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Translation studies project



Translation is the process of turning an original or "source" text into a text in another
language1. It is communication between humans; however, unlike most human linguistic
communication, it is tied to communication between two parties that do not understand one
another without the mediation of a middleman a translator.
Translation has a central core of linguistic activity, it belongs most properly to semiotics,
the science that studies sign systems or structures, sign processes and sign functions 2.
Beyond the notion stressed by the narrowly linguistic approach, that translation involves the
transfer of `meaning' contained in one set of language signs through competent use of the
dictionary and grammar, the process involves a whole set of extra-linguistic criteria also.
According to Nida and Taber in The Theory and Practice of Translation, Translating consists
in reproducing in the receptor language the closest natural equivalent of the sourcelanguage message, first in terms of meaning and secondly in terms of style.

Our project is about translation analysis of A Farewell to Arms (English text) by Ernest
Hemingway translated as Widaa-e-Jang (Urdu text) by Ashfaq Ahmad. Although the manner and
the style of English language differs to some extent as compared to Urdu language, even if the
translator tries his best to retain authenticity. In our present project, we are going to analyze that
how the manner and the style are different in the two languages. "To translate, one must have
a style of his own, for otherwise the translation will have no rhythm or nuance, which come from
1Jeremy Munday
2 Hawks, Structuralism and Semiotics, London, 1977

Translation studies project

the process of artistically thinking through and moulding the sentences; they cannot be
reconstituted by piecemeal imitation. The problem of translation is to retreat to a simpler tenor of
one's own style and creatively adjust this to one's author3."
We have selected two texts for this project. One is in English language (the source text) and the
other is its translation in Urdu language (target text). For the purpose of analysis, we will apply
the models, approaches and theories on respective texts, more specifically the translated text. The
following novels are selected for the analysis in this project. Novel is A Farewell to Arms by
Ernest Hemingway and its translation is Widaa-e-Jang by Ashfaq Ahmad.
Ashfaq Ahmed is acknowledged as a globally-renowned playwright, intellectual and
It is assumed that the target text (translated by Ashfaq Ahmad) has succeeded in providing the
aesthetic pleasure to the readers in approximately the same manner as that of the original one.
Hemingway was the most influential fiction writer of his generation who changed the way many
of his contemporaries expressed themselves. Ernest Hemingway was an American author and
journalist. His style had a strong influence on 20th-century fiction.
Hemingway produced most of his work between the mid-1920s and the mid-1950s, and won the
Nobel Prize in Literature in 1954. After high school he reported for a few months for The Kansas
City Star, before leaving for the Italian front to enlist with the World War I ambulance drivers. In
1918, he was seriously wounded and returned home. His wartime experiences formed the basis
for his novel A Farewell to Arms. He published seven novels, six short story collections and two
non-fiction works. Many of these are considered classics of American literature.
When it was published in 1929, A Farewell to Arms was considered to be the bestseller. It was
built on the theme of universal loneliness in the midst of war, and it left the impression of

3 Paul Goodman, Five Years: Thoughts During a Useless Time, 1969

Translation studies project

overwhelming emotion severely controlled, conveyed with the fewest possible words. That was
the typical of the best of Hemingways writing.
The love story of A Farewell to Arms is narrated against the background of war. In the course of
the novel, there are many references to the war and troops-movement. In fact, the novel is as
much a story of war as of love. A Farewell to Arms deal with the subject: the condition of man in
a society upset by the violence of war. The setting of the novel is war itself, and the romance of
Frederic Henry and Catherine Barkley, their attempt to escape the war and its resulting chaos is a
parable of the 20th century mans disgust and disillusionment at the failure of civilization to
achieve the ideals it had been promising throughout the 19th century.
The novel opens with World War I raging all over Europe. A young American student, studying
architecture in Italy, offers his services to the Italian army. In Gorizia, he is wounded in the knee
and is sent to recuperate in a hospital in Milan. He falls in love with an English nurse, Catherine
Barkley, then he lives with her, and she becomes pregnant. He returns to the front in Gorizia and
is caught in the Italian retreat. In order to save his life, he deserts his post and goes away to a
hospital in Milan to take Catherine and go some place where they can start a new life. They go to
Switzerland but cannot live happily, for a fresh tragedy awaits them. Their eagerly awaited son is
stillborn and Catherine, who can never have a normal delivery, dies after a Caesarean operation.
A Farewell to Arms was the first to be made available in Urdu. Its Urdu translation is done by
well-known writer and journalist Ashfaq Ahmed, under the name of Widaa-e-Jang.
Ashfaq Ahmed was one of the most prolific Urdu writers in Pakistan. He was a distinguished
playwright, broadcaster, intellectual and spiritualist. He wrote the finest works in Urdu. He
started writing stories in his childhood.
He completed his Masters in Urdu literature from Government College Lahore. He worked as a
teacher at Dayal Singh College, Lahore and at Rome University. He worked in Radio Pakistan
as a script writer. He also joined Radio Rome as an Urdu newscaster. During his stay in Europe,
he learned Italian and French languages from the University of Rome and University of
Grenoble, France. He took out his own monthly literary magazine; Dastaango. Ashfaq Ahmed

