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Dissemination of information for training Lisbon, 10-11 February 2011

of Steel Buildings

Illustrations of Design

Andr PLUMIER

University of Liege

Herv DEGEE

University of Liege

Hughes SOMJA

INSA Rennes

General

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

a global plastic mechanism

in a decided scheme

Why global?

To have numerous dissipative

p

zones to dissipate

p

more energy

gy

To avoid excessive local plastic deformation as a result of

concentration of deformations in few places

concept a concept b

concept a = du / h1 tage

concept b = du / h4 tages

concept b = concept a /4

Because it is not thinkable to have all zones of the structure with

ideal characterisics for plastic deformations

General

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

=> Design

g of dissipative

p

structure

1. Define the objective: a global mechanism

2. Pay a price for the mechanism to be global:

criteria for numerous dissipative zones

capacity design of resistances of all elements

other than the plastic zones

3 Pay a price at local zones: criteria aiming at local ductility

3.

For instance - In steel: rules for connections

classes off sections

plastic rotation capacity

- In composite steel concrete: position of neutral axis

General

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

Moment resisting frames: plastic hinges in bending at beam ends

not plastic shear in beams

not plastic in connections

not plastic hinges in columns

diagonals in plastic tension

F2

p

F1

pst

p

e

L

dedicated links

i plastic

in

l ti shear

h

or bending

b di

General

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

There may

y be typologies

yp g

other than the usual ones

Example

Using Buckling Restrained Bars at bottom of frame

=> similar to reinforced concrete wall: 1 big plastic hinge

General

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

LOCAL

MECHANISMS

Local

Mechanisms

DISSIPATIVE

NON DISSIPATIVE

Dissipative

Non dissipative

Local

Dissipative

p

&

Non dissipative

Mechanisms

N

Compression or tension yielding

V

Yielding in shear

F

Slippage with friction

M

Plastic deformations in narrow zone

exhaust available material ductility

Plastic hinge

M

of the connection

F

Ovalization of hole

General

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

Classical constructional steel

Charpy toughness: absorbed energy min 27J (at tusage)

Distribution yield stresses and toughness such that :

dissipatives zones at intended places

yielding at those places before the other zones leave the elastic

range fymax fydesign

Correspondance between

reality & hypothesis

is required

General

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

to achieve fymax, real fydesign

to have a correct reference in capacity design

3 possibilities

a) Compute considering that in dissipative zones: fy,max

y max = 1,1 ov fy

ov material overstrength factor

fy : nominal

ov = fy,real / fy

European rolled sections: ov = 1,25

1 25

Ex: S235, ov = 1,25

=> fy,max = 323 N/mm2

an upper value fy,max is specified for dissipative zones

b) Do design,

design based on a single nominal yield strength fy

for dissipative & non dissipative zones

Use nominal fy for dissipative zones, with specified fy,max

Use higher nominal fy for

f non dissipative zones and connections

Ex:

S235 dissipative zones, with fy,max = 355 N/mm2

S355 non dissipative zones

c) fy,max of dissipative zones is measured

is the value used in design => 0v = 1

General

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

TYPE of STRUCTURE

Ductility Class

DCM

DCH

5 u / 1

diagonal type

V type

2,5

F

Frame

with

ith eccentric

t i bracings

b

i

5 u / 1

Inverted pendulum

2 u / 1

4 u / 1

5 u / 1

Moment resisting frame + concentric bracings

Concrete infills not connected in contact with

frame

Concrete infills connected => composite

Concrete infills isolated from the frame

General

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

10

Criteria for local ductility:

Free choice: local dissipative zones can be

d

=> in structural elements

=> in connections But effectiveness to demonstrate

Semi-rigid or partial strength connections OK if:

adequate rotation capacity <=>global deformations

members framing into connections are stable

effect of connections deformations on drift analysed

Plastic deformation capacity of elements

(compression bending) => limitation of b/tf or c/tf

(compression,

=> classes of sections of Eurocode 3

D tilit Cl

Ductility

Class

B h i

Behaviour

factor

f t q

DCH

q>4

DCM

2 q 4

DCM

1,5 q 2

DCL

q 1,5

tf

tw

Cross S

C

Sectional

ti

l Class

Cl

class 1

class 2

class 3

class 1, 2, 3, 4

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

11

Illustration of Design

g 1

Steel Moment Resisting Frame

Andr PLUMIER

University of Liege

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

12

Design objectives

Plastic hinges in beams or their

connections, not in the columns

Weak Beam-Strong Column WBSC

Global ductility

5

4

3

2

2,9m

Y4

Y3

Y2

Y1

6m

x6

ends: 25 mrad DCM 35 mrad DCH

Local Ductility

=> classes of sections

6m

x5

6m

x4

6m

x3

6m

m

x2

x1

8m

8m

8m

Seismic resistance

Peripheral and interior moment frames

in 2 directions

Max q: 5 u/1=5x1,3= 6,5

q = 4 chosen

=> DCM

S ti

Sections

class

l

1 or 2

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

Design steps

Preliminary design

D fi minimum

Define

i i

beam

b

sections

ti

deflection

d

fl ti & resistance

i t

criteria

it i

under gravity loading

Iterations until all design criteria fulfilled

- column sections checking Weak Beam Strong Column

- seismic mass m = (G + Ei Q)

- p

period T

by

y code formula

- resultant base shear Fb => storey forces

- static analysis

one plane frame

lateral

lateral loads

loads magnified by torsion factor =>

>E

- static analysis

gravity loading (G + 2i Q)

- stability check

P- effects

parameter

in seismic loading situation: gravity loading= G + 2i Q

- displacement checks under service earthquake = 0,5 x design EQ

- combination action effects E + G + 2i Q

- design

d i

checks:

h k resistance

i t

off sections

ti

i t bilit off elements

instability

l

t

- Design of connections

- Design with RBS Reduced Beam Sections

13

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

14

Seismic zone agR= 2,0

2 0 m/s2

Importance of the building; office building, I=1,0

=> ag= 2,0 m/s2

Service load Q = 3 kN/m2

D i

Design

spectrum;

t

ttype 1

Soil B => from code: S = 1,2 TB = 0,15s

TC = 0,5s

TD = 2s

Behaviour factor: q = 4

Beams

Assumed fixed at both ends. Span

p l = 8m

Deflection limit:

f = l /300 under G+Q

f = pl4 / 384EI= l/300

min beam sections:

- direction x : IPE400 Wpl = 1307.103 mm3

- direction y : IPE360 Wpl = 1019.103 mm3

=> iterations

I =23130.104 mm4

I =16270. 104 mm4

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

After iterations

Beams direction x: IPE 500

I= 48200.104 mm4

di

direction

i y: IPEA 450 I=

I 29760.10

29760 104 mm4

15

W l 1494.10

Wpl=

1494 103 mm3

Columns: HE340M:

Wpl,strong axis

I weak axis = Iz = 19710.104 mm4

= 4718.103 mm3 Wpl,weakaxis = 1953.103 mm3

M

All S355 => criteria

it i is:

i W

Rc

1,3 M Rb

pl, columns

1,3Wpl, beams

m = G+ Ei Q = 3060.103 kg

2i = 0,3 =0,5

Ei =0,15

, % seismic mass

Note: steel frame = 7,5

could be taken constant in iterations

G+ Ei Q floors = 70% seismic mass

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

16

Estimated fundamental period T of the structure:

T = Ct H3/4 Ct= 0,085

H= 6x 2,9 m = 17,4 m

=> T = 0,085 x 17,43/4 = 0,72 s

Design pseudo acceleration Sd (T): TC < T < TD

Sd (T)= (2,5 ag x S x TC )/ (q x T) = (2,5x2 x1,2x 0,5)/(4x0,72) = 1,04 m/s2

Seismic design shear FbR

FbR = m Sd (T) = 3060.103 x 1,04 x 0,85 = 2705.103 N = 2705 kN

6 same frames

floor diaphragm effective

seismic design shear FbX in one frame:

FbX = FbR /6 = 451 kN

Torsion by amplifying FbX by = 1 + 0,6x/L= 1 + 0,6 x 0,5 = 1,3

FbX including torsion:

FbX = 586 kN

Storey forces Triangular Distribution in kN

F1= 27,9 F2= 55,8

F3= 83,7 F4= 111,6

F5= 139,5

F6= 167,5

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

Diagram

Of

B di

Bending

Moments

Under E

17

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

Units: kNm

18

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

19

Resistance condition Rd Ed

Rd design

d i

resistance

i t

Ed design value of action effect in seismic design situation:

Ed = Gk,jj + P + 2i.Qki + 1 AEd

In MRF: Check plastic hinges at beam ends Mpl,Rd MEd

Limitation of 2nd order effects

If necessary, 2nd order effects are taken into account in the value of Ed

2nd order moments Ptot dr 1st order moments Vtot h at every storey

Vtot total seismic shear at considered storey

H storey height

d r = q.d re

Ptot total G at and above the storey

P tot

dr drift based on ds = q de

V tot

N

N

Rules

0,1 => P- effects negligible

V

h

V

0,1<

0 1< 0,2

02

=> multiply action effects by 1/(1-)

Always: 0,3

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

20

Damage limitation

Non-structural elements of brittle materials attached to the structure:

d r 0,005 h

Ductile non-structural elements: d r 0,0075 h

g with structural deformations

(or no non-structural elements): d r 0,010 h

dr design interstorey drift

h

storey height;

associated with the damage limitation requirement.

