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BITS, PILANI K. K.

BIRLA GOA CAMPUS

HEAT TRANSFER
2014 - 2015
PROF. SRINIVAS KRISHNASWAMY
ASSOCIATE PROF. & HEAD OF DEPARTMENT
DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
BITS PILANI, K. K. BIRLA GOA CAMPUS

Lecture information
T Th S : 12:00 hrs
Instructor for Tutorial: Prof. Srinivas
Krishnaswamy /Narendra C

Tutorial timings: Saturday 8:00 am


(A501)
January 31, 2015

BITS, PILANI K. K. BIRLA GOA


CAMPUS

Time to think!!!!
What am I doing in BITS?
Where do I go from here?
Does CGPA matter?
Do I need to attend classes?
Do I really know my faculty and friends?
Do I really need to believe in everything that
my seniors tell me?
Am I really spending my time in BITS
constructively?
Will IT save me later?

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What are we going to talk about?


A frog in the well knows nothing of the river leave alone the ocean

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Engineering, Technology and Science,


Understanding it first
These terms used frequently and terms like
engineering and technology are interchangeable, but
are different

Engineering is a specific profession uses Science and


Maths to solve a particular problem for society in a
safe and economical manner (text book definition)
The body of knowledge, processes, and artifacts that
result from engineering is technology. Almost
everything made by humans to solve a need is a
technology
It is possible to invent a new technology without
engineering it

Engineering, Technology and Science,


Understanding it first
Engineers are people who seek to do and use measured
quantities such as pressure, temperature, flowrates etc. in
doing so
Scientist studies the world as it is and produces theories to
describe it. They are people who seek to know and use
fundamental quantities to explain

Engineering is the art of doing things well with one dollar


which others can do with two dollars
ARTHUR M. WELLINGTON
(Former Editor of Engineering News, A Civil and Chemical
Engineer)

January 31, 2015

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Science and Engineering, Like or Unlike Poles


An engineer would always
find a theory too complex
for solving real world
problems, while the
scientist scoffs at the
engineers approach
EACH FINDS THE OTHERS
WORLD COMPLEX
The truth is both believe in the same thing
SIMPLE IS BEAUTIFUL
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Research Triangle (Science)


Experience

Skill /
Knowledge

Motivation

Largely individual based


BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Research Pentagon (Engineering)


Technology
Cost
effective

Social/Cultural
impact

Environment
friendly

Energy
efficiency

Largely Society based


BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Engineering

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Who is a chemical engineer?


An engineer who manufactures chemicals
A Chemist who works in a factory
A glorified plumber

Answer: None of these


He is comfortable with chemistry Yes! But does more
than manufacture chemicals. In fact the term is
never intended to describe the work a chemical
engineer performs. It is more meant to indicate
how it is different from other branches of
engineering
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Who is a chemical engineer?

IT IS THE CHEMICAL ENGINEER ALONE THAT


DRAWS UPON THE VAST AND POWERFUL
SCIENCE OF CHEMISTRY TO SOLVE A WIDE
RANGE OF PROBLEMS. THE STRONG
TECHNICAL AND SOCIAL TIES THAT BIND
CHEMISTRY AND CHEMICAL ENGINEERING ARE
UNIQUE IN THE FIELDS OF SCIENCE AND
TECHNOLOGY

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Laboratory Preparation of Ammonia


All ammonium salts
liberate ammonia
gas when heated
with strong bases.
This forms the basis
for the laboratory
preparation of
ammonia

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Flow sheet for ammonia preparation

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Ammonia Plant

Control room of a nuclear


Power plant

Chemical Engineering at the Centre


SAFETY

Materials Science

Computational
Fluid Dynamics.

Virtuality in
Chemical
Engineering
COST

Fuel Cell
Engineering

ENVIRONMENT

Membrane
Processes.
Chemical
Engineering.

Micro fluidics
EFFICIENCY

ENERGY

Biomedical
Engineering

January 31, 2015

Biochemical
Engineering.
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Nanotechnology

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What is Heat Transfer?


Transfer of a form of energy (in transit) due to
a temperature difference
3 modes conduction, convection and radiation
Prevailing all around earth in some form or
other
A important course in the context of Chemical
Engineering
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Why is this course important?


INPUT

REACTOR

CONTACTING
PATTERN

OUTPUT

KINETICS

OUTPUT = F (INPUT, KINETICS, CONTACTING)


PERFORMANCE EQUATION
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What is involved in reactor design?


Mass
Transfer

Heat
Transfer

REACTANT(S)
REACTOR

(Ethane)
Thermodynamics

January 31, 2015

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Fluid
Mechanics

PRODUCT

(Ethylene)

Reaction
Kinetics

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Is Heat Transfer difficult?