Translation studies project

started his popular radio program, Talqeen Shah which made him immensely popular. He was
appointed director of the Markazi Urdu Board. He also served as adviser in the Education
Ashfaq Ahmed's subtle sense of humor and deep thoughts are reflected in his writings. His
popular TV plays include Aik muhabbat sau afsanay, Uchhay burj Lahore dey, Tota kahani,
Hairat kadah and Mun chalay ka sauda. All through his life, Ashfaq Ahmad endeavored to
reform the society through his writings. He had authored over twenty five books including a
travelogue, Safar dar Safar with a typical style. In fact, he gave a new mold to diction and locale.
He used Punjabi literary words very well in Urdu and introduced a new kind of prose. Ashfaq
Ahmed, in his later period of life, was greatly inclined towards Sufism, which was visibly
reflected in most of his works.
Ashfaq Ahmed has translated Ernest Hemingway's famous book, A Farewell to Arms as Widaae-Jang. In taaruf (introduction) of the translation he has written a short account of
Hemingways life. He has not written a summary of the source text, but told about authors
intention of writing the source text. He has not provided any translator notes about his method of
Translation has always been understood to refer to a written transfer of a message or meaning
from one language to another. For a formal definition, Dubois says translation is the
expression in another language (or target language) of what has been expressed in another,
source language, preserving semantic and stylistic equivalences (in Bell, 1991: 5).
The theoretical framework for Translation theories, models and analogies has to be drawn, for
the understanding of the Translation system, and to determine its validity for application in real
life translation.
The explanation of the system is the theory of the scientist which, when passed on to the other, is
realized as a model.

Translation studies project

A theory is an explanation of a phenomenon, the perception of the system and order of

something observed. It has no tangible manifestation. It is an idea which constitutes the internal
representation of phenomenon.
A model is, in contrast, an external manifestation, rather than an internal representation of the
explanation; a realization of the theory/pedagogy. It exists as a tangible object or form which
stands for the idea embodied in the theory/pedagogy.
Translation theory, in fact, limits its activities to the level of technique or that of method, while
what is required is a principled approach from which the rest can flow.
In order to assess that how far the translator has succeeded in making the text to meet all the
standards of textuality, different translation theories, models and approaches are applied on the
text. The applied theories, models and approaches help to check the validity of the translated
text. Moreover these are applied in order to see the levels of differences occur in writing in
different languages.
The models selected to analyze the target text in our present project are;

Eugene Nida And The Science of Translating

Roman Jacobson: The Nature of Linguistic Meaning and Equivalence
Vinay and Darbelnets Model
Katharina Reisss Text Typology


Nida and Taber in their book; The Theory and Practice of Translation (1969) listed some
universal features of text that should be taken into account in translation:
all languages do have certain important features which can be used, and which in
effective communications are used, to mark the units larger than sentences
Equivalence is a preoccupation of the American Bible translator Eugene Nida who rejects the
free versus literal debate in favor of the concept of formal and dynamic equivalence a
concept that shifts the emphasis to the target audience. This was done in order to make reading
and understanding the Bible easier for people with no knowledge of it. Let us examine his model
of translation as shown in Figure below (1964: 146):

