Sei sulla pagina 1di 7

5/4/2015

MasonryWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Masonry
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Masonryisthebuildingofstructuresfromindividualunits
laidinandboundtogetherbymortarthetermmasonry
canalsorefertotheunitsthemselves.Thecommon
materialsofmasonryconstructionarebrick,stone,marble,
granite,travertine,limestone,caststone,concreteblock,
glassblock,stucco,tile,andcob.Masonryisgenerallya
highlydurableformofconstruction.However,the
materialsused,thequalityofthemortarandworkmanship,
andthepatterninwhichtheunitsareassembledcan
significantlyaffectthedurabilityoftheoverallmasonry
construction.Apersonwhoconstructsmasonryiscalleda
Mason,orBricklayer.

Contents

Amasonlayingmortarontopofafinishedcourse
ofblocks,priortoplacingthenextcourse.

1Applications
1.1Advantages
1.2Disadvantages
1.3Structurallimitations
2Veneermasonry
3Drysetmasonry
4Brick
4.1Uniformityandrusticity
4.2Serpentinemasonry
5Concreteblock
6Ajacks
7Stonework
8Gabions
9Baggedconcrete
10Masonrytraining
11Passivefireprotection(PFP)
12Mechanicalmodellingofmasonrystructures
13Seealso
14References
15Externallinks

Applications
Masonry[1]iscommonlyusedforthewallsofbuildings,retainingwallsandbuildings.Brickandconcrete
blockarethemostcommontypesofmasonryinuseinindustrializednationsandmaybeeitherweightbearing
oraveneer.Concreteblocks,especiallythosewithhollowcores,offervariouspossibilitiesinmasonry

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Masonry

1/7

5/4/2015

MasonryWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

construction.Theygenerallyprovidegreatcompressivestrength,andarebestsuitedtostructureswithlight
transverseloadingwhenthecoresremainunfilled.Fillingsomeorallofthecoreswithconcreteorconcrete
withsteelreinforcement(typicallyrebar)offersmuchgreatertensileandlateralstrengthtostructures.

Advantages
Theuseofmaterialsuchasbricksandstonescanincreasethethermalmassofabuildingandcanprotect
thebuildingfromfire.
MosttypesofmasonrytypicallywillnotREQUIRE paintingandsocanprovideastructurewith
reducedlifecyclecosts.
Masonryisnoncombustibleproduct.
Masonrywallsaremoreresistanttoprojectiles,suchasdebrisfromhurricanesortornadoes.
Masonrystructuresbuiltincompressionpreferablywithlimemortarcanhaveausefullifeofmorethan
500yearsascomparedto30to100forstructuresofsteelorreinforcedconcrete.

Disadvantages
Extremeweather,undercertaincircumstances,cancausedegradationofmasonrywallsurfacesdueto
frostdamage.
Masonrytendstobeheavyandmustbebuiltuponastrongfoundation,suchasreinforcedconcrete,to
avoidsettlingandcracking.
Otherthanconcrete,masonryconstructiondoesnotlenditselfwelltomechanization,and
REQUIRES moreskilledlaborthanstickframing.
Masonryconsistsofloosecomponentsandhasalowtolerancetooscillationascomparedtoother
materialssuchasreinforcedconcrete,plastics,wood,ormetals.

Structurallimitations
Masonryhashighcompressivestrengthunderverticalloadsbuthaslowtensilestrength(againsttwistingor
stretching)unlessreinforced.Thetensilestrengthofmasonrywallscanbeincreasedbythickeningthewall,or
bybuildingmasonrypiers(verticalcolumnsorribs)atintervals.Wherepractical,steelreinforcementssuchas
windpostscanbeadded.

Veneermasonry
Amasonryveneerwallconsistsofmasonryunits,usuallyclaybasedbricks,installedononeorbothsidesofa
structurallyindependentwallusuallyconstructedofwoodormasonry.Inthiscontextthebrickmasonryis
primarilydecorative,notstructural.ThebrickveneerisgenerallyCONNECTED tothestructuralwallby
brickties(metalstripsthatareattachedtothestructuralwall,aswellasthemortarjointsofthebrickveneer).
Thereistypicallyanairgapbetweenthebrickveneerandthestructuralwall.Asclaybasedbrickisusually
notcompletelywaterproof,thestructuralwallwilloftenhaveawaterresistantsurface(usuallytarpaper)and
weepholescanbeleftatthebaseofthebrickveneertodrainmoisturethataccumulatesinsidetheairgap.
Concreteblocks,realandculturedstones,andveneeradobearesometimesusedinaverysimilarveneer
fashion.
Mostinsulatedbuildingsthatutilizeconcreteblock,brick,adobe,stone,veneersorsomecombinationthereof
featureinteriorinsulationintheformoffiberglassbattsbetweenwoodenwallstudsorintheformofrigid
insulationboardscoveredwithplasterordrywall.Inmostclimatesthisinsulationismuchmoreeffectiveon
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Masonry

2/7

5/4/2015

MasonryWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

theexteriorofthewall,allowingthebuildinginteriortotakeadvantageoftheaforementionedthermalmassof
themasonry.Thistechniquedoes,however,REQUIRE somesortofweatherresistantexteriorsurfaceover
theinsulationand,consequently,isgenerallymoreexpensive.