All truths are easy to understand once they are
discovered; the point is to discover them.
Galileo Galilei

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Let us do an experiment
Generate as much power as you can in a way that
you can measure it. Express your result in Watts
What do you think the answer will be?

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Let us prepare ice tea


Keywords:
Ice
Refrigerator

Electricity
Steam
Boiler
Coal

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Relation with Thermodynamics


Simple: How much and how fast
Thermodynamics is equilibrium based

It does not talk of rate (with respect to time)


Rate transport processes account for departure
from equilibrium

Heat Transfer is one of the rate processes


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Heat Transfer tree


Modes

Conduction

Convection

Forced
Convection

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Radiation

Free
Convection

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Conduction
Energy transfer due to molecular motion
Random Translational, rotational & vibrational
motion of molecules (more energetic to less
energetic molecules through collisions)

Occurs within a single medium


Of course there must be a temperature
difference
Credit goes to Baron John Baptiste Joseph
Fourier (1768 1830)
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Fouriers law of heat conduction

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Fouriers law of heat conduction

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Fouriers law of heat


conduction

BITS Pilani, K K Birla Goa Campus

Fouriers law of heat conduction

Fourier's law is phenomenological (from observed


phenomena)
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Fouriers law of heat conduction

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Fouriers law of heat conduction

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Fouriers law of heat conduction

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Convection
Energy transfer due to molecular motion
(diffusion) and bulk or macroscopic motion
(advection)
Two mediums involved

Of course
difference

there

must

be

temperature

Our focus is fluid-fluid /surface interaction


Boundary layer
understood
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phenomena

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needs

to

be
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Convection (Types)

BOILING
CONDENSATION

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Forced Convection

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Natural Convection

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Newtons law of cooling

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Convection (Not as simple)

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Convection (Not as simple)

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Radiation
The energy emitted by matter in the form of electromagnetic
waves (or photons) as a result of the changes in the electronic
configurations of the atoms or molecules
Unlike conduction and convection, the transfer of heat by
radiation does not require the presence of an intervening
medium
In fact, heat transfer by radiation is fastest (at the speed of
light) and it suffers no attenuation in a vacuum. This is how
the energy of the sun reaches the earth

All bodies at a temperature above absolute zero emit thermal


radiation
Blackbody: The idealized surface that emits radiation at the
maximum rate.
January 31, 2015

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Radiation
StefanBoltzmann law
= 5.670 108 W/m2 K4 StefanBoltzmann constant

Emissivity : A measure of how


closely a surface approximates
a blackbody for which = 1 of
the surface. 0 1.

Radiation emitted by real


surfaces
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Radiation
Absorptivity : The
fraction of the radiation
energy incident on a
surface that is absorbed
by the surface.

Kirchhoffs law: The emissivity and


the absorptivity of a surface at a
given temperature and wavelength
are equal.
January 31, 2015

A blackbody absorbs the


entire radiation incident on
it

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= 1)

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Radiation

Radiation heat transfer


between a surface and the
surfaces surrounding it.

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Objective Assessment of Chapter

Understand the importance of Heat Transfer


in the context of the Chemical Engg.
curriculum
Understand modes of heat transfer
Getting familiar with basis equations
involved in different modes of heat transfer
Start solving problems
Now this is not the end. It is not even the
beginning of the end. But it is, perhaps,
the end of the beginning.

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Problems

It is necessary to insulate a flat surface so that rate


of heat loss per unit area of the surface does not
exceed 450 W/m2. The temperature difference
across the insulating layer is 400 K. Evaluate the
thickness of insulation if it is made of asbestos
cement
having thermal conductivity of 0.11
W/(m.K) .

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Problems
The wall of an industrial furnace is constructed
from 0.15 m thick fireclay brick having a thermal
conductivity of 1.7 W/m.K. Measurements made
during steady state operation reveal temperatures
of 1400 and 1150 K at the inner and outer
surfaces respectively. What is the rate of heat loss
through a wall that is 0.5 m by 1.2 m on a side?

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Problems
An electric current is passed through a wire 1
mm in diameter and 10 cm long . The wire is
submerged in liquid water at atmospheric
pressure , and the current is increased until the
water boils. For this situation h = 5000 W/m2.oC,
and the water temperature will be 100 oC . How
much electric power must be supplied to the
wire to maintain the wire surface at 114 oC and
Resistance ?

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Problems

A 4.0-cm-diameter sphere is heated to a


temperature of 200 oC and is enclosed in a large
room at 20 oC. Calculate the radiant heat loss if
the surface emissivity is 0.6.

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