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Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research 20 (12): 1819-1822, 2014 ISSN 1990-9233 © IDOSI Publications, 2014 DOI: 10.5829/idosi.mejsr.2014.20.12.931

Dual Fuel Hybrid Bike

S. Vanangamudi, S. Prabhakar, C. Thamotharan, R. Anbazhagan

Department of Automobile Engineering, BIST, Bharath University, Selaiyur, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India

Abstract: An attempt has been made in this project to use alternative fuel in four stroke engine to increase the efficiency. Our fore most aim in selecting this project is to use non conventional fuel against conventional fuel which is becoming scarce and costly now days. With this air is less polluted than conventional fuels. It is also good with regard to economical considerations and engine efficiency. In our project, we have installed LPG fuel system to two stroke vehicle where in we can use both gasoline and LPG. The alternations made to install LPG in the vehicle are discussed. The gas comes by means of rubber hose to solenoid valve which operates in D.C. electric current. So a separate battery source is used to operate the solenoid valve. From solenoid valve outlet, separate copper tubes for idle starting and for acceleration are fitted to the carburetor. For lower speeds LPG will be supplied and gasoline comes into action at higher speed operations. So, these combinations of fuel supply will be suitable for city traffic conditions, where mostly the mode of operation is low speed. Using this concept we can control our expenditure in buying of fuels.

Key words: Use non conventional

in buying of fuels. Key words: Use non conventional Polluted than conventional fuels Installed LPG fuel

Polluted than conventional fuels

Use non conventional Polluted than conventional fuels Installed LPG fuel system INTRODUCTION Basically both the

Installed LPG fuel system

INTRODUCTION Basically both the fuels petrol and diesel is obtained from the crude oil (i.e.) petroleum. Now the problem is, its

In the automobile field now the fuel used is known as petrol and fuel oil (Diesel). Petrol is a volatile fuel which is used in spark ignition engines and fuel oil which is

used in compression ignition engine. Basically both In term of long sight some alternative fuels are

the fuels petrol and diesel is obtained from the crude oil (i.e.) petroleum. Now the problem is, its availability is decreasing day by day in bulk and insufficient for future decades. Hence an alternative fuel is essential to fight against scarcity. In term of long sight some alternative fuels are suggested and experimented by various manufacturing units with technicians, such alternative fuels are Methyl alcohol, Compressed Natural gas (CNG), Liquefied Petroleum gas (LPG),In this project we have installed LPG as alternative fuel in two stroke Gasoline engine [1].

In this project we have installed LPG as alternative fuel in two stroke Gasoline engine.

availability is decreasing day by day in bulk and insufficient for future decades. Hence an alternative fuel is essential to fight against scarcity [3].

suggested and experimented by various manufacturing units with technicians, such alternative fuels are as follows.

Methyl alcoholwith technicians, such alternative fuels are as follows. Compressed Natural gas (CNG) Liquefied Petroleum gas (LPG)

Compressed Natural gas (CNG)such alternative fuels are as follows. Methyl alcohol Liquefied Petroleum gas (LPG) Construction of Engine

Liquefied Petroleum gas (LPG)are as follows. Methyl alcohol Compressed Natural gas (CNG) Construction of Engine Batteries Introduction: In isolated

Construction of Engine Batteries Introduction: In isolated systems away from the grid, batteries are used for storage of excess solar energy converted into electrical energy [4]. The only exceptions

ignition engine [2]. are isolated sunshine load such as irrigation pumps or

Necessity of Using Alternative Fuel: In the automobile field now the fuel used is known as petrol and fuel oil (Diesel). Petrol is a volatile fuel which is used in spark ignition engines and fuel oil which is used in compression

Middle-East J. Sci. Res., 20 (12): 1819-1822, 2014

drinking water supplies for storage. In fact for small units negative electrodes. In the forming process, the active with output less than one kilowatt. Batteries seem to be material in the positive plate is changed to lead peroxide the only technically and economically available storage (pbo2). The negative electrode is spongy lead (pb).

means. Since both the photo-voltaic system and batteries Automobile batteries are usually shipped dry from are high in capital costs. It is necessary that the overall the manufacturer. The electrolyte is put in at the time of system be optimized with respect to available energy and installation and then the battery is charged to from the local demand pattern. To be economically attractive the plates. With maintenance-free batteries, little or no water

storage of solar electricity requires a battery with a

particular combination of properties: except for a pressure vent, without provision for adding

need be added in normal service. Some types are sealed,

water [9].