Drysetmasonry
Thestrengthofamasonrywallisnotentirelydependentonthebond
betweenthebuildingmaterialandthemortarthefrictionbetweenthe
interlockingblocksofmasonryisoftenstrongenoughtoprovidea
greatdealofstrengthonitsown.Theblockssometimeshavegrooves
orothersurfacefeaturesaddedtoenhancethisinterlocking,andsome
drysetmasonrystructuresforgomortaraltogether.

Brick
Solidbrickworkismadeoftwoormorewythesofbrickswiththeunits
Drysetmasonrysupportsarusticlog
runninghorizontally(calledstretcherbricks)boundtogetherwith
bridge,whereitprovidesawell
bricksrunningtransversetothewall(called"header"bricks).Eachrow
drainedsupportforthelog(which
ofbricksisknownasacourse.Thepatternofheadersandstretchers
willincreaseitsservicelife).
employedgivesrisetodifferentbondssuchasthecommonbond(with
everysixthcoursecomposedofheaders),theEnglishbond,andthe
Flemishbond(withalternatingstretcherandheaderbrickspresentoneverycourse).Bondscandifferin
strengthandininsulatingability.Verticallystaggeredbondstendtobesomewhatstrongerandlessproneto
majorcrackingthananonstaggeredbond.

Uniformityandrusticity
Thewideselectionofbrickstylesandtypesgenerallyavailablein
industrializednationsallowmuchvarietyintheappearanceofthefinal
product.Inbuildingsbuiltduringthe1950s1970s,ahighdegreeof
uniformityofbrickandaccuracyinmasonrywastypical.Intheperiod
sincethenthisstylewasthoughttobetoosterile,soattemptswere
madetoemulateolder,rougherwork.Somebricksurfacesaremadeto
lookparticularlyrusticbyincludingburntbricks,whichhaveadarker
colororanirregularshape.Othersmayuseantiquesalvagebricks,or
newbricksmaybeartificiallyagedbyapplyingvarioussurface
treatments,suchastumbling.Theattemptsatrusticityofthelate20th
centuryhavebeencarriedforwardbymasonsspecializinginafree,
artisticstyle,wherethecoursesareintentionallynotstraight,instead
weavingtoformmoreorganicimpressions.

Masonryrepairworkdonetoabrick
wall.

Serpentinemasonry
Acrinklecranklewallisabrickwallthatfollowsaserpentinepath,ratherthanastraightline.Thistypeof
wallismoreresistanttotopplingthanastraightwallsomuchsothatitmaybemadeofasinglewytheof
unreinforcedbrickandsodespiteitslongerlengthmaybemoreeconomicalthanastraightwall.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Masonry

3/7

5/4/2015

MasonryWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Concreteblock
Blocksofcinderconcrete(cinderblocksorbreezeblocks),ordinary
concrete(concreteblocks),orhollowtilearegenericallyknownas
ConcreteMasonryUnits(CMUs).Theyusuallyaremuchlargerthan
ordinarybricksandsoaremuchfastertolayforawallofagivensize.
Furthermore,cinderandconcreteblockstypicallyhavemuchlower
waterabsorptionratesthanbrick.Theyoftenareusedasthestructural
coreforveneeredbrickmasonry,orareusedaloneforthewallsof
factories,garagesandotherindustrialstylebuildingswheresuch
appearanceisacceptableordesirable.Suchblocksoftenreceivea
stuccosurfacefordecoration.Surfacebondingcement,whichcontains
syntheticfibersforreinforcement,issometimesusedinthisapplication
andcanimpartextrastrengthtoablockwall.Surfacebondingcement
isoftenprecolouredandcanbestainedorpaintedthusresultingina
finishedstuccolikesurface.

Concretemasonryunits(CMUs)or
blocksinabasementwallbefore
burial.