Recommended :

= 0,4 for importance classes III and IV

= 0,5 for importance classes I and II

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

21

Lateral force method

Absolute

displace

Stor ment of

the

ey

storey

sto

ey :

= Es + G + Ei .Q

Design

Storey

i t

interstore

t

l t

lateral

l

y drift

forces

Shear

at storey

Ei :

G + Ei .Q = 35,42

kN/m

Total

cumulative Storey

gravity

height

load

at Ei :

storey

sto

ey Ei :

hi [m]

Ptot [kN]

Interstorey

d ift sensitivity

drift

iti it

coefficient

(di -di-1):

Ei :

di [m]

dr[m]

Vi [kN]

E0

d0

dr0

E1

d1

27,9

0,100

E2

d2

55,8

0,141

E3

d3

83,7

0,122

E4

d4

0,093

E5

d5

0,062

E6

d6

0,037

Vtot [kN]

h6 2,9

(Ei -Ei-1) :

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

2 = 0,141

0 141

3 = 0,122

=> increase M, V, N, dr in elements at storey 2 and 3

=> make

k resistance

i t

&d

deformation

f

ti

checks

h k with

ith increased

i

d values

l

Checks under service earthquake

Interstorey drifts Ds max: Ds = 0,5 x 0,054 x 1/ (1- ) = 0,031m

Limit: 0,10 h = 0,1 x 2,9 m = 0,029m 0,31 m

22

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

Dynamic analysis

23

Torsion effects by = 1,3

=>ag for the analysis:

y

ag = 2 x 1,3

, = 2,6

, m/s2

Output:

T1 = 1,17 s > 0,72s

FbX = 586 kN

FbX = 396 kN

dynamic response

does

d

nott differ

diff much

h

Interstorey drift reduced Ds max:

Ds = 0,5 x 0,035 x 1/ (1- 0,137) = 0,020m

Limit: 0,10 h = 0,1 x 2,9 m = 0,029m > 0,02 m

=> OK

one frame

one frame

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

Diagram

Of

Bending

Moments

Under E

24

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

25

Modal superposition

= Es + G + Ei .Q

G + Ei .Q = 35,42

Total

cumulative Storey

gravity

it

h i ht

height

Ei :

load at

storey Ei :

hi [[m]]

Ptot [kN]

kN/m

Design

Storey

interstore lateral

y drift

forces

att

(di -di-1):

Ei :

storey Ei :

di [m]

dr[m]

Vi [kN]

Vtot [kN]

E0

d0

dr0

E1

d1

0,022

,

dr1 0,022

,

V1

26,6

, Vtot 1

396,2

, Ptot 1 5100 h1

2,9

,

0,099

,

E2

d2

V2

42,9 Vtot 2

2,9

0,137

E3

d3

V3

50,0 Vtot 3

2,9

0,118

E4

d4

V4

61,1 Vtot 4

2,9

0,086

E5

d5

V5

85,0 Vtot 5

2,9

0,054

E6

d6

V6

130,

Vtot 6

6

2,9

0,027

Absolute

displacem

Storey ent of the

storey :

Shear

h6

Interstorey

drift

sensitivity

coefficient

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

Elements checks

Action effects to consider are:

26

M Ed M Ed,

Ed G 1,1 ov M Ed,

Ed E

VEd VEd,G 1,1 ov VEd,E

- Section overstrength = Mpl,Rd / MEd

- Material overstrength fy,real / fy,nominal = ov

Column buckling

Buckling length = 2,9 m = storey height

Nb,Rd = 9529 kN > 3732 kN at ground level

OK

Interaction M N

Eurocode 3 (EN1993-1-1 cl 6.2.9.1)

NEd = G + 2i Q

n = NEd / Npl,Rd = 0,184

0 184

a = (A-2btf)/A = (31580 2 x 309 x 40)/31580 = 0,22 > 0,17 (= n)

Mpl,y,Rd = fyd x Wpl,y,Rd=1674,89 kNm

MN,y,Rd = Mpl,y,Rd (1-n)/(1-0,5

(1 )/(1 0 5 a)) = 1540 kN

kNm

> MEd = 426 kN

kNm

As n < a => MN,z,Rd = Mpl,z,Rd = 693 kNm

> MEd = 114 kNm

=> resisting moments > design action effects MEd = M (E + G + 2i Q)

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

Other checks

Beam lateral torsional buckling

M att beam

b

column

l

connection

ti

= Mpl

Lateral supports

may be required

27

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

28

M Sd,sup

V wp,Ed

tf

M Pl,Rd,left

Pl Rd left

tf,left

f left

h

h

d left

dc

tf

M Pl,Rd,right

tf,right

V wp,Ed

In column web panel

M Sd,inf

Vwp,Ed = Mpl,Rd, left / (dleft 2tf,left) + Mpl,Rd, right / (dright 2tf,right) + VEd, column

Often: Vwp,Ed > Vwp,Rd

doubler plates

welded on web or placed // to web

welds plate shear resistance

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

29

Same local ductility requirement:

p = / 0,5L > 35 mrad

DCH

> 25 mrad

DCM (q > 2)

p : plastic rotation capacity

under cyclic loading up to p

strength degradation < 20%

stiffness degradation < 20%

Connection design condition

if dissipative zones are in beams => MRd,connection 1,1 ov Mpl,Rd,beam

if dissipative connections

=> capacity design refers to connection plastic resistance

Connections: EC8

avoid localisation of plastic strains

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

30

Design of

Example

Design a) Lya=10 mm y, max= 2,38

2 38 %

l = 0,0238.10 = 0, 238 mm

= 0,238/(400/2)=1,2mrad<<<25 mrad

Design b) Lyyb=400 mm y, max = 2,38 %

l = 9,52 mm

= 9,52/(400/2)= 47,6mrad>>35 mrad

Conclusions

Plastic zone length hsection

is required for effective hinge

Adequate y,max and fu / fy needed

greater beam depth

=> less rotation capacity

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

31

Detailing: not in EC8 in National Annexes, in AISC2000, AFPS2005,

However 1 common feature:

Connection Types and corresponding ductility classes

1 bad

woolf

C

Connection

ti Type

T

Maximum

D tilit Class

Ductility

Cl

allowed

ll

d

Europe

US

DCL *

OMF*

g Fig.

g 34

a shear tab welded to column flange.

Beam flanges welded, beam web welded to

DCH

a shear tab welded to column flange. Fig. 31

Beam flanges bolted, beam web bolted to a

DCH

shear

h tab

t b welded

ld d to

t column

l

flange.

fl

Fi 35

Fig.

Unstiffened end plate welded to beam and

DCH

bolted to column flange by 4 rows of bolts. Fig.36

Stiffened end pplate welded to beam and

DCH

bolted to column flange by 8 rows of bolts. Fig. 37

Reduced beam section. Beam flanges welded, beam web DCH

welded to shear tab welded to column flange. Fig.38

Reduced beam section.

section Unstiffened end plate welded to DCH

beam and bolted to column flange by 4 rows of bolts.

Same as Fig.36, but with reduced flange sections.

*May be considered for DCM (equivalent to IMF) in some countries

SMF

SMF

SMF

SMF

SMF

SMF

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

32

Northridge 1994

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

beam web bolted to

shear tab welded to

column flange

g

DCL

low ductility

33

shear tab welded to column flange.

DCM -DCH

DCH

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

beam and bolted to column flange

by 4 rows of bolts

DCM -DCH

34

beam and bolted to column

flange by 8 rows of bolts

DCM -DCH

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

35

Dogbone

D b

or RBS Reduced

R d

d beam

b

section.

ti

Beam flanges welded, beam web welded to

shear tab welded to column flange DCM -DCH

Design criteria

0,5b a 0,75b

0,65h

,

s 0,85h

,

b: flange width

h: beam depth

0,2b c 0,25b

be = b 2c

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

36

Grenoble.

