Design
Lab
Tyler
Anderson
EE
210H
10/26/13
Schematic
Theory
of
Operation
This
circuit
uses
a
noninverting
opamp
to
attenuate
an
AC
Signal.
The
signal
is
inputted
at
the
V+
terminal,
and
a
voltage
divider
is
used
to
reduce
the
signal
to
the
desired
amount.
R2
and
R3
are
both
set
equal
to
1kohm
to
simplify
the
calculations
of
the
circuit.
The
signal
is
than
outputted
as
1/5
of
the
input
signal.
Notice
that
R5
is
not
involved
in
the
above
equation,
thus
it
does
not
affect
voltage
gain
The
following
steps
were
taken
to
choose
resistor
values:
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
Note:
During
the
actual
experiment
multiples
for
the
resistor
values
were
chosen
to
accommodate
available
lab
resistors
Experimental
Results:
Theoretical
Results:
Actual Results:
%
error
=
(4.4v4v)/(4v)
=
10%
error
Conclusions:
During
the
actual
experiment,
our
design
produced
a
slightly
higher
attenuation
then
desired.
This
was
most
likely
due
to
the
fact
that
the
actual
resistors
we
used
were
slightly
different
then
the
modeled
resistors,
and
that
each
resistor
has
a
5%
tolerance.
Choosing
resistors
originally
that
were
actual
nominal
resistors
found
in
lab
would
have
improved
our
results.
This
design
would
most
likely
be
used
for
an
engineer
who
was
looking
to
reduce
an
input
voltage
without
inverting
it
before
it
went
to
the
next
element
in
the
series.
Schematic
Theory
of
Operation
This
design
acts
as
a
weighted
summing
amplifier
circuit.
The
stereo
audio
signal
acts
as
2
unequal
AC
voltages.
The
left
and
right
voltages
are
amplified
than
added
respectively.
The
output
is
than
the
balanced
sum
of
the
two
input
voltages.
The
node
V1
in
the
above
circuit
contains
both
the
flow
of
current
in
from
both
the
right
and
left
channel,
allowing
KCL
to
be
formulated
and
solved
for
Vout.
Parameters
o Vout
=
8V
o V3
=
.1V
o V4
=
.25
V
The
following
steps
were
taken
to
choose
resistor
values:
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
Note:
During
the
actual
experiment
multiples
for
the
resistor
values
were
chosen
to
accommodate
available
lab
resistors
Experimental
Results:
Theoretical
Results:
Actual
Results:
Inputs:
Outputs:
%
error
=
15.515.6/(15.6)
=
.6%
error
Conclusions:
Compared
to
our
Mulitsim
model,
our
actual
experimental
voltage
outputs
were
almost
identical
to
our
predicted
values.
However,
compared
to
the
value
the
problem
statement
asked
us
to
find
(16Vpp),
both
these
values
were
slightly
lower.
This
was
due
to
the
fact
that
only
a
selective
number
of
resistors
are
available,
and
we
assume
this
is
the
closest
we
could
get
to
the
desired
16
Vpp
without
exceeding
it.
This
model
would
be
used
by
an
engineering
who
is
looking
to
mix
and
amplify
to
unbalanced
channel
so
they
are
seen
as
one
input
voltage
by
the
next
part
of
the
circuit.
Task
3
Two
Channel
Mixer
with
Balanced
Inputs
Design
Objective
The
purpose
of
Task
3
is
to
produce
a
desired
range
of
voltages
from
two
balanced
stereo
signal
inputs.
Furthermore,
it
is
necessary
to
mix
both
channels
into
a
single
inverted
output
while
independently
varying
the
gain
of
the
two
channels.
Both
stereo
signals
have
the
same
amplitude
of
500
mVpp
and
the
output
voltages
must
range
between
.4Vpp
and
16Vpp.
The
two
channels
are
modeled
as:
o Right
channel:
0.25
sin(2440t)
V
o Left
channel:
0.25
sin(23520t)
V
Schematic
Theory
of
Operation
This
circuit
acts
as
a
weighted
summing
amplifier
except
there
is
a
catch:
Both
of
the
input
voltages
must
be
independently
changed
to
produce
a
desired
range
of
output
voltages.
In
order
to
accomplish
that,
two
potentiometers
are
placed
in
the
circuit,
one
for
each
stereo
input.
When
the
potentiometer
is
set
to
a
minimum,
the
voltage
gain
is
a
maximum
because
the
potentiometer
value
is
on
the
bottom
half
of
the
gain
equation,
thus
inversely
proportional
to
voltage
gain.
Since
both
voltage
inputs
and
potentiometers
are
equal,
resistors
R3
and
R1
are
equal
to
allow
both
voltage
sums
to
be
equal.
The
opamp
then
adds
and
mixes
the
two
channels
to
produce
the
output
voltage.