TheprimarystructuraladvantageofconcreteblocksincomparisontosmallerclaybasedbricksisthataCMU
wallcanbereinforcedbyfillingtheblockvoidswithconcretewithorwithoutsteelrebar.Generally,certain
voidsaredesignatedforfillingandreinforcement,particularlyatcorners,wallends,andopeningswhileother
voidsareleftempty.Thisincreaseswallstrengthandstabilitymoreeconomicallythanfillingandreinforcing
allvoids.Typically,structuresmadeofCMUswillhavethetopcourseofblocksinthewallsfilledwith
concreteandtiedtogetherwithsteelreinforcementtoformabondbeam.Bondbeamsareoftenarequirement
ofmodernbuildingcodesandcontrols.Anothertypeofsteelreinforcement,referredtoasladder
reinforcement,canalsobeembeddedinhorizontalmortarjointsofconcreteblockwalls.Theintroductionof
steelreinforcementgenerallyresultsinaCMUwallhavingmuchgreaterlateralandtensilestrengththan
unreinforcedwalls.
CMUscanbemanufacturedtoprovideavarietyofsurfaceappearances.Theycanbecoloredduring
manufacturingorstainedorpaintedafterinstallation.Theycanbesplitaspartofthemanufacturingprocess,
givingtheblocksaroughfacereplicatingtheappearanceofnaturalstone,suchasbrownstone.CMUsmay
alsobescored,ribbed,sandblasted,polished,striated(rakedorbrushed),includedecorativeaggregates,be
allowedtoslumpinacontrolledfashionduringcuring,orincludeseveralofthesetechniquesintheir
manufacturetoprovideadecorativeappearance.[2]
"Glazedconcretemasonryunitsaremanufacturedbybondingapermanentcoloredfacing(typicallycomposed
ofpolyesterresins,silicasandandvariousotherchemicals)toaconcretemasonryunit,providingasmooth
impervioussurface."[3]
Glassblockorglassbrickareblocksmadefromglassandprovideatranslucenttoclearvisionthroughthe
block.

Ajacks
Ajacks(usedinerosioncontrolwallsandseawalls)arehighlystable,concrete6prongedarmorunits
designedtointerlockintoaflexible,highlypermeablematrix.Theycanbeinstalledeitherrandomlyorina
uniformpattern.Theylooklikegiant3footversionsofthemetaljacksthatchildrenplaywith.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Masonry

4/7

5/4/2015

MasonryWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Intheuniformplacementpattern,eachunitisincontactwiththesixadjacentunits,providinghighstability.
Theyarepatternedafterthebuckyballmodel.[4]

Stonework
Stoneblocksusedinmasonrycanbedressedorrough,thoughinbothexamples:corners,doorandwindow
jambs,andsimilarareasareusuallydressed.Stonemasonryutilizingdressedstonesisknownasashlar
masonry,whereasmasonryusingirregularlyshapedstonesisknownasrubblemasonry.Bothrubbleand
ashlarmasonrycanbelaidincoursedrowsofevenheightthroughthecarefulselectionorcuttingofstones,
butagreatdealofstonemasonryisuncoursed.
Slipformstonemasonryproducesahybridwallofreinforcedconcretewitharubblestoneface.
NaturalstoneveneersoverCMU,castinplace,ortiltupconcretewallsarewidelyusedtogivethe
appearanceofstonemasonry.
Sometimesriverrockofsmoothovalshapedstonesisusedasaveneer.Thistypeofmaterialisnot
favoredforsolidmasonryasitrequiresagreatamountofmortarandcanlackintrinsicstructural
strength.
Manufacturedstone,orculturedstone,veneersarepopularalternativestonaturalstones.
Manufacturedstoneveneersaretypicallymadefromconcrete.
Naturalstonesfromquarriesaroundtheworldaresampledandrecreatedusingmolds,aggregate,and
colorfastpigments.
Tothecasualobservertheremaybenovisualdifferencebetweenveneersofnaturalandmanufactured
stone.

Gabions
Gabionsarerectangularwirebaskets,usuallyofzincprotectedsteel(galvanizedsteel)thatarefilledwith
fracturedstoneofmediumsize.Thesewillactasasingleunitandarestackedwithsetbackstoforma
revetmentorretainingwall.Theyhavetheadvantageofbeingbothwelldrainedandflexible,andsoresistant
toflood,waterflowfromabove,frostdamage,andsoilflow.Theirexpectedusefullifeisonlyaslongasthe
wiretheyarecomposedofandifusedinsevereclimates(suchasshoresideinasaltwaterenvironment)must
bemadeofappropriatecorrosionresistantwire.

Baggedconcrete
Alowgradeconcretemaybeplacedinwovenplasticsackssimilartothatusedforsandbagsandthen
emplaced.Thesacksarethenwateredandtheemplacementthenbecomesaseriesofartificialstonesthat
conformtooneanotherandtoadjacentsoilandstructures.Thisconformationmakesthemresistantto
displacement.Thesackbecomesnonfunctionalandeventuallydisintegrates.Thistypeofmasonryis
frequentlyusedtoprotecttheentrancesandexitsofwaterconduitswherearoadpassesoverastreamordry
wash.Itisalsousedtoprotectstreambanksfromerosion,especiallywherearoadpassescloseby.

