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THE

SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST

HENRY FROWDE

OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS WAREHOUSE

AMEN CORNER, E.G.

THE

SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST

TRANSLATED

BY VARIOUS ORIENTAL SCHOLARS

AND EDITED BY

F. MAX MULLER

VOL. XXIV

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS

1885

[ All rights resewed ]

CONTENTS.

INTRODUCTION.

HAP.

1.

2.

3.

The Dina-i Main6g-i Khira</

The -Sikand-gumanik Vi^ar

The Sad Dar

Abbreviations used in this volume

PACK

xv

xxv

xxxvi

xlvii

TRANSLATIONS.

DlNA-t MA{NOG-{ KHIRAD

1. Introducing the sage and the spirit of wisdom

2.

How to preserve both body and soul, including the fate

of the soul after death, whether righteous or wicked .

3. What liberality and truth, gratitude and wisdom, mindful-

.

.

4.

5.

ness and contentment are good for

.

.

The nine chief good works, divided into seven classes The ten happiest lands .

,

.

.

.

.

.

.

6. The ten unhappiest lands

7. The four grades of heaven and hell, with the neutral region

between them, and the fate of the souls in each .

8. How Auharmas*/ created the universe, and Aharman cor-

.

.

.

.

.

The evil influence of the

seven planets, the good influence of the twelve signs of the zodiac, and how far the good and evil can counter-

act each other

rupted it for 9000 years.

9. The impossibility of going from region to region, the

substance of the sky, and the mingling of the water in

the earth

.10, The impossibility of peace and affection between Aharman

and Auharmaz</

ii. Wisdom without goodness and skill without wisdom are

useless

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

i

3

9

.26

26

27

.28

.29

32

35

36

'37

Vlii

CHAP.

CONTENTS.

PAGE

12. Worldly treasure is not allotted so truly as spiritual, on

account of Aharman's chieftains, the seven planets;

but, after death, every one is judged according to his

own deeds

.

.

-37

13. Though animals' knowledge is instinctive, men obtain

theirs only by toil, because Aharman has concealed

the results of good and evil, and formed many false

religions;

Zaraturt .

but the only true one is that taught by

.

-39

14. The best protection, friend, supporter of fame, helper of

enjoyment, wealth, and pleasure

.

.

.

15. The poverty and opulence which are good, and the charac-

teristics of good and bad government

.

.

1 6. The best food, grain, and fruit.

The effects of wine on

.41

.42

different tempers, and when drunk in moderation and

in excess.

body, and cotton for the soul

Also why silk clothing is better for the

.

.

-.

-45

49

.

17. The pleasure that is worse than unhappiness .

1 8. Why people disregard the changeableness of worldly

things, death, the account of the soul, and hell .

.

19. Living in fear and falsehood is worse than death 20. The best and worst conversation for kings

.

.

.

.

21.

The fate of men who are worldly, scoffing, idle, malicious,

.

lazy, false-hearted, and arrogant

.

.

.

22.

How far worldly wealth can be acquired through exertion .

23. The impossibility of contending with destiny .

24. Providence can over-rule destiny; but rarely does so,

.

because of Aharman's evil doings

-.

;

.

.

.

25. The poorest of the rich, and the richest of the poor

.

26.

A blind mind is worse than a blind eye, and an ill-informed

27.

is worse than an ill-tempered man

.

,

.

.

The several advantages resulting from the actions of

Gayomanf, Hoshang, Takhmomp,Yimsh&/, Az-i Dahak,

Frasiyak, FreVun, Manu^ihar, Kai-Kava^, Sahm, Kai-

Us, Siyavakhsh, Kai-Khusroi, Kai-L6hardsp, and Kai-

28.

Virtdsp

.

.

.

The most forgiving, strongest, swiftest, happiest, and most

miserable

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

29. What must be most regarded and protected .

.

30. The worst life and most unforeseeing man

,

.

31. The business of the three classes

priests, warriors, and

husbandmen

.

.

.

.

.-''

.

49

50

50

5*

54

.54

55

55

56

57

.66

.66

'67

.67

CONTENTS.