R

Rossignol

i

l Ski Factory.

F t

2008

2008.

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

A remark

If beam flanges are welded to the column flanges

and beam web is welded to a shear tab welded to the column flange

the flange butt welds transmit Mpl,flanges

the web welds transmit Mpl,web

pl web + shear VEd

MRd,connection 1,1 ov Mpl,Rd,beam

Mpl,flanges = bf tf fy (d+ tf )

Mpl,web = tw d2 fy / 4

MRd,web,connection 1,1 ov Mpl,web = 1,1 ov tw d2 fy / 4

=>

> shear

h

tab

t b stronger

t

than

th the

th web

b

=> Top and bottom welds on shear tab required

in addition to web fillet welds for shear

37

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

38

35 50

130

IPE A 450

HE 340 M

16

70 60

70

40 40

4 M 36

82

82

IPE 500

82

6 M 20

16

82

70

60 1000

60

13,1

150

IPE 500

60 70

IPE A 450

100 60

HE 340 M

100

13,1

IPE A 450

60 60

Design of connection

IPE500 beamX IPEA450beamY - HE340M column

4 M 36

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

39

IPE 500

HE 340 M

16

70 60

82

82

70

4 M 36

82

6 M 20

16

82

70

60 100

0

100

row 2: hr = 50016-70= 414 mm

Resistance Ftr,Rd M36 tension:

Ftr,Rd=0,9f

, uAs/

M2=0,9x1000x817/1,25=588

,

,

kN

MRd,connect=(554+414)x2x588=1138 >1071kNm

60

13,1

=>

> 4 rows x 2 M36 10.9

10 9 bolts

b lt

IPE A 450

60 70

60 60

100 60

13,1

Capacity

p

y design

g

MRd,connection 1,1 ov Mpl,Rd,beam = 1,1 x 1,25 x 778,9 = 1071 kNm

4 M 36

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

40

Shear VRd,connection

=> 6 M20 10.9 bolts on sides of web

Bolts resistance: 6x122,5/1,25=588>448kN

Plate bearing resistance:

VRd,plate= (6 x 193 x 40)/(10 x 1,25)= 3705>448kN

IPE 500

HE 340 M

16

70 60

0

82

82

2

70

4 M 36

82

6 M 20

16

82

70

60

13,1

60 1

100

100

IPE A 450

60 70

60 60

0

10

00 60

13,1

Capacity design

VEd,E

, /8 = 194,7

, kN

Ed E = 2 Mpl,Rd,beam

pl Rd beam / l = 2 x 778,9

VEd,G = 0,5 x 8 x 45,2 = 180,8 kN [G+2iQ=45,2 kN/m]

VRd,connection 180,8 + 1,1 x 1,25 x 194,7 = 448 kN

4 M 36

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

41

Tension force Ftr,Rd

pp

by

y one flange

g to end plate:

p

tr Rd applied

Ftr,Rd = MRd / (500- 16) = 2213 kN

Virtual work 4 yield lines

4 Mpl,1,Rd x = Ftr,Rd x x m

M: distance bolt axis flange surface (70 mm)

Yielding in beam, not in plate:

4 Mpl,1,Rd x > Ftr,Rd x x m

Mpl,1,Rd = (leff x t2 x fy )/ 4

4 M0 IPE 500

leff = 300 mm M0 = 1,0

fy = 355 N/mm2

(4x300xt2

x355)/4 =

t = 38,1 mm min

t = 40 mm

2213.103

x 70

F tr,rd

IPE 500

HE 340 M

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

Bp,Rd > Ftr,Rd ?

Check identical for end plate and column flange:

same thickness 40 mm and fy =355 N/mm2

Ftr,Rd = 553 kN

Bp,Rd shear resistance punching out a cylinder

diameter dm head of the bolt =58 mm for M36 bolt

tp of plate = 40 mm

Bp,Rd =0,6 dm tp fu = 0,6x3,14x58x40x500 /1,25= 2185.103 N

= 2185 kN > 553 kN

Welds between end plates and beams

Butt welds

adequate preparation/execution (V grooves, welding from both side)

satisfy overstrength criterion => no calculation needed

42

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

43

35 50

150

Plastic hinges in beam sections adjacent to the column

Design shear Vwp,Ed in panel zone:

Vwp,Ed = Mpl,Rd, left / (dleft 2tf,left) + Mpl,Rd, right / (dright 2tf,right) + VSd, c

Neglecting

g

g VSd,c : Vwp,Ed = 2 x 1071. 103 /(377-2x40)

(

) = 7212 kN

Vwb,Rd = (0,9 fy Awc )/ (3 x M0) = (0,9x355x9893)/3

= 1824 kN << 7212 kN

Column web increased for shear resistance: IPE A 450

HE 340 M

72121824 = 5388 kN

Area = (5388.1033)/(355x0,9) = 29209 mm2

2 plates 297 mm length

Thickness: 29209/(2 x 297)

IPE 500

= 49,2 mm => 50 mm

130

40 40

IPE A 450

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

Fc,wc,Rd = kwc beff,c,wc twc fy,wc / M0

setting and kwc at 1,0

beff,c,wc = tfb + 5(tfc + s)= 16 + 5 (40 + 27) = 351 mm

i

ignoring

i the

th connecting

ti

plates

l t off beams

b

in

i the

th y direction

di

ti

Fc,wc,Rd = 351 x 21 x 355 = 2616. 103 N = 2616 kN > Ftr,Rd = 2213 kN

A more comprehensive check

include connecting plates of beams in the y direction

beff,c,wc

( fc + s)=

) 16 + 5 (40

( + 27+ 40 + 40)=

) 751 mm

eff c wc = tfb + 5(t

Check of column web panel in transverse tension

Fc,wc,Rd

twc fy,wc / M0

Rd = beff,c,wc

ff

identical to above, satisfied

44

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

Design governed by limitation of deflections:

- P-

design earthquake

- inter-storeyy drift

service earthquake

q

Beam sections possess a safety margin for resistance to design EQ

Mpl,Rd,beam = 778 kNm > MEd =591 kNm (worst case moment)

Reducing the beam sections locally by dogbones or RBS

- change the structure stiffness by few %

- provide a reduction in the design moments and shear applied to the

connections

Mpl,Rd,beam could be reduced by 778/591 = 1,32

Reduce

R d

connection

ti

design

d i

momentt MEd,connection = 1,1

1 1 ov Mpl,Rd,beam

reduce bolt diameters, end plate thickness...

At perimeter columns, reduction ratio Mpl,Rd,beam / MEd = 1,61

45

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

46

Frame flexibility and increased:

- by estimated 7% (canadian code)

- can be computed

Revised amplification factors 1/ (1- )

Storey

1

2

3

4

5

6

IInterstorey

t

t

d ift

drift

sensitivity coefficient

Without With RBS

RBS

0,099

0,105

0,137

0,147

0,118

0,126

0,086

0,092

0,054

0,057

0,027

,

0,028

,

amplification

lifi ti

factor 1/ (1- )

With RBS

1,11

1,17

1,14

1

1

1

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

47

a = 0,5 x b = 0,5 x 200 = 100 mm

s = 0,65 x d = 0,65 x 500 = 325 mm

Distance RBS to column face

a + s/2 = 162,5 + 100 = 262 mm

Bending moment

linear between beam end -1/3 span

1/3 span = 8000 / 3 = 2666 mm

=> Design bending moment in RBS

Md,RBS=596x(2666262)/2666=

596 (2666 262)/2666 537 kN

kNm

L'

L

RBS

RBS

M ppl,, Rd,RBS

,

V Ed,E

x

M pl,

pl Rd,RBS

Rd RBS

hc

V Ed,E

x'

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

c in the range 0,20b-0,25b

c=0,22b= 44 mm

IPE500 Wpl,y fy = 2194.10

2194 103 x 355 = 778.

778 106 Nmm

N

Flange moment: b tf fy (d - tf) = 16x200x355(50016) = 549. 106 Nmm

Web moment: tw fy (d - 2tf)2/4=10,2x355 (500 32)2 = 198. 106 Nmm

Due to root radii web-flange junctions:(778549198) = 31. 106 Nmm

be = b 2c = 200 - 88 = 120 mm

mm.