Translation studies project

In this model, Nida divides the translation process into a decoding phase and an encoding phase
in between the transfer of the message (M) from the source to the target language (A to B). This
model is clear and makes sense in a number of ways.
In the history of translation, the Bible has very often been translated by a source-language
speaker into the target language (from his mother tongue (A) into his foreign language (B)); this
version would often be edited and written in correct target language by a target-language
Eugene Nida's gave two types of equivalence: formal and dynamic. Formal equivalence
focuses attention on the message itself, in both form and content Principles of
Correspondence in (Venuti, 129). Formal equivalence centers on the form and content of the
message of the ST while dynamic equivalence, later termed functional equivalence (Venuti
p.148), aims at complete naturalness of expression (Munday p.42) in the TT. His 1964 Toward
a Science of Translating and his co-authorship with Taber in 1969 of Theory and Practice of
Translation aim at creating a scientific approach incorporating linguistic trends for translators to
use in their work (Munday p.38).
Dynamic equivalence is based upon the principle of equivalent effect. In this sort of
translation the emphasis is on the dynamic relationship between message and receptor, and
care is taken that the relationship between receptor and message should be substantially the
same as that which existed between the original receptors and the message (129). Catford terms
such translations free' as opposed to literal' translations; Dagut goes even further and classifies
them as reproductions' rather than translations. Nida points out that there are a number of
intervening grades between these two poles of translation. Recent trends in translation,
however, seem to be inclined towards dynamic rather than formal equivalence.
The British translation theorist Peter Newmark, influenced by the work of Nida, feels that the
difference between the source language and the target language would always be a major

Translation studies project

problem, thus making total equivalence virtually impossible (Munday p.44). He replaces the
terms formal equivalence and dynamic equivalence with semantic translation and
communicative translation, and alters the focus of the translation back to the ST with his
support for a literal approach.

Douglas Robinson writes that for some translators the entire purpose of translation is achieving
equivalence. The target text must match the source text as fully as possible (p.73)
Roman Jakobsons study of equivalence gave new impetus to the theoretical analysis of
translation since he introduced the notion of 'equivalence in difference'. Linguistic meaning and
equivalence are the key issues for the Russian structuralist Roman Jakobson who, in his 1959
work On Linguistic Works of Translation, states that there are 3 types of translation:

Intralingual (rewording or paraphrasing, summarizing, expanding or commenting within

a language)

Interlingual (the traditional concept of translation from ST to TT or the shifting of

meaning from one language to another (Stockinger p.4)

Intersemiotic (the changing of a written text into a different form, such as art or
dance (Berghout lecture 27/7/05; Stockinger p.4).

For Jakobson, meaning and equivalence are linked to the interlingual form of translation, which
involves two equivalent messages in two different codes (1959/2000: p.114). He considers
Saussures ideas of the arbitrariness of the signifier (name) for the signified (object or concept)
and how this equivalence can be transferred between different languages, for example the
concept of a fence may be completely different to someone living in the suburbs or a prison
inmate. He expands on Saussures work in that he considers that concepts may be transferred by
rewording, without, however, attaining full equivalence. His theory is linked to grammatical and
lexical differences between languages, as well as to the field of semantics.

Translation studies project

Jakobson claims that, in the case of interlingual translation, the translator makes use of synonyms
in order to get the ST message across. This means that in interlingual translations there is no full
equivalence between code units. According to his theory, 'translation involves two equivalent
messages in two different codes' (ibid: 233).
Jakobson goes on to say that from a grammatical point of view languages may differ from one
another to a greater or lesser degree, but this does not mean that a translation cannot be possible,
in other words, that the translator may face the problem of not finding a translation equivalent.
He acknowledges that 'whenever there is deficiency, terminology may be qualified and amplified
by loanwords or loan-translations, neologisms or semantic shifts, and finally, by circumlocutions'
(ibid:234). Jacobson provides a number of examples by comparing English and Russian
language structures and explains that in such cases where there is no a literal equivalent for a
particular ST word or sentence, then it is up to the translator to choose the most suitable way to





There seems to be some similarity between Vinay and Darbelnet's theory of translation
procedures and Jacobson's theory of translation. Both theories stress the fact that, whenever a
linguistic approach is no longer suitable to carry out a translation, the translator can rely on other
procedures such as loan-translations, neologisms and the like. Both theories recognize the
limitations of a linguistic theory and argue that a translation can never be impossible since there
are several methods that the translator can choose. The role of the translator as the person who
decides how to carry out the translation is emphasized in both theories. Vinay and Darbelnet as
well as Jacobson conceive the translation task as something which can always be carried out
from one language to another, regardless of cultural or grammatical differences between ST and
So Jakobson's theory is essentially based on his semiotic approach to translation according to
which the translator has to recode the ST message first and then s/he has to transmit it into an
equivalent message for the TC.