IX

CHAP.

32.

33.

The business of the fourth class, the artizans .

.

.

The worst ruler, chieftain, friend, kinsman, wife, child,

and country

Aharman can hardly disturb a wise and contented man .

35. The seven kinds of men who are rich, and the seven who

34.

are poor

36. The thirty sins

37. The thirty-three good works

38. Why worldly happiness is not allotted to the worthy who are accepted in heaven

39. Whose power is most seemly, wisdom most complete, dis-

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

PAGE

68

69

70

70

71

73

75

position most faithful, speech most proper, goodness

least, friendship worst, mental pleasure least, heart

most seemly, endurance most approvable, and who is

not faithful. What should be kept by every one and

no one, and also in conversation. Who cannot give

evidence, to whom

obedience is due, who must be

minded and praised, what must not be unrespected,

who is like Auharmas^, and who like Aharman . 40. What is

coldest, warmest, brightest, darkest, fullest,

.76

emptiest, most fruitless, without superfluity, incapable of deprival, cannot be bought, satisfies every one, and

satisfies no one. What Auharmas^ desires from men,

and what Aharman does ; and what

worldly and spiritual existences

is the end in the

.

.

.

-79

41. The mightiest man, most dreadful road, most perplexing

account, pleasantest tie, most regretable work, and

most unprofitable gift .

.

.

.

.

42.

43. The spiritual armour and weapons requisite for attaining

The three kinds of man

.81

82

to heaven and escaping from hell

.

.

.

-83

44. The arrangement of the sky and earth, flow of the water,

and resting-place of the clouds; where the winter

demon is most predominant, and the most undisturbed

country

45. How Aharman deceives, whence is his pleasure, where he

has a foundation, whom he haunts, and whence is his

food

.

4<6. Aharman considers no injury complete, unless he seizes the soul

47. What is better than all wealth, predominant over every- thing, and from which no one can escape ,

.

84

87

88

.89

CONTENTS.

bJUhTfl

48. The dwelling of the understanding, intellect, seed, and

wisdom in the body

.89

49. The duties and motions of the stars, Tirtar,

Vanand,

Haptok-ring, the twelve signs of the zodiac, and the

rest, the sun and the moon

>

.

.

.

.90

50.

51.

52.

53.

54.

55.

56.

57.

58.

The opulent person who is fortunate, and the reverse

.

93

Why a bad man sometimes succeeds, and a good one fails

93

How the ceremonies and religion should be considered,

and what is requisite for the renunciation of sin] .

-94

How the homage and glorifying of the sacred beings are

to be performed

.

,

*

;i

.

Why an ignorant man will not learn

.

.

.

-95

.

.

.

.96

Why an ill-natured man is no friend of the good, nor an

untalented man of the talented .

.

,

.

.

The uses of mountains and rivers .

.

.

.

The many advantages and uses of wisdom

*

.

-91

.98

-98

Though an ignorant king is esteemed by man, a wise poor

59.

man is more esteemed by the angels

-. -

.

.

The vices of the four classes men, and artizans

.

.

.:.

priests, warriors, husband-

'

.

t

.

.

.

60. The man most conversant with good and evil

,

.

61.

The chiefs of men, women, horses, flying creatures, oxen,

wild animals, and grains .

*-':-

.

.

105

105

1 06

107

62.

Regarding Kangdez, the enclosure formed by Yim, the

body of Sahm, the abode of Srosh, the three-legged

ass, the Horn tree, Gopaitoshah, the Kar fish, the griffon bird, and ^inamr6,r :,.

.

.

.

63. The best good work, which requires no trouble

.

.108

.113

6lKAND-GtjMANIK VlGAR .

.

1. Introducing the subject and the author .

.

*

".

.

'

.

.

2. Why Aharman advanced towards the light, though of a

different nature

.

.

115

117

.122

3. Why Auharmaz^ did not use his omnipotence to repel

Aharman

,

.

;

k

'

;

.

.

'

.:<

.

.124

4. How the stars came to be distributors both of the good

produced by Auharmazd', and of the evil produced by

Aharman

.

.

.

.

.