Flange moment: betffy(d-tf)=16x112x355(50016)= 308. 106 Nmm

RBS plastic moment: Mpl,Rd,RBS=(308+198+31)106= 537.106 Nmm

F fabrication

For

f b i ti purposes: radius

di R off th

the cutt

R = (4c2 + s2) / 8c = (4 x 322 + 3252)/(8 x 32) = 857 mm

48

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

49

VEd,E = 2 Mpl,Rd,,RBS / L

L= 8000377-(2x262,5)=7098mm

VEd,E = 2 x 537 / 7

7,098

098 = 151 kN

VEd,G in RBS due to gravity G+2iQ: VEd,G

=0,5x7,098x45,2 = 160,4 kN

Design shear in RBS:

VEd,E =VEd,G+1,1ovVEd,E

VEd,E =160,4+1,1x1,25x151= 368 kN

L'

L

RBS

RBS

M pl, Rd,RBS

V Ed,E

x

M pl, Rd,RBS

hc

V Ed,E

x'

MEd,connection=1,1ovMpl,Rd,,RBS+VEd,E x dist x

x=a+s/2=262, 5 mm

MEd,connection =1,1x1,25x537+368x0,2625 = 834 kNm

Due to RBS, MEd,connection reduced from 1071 kNm to 834 kNm = -28%

VRd,connection 448 kN without RBS

VRd,connection 368 kN with RBS

Reduction in design shear at connection = - 21%

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

50

Illustration of Design 2

Composite

p

Steel Concrete

Moment Resisting Frame

Hughes SOMJA

INSA Rennes

Herv DEGEE

University of Liege

Andr PLUMIER

University of Liege

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

51

Main

Beam

6m

6m

6m

Z

X

7m

7m

21 m

5 storey building

Height 17

17,5

5m

Slab thickness 120 mm

Seconda

ary

Beam

6m

24 m

3.5 m 3.5 m 3

3.5 m 3.5 m 3.5 m

17.5 m

Main

Beam

7m

7m

7m

21 m

7m

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

52

4 design cases

Seismicity

High

0,25g

Comp. steel

S355

High

0,25g

Comp. Comp.

S355

Low

0,10g

Comp. steel

S235

Low

0,10g

Comp. Comp.

S235

Permanent Actions

Slab: 5 kN/m2

Partitions: 3 kN/m

Variable Actions

Uniformly distributed loads: qk = 3 kN/m2

Concentrated loads: Qk = 4 kN

S

Snow

load

l d altitude

ltit d A = 1200 m q = 1

1.1

1 kN/m

kN/ 2

Wind Load : qp(Z) = 1.4 kN/m2

Seismic Action

I = 1,00 aggR =0,25g

0,10g

type 1 design spectrum soil B

DCM

q=4

Values of factors

0 0.7

1 0.5

2 0.3

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

53

Ei= 2i

2i = 0.3

03

=1

Clause 4.2.4 and table 4.2 of French NF

G = Gslab + Gwalls + Gsteel + Gconcrete

Seismic mass (t)

Q = Qimposed + Qsnow

Case1

Case2

Case3

Case4

1900

1963

1916

1994

Fb m * S d (T1 ) *

Fb 1963*0.535*0.85

Fb 892 kN

Torsion effect

1 0.6*

1.3

x

L

Fb 892

178.4 kN

5

5

FbX t * FbX

FbX t 232 kN

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

54

E5

E4

E3

E2

E1

Case

Seismic static

q

forces

1

equivalent

E1 (kN)

15.7

E2 (kN)

31.4

E3 (kN)

47.1

E4 (kN)

62.8

E5 (kN)

78.5

Case Case

2

3

15.5

7.7

30.9 15.4

46.4 23.1

61.9 30.8

77.3 38.5

Case

4

7.7

15.3

23.0

30.7

38.3

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

55

1.35G 1.5W 1.05S 0.75Q

1.35G 1.5Q 1.05W 0.75S

1.35G 1.5Q 1.05S 0.75W

1.35G 1.5W 1.05 S Q

1.35

.35G 1.5

.5 S Q 1.05

.05W

Seismic Design Situation

Gk + 2Qk +E

with

2=0.3

G : Dead load

Q : Imposed load

S : Snow load

W Wind

W:

Wi d load

l d

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

56

Action effects Internal stresses

Second-Order Effects

Global and Local Ductility Condition

2. Damage Limitation checks

3. Section and Stability Checks of

Composite Beams

Steel Columns

Composite Columns

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

57

4 design

T simpl Sd(T) T

Sd(T)

EC8(s) EC8 Exact Exact

S i i it

Seismicity

B

Beams

Columns

C

l

Steell

St

m/s

/ 2 (s)

( )

m/s

/ 2

High 0,25g Comp. steel

S355 0,727

1,26 1,64

0,56

Seismic

mass

t

1900

High

S355 0,727

1,26

1,72

0,56

1963

Low

S235 0,727

0,51

1,35

0,27

1916

Low

S235 0,727

0,51

1,41

0,27

1994

1.96 m / s

1.84 m / s

T1 C t * H

T1 0.727

0 727s

High seismicity

1.265 m / s

3

4

0.8 m/s 2

0.736 m / s

Low

T 2s

T 1.85 s

T 0.727 s

T 0.5 s

0.2 m / s

T 0.15 s

0.5 m / s

T S

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

58

Analysis

Beams: EC8 limited to steel profile + slab s,composite

like EC4

2 flexural stiffness:

EI1 for zones under M

M+ uncracked sections

EI2 for zones under Mcrackeds,steel

sections

s,composite

Ea /Ecm = 7

An equivalent Ieq constant over span may be used:

Ieq = 0,6

0 6 I1 + 0,4

0 4 I2

For composite columns:

(EI)c = 0,9( EIa + r Ecm Ic + E Is )

E : steel

t l Ecm : concrete

t

r a reduction factor r = 0,5.

Ia, Ic and Is : I of steel section, concrete and re-bars respectively

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

59

Effective Width

Static

Eurocode 4-1

assumed to be Zero in our example.

beii effective width of concrete flange on each side of the web

= Le / 8

not greater than width bi

beff b0 bei

beff

875 mm (at an end support)

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

60

Effective Width

Seismic

Eurocode 8-1

Effective width beff concrete

fl

flange:

be1 + be2

Partial effective widths be

in Tables, not b1 & b2

2 Tables. Determination of

Elastic stiffness: I

Plastic resistance Mpl

M inducing

compression in slab: +

tension

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

EC8 Table

Partial effective width be

off slab

l b

for computation of I

used in elastic analysis

61

be

be for I

(Elastic Analysis)

0 0375 l

At exterior column

Not present,

or re-bars not anchored

moment M

Negative M

EC8 Table

Partial effective width be

of slab

for evaluation of

plastic moment Mpl

Transverse element

Negative M

Negative M

P iti M

Positive

Positive M

Interior

column

Exterior

column

Exterior

column

IInterior

t i

column

Exterior

column

Positive M

Exterior

column

Positive M

Exterior

column

Seismic re-bars

For negative M : 0

For positive M : 0,025 l

be for MRd

(Plastic

resistance)

0,1 l

re-bars

bars anchored to faade 0,1

01l

beam or to concrete cantilever edge strip

All layouts with re-bars not anchored to 0,0

faade beam or to concrete cantilever edge

strip

S i i re-bars

Seismic

b

0 075 l

0,075

Steel transverse beam with connectors.

0,075 l

Concrete slab up to exterior face of column

of H section with strong axis oriented as in

Fi

Figure

63 or beyond

b

d (concrete

(

edge

d strip).

i )

Seismic re-bars

No steel transverse beam or steel transverse bb/2 +0,7 hc/2

beam without connectors.

Concrete slab up to exterior face of column

of H section with strong axis oriented as in

Figure 63, or beyond (edge strip).

Seismic re-bars

All other layouts. Seismic re-bars

bb/2 be,max

be,max =0,05l

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

beff (mm) at column

EC4

62

Mpl,Rd+

Not defined

Mpl,Rd875 mm

525 mm

700 mm

1050 mm

1400 mm

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

63

beff

12 mm

200 mm

20 mm

120 mm

20 mm

IPE330_Case 1 and 2

IPE360_Case 3 and 4

Composite

p

beams

Composite

p

columns

Steel columns

= condition 1 for local ductility in plastic hinges

Composite beams with IPE330 & IPE360

Steel columns with HEA360 & HEA450

Composite columns HEA320 & HEA400

=> class 2

=> class 1

=> class 1

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

64

c

b = bc

tf

tw

c

b = bc

h = hc

tw

h = hc

tf

Remark

Favourable influence of concrete encasement on local ductility.