Translation studies project

A classical model and one which has had a very wide impact is the Vinay and Darbelnet model.
Vinay and Darbelnet in their book Stylistique compare du franais et de langlais came in 1958
and its revised form in English in 1995, thirty seven years after the original. It compare the
differences between English and French and identify two translation techniques that somewhat
resemble the literal and free methods (Vinay and Darbelnet in Venuti p.128). Vinay and
Darbelnet identified two general translational strategies direct translation and oblique
translation and these two strategies comprise seven procedures.
Direct (literal) translation discusses three possible strategies:
1. Literal translation: it is word-for-word translation. According to Vinay and Darbelnet it

is most of common between languages of same family and culture.

Calque: SL expression is literally transferred to the TL, such as the English character
Snow White in French becomes Blanche Neige, because the normal word


configuration in English of white snow would be transferred as neige blanche

Borrowing: SL word is transferred directly into the TL.

When literal translation is not possible, Vinay and Darbelnet say that the strategy of oblique
(free) translation must be used. This covers further four procedures:
1. Transposition: interchange of parts of speech that do not affect the meaning, a noun
phrase for a verb phrase.
2. Modulation: This changes the semantics and point of view of the S.L. It is a procedure
that is justified, in the words of the English edition, when, although a literal, or even
transposed, translation results in a grammatically correct utterance, it is considered

unsuitable, unidiomatic or awkward in the T.L.

Equivalence: Vinay and Darbelnet used this term to refer the cases where languages
describe the same situation by different stylistic or structural means. It is particularly


useful in translating idioms and proverbs.

Adaptation: cultural references may need to be altered to become relevant (Vinay and
Darbelnet in Venuti pp129-135).

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Literal Translation


Oblique translation


Table 1 Vinay & Darbelnets model of translation procedures

Two other important features arise from the work of Vinay and Darbelnet. The first of these is
the idea of servitude, which refers to the compulsory changes from ST to TT; and option,
which refers to the personal choices the translator makes, such as the modulation example
above. Option is an important element in translation because it allows for possible subjective
interpretation of the text, especially literary texts (Munday pp. 59-60).
These seven main translation categories operate on three levels, i.e. the lexicon, syntactic
structure, the message.
To facilitate analysis where oblique translation is used, Vinay and Darbelnet suggest numbering
the translation units in both the S.T and T.T. The units which have the same number in each text
can then be compared to see which translation procedure has been adopted.
In 1970s Katharina Reiss introduced the concept of text type which builds on the concept of
equivalence but views the text rather than the word or sentence as the level at which the
communication is achieved and at which the equivalence must be sought. Her functional
approach initially aims at systematizing the assessment of translations. It borrows Karl Buhlers

Translation studies project


three way categorization the functions of language. There three functions of language, according
to Reiss, are linked to the corresponding language dimensions and to the text types or
communicative situations in which they are used.
The main characteristics of each text types as summarized by Reiss, are as follows;
1. The first type of text is the Informative text. The function of language in this text is to
represent objects and the facts. There is a plain communication of facts i.e. the
information, knowledge and opinions etc are transferred are transferred to the readers of
the translated text. The language dimension used to transmit the information is logical
and referential. The content is the main focus of this type of text, the translated text
should transmit the referential content i.e. it should aim to transmit the information, facts
and object of the source text.
2. The second type of text is the Expressive text. It is actually a creative composition, in
which the author of the translated text expresses the senders attitude. The translation
method is identifying method, in which the translator adopts the perspective of source
text author. Form of text is focused on in this type and the author uses the aesthetic
dimension of language. The sender or author of the original text is fore grounded.
3. The third type of text is the Operative text. The function of the language is appellative
in this type i.e. it makes appeal to the reader or receiver of the text in a certain way. The
translation should employ the adaptive method, thus creating an equivalent effect
among the TT readers. This adaptive method is actually concerned with changing the
behavior of the readers of the text. The form of language is dialogic and the focus is

The fourth type of text, according to Reiss, is the Audio medial text. Such text
include films and visuals and spoken advertisements which supplement the other three
functions with visual images, music etc.