.127

5. Proof of the existence of a creator derived from the

evident design in the creation .

/

.

,,

f

\

.

139

CONTENTS.

XI

CHAP.

6.

7.

8.

Further proofs of a similar description .

Proof of the existence of an injurer from the provision

.

k

made against him Proofs of the same from the existence of evil

.

.

i 9. Proof of the existence of the opponent before the creation,

and of his appearance afterwards

.

.

.

1 10. Those who believe in the unity of creation, also believe in

a corrupting influence which is really another being .

n. The inconsistency of those who trace both good and evil to a sacred being whose attributes are incompatible

with the latter; with references to various scriptures .

12. Other inconsistencies in the assertions of various sects

PAGE

.146

150

152

.162

166

173

regarding the sacred being

13. Criticism of the Jewish account of the creation of the

universe and the fall of man, as given in the Old

Testament

14. Other statements of the Old Testament and Jewish tradi-

tion, regarding the sacred being, that are inconsistent

with his attributes .

.

.

.

.

.

202

208

.221

15. Criticism of many statements of the Christian scriptures,

showing their inconsistency, and that some of them also

admit the existence of a separate originator of evil .

1 6. Criticism of some of the doctrines of the Manichaeans .

229

243

SAD DAR

Introduction

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

1. Necessity of unwavering faith in the religion .

2. Sin not to be committed

3. Advantage of perseverance in industry .

.

4. No one should despair of the mercy of Hormazd .

.

5.

6-

Advantage of NavaziW and Geti-khari</

.

.

The six indispensable good works

.

.

.

7. Why we should recite certain formulas after sneezing .

8. Why high-priests must be obeyed

.

.

.

.

253

255

.

257

258

.259

260

262

.264

265

.266

.

.

9. The sin of unnatural intercourse to be punished, by any

one, by death on the spot

to. Reasons for wearing the sacred thread-girdle and tying it with four knots

n. Why a household fire should be properly maintained

12. Why the clothing of a corpse should be scanty and old,

.

267

268

270

though many people must follow the bier .

.

.272

xii

CONTENTS.

CHAP.

13.

Why ceremonies in honour of the souls of the departed

should be properly celebrated

14. How nail-parings should be treated, and why

.

15.

How we should salute anything agreeable, and why

.

1 6. A pregnant woman and new-born infant require the pro-

tection of a fire or burning lamp, with other precautions Why a toothpick must be cut free from bark

17.

.

273

.275

276

277

.278

1 8. People should marry early, to benefit by children's good

works; and a childless man must have an adopted son 278

19. Advantage of attending to agriculture .

20. Advantage of feeding the worthy .

.

.

.

.

.

.281

.282

21.

22.

23.

24.

25.

26.

27.

How grace must be said before and after eating, and why 282

Advantage

of performing adagoi

.

.

.

.285

Tethered animals must be restrained

.

.

.

.286

Why and how Horn-juice must be given to a new-born child

286

Why promises must not be broken

 

287

Everyman of fifteen years must select a patron spirit and

a priestly guide whom he must obey

.

.

.288

When it is doubtful whether an action be right or wrong

a high-priest must be consulted

,

.

.

.290

28.

29.

30.

31.

32.

33.

34.

Why the Avesta must be properly learnt and remembered 290

Why liberality must extend only to the worthy

.

.291

Water must not be poured away, or drunk, in the dark .

 

292

Dogs must be fed and well- treated

 

,

.

.

.

292

Why a hen or cock must not be killed for crowing

.

293

Why search must be made where a corpse is supposed

to be buried

.

-.

.

.

.

294

Animals must not be often killed, and some never; also

35.

36.

37.

certain parts should be consecrated .

.

.

Prayers to be used when washing the face

.

;

.

Necessity of the Bareshnum for both men and women .

Why the ten days of the guardian spirits must be celebrated

.295

.296

296

298

38. We must not drink from the same cup as those of a dif-

39.

ferent religion, until it is purified

.

,

.

The sacred fire and its attendant must be properly main-

tained (see Chap. 92)

.

,

.

.

.

40. Parents and priests must be obeyed and not vexed

41.