Concrete:

- prevents inward local buckling of the steel walls

- reduces strength degradation

=> Limits c/t of wall slenderness of composite

p

sections

> those for pure steel sections

Increase up to 50% if:

confining hoops

fully encased sections

additional straight bars welded to inside of flanges

for partially encased sections

c

b = bc

tf

tw

c

b = bc

s s s s s s s

65

for different design details and behaviour factors q.

DCM

Ductility Class of Structure

2<q4

1,5 < q 2

Reference value of behaviour factor q

h = hc

tw

h = hc

tf

Reference: H or I Section in steel only

EN1993-1-1:2004 Table 5.2

FLANGE outstand limits c/tf

H or I Section, partially encased,

with connection of concrete to web

as in Figure 57 b) or by welded studs.

EN1994-1-1:2004 Table 5.2

FLANGE outstand limits c/tf

H or I Section, partially encased

+ straight links as in Figure 57 a) placed

with s/c 0,5

EN1998-1-1:2004

FLANGE outstand limits c/tf

H or I S

Section,

ti fully

f ll encasedd

+ hoops placed with s/c 0,5

EN1998-1-1:2004

WEB depth to thickness limit c w / t w

c w / t w = h 2t f

Reference: H or I Section,

Section in steel only,

only

web completely in compression

EN1993-1-1:2004 Table 5.2

WEB depth to thickness limit c w / t w

H or I Section, web completely in

p

, section partially

p

y encased

compression,

with connection of concrete to web or fully

encased with hoops.

EN1993-1-1:2004 Table 5.2,

EN1994-1-1, cl.5.5.3(3)

note: = (fy/235)

0.5

with fy in MPa

14

DCH

q>4

10

20

14

30

21

13,5

30

21

13,5

42

38

33

38

38

33

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

66

Steel yields: > y

Concrete remain elastic: < cu2

a condition on the position of the plastic neutral axis:

x / d < cu2/ (cu2+ a)

x distance from top concrete compression fibre to plastic neutral axis

d depth of composite section

a total strain in steel at ULS

s,composite

x

d

s,steel

s,composite

Ductility

q

fy (N/mm2)

x/d upper limit

class

355

0,27

1,5 < q 4

DCM

235

0,36

1,5 < q 4

q>4

355

0,20

DCH

q>4

235

0,27

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

67

beff

12 mm

s,composite

200 mm

20 mm

120 mm

20 mm

d

s,steel

IPE330_Case 1 and 2

IPE360_Case 3 and 4

s,composite

Case1

Case2

Case3

Case4

IPE330

IPE330

IPE360 IPE360

0.27

0.27

0.36

0.36

0.268

0.268

0.239

0.239

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

68

7m

7m

7m

21 m

Hi h seismicity

High

i i it

Blue: with steel column

Red: with composite column

IPE330

IPE330

IPE330

IPE330

IPE330

IPE330

7m

IPE330

IPE330

IPE330

IPE330

IPE330

IPE330

IPE330

IPE330

7m

IPE330

IPE330

IPE330

IPE330

IPE330

IPE330

IPE330

IPE330

IPE330

IPE330

7m

21 m

L

Low

seismicity

i i it

HEA360 HEA

A360 HEA360 HEA360 HEA3

360

HEA320 HEA320 HEA320 HEA320 HEA3

320

IPE330

IPE330

IPE330

IPE330

HEA360 HEA

A360 HEA360 HEA360 HEA3

360

HEA320

HEA320 HEA320 HEA3

320

IPE330

IPE330

HEA360 HEA

A360 HEA360 HEA360 HEA3

360

HEA320 HEA320 HEA320 HEA320 HEA3

320

3.5 m

3.5 m

3.5 m

3.5 m

3.5 m

17.5 m

HEA40

00

HEA400

HEA400

HEA360 HEA

A360 HEA360 HEA360 HEA3

360

HEA320 HEA320 HEA320 HEA320 HEA3

320

HEA

A400

IPE360

HEA400

IPE360

HEA45

50

IPE360

IPE360

HEA450

IPE360

IPE360

HEA450

HEA400

HEA450

HEA450

IPE360

HEA

A450

IPE360

IPE360

HEA450

IPE360

HEA400

IPE360

IPE360

HEA

A450

IPE360

IPE360

HEA450

HEA400

HEA400

HEA

A400

HEA450

IPE360

HEA400

IPE360

HEA400

IPE360

HEA450

IPE360

IPE360

HEA

A450

IPE360

IPE360

IPE360

HEA45

50

IPE360

HEA40

00

IPE360

HEA40

00

IPE360

HEA45

50

IPE360

HEA450

HEA45

50

HEA40

00

HEA400

HEA450

IPE360

IPE360

HEA400

HEA450

IPE360

IPE360

HEA

A400

HEA

A450

HEA450

HEA400

3.5 m

3.5

5m

3.5 m

17.5 m

3.5 m

3.5 m

Analysis

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

69

Nmax = 1980 kN

Mz,max = 319 kNm

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

EC8 check

Resistance of dissipative zones

Check: plastic hinges at beam ends

Mpl,Rd-

M Wplb * f y

70

Mpl,Rd+ MEd+

Mpl,Rd- MEd-

M

317 kN.m (IPE360)

Mpl,Rd

M Wplb * f y

495 kN.m (IPE330)

M

kN m (IPE360)

415 kN.m

in beams: MEd /Mpl,Rd

min

Static

Actions

(EC4)

Seismic

Actions

(EC8)

min =

Mpl,Rd / MEd

0.933

0.826

1,21

0.953

0.840

1,19

0.979

0.764

1,31

y composite

p

columns))

1.000

0.779

1,28

,

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

71

d r = q.d re

EC8 check

Second order effects

P tot

V tot

Ptot * d r

0.1

Vtot * h

N

h

N

V

Example

High seismicity steel columns

Storey N.

1

2

3

4

5

de [m]

0.007

0.019

0.030

0.038

0.044

[m]

0.007

0.012

0.011

0.008

0.006

V [kN]

15.70

31.40

47.10

62.79

78.49

Vtot [kN]

235.48

219.78

188.38

141.28

78.49

Ptot [kN]

3799.96

3046.62

2293.28

1539.94

786.60

0.032

0.048

0.038

0.025

0.017

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

72

EC8 check

Damage limitations in non

non-structural

structural elements

d r * v 0.010h

Storey

1

2

3

4

5

with dr q * d re

dr * (mm)

Case 1

Case 2

14

16

24

26

22

22

16

18

12

10

q=4

Case 3

4

8

8

6

4

Case 4

4

10

6

6

6

=0,5

0,010 h (mm)

35

35

35

35

35

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

73

Elements checks

Action effects to consider are:

They take into account:

- Section

S ti

overstrength

t

th = Mpl,Rd / MEd

- Material overstrength fy,real / fy,nominal = ov min i M pl ,Rd ,i / M Ed

i

393

1.212 (Case1)

324.20

337

1.311 (Case3)

257.00

CHECKS

Beam deflections

Wp L3

Wu L

L

max,i

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

74

k c C4

k s L2

M cr

GI at 2 Ea I afz

L

Real risk: M Ed

max

0.5

M b , Rd

Bracings required

Calculation indicate 1 m interdistance OK

Limitation of compression in beams

N Pll , Rdd Aa * f y

N Pl , Rd

f sk * As

0.85

0 85*

5767 kN (IPE330)

4708 kN (IPE360)

f ck * Ac

N Ed

max

149

142

127

121

N Ed

0.15

check:

N pl , Rd

. N Pl , Rd = 865 kN (Case2)

(C se )

kN < 0.15

kN < 0.15 N Pl , Rd = 706 kN (Case3)

kN < 0.15 N Pl , Rd = 706 kN (Case4)

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

75

VEd

max

234 kN

237 kN

231 kN

234 kN

0.5VPl ,a , Rd =315.5 kN (Case2)

0.5VPl ,a , Rd =238.5 kN (Case3)

0.5VPl ,a , Rd =238.5 kN (Case4)

p

and bending

g

in seismic design situation

M Ed M N , Rd

Example: High seismicity, steel columns

case 1

column 1

column 2

column 3

column 4

End

lower

upper

lower

upper

lower

upper

lower

upper

NEd,G

Ed G

kN

MEd,G

Ed G

kNm

NEd,E

Ed E

kN

MEd,E

Ed E

kNm

N*Ed

kN

M*Ed

kNm

MN,y,Rd

N y Rd

kNm

-814

-810

-1652

-1648

-1652

-1648

-814

-810

-41

79

1

-3

-1

3

41

-79

119

119

-9

-9

8

8

-118

-118

140

-39

158

-76

158

-76

138

-39

-616

-612

-1666

-1663

-1638

-1634

-1011

-1007

192

14

264

-130

262

-124

272

-143

751

751

574

574

578

579

684

685

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

76

Example: case 1

1, high seismicity,

seismicity steel columns

V Ed ,G

V Ed ,E

max

57.54 kN

1

1

*39.96=

*39.96

max

1

1 0.048

=1.05*39.96=41.80 kN

*

VEd

max

*

VEd

max

=127.47 kN

max

V Pl ,a ,Rd

A * f y

3

1003.48 kN (Case1)

