion PE Fittings for PE Plastic Pipe and Fittings
ASTM D 3281 PE Fittings, Butt Type
ASTM F 405 Corrugated Tubing & Fittings
ASTM F 714 PE Plastic Pipe (SDR-PR) based on O.D.
ASTM F 894 PE Large Diameter Profile Wall Sewer and Drain Pipe
APE Spec 15LE PE Line Pipe
AWWA C 901 PE Pressure Pipe, Tubing and Fittings, 1/2 through 3 for Water
CSA B137.1-M PE Pipe, Tubing, and Fittings for Cold Water Pressure Services
CGSB 41-GP-25M Pipe, PE for the Transport of Fluids
ASTM D 2662 PB Plastic Pipe (SDR-PR)
ASTM D 2666 PB Plastic Tubing
ASTM D 3000 PB Plastic Pipe (SDR-PR) based on O.D.
ASTM D 3309 PB Hot/Cold Water Systems
ASTM F 809 Large Diameter PB
AWWA C 902 PB Pressure Pipe, Tubing and Fittings, 1/2 through 3 for Water
AWWA C 900 PVC Pressure Pipe for Water
ASTM D 2241 PVC Plastic Pipe SDR-PR
ASTM D 2466 PVC Fittings, Sch. 40
ASTM D 2672 PVC Pipe, Belled End
ASTM D 2564 Solvents for PVC

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ASTM D 3138 Solvent Cements for ABS-PVC Transitions


ASTM D 2665 PVC DWV Pipe and Fittings
ASTM D 2949 3" PVC Thin Wall DWV Pipe
ASTM D 3311 DWV Fitting Patterns
ASTM D 2729 PVC Drain Pipe & Fittings
ASTM D 3033 PVC Sewer Pipe & Fittings, PSP
ASTM D 3034 PVC Sewer Pipe & Fittings, PSM
ASTM D 1785 PVC Plastic Pipe, Sch. 40-80
ASTM D 2740 PVC Plastic Tubing
ASTM D 2846 CPVC Hot/Cold Water Systems
ASTM F 441 CPVC Pipe, Sch. 40-80
ASTM F 442 CPVC Pipe, SDR-PR
ASTM F 493 Solvent Cements for CPVC Piping
ASTM F 438 CPVC Fittings, Sch. 40
ASTM D 2282 ABS Pipe, SDR-PR
ASTM D 468 ABS Fittings, Sch. 40
ASTM D 2661 ABS DWV Pipe and Fittings
ASTM D 2235 Solvent Cements for ABS Piping
ASTM F 628 ABS Foam Core DWV
ASTM D 2751 ABS Sewer Pipe & Fittings

Installation Standards:
ASTM D 2321 Underground Installation of Flexible Thermoplastic Sewer Pipe
ASTM D 2774 Underground Installation of Thermoplastic Pressure Piping
ASTM F 585 Insertion of Flexible PE Pipe into Existing Sewers
ASTM F 690 Underground Installation of Thermoplastic Pressure Piping Irrigation
Systems
ASAE S 376 Design, Installation and Performance of Underground Thermoplastic
Irrigation Pipe lines (1980)

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576 Sources of Information


American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)
1916 Race Street
Philadelphia, PA 19103
American Water Works Association (AWWA)
6666 West Quincy Avenue
Denver, CO 80235
American Petroleum Institute (API)
300 Corrigan Tower Building
Dallas, TX 75201
American Society of Agricultural Engineers (ASAE)
2950 Niles Road
St. Joseph, MI 49085
Canadian Standards Association (CSA)
178 Rexdale Boulevard
Rexdale, Ontario, Canada M9W 1R3
Department of Transportation (DOT)
Office of Pipeline Safety Regulations
400 7th Street, S.W.
Washington, D.C. 20590
Canadian General Standards Board (CGSB)
88 Metcalfe Street
Ottawa, Canada K1A OS5
National Sanitation Foundation (NSF)
3745 Plymouth Road
P.O. Box 1468
Ann Arbor, MI 48106
American National Standards Institute, Inc. (ANSI)
1430 Broadway
New York, NY 10018
The American Society of Mechanical Engineers
345 East 47th Street
New York, NY 10017
Publications: ASME
22 Law Drive, Box 2300
Fairfield, NJ 07007-2300
Ref: Several publications on drainage fittings and systems in the A112 and
the B16 series of standards.