42. Why slander and seduction, sins producing accusers,

The care and prayers necessary for menstruous women .

.

43.

are specially injurious

,

.'

.

'

.

.

.

Noxious creatures must be killed, especially five kinds .

44. Walking barefoot is a sin, and why

.

.

.

300

301

301

302

305

306

.307

CONTENTS.

Xlii

45. How repentance must be accomplished for every sin

46. The proper age for tying on the sacred thread-girdle

.

.

47.

48.

Ceremonies must be celebrated after the death of a child

of seven, to liberate its soul from those of its parents .

A cooking-pot must not be more than two-thirds full, for

308

309

310

fear of boiling over

49. A fire must be cold before the ashes are removed .

50. How the morning ablutions must be performed

51. Why it is necessary to send a child to school

.

.

311

-311

.312

.313

52.

Why a sacred cake must be consecrated every year on

the day Khurda</ of the month Fravardin .

.

.314

53. Any one travelling twelve leagues must have a sacred cake consecrated before he goes and every Bahiram

54.

55.

day during his absence

If a man's serving wife has a son, he may adopt it ; but

if only a daughter, he must adopt a relation's son

When a sacred cake cannot be consecrated at a NavaziW,

.

315

316

bread must be eaten with the Hormazd vag

.

.316

56.

Precautions and prayers necessary when evacuating water 317

57. A hedgehog must not be injured, and why .

58.

59.

60.

Advantages of a ceremony for the living soul

.

.

.318

.318

The only NyayLy for women is obedience to their husbands 320

Steadfastness in the religion leads to heaven, and helping

others to be steadfast is the best good work

61.

62.

63.

64.

Evils of falsehood

.

Advantages of truth in word and action

Regarding the sin of adultery

Penalties for theft with and without violence .

65. Duties of thanksgiving and doing good

.

.

.321

322

.

-323

324

.

.326

.

.328

66.

All women must have the Dvazdah-homast celebrated .

330

67.

68.

69.

Why women must abstain from adultery

.

.

.

331

Precautions to be taken by menstruous women

.

.

332

Allowing the sun to shine on a fire, even through holes, is

 

sinful

.

.

334

70.

Precautions to be observed in carrying the dead .

-335

71. Punishment for eating dead matter as medicine

.

.

72. Bringing dead matter to water or fire is a deadly sin

73. Any cow, goat, or fowl that eats dead matter is impure,

.

336

336

and its produce cannot be used, for a year

 

.

Morning ablutions .

.

.

.

.

.

-337

337

74.

75. Cultivators must be careful that irrigation water is not

defiled with dead matter

338

XIV

CONTENTS.

PAGE

76.

Period of purification after childbirth .

.

,

77.

Purification and precautions after still-birth .

 

.

78.

Why meat must not be eaten for three days after a death

in the house .

,

,

*

.

.

79.

Advantages of liberality

 

.

.

,,

80.

Different values of Ashem-vohu on different occasions .

339

340

34 1

342

343

8 1. Hormazd admonishes Zaratujt not to postpone to-day's duties and good works till to-morrow

.

.

82.

The sacred thread-girdle must be re-tied when dressing,

before moving from the spot .

.

,

83. Proper fasting is from sin, not from food

.

.

84.

85.

86.

87.

88.

Prayers before sleeping and when restless .

.

.

Advice must always be asked of the wise and relations .

Beavers must not be killed .

.

,

.

,.

Ceremonies to be celebrated after a death

,

.

Polluted wood must not be used or burnt

.

.

.

.344

'347

348

348

349

350

350

353

89.

Any one eating dead matter, or polluting another with it,

 

'

must be purified .,

 

:

-

-^

>

:

*,

.

-t.

.

90. Nothing is to be given to a sinner

,

'

.

.

353

-354

91.

How to purify articles of various materials when polluted

92.

by dead matter

,.;

.

,

.

.

.

.

The sacred fire must be properly maintained, and an

354

attendant provided (see Chap. 39)

93. Slander a sin, and how to atone for it

94. Benefits must be reciprocated

,

.

.

.

.

.