892.490 kN (Case3)

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

77

Column buckling

y

z

z

Case 1 0.308 0.961 0.632 0.766

Case 3 0.202 1.000 0.524 0.873

y

Interaction factors kyy and kzz for uneven moments at column ends

k yy

N *Ed

C my 1 y 0,2

y N plRd

*

N Ed

Stability checks

y N plRd

*

N Ed

z N plRd

k yy

k zy

M *y , Edd

max

max

LT M plRd

M *y , Ed

LT M plRd

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

Spacing of reinforcing steel bars

Local

L

l buckling

b kli

=> section

ti class

l

Resistance of composite columns in bending

can consider concrete and rebars

Longitudinal shear to check at steel concrete interface

Resistance of composite sections in compression

can consider concrete and rebars

Shear resistance of composite sections

In dissipative zones: only the shear resistance of the steel profile

Second order effects in composite columns (static combination)

78

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

79

In the beam column connection zone of beams (=dissipative zones)

specific reinforcement of the slab: Seismic Re-bars (EC8 Annex C)

AT

AT

AT

AT

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

80

35 50

130

IPE A 450

HE 340 M

16

70 60

70

40 40

4 M 36

82

82

IPE 500

82

6 M 20

16

82

70

60 1000

60

13,1

150

IPE 500

60 70

IPE A 450

100 60

HE 340 M

100

13,1

IPE A 450

60 60

a full strength steel connection: can be that of steel MRF example

4 M 36

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

Another example

81

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

Ispra test

1999

82

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

83

IPE330 beam HEA360 column

tslab=120mm

120mm

Beff+= 1050mm

Beff+= 1400mm

Rebars: S500 T12@200 2 layers

Asl=14x113=1582 mm2 FRds=791 kN

Concrete: C30/37 Fcd =30/1,5=20

=30/1 5=20 MPa

FRdc=120x1050x20=2520 kN

FRds and FRdc are the slab force in tension and compression

They are transmitted to the column to transmit the beam

composite plastic moments Mpl+ & MplFacade beam-column connection

M-

1 stud/rebar 1 stud 19=81,6kN>56,5

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

M+

FRd2 = hcolumnxtslabx0,7f

x0 7fcd= 360x120x0,7x20=604

360x120x0 7x20=604 kN

FRd3 = nstudx FR,stud= 14x81,6 =1142 kN

Total: 2466kN 2520 kN= FRdc

Seismic rebars for FRd2 /2

AT=302000/500=604mm2 => 4T16

84

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

Check of upper flange in bending+shear

due to FRd3 /2 VE = 571 kN

ME = 571 x 0,55/2

,

= 108 kNm

MplRd = 16x3152x355/4=140 kNm

>108

VplRd = 16x315x205=1033kN

16 315 205 1033kN

> 571

Interaction M-N

=(2x571/1033- 1)2=0,01

=> MplRd unchanged OK

85

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

As M+ on 1 side & M- on other side,

slab force to transmit:

FRdc + FRds = 791+2950 = 3311 kN

791 kN more than in facade connection

Various possible design:

increase FRd1 = increase column bearing width bb

but FRd2 =604 kN is lost

With column HEA 360 flange: FRd1 = 720 kN

Width bb to provide FRd1 = 791+604= 1395 kN

bb=1395000/(120x20)=581mm

1395000/(120 20) 581

=> (581-300)/2 =140 mm extension both side (+ stiffeners)

86

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

87

increase FRd2

not possible

increase FRd3

=> more studs

For 791 kN => 791/81,6 =10 studs

5 each side

+ cover p

plate with increased MplRd&VplRd

design should consider beams present in 2 directions

some other constraints may bring part of the solution

Example:

- increased flange width is anyway

part of the design

for connection to column weak axis

- connecting plates bring

f

frontal

t l surface

f

within

ithi slab

l b thickness

thi k

allowing to reduce the number

of connectors

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

Seismic rebars

FRd2 and

d AT= 4T16 unchanged

h

d

placed on both sides (moment reversal)

88

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

89

of

Seismic Design

of

Composite Steel Concrete Structures

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

90

Structural Types

Moment resisting frames

Frames with concentric bracing

Frames with eccentric bracings

Specific

Composite wall structures Type 1 and 2

Mixed systems Type 3 = Concrete walls/columns.

Steel or composite beams

TYPE I

Steel or composite

moment frame with

concrete infill panels.

TYPE 2

Concrete walls

reinforced by encased

vertical steel sections

sections.

TYPE 3

coupled by steel or

composite beams.

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

1. Ductile composite elements/connections

2. Ductile steel sections, no input of concrete to resistance of

di i ti zones

dissipative

Option 2 ease analysis & execution

but requires effective disconnection of concrete from steel

in potential dissipative zones

=> correspondence between model and reality

Underestimating stiffness:

T => smaller action effects

Underestimating resistance: capacity designed may be incorrect

=>

> Risk of failure in the wrong places

91

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

92

Transfer of bending moment

and shear from beam to RC column

Not treated in EC4

le

Realised by

y couple

p of vertical reactions in concrete

Should be checked:

Capacity of column to bear locally those forces without crushing

=>

> confining (transverse) reinforcement + face

face bearing plates

plates

Capacity of column to resist locally tension mobilised by vertical

forces

=> vertical reinforcements with strength equal to shear in beam

confinement by transverse reinforcement design like RC

B

+ face bearing plates B

2/3

A steel beam

B face bearing plates

C reinforced concrete column

A

C

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

Uncertainties with composite components in EBFs:

capacity at large deformations (rotations up to 80 mrad)

disconnection

di

ti off the

th slab

l b

contribution of slab in bending at rotations up to 80 mrad

Design: dissipative behaviour through yielding in shear of the links

contribution of slab to shear resistance negligible

=> Links should be short or intermediate length

g

Links may not be encased steel sections

uncertainties about concrete contribution to shear resistance

Vertical steel links: OK

93

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

94

B

E

Composite frames

with eccentric bracings

g

A

C

A : seismic link

B : face bearing plate

C : concrete

D : additional longitudinal rebars

E : confining ties

T

B face bearing plates for links framing

into reinforced concrete columns

E transverse reinforcement

in critical regions of fully encased

composite columns adjacent to links

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

95

Composite Frame

with

Eccentric and Concentric Steel Bracings

Herv DEGEE

University of Liege

Andr PLUMIER

University of Liege

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

96

Dimensions

Symbol

Value

Storey height

Total height of the building

Beam length in X-direction EBF

Beam length in Y-direction CBF

Building width in X-direction

Building width in Y-direction

h

H

lX

lY

LX

LY

3.5 m

17 5 m

17.5

7m

6m

21 m

24 m

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

97

Details of values

al es

Dimensions

Characteristic yield strength of reinforcing steel

Partial safety factor for steel rebars

Design yield strength of reinforcement steel

Characteristic compressive strength of concrete

Partial safety factor for concrete

Design compressive strength of concrete

Secant modulus of elasticity of concrete for the

design under gravity loads combinations

Secant modulus of elasticity of concrete for the

design under seismic loads combination

Characteristic yield strength of steel profile

Partial factor for steel profile

Modulus of elasticity of steel profile

Symbol

fy

s

fyd

fc

c

fcd

Value

500

1 15

1.15

434.78

30

1.5

20

Ec

33000

N/mm

Ec,sc

16500

N/mm

fy

355

1

210000

N/mm

Ea

Units

N/mm

N/mm

N/mm

N/mm

N/mm

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

98

Earthquake action

Design

g ground

g

acceleration 0.25g

g

soil type B

type 1 response spectrum

DCM design with a behaviour factor q = 4

Type 1 response spectrum - soil type B

Dimensions

Symbol

Soil factor

S

Lower limit of period of constant spectral acceleration branch

TB

Upper limit of period of constant spectral acceleration branch

TC

Beginning of the constant displacement response range

TD

Value

1.2

0.15

0.5

2

Units

s

s

s

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

Loads

Permanent actions + self-weight of the slab

Variable actions

Snow

Wind

99

G = 5.858 kN/m

Q = 3kN/m

S = 1.11 kN/m

W = 1.4 kN/m

1. 1.35G + 1.5 W + 1.5 (0.7Q + 0.5S)

2. 1.35G + 1.5 Q + 1.5 (0.7W + 0.5S)

3. 1.35G + 1.5 Q + 1.5 (0.7S + 0.5W)

4

4.

