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Earthquake Protective Design

Philosophical Issues
High probability

of Failure
Failure
redefined to
permit behavior
(yielding) that
would be
considered
failure under
other loads.
High Uncertainty
Importance of
Details

In dealing with earthquakes we must


contend with appreciable probabilities
that failure will occur in the near
future. Otherwise, all the wealth of
the world would prove insufficient
We must also face uncertainty on a
large scale In a way, earthquake
engineering is a cartoon
Earthquakes systematically bring out
the mistakes made in design and
construction, even the minutest
mistakes. Newmark & Rosenblueth
ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's
Guide to ASCE 7-05

Performance Levels Hazard Levels


Incipient Collapse
Life Safety

Occasional
50% in 50 years
Rare

Immediate

Reoccupancy
Fully Operational

10% in 50 years

Very Rare
5% in 50 years
Max Considered

2% in 50 years

ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's


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Design Objective Defined


A specific performance level given a specific

earthquake hazard level


Stated basis of current codes:
Life safety (+some damage control) at 10% in
50 year event (nominally)

ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's


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Purpose of the Provisions


FEMA 302 Section 1.1
The design earthquake ground motion levels specified herein
could result in both structural and nonstructural damage.
For most structures designed and constructed according to
these Provisions, structural damage from the design earthquake
ground motion would be repairable although perhaps not
economically so. For essential facilities, it is expected that the
damage from the design earthquake ground motion would not
be so severe as to preclude continued occupancy and function
of the facility.
For ground motions larger than the design levels, the intent of
these Provisions is that there be a low likelihood of
structural collapse.
ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's
Guide to ASCE 7-05

Compare Wind and Seismic Design of Simple Building

Building Properties:
Moment Resisting Frames
density r = 8 pcf
Period T = 1.0 sec
Damping x = 5%

62.5
90
120
Wind:
100 MPH Exposure C

Earthquake:
Assume 0.4g NEHRP

4.3
ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's
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Wind:
100 mph Fastest mile
Exposure C

62.5

Velocity pressure qs = 25.6 psf


Gust/Exposure factor Ce = 1.25
Pressure coefficient Cq = 1.3
Load Factor for Wind = 1.3

90
120

Total wind force on 120 face:


VW120= 62.5*120*25.6*1.25*1.3*1.3/1000 = 406 kips
Total wind force on 90 face:
VW90 = 62.5*90*25.6*1.25*1.3*1.3/1000 = 304 kips
4.4
ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's
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Earthquake:
Building Weight W=
120*90*62.5*8/1000 = 5400 kips

62.5

VEQ CSW
CS

90
120

12
. AV S 12
. 0.4 10
.

0.480
2/3
2/3
T
10
.

Total ELASTIC earthquake force (in each direction):


VEQ = 0.480*5400 = 2592 kips
This example uses an old version of both the NEHRP and the ASCE 7
Wind Load Criteria. It is used for illustrative purposes only.
ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's
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Comparison: Earthquake vs. Wind


VEQ
VW120

2952

7.3
406

VEQ
VW 90

2952

9.7
304

ELASTIC Earthquake forces are 7 to 10 times wind!


Virtually impossible to obtain economical design
4.6
ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's
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How to Deal with Huge Earthquake Force?

Isolate structure from ground (Base Isolation)


Increase Damping (Passive Energy Dissipation)
Allow Inelastic Response
Historically, Building Codes use Inelastic Response Procedure.
Inelastic response occurs though structural damage (yielding).
We must control the damage for the method to be successful.

4.7
ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's
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Interim Conclusion (The Good News)


The frame, designed for a wind force which is 15% of the
ELASTIC earthquake force, can survive the earthquake if:
It has the capability to undergo numerous cycles of
INELASIC deformation
It has the capability to deform at least 5 to 6 times
the yield deformation
It suffers no appreciable loss of strength

REQUIRES ADEQUATE DETAILING


4.12

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Interim Conclusion (The Bad News)


As a result of the large displacements associated with the
inelastic deformations, the structure will suffer considerable
structural and nonstructural damage.