Low costadded in normal service. Some types are sealed, water [9]. Long life High reliability hydrogen and

Long lifenormal service. Some types are sealed, water [9]. Low cost High reliability hydrogen and sulfate ions.

High reliability hydrogen and sulfate ions. When the cell discharges, leadSome types are sealed, water [9]. Low cost Long life High overall efficiency Low discharge hydrogen

High overall efficiencyhydrogen and sulfate ions. When the cell discharges, lead Low discharge hydrogen ions to form water

Low discharge hydrogen ions to form water and with sulfate ions to formions. When the cell discharges, lead High overall efficiency lead sulfate. Combining lead on the negative

lead sulfate. Combining lead on the negative plate with

Ampere hour efficiency sulfate ions also produces he sulfate. There fore, the netform lead sulfate. Combining lead on the negative plate with Watt hour efficiency result of discharge

Watt hour efficiency result of discharge is to produce more water, which dilutes the electrolyte and to form lead sulfate on the plates [10]. We use lead acid battery for storing the electrical As the discharge continues, the sulfate fills the pores energy from the solar panel for lighting the street and so of the grids, retarding circulation of acid in the active about the lead acid cells are explained below [5]. material. Lead sulfate is the powder often seen on the outside terminals of old batteries. When the combination Lead-Acid Wet Cell: Where high values of load current of weak electrolyte and sulfating on Lead-Acid Wet Cell: Where high values of load current of weak electrolyte and sulfating on the plate lowers the are necessary, the lead-acid cell is the type most output of the battery, charging is necessary.

Minimum maintenancethe type most output of the battery, charging is necessary. peroxide from the positive electrode combines

peroxide from the positive electrode combines with

Chemical Action: Sulfuric acid is a combination of

commonly used. The electrolyte is a dilute solution of On charge, the external D.C. source reverses the sulfuric acid (H2SO4). In the application of battery power current in the battery. The reversed direction of ions flows

to start the engine in an auto mobile, for example, the load current to the starter motor is typically 200 to 400A.

One cell has a nominal output of 2.1V, but lead-acid cells reactive with the water and sulfate ions to produce lead are often used in a series combination of three for a 6-V peroxide and sulfuric acid. This action re-forms the battery and six for a 12-V battery [6]. The lead acid cell positive plates and makes the electrolyte stronger by

type is a secondary cell or storage cell, which can be

adding sulfuric acid [11]. At the same time, charging

recharged. The charge and discharge cycle can be enables the lead sulfate on the negative plate to react with

hydrogen ions; this also forms sulfuric acid while

repeated many times to restore the output voltage, as long

as the cell is in good physical condition. However, heat reforming lead on the negative plate to react with with excessive charge and discharge currents short ends hydrogen ions; this also forms currents can restore the

the useful life to about 3 to 5 years for an automobile cell to full output, with lead peroxide on the positive

battery. Of the different types of secondary cells, the lead-

plates, spongy lead on the negative plate and the required

acid type has the highest output voltage, which allows concentration of sulfuric acid in the electrolyte. fewer cells for a specified battery voltage [7].

in the electrolyte result in a reversal of the chemical reactions. Now the lead sulfates on the positive plate

The chemical equation for the lead-acid cell is

Construction: Inside a lead-acid battery, the positive and negative electrodes consist of a group of plates welded Charge to a connecting strap. The plates are immersed in

the electrolyte, consisting of 8 parts of water to 3 Pb + pbO2 + 2H2SO4 2pbSO4 + 2H2O parts of concentrated sulfuric acid. Each plate is a grid or framework, made of a lead-antimony alloy. Discharge: On discharge, the pb and pbo2 combine with This construction enables the active material, which is the SO4 ions at the left side of the equation to form lead

sulfate (pbSO4) and water (H2O) at the right side of the

lead oxide, to be pasted into the grid [8]. In manufacture

of the cell, a forming charge produces the positive and equation.

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Middle-East J. Sci. Res., 20 (12): 1819-1822, 2014

One battery consists of 6 cell, each have an output voltage of 2.1V, which are connected in series to get an voltage of 12V and the same 12V battery is connected in series, to get an 24 V battery. They are placed in the water proof iron casing box.