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Plastics Pipe Institute


Wayne Interchange Plaza II
155 Route 46 West
Wayne, NJ 07470
(201) 812-9076
Ref: Engineering Basics of Plastic Piping.
This is a good general explanation of the different kinds of plastic pipe.
Ref: Polyolefin Piping. Covers design and construction of polyolefin (e.g.,
polyethylene) piping.
Ref: Plastic Piping and Joining Material. Relates to plastic pipe (PVC, PE,
etc.) in water supply service.
The Society of the Plastics Industry, Inc.
Literature Sales Department
1275 K Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20005
(202) 371-5200
(800) 541-0736
Ref: National Specification for Fiberglass Pipe.
Ref: Specification Guideline for Fiberglass Pipe Systems for Oil and Gas
Service.
U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission
Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation
Washington, D.C. 20555
Ref: NUREG-0800 Standard Review Plan.
9.3.3. Equipment and Floor Drainage System. This document indicates
the minimum requirements of the Commission with respect to containment of floor drainage in nuclear facilities.

577 Vendors and Contractors


Note Vendors and contractors on the following lists have been grouped based on
product or service offered.

Pipe materials
Double containment piping
Trough containment
Leak detection
Drain inspection and leak repair

It should be recognized that some firms offer more than one product or service and
may be on more than one list.

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Fig. 500-33 Pipe Materials Vendors (1 of 2)


Company

Services Offered

Ameron Concrete Pipe Group


10100 West Linne Road
Tracy, CA 95376
Tel: 209-836-5050
FAX: 209-832-2115

Concrete Drain Pipe

American Cast Iron Pipe


2020 Hurley Way, Suite 490
Sacramento, CA 95825-3244
Tel: 916-924-8404
FAX: 916-924-3801

Cast Iron and Ductile Iron Pipe

U.S. Pipe and Foundry Co.


Box 10406
Birmingham, AL 35202
Tel: 205-254-7000

Cast Iron and Ductile Iron Pipe

Spirolite Corporation (a Chevron product)


4094 Blue Ridge Industrial Parkway
Norcross, GA 30071
Tel: 404-497-2309

Special shape, polyethylene drain pipe


Also used for slip lining

Advanced Drainage Systems Inc. (ADS)


3300 Riverside Drive
Columbus, OH 43221
Tel: 614-457-3051

Special shape, polyethylene drain pipe

DOW Chemical U.S.A.


P. O. Box 927
Bay City, MI 48706
Tel: 800-233-7577
FAX: 517-638-0522

Solid-wall HDPE pipe

PLEXCO Inc.
1050 Busse Highway
Suite 200
Bensenville, IL 60106
Tel: 708-350-3700

Solid-wall HDPE pipe

Fibercast Company
P. O. Box 968
Sand Springs, OK 74063
Tel: 918-245-6651

Fiberglass reinforced plastic pipe

Smith Fiberglass Products Inc.


(subsidiary of A. O. Smith Corp.)
2700 West 65th Street
Little Rock, AR 72209
Tel: 501-568-4010
FAX: 501-568-4465

Fiberglass reinforced plastic pipe

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Fig. 500-33 Pipe Materials Vendors (2 of 2)


Company

Services Offered

HOBAS U.S.A. Inc.


1413 Richey Rd.
Houston, TX 77073
Tel: 713-821-2200
800-856-7473
FAX: 713-821-7715

Centrifugally cast fiberglass pipe

Johns-Manville Pipe
J-M Manufacturing Co. Inc.
1051 Sperry Road
Stockton, CA 95206

Asbestos cement pipe PVC pipe

Fig. 500-34 Double Containment Piping (1 of 2)


Company

Services Offered

Fibercast Company
P. O. Box 968
Sand Springs, OK 74063
Tel: 918-245-6651
or 800-331-4406
FAX: 918-241-1143
or: 800-365-7473

Dualcast double containment piping in fiberglass

Ameron, Fiberglass Pipe Division


P. O. Box 801148
Houston, TX 77280
Tel: 713-690-7777
FAX: 713-690-2842

Fiberglass double containment piping

Smith Fiberglass Products Inc.


2700 West 65th Street
Little Rock, AR 72209
Tel: 501-568-4010
FAX: 501-568-4465

Fiberglass double containment piping

Containment Technologies Corp.


7901 Xerxes Avenue South
Minneapolis, MN 55431
Tel: 612-881-0072
FAX: 612-884-4911

Secondary containment pipe and fittings (outer shell


only) in HDPE

Total Containment Inc.