Reiss also lists a series of intra linguistic and extra linguistic instruction criteria by which
adequacy of the target text may be assessed.
Intralingual criteria involve semantic, lexical, grammatical and stylistic features.
Extra lingual criteria involve situation, subject field, time, place, receiver, sender and affective
implications. (Irony, humor, emotion etc)

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For an expressive text, it is important to retain the metaphor in the translation of an expressive
text than in informative text, where translation of only semantic value alone will be sufficient.
According to Reiss (1976), the assessment of a translation requires that in the first place one
must determine the kind of text the original represents (in term of text type and text variety); the
translator's conception of the translation (to be inferred from his manner of translating, and
perhaps also explicitly stated in a translator's preface); and the aim of the translated text. Only
when these factors have become established is one in a position to judge a translation "fairly", in
accordance with the appropriate criteria. (Reiss 1976:97-100.)
Text concept

Translation type

Translation aim

Text = sum of words

word-for-word translation
literal translation
(grammar translation)
learned translation
(deliberately marked +

comparative linguistic
foreign language learning

Text = sum of sentences

Text = basic linguistic

study of culture-bound
language differences

Text = verbal component communicative translation a) integral communicative

of a communication
process (text-with-ab) all kinds of changes of
b) special subtype
Table 2 Katharina Reisss model of translation typology

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Eugene Nida rejects the free versus literal debate in favor of the concept of formal and
dynamic equivalence a concept that shifts the emphasis to the target audience. His introduction
of the formal and dynamic equivalence was crucial in introducing a receptor-based (or readerbased) orientation to translation theory.
Eugene A. Nida (1964) distinguishes between formal and dynamic equivalence in translation. He
says formal equivalence refers to a faithful reproduction of source-text form elements
whereas a dynamic equivalence refers to equivalence of extra linguistic communicative effect
(Nida 1964 in Nord 1997: 5). Moreover, in A Framework for the Analysis and Evaluation of
Theories of Translation (1976) Nida emphasizes the purpose of translation, the roles of both the
translator and the receivers or recipients of translation, and also the cultural implications of the
translation process.
Nidas model of equivalence is applicable to the translation of A Farewell to Arms as Widaa-eJung. Examples from the text are as follows:
1. Formal equivalence is described as; it focuses attention on the message itself, in both
form and content. It is actually word to word translation of the text.
ST (Source Text)

TT (Target Text)

The trunks of the trees too were dusty and

the leaves fell early that year.(pg 7)

( pg 5)

The plain was rich with crops, there were

many orchards of fruit trees and beyond the
plain the mountains were brown and bare.

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(Pg 5)
The next year there were many victories.

( pg 6)

(pg 8)

The day had been hot.

(pg 21)

The carpet on the stairs was worn.

(pg 115)

( pg 26)

( pg 167)

I stepped out into the rain and the carriage


( pg 168)

The roads were muddy.
(pg 118)

I went to the door and looked out.

(pg 128)
The girl looked at me fiercely.
(pg 141)

( pg 173)

( pg 189)

(pg 209)

Later we were on a road that lead to a

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river. (pg 150)

(pg 224)

We were supposed to wear steel helmets

even in Gorizia.(pg 25)

(pg 32)

From the above instances, it can be seen that sentences from source text (ST) is translated word
to word in the target text (TT) i.e. Urdu.
2. Dynamic equivalence is defined as the relationship between receptor and message which
is substantially the same as that which existed between the original receptors and the
message. It is actually sense to sense translation of the text.
ST (Source Text)
Sculpture had always seemed a dull business.