Caring for Lead-acid Batteries: Always use extreme caution when handling batteries and electrolyte. Wear gloves, goggles and old clothes. “Battery acid” will burn skin and eyes and destroy cotton and wool clothing. The quickest way of ruin lead-acid batteries is to discharge them deeply and leave them stand “dead” for an extended period of time. When they discharge, there is a chemical change in the positive plates of the battery. They change from lead oxide when charge out lead sulfate when discharged. If they remain in the lead Sulfate State for a few days, some part of the plate dose not returns to lead oxide when the battery is recharged. If the battery remains discharge longer, a greater amount of the positive plate will remain lead sulfate. The parts of the plates that become “sulfate” no longer store energy. Batteries that are deeply discharged and then charged partially on a regular basis can fail in less then one year [9]. Check your batteries on a regular basis to be sure they are getting charged. Use a hydrometer to check the specific gravity of your lead acid batteries. If batteries are cycled very deeply and then recharged quickly, the specific gravity reading will be lower than it should because the electrolyte at the top of the battery may not have mixed with the “charged” electrolyte [5]. Check the electrolyte level in the wet-cell batteries at the least four times a year and top each cell of with distilled water. Do not add water to discharged batteries. Electrolyte is absorbed when batteries are very discharged. If you add water at this time and then recharge the battery, electrolyte will overflow and make a mess. Keep the top of your batteries clean and check that cables are tight. Do not tighten or remove cables while charging or discharging. Any spark around batteries can cause a hydrogen explosion inside and ruin one of the cells and you [10]. On charge, with reverse current through the electrolyte, the chemical action is reversed. Then the pb ions from the lead sulfate on the right side of the equation re-form the lead and lead peroxide electrodes. Also the SO4 ions combine with H2 ions from the water to produce more sulfuric acid at the left side of the equation [11].

Specific Gravity: Measuring the specific gravity of the electrolyte generally checks the state of discharge for a lead-acid cell. Specific gravity is a ratio comparing the

weight of a substance with the weight of a substance with the weight of water. For instance, concentrated sulfuric

acid is 1.835 times as heavy as water for the same volume.

Therefore, its specific gravity equals 1.835. The specific

gravity of water is 1, since it is the reference.

In a fully charged automotive cell, mixture of sulfuric

acid and water results in a specific gravity of 1.280 at room

temperatures of 70 to 80ºF. as the cell discharges, more water is formed, lowering the specific gravity. When it is down to about 1.150, the cell is completely discharged.

Specific-gravity readings are taken with a battery hydrometer, such as one in Figure (7). Note that the calibrated float with the specific gravity marks will rest higher in an electrolyte of higher specific gravity.

The decimal point is often omitted for convenience. For example, the value of 1.220 in Figure (7) is simply read “twelve twenty”. A hydrometer reading of 1260 to 1280 indicates full charge, approximately 12.50 are half charge

and 1150 to 1200 indicates complete discharge. The importance of the specific gravity can be seen

from the fact that the open-circuit voltage of the lead-acid

cell

is approximately equal to

V

=

Specific gravity + 0.84

For the specific gravity of 1.280, the voltage is 1.280 = 0.84 = 2.12V, as an example. These values are for a fully charged battery [12].

Charging the Lead-acid Batery: The requirements are illustrated in figure. An external D.C. voltage source is necessary to produce current in one direction. Also, the charging voltage must be more than the battery e.m.f. Approximately 2.5 per cell are enough to over the cell e.m.f. so that the charging voltage can produce current opposite to the direction of discharge current. Note that the reversal of current is obtained just by connecting the battery VB and charging source VG with + to + and –to-, as shown in figure. The charging current is reversed because the battery effectively becomes a load

resistance for VG when it higher than VB. In this example, the net voltage available to produce charging currents is

15-12=3V.

A commercial charger for automobile batteries is

essentially a D.C. power supply, rectifying input from the

AC power line to provide D.C. output for charging

batteries.

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Float charging refers to a method in which the

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some cells show a variation of 0.05 specific gravity from each other. This is a long steady overcharge, bringing the battery to a gassing or bubbling state. Do not equalize

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service life and work very well in almost any power system. Unfortunately, with poor treatment lead-acid battery life will be very short.

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Thus the dual mode operation of engine is achieved by testing it with the combination of fuels. Still further more works can be done with the different power plants or

With proper care, lead-acid batteries will have a long

CONCLUSION

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