306 Commerce Drive
Exton, PA 19341
Tel: 215-524-9274

Secondary containment pipe and fittings (outer shell


only)
(See also: Leak Detection)

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Fig. 500-34 Double Containment Piping (2 of 2)


Company
Ryan Herco Products Corp.
P. O. Box 588
Burbank, CA 91503
or 9820 Kitty Lane
Oakland, CA 94603
Tel: 510-633-1141
FAX: 510-562-4905

Services Offered
Double containment piping in polyethylene

Fig. 500-35 Trough Containment


Company

Services Offered

Fiber-Trench Inc.
45581 Industrial Place, #1
Fremont, CA 94538
Tel: 510-490-2333
FAX: 510-490-3306

Fiberglass trenches for secondary containment


systems

Western Fiberglass, Inc.


1555 Copperhill Parkway
Santa Rosa, CA 95403
Tel: 707-523-2050
FAX: 707-523-2046

Fiberglass trenches for secondary containment


systems

MPC Containment System


4834 South Oakley
Chicago, IL 60609
Tel: 312-927-4120
or 800-621-0146
FAX: 312-650-6028

Polyurethane rubber sheeting and other material for


trench liners

Fig. 500-36 Drain Inspection, Relining and Leak Repair (1 of 3)


Company
Miller Pipeline Corp.
Products and Services Division
P. O. Box 34141
Indianapolis, IN 46234
Tel: 317-293-0278
or 800-428-3742

June 1997

Services Offered
Internal Seals
External Seals
Pipeline Cleaning
XPANDIT
TV Inspection
HDPE Slip lining

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Fig. 500-36 Drain Inspection, Relining and Leak Repair (2 of 3)


Company

Services Offered

PLCS Inc.
27 Roland Avenue
Mt. Laurel, NJ 08054
Tel: 609-722-1333
FAX: 609-273-9723

Contractor for installing WECO or In-weg internal seals


in drains

Insituform of North America Inc.


1770 Kirby Parkway
3rd Floor, Suite 300
Memphis, TN 38138
Tel: 901-363-2105
FAX: 901-365-3906

In-place internal relining of drain lines


TV inspection

Cues, Inc.
3501 Vineland Road
Orlando, FL 32811
Tel: 407-849-0190
or 800-327-7791

TV internal inspection
Drain cleaning
Internal joint repair
Grout sealing
Slip lining
Sewer manhole sealing

Brand Precision (previously Hydro Services)


610 Industrial Way
Suite B
Benecia, CA 94510
Tel: 707-745-0501
FAX: 707-745-0510

(same services as Cues, above)

Cherne Industries Inc.


5700 Lincoln
Edina, MN 55436
Tel: 612-933-5501
FAX: 612-938-6601

TV Inspection
Internal Joint Sealing, by grout and mechanical

PLS International
P. O. Box 35168
Cleveland, OH 44135
Tel: 216-252-7770
FAX: 216-252-7792

TV Camera internal inspection of drain lines

Sub Tronic Corp.


4070 Nelson Ave., Ste. E
Concord, CA 94520
Tel: 510-686-3747
FAX: 510-686-5281

TV Camera internal inspection of drain lines

Rodding Cleaning Services Inc.


2585 Nicholson Street
San Leandro, CA 94577-4276
Tel: 510-357-8875

TV Camera Inspections
Sewer cleaning
Slip lining
Grouting from internal for leaks

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Fig. 500-36 Drain Inspection, Relining and Leak Repair (3 of 3)


Company

Services Offered

Olympus Industrial
4 Nevada Drive
Lake Success, NY 11042
Tel: 516-488-5888
FAX: 516-488-3973

Internal Inspection by fiber optics

Dowell Schlumberger Inc.


Industrial Service Division
145 Industrial Blvd.
Sugarland, TX 77478
Tel: 713-275-8400
FAX: 713-995-0913

Swage-Lining, i.e., internal relining with Polyethylene

PLEXCO Inc.
1050 Bussy Hwy
Bensenville, IL 60106
Tel: 708-350-3810

Slip lining with Polyethylene

Fig. 500-37 Leak Detection by Various Methods (1 of 3)


Company

Services Offered

Heath Consultants Incorporated


9030 W. Monroe Rd.
Houston, TX 77061
Tel: 713-947-9292
FAX: 713-947-0422

Leak detection and location by various methods


TV camera internal inspection

Teledyne Control Applications


LASP Products Division
3401 Shiloh Road
P. O. Box 469007
Garland, TX 75046-9007
Tel: 214-271-2561
FAX: 214-271-0223

Pipeline leak detection by in-place sensor tubing For


hydrocarbon leaks

Raychem Corporation
Chemelex Division
300 Constitution Drive
Menlo Park, CA 94025-1164
Tel: 415-361-4602
FAX: 415-361-3904

Leak detection by various means in double pipe or


trench containment systems

Total Containment Inc.