TT (Target Text)

(pg 25)

(pg 31)
Its not my leg. I got a rupture.
(pg no. 29)
The driver came out of the door with papers
for the wounded in the car.
(page no. 29)

( pg 38)

(pg 38)

I drove coming back and went fast with the

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)car to find the man from Pittsburgh.(30

)(pg 40

The column stalled again in the night and did

not start. I got down and went back to see
Aymo and Bonello. Bonello had two sergeants

of engineers on the seat of his car with him.

)They stiffened when I came up. (140

)(pg 209

They were ruddy and healthy looking (152).

)(pg 226

They did not talk but we could not have heard

them because of the noise from the river.(pg

) (pg226

It was beginning to be light enough,

so I could see the bushes along the shore-line.

)(pg 244

) (pg 270

While we play billiards, we drank champagne.


Translation studies project


I went to the door very softly, not to disturb

Catherine, and opened it. (188)

( pg 281)

From these instances, it can be seen that sentences from source text (ST) is translated sense to
sense in the target text (TT) i.e. Urdu. The meaning of the source text is closer to the meaning of
target text.
Roman Jakobson in On Linguistic Aspects of Translation, described three kinds of translation;
intralingual, interlingual and inter-semiotic. Jacobson examined the key issues of interlingual
translation (i.e. translation between two different written languages) notably linguistic meaning
and equivalence.
Jakobson has built his model on the relation set out by Saussure between the signifier (the
spoken and written signal) and the signified (the concept).together, the signifier and the signified
form the linguistic meaning; that is arbitrary. He then moves on to consider the thorny problem
of equivalence in meaning between words in different languages. Jacobson says that: There is
ordinarily no full equivalence between code-units.
Jakobsons model of linguistic meaning and equivalence is applicable to the translation of A
Farewell to Arms as Widaa-e-Jung. For example, the English word patriot is translated in Urdu
as Razaa kaar. Though there is no full equivalence between code-units in English and Urdu but
still the meaning is conveyed. For the message to be equivalent in source text (ST) and target
text (TT), the code-units will be different since they belong to two different sign systems
(languages) which partition reality differently.
As in Jakobsons description, interlingual translation involves substituting messages in one
language not for separate code-units but for entire messages in some other language. Thus it is

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not any inability of one language to render a message that has been written in another verbal
language. (Jakobson 1959/2004; 139)
For Jakobson, cross-linguistic differences centre on obligatory grammatical and lexical forms;
languages differ essentially in what they must convey and not in what they may convey.
(Jakobson 1959/2004; 139)
The differences in interlingual translation (English-Urdu, vice versa) occur at:

The Level of Gender:

There are certain nouns which are feminine in English language but are masculine or
neutral in Urdu. Likewise, sometimes it is the other way around. For example,

ST (Source Text)

TT (Target Text)

A bat flew
Page no. 75

Page no.111

the moon shone through

Page no. 261

Page no. 290

the lake widened

Page no. 261

Page no. 290

the wind blew

Page no. 276
they should declare war on her (Austria)
Page no. 79

Page no. 305

Page no. 84

From the above examples it can be observed that moon is neutral in English while it is
masculine in Urdu. Likewise, Austria is feminine in English while masculine in Urdu.

The Level of Aspect:

The level of aspect involves the change of part of speech.

ST (Source Text)

TT (Target Text)

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I couldnt conscientiously open a knee

Page no. 97

Page no. 106

Dont talk
Page no. 97

Page no. 106

As in the above-given examples, Conscientiously is adverb in English while it is noun


in the Target text i.e. Urdu.

The Level of Semantic Fields:
The main focus of the level of semantic fields is equivalence in meaning between the two
ST (Source Text)
Page no. 94
Page no. 94
Page no. 115
Page no. 57

TT (Target Text)

Page no. 134

Page no. 134

Page no. 167

Page no. 48

Page no. 188

Page no. 208

Page no. 38

Page no. 36

horse-drawn carts
Page no. 188

Page no. 208

British batteries
Page no. 42

Page no. 41

wedge like gap

Page no. 261
Page no. 261
under your arm
Page no. 261

Page no. 290

Page no. 290

Page no. 290

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Page no. 260
Page no. 260
Page no. 260
Page no. 260

Page no. 289

Page no. 289

Page no. 289

Page no. 289

As in the first example, there is one word sunset in the source text while in the Urdu language
in order to achieve equivalence in meaning, it has been translated into more than one words in