This damage must be controlled by


adequate detailing and by limiting
structural deformations (drift)

4.13
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Elastic vs. Inelastic Response

The red line shows


the force and
displacement that
would be reached if
the structure
responded elastically.
The green line shows
the actual force vs.
displacement
response of the
structure
The pink line indicates
the minimum strength
required to hold
everything together
during inelastic
behavior
The blue line is the
force level that we
design for.
We rely on the
ductility of the system
to prevent collapse.
From 1997 NEHRP Provisions
ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's
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Historical Development of Seismic Codes


1755 - Lisbon: ground shaking waves
1906 - San Francisco: Fire, lateral force from wind
1911 - Messina, Italy: Static inertial force (10%), First

recognition of F=ma
1923 - Tokyo: Prediction by seismic gap
1925 - Santa Barbara: USCGS instructed to develop
strong motion seismographs.
1927 - U.B.C.: Inertial forces and soil effects in the
U.S. (7.5% or 10% of D+L)
1933 - Long Beach: First instrumental records
(flawed): reinforcement required for masonry; quality
assurance; design review & construction inspection.
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Historical Development of Seismic Codes


1940 - El Centro: Earthquake ground motion record. Makes possible

the computation of structural response. Became the most used record.


1943 - City of Los Angles Building Code: Dynamic property of building
used in addition to mass (Number of stories relates to period and to
distribution of force)
1952 - San Francisco Joint Committee:
Modal analysis used as a basis for static forces and distribution.
Difference between design force and computed forces not resolved.
Distinction for soils types dropped
Overturning reductions
Torsion
1956 - World Conference on Earthquake Engineering
1957 - Mexico City: Success with design using dynamic analysis.
ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's
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Historical Development of Seismic Codes


1960 - SEAOC blue book

Design accel. Similar to 1943 LA and 1952 SF


Factor for performance of structural systems (K)
Effect of higher modes on vertical distribution
1961 - Design of Multi-Story Reinforced Concrete Buildings for
Earthquake Motions, Blume, Newmark, and Corning
Inelastic response
Ductility in concrete
1964 Alaska Earthquake: Lack of instrumental data.
Observations influenced thinking on torsional response,
anchorage of cladding, and overall load path concepts.
1964 - Niigata, Japan: Liquefaction
1967 - Caracas Earthquake: Non structural infill and overturning.

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Historical Development of Seismic Codes


1974 Applied Technology Council Report ATC 2

Continued to use single design spectrum for buildings


1976 ATC 3
Probabilistic ground accelerations
Realistic response accelerations and explicit factors for inelastic action
Strength design
Ground motion attenuation
Nationwide applicability
Existing buildings
1977 National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act: Federal support
and direction
1979 Building Seismic Safety Council: response to ATC 3 - extensive
review and trial designs
1985 - BSSC/NEHRP Recommended provisions: Son of ATC 3

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Historical Development of Seismic Codes


1985 - Mexico City Earthquake: Extreme site effects
1988 - New SEAOC (1987) and UBC requirements:

Allowable stress design and a single map.


1988 Armenia Earthquake: Structural details and site
effects
1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake: A performance test
for buildings & bridges.
1991 NEHRP Provisions into Model Codes

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Building Seismic Safety Council


http://www.bssconline.org/

Members are

Private
Voluntary

National Forum
Issues:
Technical
Social
Economical

organizations
(ASCE, ACI, AISC,
AIA, ICBO, BOCA,
EERI, SEAOC,
etc)
Consensus Process

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ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions

ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's


Guide to ASCE 7-05

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Seismic Ground Motion Values


See ASCE 7-05 11.4

Mapped Acceleration Parameters


Ss = Mapped 5% damped, spectral response
acceleration parameter at short periods
S1 = Mapped 5% damped spectral response
acceleration parameter at a period of 1 sec.
Can be found online at
http://earthquake.usgs.gov/research/hazmaps/
You need Java to run the downloadable
application.
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SS
See ASCE 7-05 22
Use Map to find the

maximum
considered ground
motion for short
periods.
The contours are
irregularly spaced
Values are in % of g

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S1
See ASCE 7-05 22
Use Map to find the

maximum
considered ground
motion for short
periods.
The contours are
irregularly spaced
Values are in % of g

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Site Classes
See ASCE 7-05 11.4.2, 20
Site Classes are also labeled A-F

A is for hard rock, F for very soft soils


See definitions in ASCE 7-05 20
Choice of site class is based on soil stiffness which is measured in
different ways for different types of soil.
See ASCE 7-05 20 for procedure
If insufficient data is available, assume Site Class D unless there is a
probability of a Site Class F.