1 35G + 1

1.35G

1.5

5 S + 1.5

1 5 (0.7Q

(0 7Q + 0.5W)

0 5W)

5. 1.35G + 1.5 S + 1.5 (0.7W + 0.5Q)

6. 1.35G + 1.5 W + 0.7*1.5 (Q + S)

7

7.

1 35G + 1.5

1.35G

1 5 (Q + S) + 0.7*1.5

0 7*1 5 (W)

Seismic combination: G + Q + 2i E

Seismic mass m = G kj Ei Q ki

2i= 0.3

= 0.8 E,i = 2,i = 0,24

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

Steps

General. Design of slab under gravity loads (no support of EBF)

I

D i

Design

off columns

l

under

d gravity

i loads

l d (no

(

support off EBF) I

Design of beams under gravity loads (no support of EBF) I

Not presented available in text I

Torsion effects

EBF

2nd order effects P-

Design

g of eccentric bracings

g under seismic combination of

loads including torsion and P-

Check of beams and of eccentric bracings under gravity loads

with EBF as support to the beam

Design of one link connection

CBF

Design of concentric bracings under seismic combination of

loads including torsion and PP

Check of beams and columns

Design of one diagonal connection

Ch k off di

Check

diaphragm

h

Check of secondary elements

100

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

101

Final design

Composite aspect

Composite beam steel profiles: IPE 270

C l

Columns

HE 260 B

HE 280 B

Concentric bracings: 2 UPE

Eccentric bracings:

HE

Seismic mass: 1744 tons

Fundamental p

periods TX = 0.83 s

TY = 1.45 s

Slab not connected to columns

columns=>

> no composite moment frame

=> Primary resisting system = bracings

Secondary: moment frames

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

Slab

102

Ch

Characteristics

t i ti off slabs

l b

X-direction

Unit

Applied

moment

Resistant

moment

MEd,slab,X,GC

[kNm/m]

MRd,slab,X

Rebars

for 1m of

slab

Steel

Section

As,X

Spacing

S

i

of rebars

[kNm/m]

[mm]

[mm/m]

[mm

/m]

[mm]

1187

100 50

1585

100 50

SPAN (lower

layer of rebars)

66

73

SUPPORT (upper

layer of rebars)

92

95

10 T10

+ 2 T16

10 T10

+ 4 T16

Y-direction

SPAN (lower

layer of rebars)

SUPPORT (upper

layer of rebars)

35

49

10 T10

785

100

41

49

10 T10

785

100

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

103

in X direction

vertical

short

hinged

g at connection to beam

short links

yield in shear

long links

yield in bending

intermediate links

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

104

Short links

Stiffer structure

Plastic deformation are in shear of the web:

- high ductility, no welds,

- lateral buckling minor problem

Long links

Plastic hinges in bending

flange buckling & lateral buckling

e

Examples of frames

with eccentric bracing

e = length of seismic link

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

105

0,5

If Nedd / Npl,Rd

0 15 =>

> V p ,link ,r V p ,link 1 ( N Ed / N pl , Rd ))

l Rd < 0,15

Homogeneity of links overstrength

i = 1,5 Vp,link,i / VEd,i

Section overstrength refers to shear

because the link is dissipative in shear

1,5: for high deformations => high strain hardening

max 1,25

1 25 min

Results of analysis + profiles selected for the links

Level

Link

section

NEd

kN

NEd/Npll

MEd Mpll

kNm kNm

MEd/Mpll

VEd

kN

Vpll

kN

=

1,5 Vpl/VEd

1

2

3

4

5

HE450B

HE450B

HE400B

HE340B

HE280B

75

75

72

72

70

0,010

0 010

0,010

0,011

0,011

0 015

0,015

285

296

247

195

123

0,25

0 25

0,25

0,26

0,27

0 27

0,27

950

987

824

651

405

1182

1182

1011

761

547

1,867

1 797

1,797

1,840

1,752

2 028

2,028

1141

1141

933

708

455

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

106

Capacity designed relative to the real strengths of the seismic links

NRd (MEd ,VEd ) NEd,G + 1,1 ov NEd,E

Ed Ed,G + 1,1

1 1 ov i Ed,E

Including torsion effect in NEd,E by factor = 1 + 0,6 x/L = 1,3

NRd (MEd ,VEd ) NEd,G

+ 1,1 ov NEd,E

,

,

Diagonals

Max axial loads

NEd,G = 47.4 kN

NEd,E = 495.2 kN

Resistance of diagonal to buckling (weak axis): 1963 kN

=>OK

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

107

Action effects

Plastic resistance

From analysis

VEd=950

950 kN

MEd=285 kNm

NEd=75 kN

Vpl,Rd

pl Rd = 1182 kN

Mpl,Rd = 1141 kNm

Npl,Rd = 7739 kN

Section

overstrength * **

1182/952 =1,24

1,24

MEd/Mpl,Rd = 0,25

NEd/Npl,Rd = 0,01

** Connection design made with = 1,24

Note: to revise!

Sh ld be

Should

b =1

1,5

5 x1,24

1 24 = 1

1,86

86

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

108

Link in elevation

Section BB

Plan view of link base plate

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

109

Link in elevation

Section AA

Elevation view of connection

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

110

VEd, connection= 1,1 ovVpl,Rd

= 1,1 x 1,25 x 1182 = 1625 kN

Bolts

6 M30 bolts, 2 shear planes:

VRd=2x6x280/1,25 = 2688 kN > 1625

HEB450 web Thickness tw=14 mm

Bearing resistance with e1 = 60 mm, e2 = 50 mm, p1 = p2 = 85 mm

VRd = 2028 kN > 1625 kN

Bearing resistance < bolt shear resistance

2688 kN > 1,2 x 2028 kN = 2433 kN

Gussets welded on IPE270 lower flange

2 plates

l t t=16

t 16 mm =1625.

1625 103 /(2 x 16 x 320)

320)=180

180 < 355/3

355/3=204

204 MP

MPa

Total thickness provided = 32 mm > tw,HEB450 =14 mm => all checks

IPE270 web stiffeners

tw=6,6 mm is not enough => 2 plates t=6mm welded on IPE270 flanges

Provide total thickness 6,6 +6+6=18,6mm > tw, HEB450=14 mm => all checks

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

Bolted connection of HEB450 link end plate to welded built up triangle

VEd, connection= 1,1 ovVpl,Rd

= 1,1 x 1,25 x 1182 = 1625 kN

MEd,

, ov MEd

Ed connection= 1,1

= 1,1 x 1,25 x 1,24 x 285 = 485 kNm

MEd, connection taken by bolts

with lever arm 450 + 100 = 550 mm

Fbolts,total =485/0,55

=485/0 55 = 881 kN

=> 2 M30 in tension, each side:

2 x 504,9 /1,25 = 808 kNm

OK for

f

881 kNm

kN taking

t ki into

i t accountt excess off resistance

i t

off web

b bolts

b lt

VEd, connection taken by M30 bolts, single shear plane

8 M30 bolts provide shear resistance 8x280,5/1,25 =1795 kN > 1625 kN

Bearing resistance: 8 x 289,8 x 1,4 = 3245 kN > 1625 kN

111

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

As above:

VEd, connection= 1625 kN

MEd, connection= 485 kN

VEd, connection taken by the web.

Weld length = 2 x 400 = 800 mm

a=8mm fillet weld provides a resistance:

(8 x 261,7)/1,25=1674 kN > 1625 kN

MEd, connection= 485 kN taken by the flanges.

Weld length = 2 x 300 = 600 mm/flange

Tension force in flange = 485/ (2 x 0,2m)=1214 kN => 202 kN/100 mm

An a=8 mm fillet weld provides a resistance:

6 x261

x261,7

7 /1

/1,25=

25= 1256 kN > 1214 kN

112

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

NEd, 1 diagonal = NEd, gravity +1,1

+1 1 ovNEd,E 1612 kN

Npl,Rd 10600x355= 3763 kN

NEd/ Npl,Rd = 0,43

MEd, 1 diagonal = 0,5

0 5 x li

link

k momentt d

due tto equilibrium

ilib i

off node

d

=> MEd, 1 diagonal = 285/2 = 143 kNm

Mppl,Rd

= 1053. 103 x 355 = 373 kN

,

MEd/ Mpl,Rd = 0,38

Stresses in tension & bending

relatively

y high

g

connection with

full penetration butt welds

113

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

114

Global plastic mechanism with diagonals or their connection as

dissipative zones.