306 Commerce Drive
Exton, PA 19341
Tel: 215-524-9274

Leak detection in double-wall pipes, tanks, troughs, etc.


(See also Double Containment Piping)

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Fig. 500-37 Leak Detection by Various Methods (2 of 3)


Company

Services Offered

Ronan Engineering Company


P. O. Box 1275
21200 Oxnard Street
Woodland Hills, CA 91367
Tel: 818-883-5211
FAX: 818-992-6435

Leak detection by several means

W. L. Gore and Associates Inc.


4747 Beautiful Lane
Phoenix, AZ 85044
Tel: 602-431-0077

Leak detection by special sensor cables

Universal Sensors and Devices Inc.


9205 Alabama Ave., Unit C
Chatsworth, CA 91311
Tel: 818-998-7121

Leak detection of various types for underground tanks


and double containment piping

Bacharach Inc.
625 Alpha Drive
Pittsburgh, PA 15238-2878
Tel: 412-963-2000
FAX: 412-963-2091

Gas detectors for gas leaks

Owens/Corning Fiberglas Corp.


Fiberglas Tower
Toledo, OH 43659
Tel: 419-248-8000

Water-finding dipstick

Environmental Instruments
5650 Imhoff Dr., Suite A
Concord, CA 94520
Tel: 510-686-4474
or 800-648-9355

Various leak detection systems

West Coast Locators


P. O. Box 1810-T
San Jose, CA 95109-1810
Tel: 408-294-9368
FAX: 408-971-3581

Leak detection by various means. TV camera inspection

Tracer Research Corporation


3855 North Business Center Drive
Tucson, AZ 85705
Tel: 602-888-9400

Leak detection by injection and detection of tracer gas

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Fig. 500-37 Leak Detection by Various Methods (3 of 3)


Company
Geophysical Survey Systems Inc.
13 Klein Drive
P. O. Box 97
North Salem, NH 03073-0097
Tel: 603-893-1109
or 800-524-3011
FAX: 603-889-3984

Services Offered
Leak detection by various means

578 Flat Slab Protection Recommendations


Crack Sealing Methods for Chemically Resistant Thick Film Concrete
Coatings
There are basically four types of cracks encountered in concrete floors and walls:

Control Joints, placed to form weak planes and to help control the location of
cracking.

Expansion or Isolation Joints, placed to allow for expansion or movement of


different parts of a structure.

Construction Joints, where work was interrupted.

True Cracks, formed through shrinkage or movement of the structure.

All types of joints and cracks can initiate cracks that will propagate through a
coating and destroy the integrity of the coating.

Cracks, Construction Joints and Non-Working Joints


Tight cracks, construction joints, control joints, and open cracks which are nonworking (not moving) can all be dealt with in a similar manner. If the cracks or
joints are moving significantly, they must be treated in a similar manner to expansion joints. The main idea is to isolate and reinforce the brittle coating from the
high stresses associated with a crack. If the coating system is un-reinforced, then
12- to 24-inches of reinforcing is needed across the joint. The reinforcing helps to
spread the stresses over a larger area. Methods A, B, and C in Figure 500-38 show
three ways of covering non-working cracks.
Method A is for a chopped strand or continuous glass mat reinforced coating. The
crack is isolated from the coating simply by placing a strip of bond breaker tape
(duct tape is sometimes used) over the crack. This spreads the load of any slight
movements over a two- or three-inch wide strip instead of concentrating the stress
at the crack.
Method B is a variation of Method A for unreinforced coatings. A strip of bond
breaker is used to isolate a reinforced section of coating from the crack.

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Method C is probably the best system. A 12- to 24- inch (18 inches is recommended by one manufacturer) strip of reinforced flexible coating is applied over the
crack. The flexible coating has little or no chemical resistance, so the resistant
coating is applied over it.
Method D (Figure 500-38) shows open cracks and control joints (where a saw cut
has been made, or a scribed line placed in the concrete) and can use one of the three
systems described above once the open joint is filled with an elastomeric joint
sealer.