Vout =
 R2
R1 + R5pot
V2
+
R2
R3
+
R4POT
V1
Parameters
o
o
o
o
Experimental
Results:
Theoretical
Results:
Maximum
Gain
Oscilloscope
Capture
Minimum
Gain
Oscilloscope
Capture
Conclusions:
An
actual
experiment
was
not
conducted
for
this
lab.
While
doing
our
preparations
for
this
lab,
we
assumed
that
both
inputs
did
not
need
to
be
independently
varied;
rather
we
varied
the
overall
input
seen
by
the
inverting
node
of
the
opamp
by
putting
a
potentiometer
on
the
negative
feedback
line.
This
however,
was
an
incorrect
assumption
due
to
the
fact
the
problem
statement
clarified
that
both
the
right
and
left
channels
should
be
independently
varied,
thus
both
requiring
a
potentiometer.
This
circuit
could
possibly
be
used
in
an
electronic
device
where
a
user
can
change
the
volume
of
both
his/her
left
and
right
speaker.
Task
4
Level
Shifting
Amplifier
Design
Objective
The
purpose
of
Task
4
is
to
add
a
necessary
DC
offset
voltage
to
produce
output
voltages
in
a
desired
range.
The
input
signal
is
a
mono
audio
signal
that
is
the
output
of
a
microphone.
The
microphone
output
drives
an
audio
amplifier
that
can
only
handle
positive
voltages
in
the
range
0V
to
10V.
The
voltage
swing
of
the
microphone
is
600mVpp
and
the
only
voltage
source
available
to
use
as
the
DC
offset
is
a
+/
15
V
used
to
power
the
op
amp
IC.
Schematic
Theory
of
Operation
This
design
acts
as
a
level
shifting
amplifier.
On
the
inverting
side,
and
AC
voltage
is
applied
to
the
opamp
that
uses
the
generic
(R2/R1)
gain
equation.
This
inverting
opamp
will
amplify
not
only
the
positive
waveforms
of
the
AC
Voltage,
but
also
the
negative.
Thus,
a
DC
offset
voltage
is
added
at
the
noninverting
input
of
the
opamp
to
shift
the
voltage
swing
so
that
it
is
in
the
range
of
0V
to
10
V.
The
gain
produces
an
output
of
10Vpp,
and
the
DC
offset
adds
+5V
of
voltage
to
shift
the
values
into
the
desired
range.
The
DC
offset
voltage
is
modified
to
the
desired
voltage
be
means
of
voltage
division
since
only
a
15
V
source
can
be
used.
Parameters
o Vout
=
10Vpp
(0v10v
range)
o Vin
=
600
mVpp
o V2
=
15
V
The
following
steps
were
taken
to
choose
resistor
values:
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
Experimental
Results:
Theoretical
Results:
Actual
Results:
%
error:
9.809.99/9.99
=
2%
error
Conclusions:
As
with
previous
tasks,
our
actual
voltage
output
was
slightly
less
than
our
predicted
voltage
output
due
to
the
values
of
resistors
that
were
available
in
lab.
If
I
had
to
do
this
lab
again,
I
would
definitely
do
a
better
job
or
preparing
my
calculations
to
include
resistors
that
were
actually
available.
Trying
to
calculate
new
resistor
values
during
the
actual
lab
time
cost
us
a
lot
of
time,
and
most
likely
cost
us
our
ability
to
complete
tasks
3
and
5
in
lab.
This
circuit
would
be
used
by
an
engineer
that
needed
a
AC
Voltage
amplified,
but
the
amplified
voltage
could
not
be
in
the
negative
range.
Schematic
Theory
of
Operation
This
design
acts
as
a
variable
levelshifting
amplifier.
At
the
inverting
node,
an
AC
voltage
and
DC
offset
are
both
amplified.
At
the
noninverting
node,
a
DC
voltage
is
amplified.
The
AC
Voltage
from
the
function
generator
does
not
get
cancelled,
but
the
DC
offset
at
the
inverting
node
is
cancelled
by
the
DC
offset
at
the
noninverting
node.
However,
the
DC
offset
is
not
just
one
single
value,
but
a
range
of
values.
Thus
at
the
noninverting
node
a
potentiometer
is
added
to
customize
the
amount
of
DC
voltage
that
is
entering
the
noninverting
node
so
that
it
can
cancel
any
DC
offset
at
the
inverting
node
within
the
range
of
2
V
to
5
V.
Vout =

R2
R1
Vin + B +
R4
R3
+
Rpot
+R4
R2
1
+
R1
V1
Note:
In
this
particular
problem
the
function
generator
was
outputting
a
400
mVpp
as
opposed
to
the
specified
200
mVpp
along
with
doubling
the
inputted
DC
offset.