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Compute SMS and SM1


See ASCE 7-05 11.4.3

SMS = FaSS
Fa from Table
11.4-1
SM1= FvS1
Fv from Table
11.4-2

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Spectral Response Accelerations


SDS and SD1
See ASCE 7-05 11.4.4

SDS = 2*SMS/3

SD1 = 2*SM1/3

SDS is the design, 5% damped, spectral

response acceleration for short periods.


SD1 is the design, 5% damped, spectral
response acceleration at a period of 1 sec.
SDS and SD1 are used in selecting the Seismic
Design Category and in the analysis
methods.
ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's
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Design Response Spectrum


See ASCE 7-05 11.4.5

Period Limiting Values


T 0 = .2 SD1/SDS
T S = SD1/SDS
T L from ASCE 7-05 22
Sa, design spectral

response acceleration

Sa is a function of
structure period, T
Four regions, four
equations.
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Importance Factor, I
See ASCE 7-05 11.5

See ASCE 7-05 Table 11.5-1

Function of Occupancy Category

Requirement for structures adjacent to

occupancy category IV structures where


access is needed to get to the category IV
structure.

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Seismic Design Categories


See ASCE 7-05 11.6

To be determined for every structure


function of:
Occupancy Category
Spectral Response Accelerations SDS and SD1.
Used to determine analysis options, detailed

requirements, height limitations, and other


limits on usage.
Seismic Design Categories labeled A-F
ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's
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Seismic Design Categories


The most restrictive

value controls
SDC E:
OC I, II, III where
S1 > 0.75
SDC F:
OC IV where S1
> 0.75

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Seismic Design Category A


See ASCE 7-05 11.7

Very limited seismic exposure and risk

Lateral forces taken to equal 1% of structure

weight.
A complete load path must be in place.

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Soil Report Requirements


See ASCE 7-05 11.8

Limits on where you can place a structure

(SDC E or F)
SDC C F:

specific evaluation of listed hazards.

SDC D-F:
Even more evaluation requirements.

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Seismic Load Analysis Procedures


See ASCE 7-05 12.6

Equivalent Lateral Force (ELF)


Static approximation.
May not be used on structures of Seismic Design
Categories E or F with particular irregularities. (ASCE
7-05 Table 12.6-1)
Modal Analysis
2D and 3D dynamic analysis
Required for buildings with particular irregularities
Site Specific Response Spectrum
Permitted for all structures
ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's
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Analysis Procedures
Category A: regular and irregular structures designed

for a minimum lateral force


Category B & C: regular and irregular structures
using any of the three methods
Category D, E, & F: Table 12.6-1 with some limits on
SDS and SD1

ELF for regular and some irregular


Modal for some irregular
Site specific required in Site Classes E or F

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Structure Configuration
(regular or irregular)

Plan Configuration
ASCE 7-05 12.3.2.1
Vertical Configuration
ASCE 7-05 12.3.2.2

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Plan Structural Irregularities


1a - Torsional Irregularity
1b - Extreme Torsional Irregularity
2 - Re-entrant Corners
3 - Diaphragm Discontinuity
4 - Out-of-plane Offsets

5 - Nonparallel Systems

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Type 1: Torsional Irregularities


1a - Torsional Irregularity

larger story drift more than 1.2


times average story drift
1b - Extreme Torsional Irregularity
larger story drift more than 1.4
times average story drift
Not permitted in Design
Categories E & F
Design forces for lateral force
connections to be increased 25% in
Design Categories D, E, & F.

ASCE 7-05 Seismic Provisions - A Beginner's


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Type 2: Re-entrant Corners


Both projections

beyond the corner are


more than 15% of the
plan dimension of the
structure in the same
direction

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Type 3: Diaphragm
Discontinuities
Diaphragms with abrupt discontinuities or variations

in stiffness, including those having cutout or open


areas greater than 50% of the gross enclosed
diaphragm area, or changes in effective diaphragm
stiffness of more than 50% from one story to the next.
Design forces for lateral force connections to be
increased 25% in Design Categories D, E, & F.