Expansion and Working Joints


Any joint that moves is difficult to seal with total confidence. The three systems
shown here all involve compromises, may not always work, but allow the joint to
have some flexibility. The system should be chosen based on the amount of movement and type of service. New designs proposed by the contractor or coatings manufacturer should be considered for these types of joints.
Method E (Figure 500-39) involves sealing the expansion joint with a chemically
resistant flexible material (flexible epoxy). The coating system is applied to the
entire surface except in the joints. Then the joints are filled with backup material
followed by sealant. The flexible joint sealer must be chosen based on its environment (chemical and/or solvents).
Method F (Figure 500-39) creates an expansion loop in the lining. The lining is reinforced to give it flexural strength. This system is most suitable for joints with small
movements where there is a need for high integrity.
Method G (Figure 500-39) is a variation of Method A where the coating is applied
into the joint. A foam backer rod (50% larger than the crack) is used as the backup
material for a chemically resistant elastomeric joint compound. (Bond breaker tape
is not normally required because the joint sealant usually does not adhere to the
backer rod.)

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Fig. 500-38 Cracks, Construction Joints, and Nonworking Joints

Fig. 500-39 Expansion and Working Joints

580 Library References


Most of the books and articles listed here are available in the Corporation Library
or through their inter-library services.
1.

Fire Protection Manual


Summary: This is Chevron Corporations general reference manual on fire
prevention and loss reduction. It covers fire protection through design,
construction, operation, and maintenance. It also discusses fire control and
extinguishment.

2.

Linsley, Ray K. and Franzini, Joe B. Water Resources Engineering, 3rd ed.,
McGraw-Hill, 1979.
Summary: This is a general textbook with information on materials, hydraulics, strength, construction, etc.

3.

June 1997

Izzard, C. F. Hydraulics of Runoff from Developed Surfaces, Proc. Highway


Res. Board, 26 (1946), 129-150.

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Summary: This technical paper describes research results on rainfall overland


flow.
4.

McPherson, M. B. Some Notes on the Rational Method of Storm Drain


Design, ASCE Urban Water Resources Research Program Technical Memorandum, 6 (1969).
Summary: This paper is a comprehensive review of the Rational Method
(history and background, problems, correct usage, alternatives.)

5.

Design and Construction of Sanitary and Storm Sewers (WPCF Manual of


Practice No. 9 and ASCE Manual on Engineering Practice No. 37). American
Society of Civil Engineers and Water Pollution Control Federation, 1982.
Summary: This is excellent reference on many drainage topics.

6.

Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code, 30, Quincy, MA: National Fire
Protection Association, 1984.
Summary: This Code outlines requirements for handling of flammable liquids,
including drainage of many kinds of facilities that handle such liquids. It is
often included in local regulations.

7.

Merritt, Fred S., ed. Standard Handbook for Civil Engineers, 3rd ed. McGrawHill, 1983.
Summary: This all-inclusive handbook includes information on general
drainage, culvert design, sanitary sewers, construction, etc. It also covers standard train wheel loads.

8.

Design and Construction of LP-Gas Installations at Marine and Pipeline


Terminals, Natural Gas Processing Plants, Refineries, and Tank Farms API
Standard 2510, 5th ed. New York: American Petroleum Institute, 1985.
Summary: Gives requirements for the design and construction of facilities
handling liquefied petroleum gas.

9.

29 Code of Federal Regulations Chapter XVII Part 1910.


Summary: This contains regulations governing the design of facilities that
handle hazardous materials such as flammable and combustible liquids
(Section 106) and LPG (Section 110.)

10. Concrete Pressure Pipe Manual No. M9. American Water Works Association,
1979.
Summary: This is part of a series of good references published by the AWWA.
It covers the basics of RCP and CCP materials, manufacturing methods, joints,
details, design, installation, etc.
11. Piping Manual, Section 1100, Non-metallic Piping.
Summary: This section provides information on joints, material properties,
handling, etc. of plastic and cement pipe.

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12. Design Practice L-134-8, Pipe for Water Service.