No buckling or yielding of beams and columns.

a) Global plastic mechanism

the design objective for frames

with X bracings.

b) Storey mechanism

prevented by the resistance

homogenisation condition

for the diagonals.

c)Buckling of columns

Prevented by capacity design

a)

b)

c)

Diagonals should have

similar force

force-displacement

displacement characteristics in both directions

Symetry of bracings at each level:

A+ et A- , area of projections of sections comply with

A A

A A

0, 05

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

115

Elastic range:

compression and tension diagonals contribute equally

to stiffness and resistance

1st buckling:

degradation

g

in behaviour of compression diagonal

Behaviour evolution with cycles

EC8: 2 different design approach

X bracings:

tension diagonals only

V or bracings:

b

i

compression

i

and

d tension

t

i

diagonals

di

l

New solutions to avoid problems with analysis

dissipative connections with Rfy < Rbuckling,diagonals

special design of diagonals (Buckling Restrained Bracings -BRB)

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

116

Gravity loading

Seismic action

No diagonal

Beams and columns + tension diagonals in the model

F2

F1

Design of diagonals

N Ed,G3

Ed G3

Npl,Rd NEd,E

1,3 < 2,0

i = NRd/N

/ ed max 1,25 min

N Ed,E2

N Ed,E1

Ed E1

N Ed,E3

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

117

Why?

Design does not include the compression diagonals. Reality does.

Max initial resistance of X brace Vini up to 1st buckling of diagonals

should be: Vini Vpl,Rd

Vpl,Rd from analysis with tension diagonal only

If NRd,buckling > 0,5 Npl,Rd => Vini Vpl,Rd

=> possible failure of beams and columns capacity designed to Vpl,Rd

Condition 1

1,3

3

correspond to = 0,47

0 47 at most

avoid too high action effects in beams/columns

during 1st buckling of diagonals

C diti

Condition

20

t avoid

to

id shocks

h k att retensionning

t

i

i

2,0

If diagonals decoupled

1 condition only 2,0

Vini > Vpl,Rd cannot be

1,3 not necessary

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

118

Allowed, but require model for diagonals + non linear analysis

static (pushover) or dynamic

C

Considering

id i

pre and

d postt buckling

b kli

resistances

i t

off diagonals

di

l

under cyclic elasto-plastic action effects

1 diagonal in plastic tension

1 diagonal in compression with post buckling strength

Is done with V bracings

F1

N pl,Rd

0,3 N pl,Rd

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

Concentric bracings

Storey

1st (ground level)

2nd

3rd

4th

5th

119

Y direction

Steel

profile

UPE 160

UPE 160

UPE 180

UPE 160

UPE 120

Results of analysis

NEd,CBi NRd,CB1

A

mm2

2170

2170

2510

2170

1540

kN

492

531

657

531

373

kN

770

770

891

770

546

i

NRd/NEd

1,56

1,45

1,35

1,45

1 46

1,46

1,80

1,80

1,70

1,80

2 15

2,15

0,17

0,17

0,15

0,14

0 11

0,11

exceptt att storey

t

5

allowance for 2 upper storeys

max = 1,56 1,25 min=1,25x1,35= 1,69

>0,1 => amplification of NEd by 1/(1-)

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

Beams and columns:

Capacity design

Y,min = 1,35 = min section overstrength factor of concentric bracings

ov=1,25

Check for columns

NRd buckling resistance strong&weak axis Ned,G

Ned,E

, +1,1ov Y,min

,

,

Check for beams

NRd resistance under combined M,N,V

, , Ned,G

, ov Y,min

ed G +1,1

Y min Ned,E

ed E

120

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

At level 1 NEd,BC1= 492 kN

Element design=> UPE160: Npl,Rd=A x fy,d= 2170 x 355 = 770kN

Connection capacity designed to Npl,Rd UPE160:

NRd,connect

Rd connect 1,1 ov Npl,Rd

pl Rd = 1,1 x 1,25 x 770 = 1058 kN

Components of the connection

- gusset welded to beam+end plate

- end plate bolted to column

- connection p

plate welded on U web

substituting area of U flanges

for connection purpose

- bolts M30 grade 10.9

- holes in web+plate & gusset

121

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

122

FV,Rd= 6 x 280,5 / 1,25 = 1344 kN > 1058 kN

additional plate tt= 4 mm => total = 9,5 mm

Bearing resistance: Fb,Rd = k1bfudt/M2

Here: b1 or b= d as fub (1000) >fu (510 for S355)

Values of parameters: e1 =70 mm

e2=65 mm

p2 = 50mm

d=70/(3 x 33)=0,71 end bolt

d=70/(3 x 33)-0,25=0,71-0,25=0,45 inner bolt

k1=(2,8

=(2 8 x 65)/33 1,7=3,8

1 7=3 8 => 2,5

2 5 edge bolt

k1: no inner bolts

Bearing resistance:

4x2,5x0,71x30x 51x 9,5/1,25 + 2x2,5 0,45x510x30x9,5

= 1087 kN > 1058 kN

1344 kN >1,2 x 1087 =1304kN

bearing resist < bolt shear resistance

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

weld throat cannot be more than tplate x 2/2=4 x 0,707=3mm

,

Resistance of a 3 mm weld: (98,1kN:1,25)/100mm=78,5kN/100mm

Force to transmit: proportional to plate thickness:

(4 x1058) /(4

/(4+5,5)=445

5,5) 445 kN

=> resistance = 13 x 78,5 = 1020 kN > 445 kN

Gusset: 10 mm thick plate (as UPE web + 4 mm plate = 9,5 mm)

Welds: length= 2 x (7 x 70 + 160 x 0,707) = 1206 mm x 2 (2 sides)

= 2412 mm = 24 x 100 mm

With a = 4mm fillet welds:(24 x 130,9)/1,25= 2513 kN > 1058 kN

123

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

Concentric Bracings

124

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

Dissipative connections

125

Interest

designed to have connection resistance < diagonal buckling strength

=> Analytical

A l ti l difficulties

diffi lti avoided

id d

all members in the model for simple analysis.

all the results of the analysis may be used directly

no distinct rules for X, V or decoupled braces

additional stiffness in comparison to tension diagonal only model

compensates

p

for the additional flexibility

y of semi-rigid

g connections

Can be standardised components with calibrated strength,

obviating problems of diagonal overstrength in the design of beams

and columns =>

>ov = 1,0

After an earthquake, easy replacement of deformed components of

connections

Higher q

=6

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

126

Dissipative connections

in frames with concentric bracings

Design condition:

Deformation capacity of connections allows global deformation of the

structure

Di i ti diagonals:

Dissipative

di

l

l

low

in

i all

ll length

l

th l provide

id hi

high

h dl = x l

Dissipative connections:

dl to be realised in the connection

dl = dr / cos

cos = l / (l + h)1/2

dr interstorey drift dr = q x dre

Example

dr / h = 3,5%

,

; l=6m ; h=3m

cos = 0,894 ; dr = 0,105 ; dl = 117 mm

Dissipative diagonals: = 1,7%

Dissipative connections:

required deformation capacity: 117 /2 = 58,5 mm

=> Special design 2001 ULg

ULg, INERD Project

Project, 2 design:

pin connection

U connection

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

Frames

with concentric bracings

and dissipative connections

INERD connections

127

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

128

and dissipative connections for the diagonals

Resistance Rpl,Rd of the dissipative connections: Rpl,Rd NEd

Resistance

R i t

Nb,Rd off th

the diagonals

di

l

capacity design to the dissipative connections resistance:

Nb,Rd

> Rppl,Rd

NEd

,

,

Homogenisation of the dissipative connections overstrengths over

the height of the building: i = Rpl,Rd,i / NEd,i

max 1,25

, min

= min

With a controlled production of standard connections, Rpl,Rd is known

ov = 1.0

Resistance in tension Npl,Rd

l Rd or in compression Nb,Rd

b Rd of the non

dissipative elements (beams and columns):

Npl,Rd or N b,Rd ( M Ed ) N Ed,G 1,1 ov .N Ed,E

No specific requirements for frames with X

X, V or bracing

bracing.

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

Principle

p

active section of diagonal placed in a tube which prevents buckling

mortal fill to link tube and active section

tube not submitted to action effects else than buckling prevention

129

Dissemination of information for training Lisbon 10-11 February 2011

130

The end

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