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Type 4: Out-of-Plane Offsets


Discontinuities in a lateral

force resistance path, such


as out-of-plane offsets of
the vertical elements.
Design forces for lateral
force connections to be
increased 25% in Design
Categories D, E, & F.

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Type 5: Nonparallel Systems


The vertical lateral force-

resisting elements are not


parallel to or symmetric about
the major orthogonal axes of
the lateral force resisting
system.
Analyze for forces applied in
the direction that causes the
most critical load effect for
Design Categories C - F.

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Vertical Irregularities
1a - Stiffness Irregularity -Soft Story
1b - Stiffness Irregularity - Extreme Soft Story
2 - Weight (Mass) Irregularity
3 - Vertical Geometry Irregularity
4 - In-plane Discontinuity in Vertical Lateral Force

Resisting Elements
5 - Discontinuity in Capacity - Weak Story

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Type 1: Stiffness Irregularities


1a - Soft Story

the lateral stiffness is less than


70% of that in the story above
or less than 80% of the average
stiffness of the three stories
above.
1b - Extreme Soft Story
the lateral stiffness is less than
60% of that in the story above
or less than 70% of the average
stiffness of the three stories
above.
Not permitted in Design
Categories E & F

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Type 2: Weight (Mass) Irregularity


Mass irregularity shall

be considered to exist
where the effective
mass of any story is
more than 150% of
the effective mass of
an adjacent story. A
roof that is lighter
than the floor below
need not be
considered.

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Type 3: Vertical Geometry


Irregularity
Vertical geometry

irregularity shall be
considered to exist where
the horizontal dimension of
the lateral force-resisting
system in any story is
more than 130% of that in
an adjacent story.

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Type 4: In-Plane Discontinuity in Vertical


Lateral Force Resisting Elements
An in-plane offset of the lateral force-resisting elements greater

than the length of those elements or a reduction in stiffness in


the resisting element in the story below.
Design forces for lateral force connections to be increased 25%
in Design Categories D, E, & F.

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Type 5: Discontinuity in
Capacity - Soft Story
A weak story is one in which the

story lateral strength is less than


80% of that in the story above. The
story strength is the total strength of
all seismic-resisting elements
sharing the story shear for the
direction under consideration.
Do not confuse STIFFNESS with
STRENGTH.
Not permitted in Design Categories
E & F.

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Equivalent Force Method


(ASCE 7-05 12.8)

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Base Shear Determination


See ASCE 7-05 12.8.1

Base Shear, V = CsW


Where:
Cs = seismic response coefficient
W = the effective seismic weight, including
applicable portions of other storage and snow
loads (See ASCE 7-05 12.7.2)

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Seismic Weight, W
See ASCE 7-05 12.7.2

W is to include:
all dead load (all permanent components of the
building, including permanent equipment)
25% of any design storage floor live loads except
for floor live load in public garages and open
parking structures.
If partition loads are considered in floor design, at
least 10 psf is to be included.
A portion of the snow load (20% pf minimum) in
regions where the flat roof snow load exceeds 30
psf.
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Seismic Response Coefficient, Cs


See ASCE 7-05 12.8.1.1

Cs = SDS /(R/I)
Cs need not exceed
SD1/(T(R/I)) for T < TL
SD1TL/(T2(R/I)) for T > TL
Cs shall not be taken less than
Max[0.044SDSI, 0.01] for S1 < 0.6g
0.5S1/(R/I) for S1 > 0.6g
See also ASCE 7-05 Supplement No. 2
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Response Modification
Coefficient, R
See ASCE 7-05 12.2
The response modification factor, R, accounts for the dynamic

characteristics, lateral force resistance, and energy dissipation capacity


of the structural system.
Can be different for different directions.

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Fundamental Period, T
May be computed by analytical means
May be computed by approximate means, Ta

Where analysis is used to compute T:

T < Cu T a
May also use Ta in place of actual T

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Approximate Fundamental
Period, Ta
See ASCE 7-05 12.8.2
An approximate means may be used.