Masonrytraining
Stonemasonryhappenstobeoneofthoseprofessionsthatwasoneofthefirstinthehistoryofconstruction.It
isverymuchregardedasatraditionalskill.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Masonry

5/7

5/4/2015

MasonryWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Passivefireprotection(PFP)
Masonrywallshaveanendothermiceffectofitshydrates,asinchemicallyboundwater,aswellasunbound
moisturefromtheconcreteblock,aswellasthepouredconcreteifthehollowcoresinsidetheblocksare
filled.
Masonrybuildingscanalsobebuilttoincreasesafetybyreducingfiredamage,suchastheuseoffirecuts
duringconstruction.

Mechanicalmodellingofmasonrystructures
Fromthepointofviewofmaterialmodelling,masonryisa
specialmaterialofextrememechanicalproperties(witha
veryhighratiobetweenstrengthincompressionandin
tension),sothattheappliedloadsdonotdiffuseastheydo
inelasticbodies,buttendtopercolatealonglinesofhigh
stiffness,[5][6]seethefigureontherightandwatchavideo
(http://www.ing.unitn.it/dims/ssmg/masonry.html)for
moredetails.

Seealso
Mason
Contractors
Associationof
America
Bricktinting
Caststone
Castle
TC125
(European
Union)
Defensive
wall
Drystone
wall
Fire
protection
International
Unionof
Bricklayers
andAllied
Craftworkers

Listofstone
Operative
Plasterers'and
CementMasons'
International
Association
Concretefinisher
NISTstonetest
wall
Passivefire
protection
Rubblemasonry
Stonewall
Stonemasonry
Tuckpointing

Acomparison(usingtransmissionphotoelasticity)
betweenthestressdiffusioninanelasticbody(on
theleft)andamodelofmasonry(ontheright).A
highlylocalizedstresspercolationisvisibleonthe
right.

References
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Masonry

6/7

5/4/2015

MasonryWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

1. RepairingMasonry(2015)."TipsforRepairingMasonry"(http://www.ipernity.com/blog/1581268/888396).
Retrieved20150414.
2. http://www.ncma.org/resources/productuse/products/concrete/Pages/GroundFaceUnits%28Burnished,Honed%29.aspx
3. http://www.ncma.org/resources/productuse/products/concrete/Pages/Glazed%28Prefaced%29Units.aspx
4. EROSIONCONTROL|StabilizingStreambanks(http://www.gradingandexcavation.com/ecm_0511_stabilizing.html)
5. D.BigoniandG.Noselli,Localizedstresspercolationthroughdrymasonrywalls.PartIExperiments.European
JournalofMechanicsA/Solids,2010,29,291298.(http://www.ing.unitn.it/~bigoni)
6. D.BigoniandG.Noselli,Localizedstresspercolationthroughdrymasonrywalls.PartIIModelling.European
JournalofMechanicsA/Solids,2010,29,299307.(http://www.ing.unitn.it/~bigoni)

ModelingandSimulationofMasonry
(http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/tal.577/abstract)[1]

WikimediaCommonshas
mediarelatedtoMasonry.

(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0141029613006007)V.Sarhosis,Y.Sheng,Identification
ofmaterialparametersforlowbondstrengthmasonry,EngineeringStructures,Volume60,February2014,
Pages100110,ISSN01410296,http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2013.12.013.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0141029613006007

Externallinks
MasonContractorsAssociationofAmerica(http://www.masoncontractors.org)
InternationalMasonryInstitute(http://www.imiweb.org)
NationalConcreteMasonryAssociation(http://www.ncma.org)
Informationondesignandanalysesofmasonrywalls(http://www.finesoftware.eu/geotechnical
software/help/masonrywall/analysisofwalls/)
MasonryInstituteofAmerica(http://www.masonryinstitute.org/)
Anillustratedglossaryofthetermsusedmasonryconstruction.(http://www.builderbilldiy
help.com/masonryglossary.html)
MasonryStructures:BehaviourandDesign(CanadianEdition)
(http://www.canadamasonrycentre.com/CMDC/tech_resources.asp)
Retrievedfrom"http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Masonry&oldid=660214126"
Categories: Masonry Stonemasonry Buildingmaterials Buildingstone Construction
Thispagewaslastmodifiedon1May2015,at09:01.
TextisavailableundertheCreativeCommonsAttributionShareAlikeLicenseadditionaltermsmay
apply.Byusingthissite,youagreetotheTermsofUseandPrivacyPolicy.Wikipediaisaregistered
trademarkoftheWikimediaFoundation,Inc.,anonprofitorganization.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Masonry

7/7