We
assumed
this
was
due
to
a
slight
difference
between
Mulitisims
function
generator
and
the
function
generator
used
in
class.
All
equations
below
are
solved
using
the
400
mVpp
AC
voltage
delivered
by
the
Multisim
function
generator.
Parameters
o
o
o
o
Experimental
Results:
Theoretical
Results:
VDC
=
2V
VDC
=
5V
Actual
Results:
This
experiment
was
not
performed
in
lab.
Conclusion:
We
were
not
able
to
solve
the
final
task
in
lab
due
to
the
complications
we
had
coming
up
with
equations
to
solve
for
R3
and
R4.
It
wasnt
until
several
days
after
the
lab
where
we
were
able
to
come
up
with
correct
resistor
values
in
Multisim.
Part
of
the
reason
we
had
trouble
coming
up
with
equations
was
due
to
the
function
generator
in
Multisim.
For
some
reason,
it
produced
output
DC
and
AC
voltages
that
were
double
the
desired
voltages
we
inputted.
For
this
reason,
the
resistor
values
we
originally
solved
for
did
not
work
in
our
circuit
in
lab.
Next
time,
I
will
be
sure
to
do
a
more
adequate
job
of
understanding
source
properties
in
Multisim.
This
circuit
would
be
designed
by
someone
who
would
like
to
remove
of
variety
of
DC
offsets
from
an
AC
voltage
source.
PostLab
Questions
1) A
variable
gain
amplifier
would
require
a
20k
potentiometer
in
series
with
R4,
thus
changing
the
output
voltage
equation
to
(R1/(R4+R1+Rpot))(1+R2/R3)Vin
=
Vout.
R2,
R3,
and
Vin
would
stay
constant
with
the
previous
values
obtained
in
task
1.
I
would
have
two
separate
equations
to
solve
for
R1
and
R4,
one
for
the
minimum
gain
(where
Rpot
would
=
20
k
and
Vout
=
8Vpp)
and
one
for
the
maximum
gain
(where
Rpot
would
=
0k
and
Vout
=16Vpp).
The
resulting
values
would
be
R1=
16k
and
R4=4k.
2) If
we
didnt
want
to
inverse
the
balanced
signal,
we
would
need
to
sum
the
signals
at
the
non
inverting
node.
However,
the
voltage
output
equation
would
then
change
to
Vout=
(1+R2/R4)(V4R1
+
V3R3)/
(R3+R1),
where
a
similar
algorithm
that
was
used
in
Task
2
would
be
used
to
solve
for
resistor
values.
3) If
the
voltage
range
was
a
desired
0Vpp
to
16Vpp,
one
option
would
be
to
add
a
potentiometer
with
an
extremely
high
resistance
(if
one
was
available)
to
both
the
left
and
the
right
signal
inputs.
The
maximum
gain
equation
would
remain
the
same
since
the
resistance
of
the
potentiometers
would
be
zero,
but
the
minimum
gain
would
equal
close
to
zero
if
the
resistance
of
the
potentiometer
approached
zero
due
to
the
formula
4) If
a
variable
signal
amplification
were
desired,
a
potentiometer
in
series
with
R1
would
be
necessary
to
control
the
output
signal.
With
a
new
potentiometer,
the
gain
(R2/R1)
would
change,
thus
causing
us
to
change
resistor
values
R4
and
R3.
The
original
equation
in
equation
5
would
be
used
to
solve
for
the
maximum
gain
of
the
opamp:
In
order
to
solve
for
the
minimum
gain
for
the
entire
circuit,
this
equation
would
be
used:
The
principle
of
superposition
would
be
used
to
breakdown
both
of
these
equations
in
a
similar
manner
to
problem
5,
and
would
allow
us
to
solve
for
R3
and
R4
values.
5) If
the
DC
offset
could
be
positive
or
negative,
that
would
cause
major
complications
to
the
circuit
built
in
task
5.
A
positive
DC
offset
would
be
attacked
using
the
same
algorithm
originally
used
in
task
5.
However
if
a
negative
DC
offset
were
used,
a
positive
DC
voltage
source
would
have
to
be
directly
connected
to
the
inverting
node
of
the
amplifier.
This
would
act
as
a
weighted
summing
amplifier
that
would
just
cancel
out
both
DC
offsets.
On
the
line
with
the
positive
DC
voltage
source
and
extremely
high
resistant
potentiometer
would
be
placed
that
would
cause
the
DC
offset
to
reduce
close
to
zero
when
the
signal
source
produced
a
positive
DC
offset
At
the
noninverting
node
an
extremely
highresistance
potentiometer
would
be
placed
that
would
cause
the
DC
voltage
seen
by
the
noninverting
node
to
approach
zero
if
a
negative
DC
offset
voltage
accompanied
the
signal
source.
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