Summary: This archived design guide provides information on material properties, coatings, linings, joints, and hydraulic characteristics of cast iron, asbestoscement, concrete, and steel pipe.
13. Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges, 13th ed. Washington D.C.:
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, 1986.
Summary: This book contains specifications for the design and construction of
highway bridges and appurtenances. Topics related to drainage include standard truck designations and wheel loads, and culvert design and construction
methods.
14. Manual for Railway Engineering. Chicago: American Railway Engineering
Association, 1981.
Summary: This covers virtually every aspect of railway engineering design.
The section on culvert design beneath railways might be helpful.
15. Standard Specifications. North Highlands, CA: State of California Department
of Transportation, 1984.
Summary: These specifications cover the materials and construction of highways and highway appurtenances. They include drainage and sewer facilities.
16. Viessman, Warren et. al. Introduction to Hydrology. 2nd ed. Harper and Row,
1977.
Summary: This is a basic textbook on hydrology. It includes a review of the
Rational Formula and discusses other methods of estimating peak runoff flow
rates.
17. Winterkorn, Hans F. and Fang, H. eds. Foundation Engineering Handbook.
Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1975.
Summary: The section on buried structures in this geotechnical engineering
book tells how to design buried pipe loaded by soil and vehicles.
18. Design Practice L-134-17, Computer Program PIPEFLEX 2 Stress Analysis of
Piping Systems.
Summary: This Company design guide tells how to use the computer program
to find stresses in pipe from internal pressure, temperature, displacements, and
external loads.
19. Roark, Ray J. and Young, Warren C. Formulas for Stress and Strain, 5th ed.
McGraw-Hill, 1975.
Summary: A standard reference for mechanical engineers, this book gives
extensive tables of formulas for the calculation of stresses in pipes under
various loadings.

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20. Akan, A. Osman Kinematic-Wave Method for Peak Runoff Estimates, American Society of Civil Engineers, Journal of Transportation Engineering, Vol.
111, No. 4, July, 1985.
Summary: A technical paper that gives several very practical formulas for overland flow time (for use with the Rational Formula.) The paper gives formulas
for plain, flat slopes; flat slopes intercepted by gutters; converging slopes; and
others.
21. 40 Code of Federal Regulations Part 60 and 61.
Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources Subpart QQQ, Volatile
Organic Compounds Emissions from Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems
(40 CFR 60.692-2), requires all process drains to have water seals and all
junction boxes to be covered. Junction boxes may have a vent pipe, but it must
be at least three feet long, and less than four inches in diameter.
The National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants Subpart FF,
National Emission Standard for Benzene Waste Operations (40 CFR 61.346)
applies to facilities at which the total annual benzene quantity from facility
waste is more than 10 megagrams per year or aqueous waste streams are
treated to a total of 6 megagrams per year of benzene. Process drains subject to
this standard must have water seals, and manholes must have covers that allow
emissions less than 500 ppm above background levels. Junction boxes must be
covered and may have a vent pipe, but it must be at least three feet long, less
than four inches in diameter, and emissions from the vent pipe must be
controlled.
22. Coatings Manual.
23. Corrosion Prevention Manual.
24. Safety In Designs Manual. (SID)
25. Airport Drainage Advisory Circular No. 150/5320-5B. United States Department of Transportation Federal Aviation Administration, July 1970.
Summary: This circular provides guidance for the design and maintenance of
airport drainage systems. It includes nomographs for flow in open channels
and an equation for calculating overland flow time for use with the Rational
Formula.
26. NOAA Technical Memorandum NWS Hydro-35, 5 to 60 Minute Precipitation
Frequency for the Eastern and Central United States, 1977.
Summary: Gives intensity-duration-frequency information for use with the
Rational Formula. Gives rainfall-frequency values for durations of 5, 15, and
60 minutes at return periods of 2 and 100 years for 37 states from North
Dakota to Texas and eastward. Equations are given to derive 10- and 30-minute
values for return periods between 2 and 100 years.
27. NOAA Atlas 2, Precipitation-Frequency Atlas of the Western United States,
Volumes I - XI, 1973.

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Civil and Structural Manual

Summary: Gives intensity-duration-frequency information for use with the


Rational Formula. Covers states not included in Reference [28] (except Alaska
and Hawaii.)
28. Rainfall Frequency Study for Oahu, Report R-73, State of Hawaii, Department
of Land and Natural Resources, Division of Water and Land Development,
1984.
Summary: Gives intensity-duration-frequency information for use with the
Rational Formula.
29. Uniform Plumbing Code. International Conference of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials, 1985.
Summary: Gives provisions for the design and installation of plumbing
systems. Typically adopted by local regulatory agencies on the West Coast of
the United States. Cited here for septic system provisions in Appendix I.

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