Ta = CT hnx
Where:
CT = Building period coefficient.
hn = height above the base to the highest level of the
building
for moment frames not exceeding 12 stories and having a
minimum story height of 10 ft, Ta may be taken as 0.1N, where
N = number of stories.
For masonry or concrete shear wall buildings use eq 12.8-9
Ta may be different in each direction.
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Building Period Coefficient, CT


See ASCE 7-05 12.8.2

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Base Shear Summary


V = Cs W
From Design Spectrum

W = Building Seismic Weight

Max[0.044SDSI,0.01] or 0.5S1/(R/I) < SDS/(R/I) < SD1/(T(R/I)) or TLSD1/(T2(R/I))

From map
R from Table 12.2-1 based
on the Basic Seismic-ForceResisting System
I from Table 11.5-1 based on
Occupancy Category

Numerical Analysis or Ta
= CThnx or Ta = 0.1N
CT = 0.028, 0.016, 0.030, or
0.020
hn = building height
N = number of storys

Vertical Distribution of Base Shear


See ASCE 7-05 12.8.3
For short period buildings the vertical

distribution follows generally follows the


first mode of vibration in which the force
increases linearly with height for evenly
distributed mass.
For long period buildings the force is
shifted upwards to account for the
whipping action associated with
increased flexibility

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Story Force, Fx
Fx = CvxV
Where Cvx = Vertical Distribution Factor
Cvx

W x hx

n
W i hi

i= 1

Wx = Weight at level x
hx = elevation of level x above the base
k = exponent related to structure period
When T < 0.5 s, k =1, When T > 2.5 s, k =2,
Linearly interpolate when 0.5 < T < 2.5 s
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Story Shear, Vx
Story shear, Vx, is the shear force at a given story

level
Vx is the sum of all the forces above that level.

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Horizontal Distribution
See ASCE 7-05 12.8.4

Being an inertial force, the Story Force, Fx, is

distributed in accordance with the distribution


of the mass at each level.
The Story Shear, Vx, is distributed to the
vertical lateral force resisting elements based
on the relative lateral stiffnesses of the
vertical resisting elements and the
diaphragm.
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Torsion
See ASCE 7-05 12.8.4.1-3

The analysis must take into account any torsional effects

resulting from the location of the masses relative to the


centers of resistance.
In addition to the predicted torsion, accidental torsion must
be applied for structures with rigid diaphragms by assuming
the center of mass at each level is moved from its actual
location a distance equal to 5% the building dimension
perpendicular to the direction of motion.
Buildings of Seismic Design Categories C, D, E, and F with
torsional irregularities are to have torsional moments
magnified.
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Using the results of the Seismic


Analysis
The effects on the structure and its
components due to gravity loads and seismic
forces shall be combined in accordance with
the factored load combinations as presented
in ASCE 7 except that the effect of seismic
loads, E, shall be as defined herein.

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Overturning
See ASCE 7-05 12.8.5

The effects of overturning must be considered.


The overturning moment at any level is the sum of the

moments at that level created by the Story Forces at each


level above it.

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ASCE 7 Load Combinations which


include Seismic Effects
See ASCE 7-05 2.3 & 2.4

LRFD
5: 1.2D + 1.0E + L + 0.2S
7: 0.9D + 1.0E
ASD

5: D + (W or 0.7E)
6: D + 0.75(W or 0.7E) + 0.75L + 0.75(Lr or S or R)
8: 0.6D + 0.7E

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Definition of E
See ASCE 7-05 12.4

When Seismic effects and Dead Load effects

are additive:
E = Eh + Ev = QE + 0.2SDSD
When Seismic effects and Dead Load effects

counteract:
E = Eh - Ev = QE - 0.2SDSD
QE = Effect of horizontal seismic forces
= the reliability factor
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The Reliability Factor,


See ASCE 7-05 12.3.4

The reliability factor is intended to account for redundancy in the

structure.
The factor, , may be taken as 1.0 for eight cases listed in
ASCE 7-05 12.3.4.1, including Seismic Design Categories A-C.
For structures of Seismic Design Categories D-F:
= 1.3
With listed exceptions (ASCE 7-05 12.3.4.2)

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