Vinay and Darbelnet carried out a comparative stylistic analysis of French and English. They
noted the differences and identified the translation strategies and procedure in the texts of both
the languages i.e. source text and target text. The two general strategies identified by them are:

Direct translation

Oblique translation

Both the strategies comprising seven procedures can be found in the translation of the text A
Farewell to Arms into Widaa-e-Jung.
Direct Translation:
Direct translation is a literal or word for word translation. It covers the following three


In borrowing, the word in the source language (SL) is directly transferred into target
language (TL). It is done to bridge the semantic gap between two languages. For example,

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ST (Source Text)
page no. 116
Page no. 140
Page no. 108
Page no. 108
Page no. 108
Page no. 108
Page no. 191
Page no. 191
Page no. 191

Page no. 191
Page no. 35
Page no. 35
Page no. 35

TT (Target Text)

Page no. 168

Page no. 208

Page no. 104

Page no. 104

Page no. 104

Page no. 104

Page no. 214

Page no. 214

Page no. 214

Page no. 214

Page no. 45

Page no. 45

Page no. 45

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Page no. 35

Page no. 45

Page no. 35

Page no. 35

Page no. 45

Page no. 45

Page no. 35

Page no. 45


Page no. 35

Page no. 45

Page no. 35

Page no. 45

Page no. 35
Page no. 35

Page no. 45

Page no. 45

In all of the above examples words in source language are directly transferred in target text.
2. Calque:
Calque is a special kind of borrowing in which the source language expression is
transferred in a literal translation. For example,

ST (Source Text)
Fuse cap
Page no. 80
Page no. 118
clearing station
page no. 135

TT (Target Text)

Page no. 118

Page no. 174

Page no. 201

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Field hospitals

Page no. 135

Page no. 201

metal to metal brakes

Page no. 35

Page no. 45

golden gate
Page no. 35

Page no. 45

Page no. 35

Page no. 45

Page no. 35

Page no. 45

Page no. 35

Page no. 45

Page no. 35

Page no. 45

In the above examples, Urdu substitutes of the words like ambulance, golden gate etc could be
used by the author, but he borrowed these words as it is from the source text, and transferred the
source language expression in a literal translation.

3. Literal Translation:
It means word for word translation. For example,

ST (Source Text)
Page no. 182
Delightful language
Page no. 185

TT (Target Text)

Page no. 271

Page no. 276

Noble young man

Page no. 74

Page no.109

Good man
Page no. 189

Page no. 210

Good night
Page no. 190

Page no. 210

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In cases where literal translation is not possible, the strategy of oblique translation is used.

2. Oblique Translation:
Oblique translation refers to the free translation of the source text into the target text. The
following four procedures fall in the oblique translation.
1) Transposition:
It is a change of one part of speech for another without changing the sense. For example,
ST (Source Text)

TT (Target Text)

You talked out loud

Page no. 143

Page no. 213

He slept heavily
Page no. 211

Page no. 234

I was very extravagant darling, she said,

but its a fine.
Page no. 148

Page no. 161

In the first example, the word loud is a verb in the source language which shows some action.
While in its translation it has been changed to noun that is bol. Similarly in the second
example, the word slept is a verb in the source language which shows some action. While in its
translation it has been changed to noun that is neend

2) Modulation:
It changes the semantics and point of view of source language. It exists in sentences where
the translator changes the sentences in such a way e.g. affirmative to negative, active to
passive, etc. but meaning remains the same as shown through the given examples. For

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ST (Source Text)
If I had brains I wouldnt be here.
Page no. 151
Why havent you brains, anarchist?
Page no. 151

TT (Target Text)

Page no. 225

Page no. 225

the Austrians were sons of bitches
Page no. 95
I shook hands with the third doctor
Page no. 98.
you wouldnt be in bed
Page no. 108

Page no. 104

. Page no. 107

Page no. 99
were all friends here
Page no. 160
I didnt say anything
Page no. 211
no one was talking
Page no. 215

Page no. 177

Page no. 233

Page no. 238

3) Equivalence:
Equivalence is used to refer to the cases where different languages describe the same
situation by different stylistic or structural means.

ST (Source Text)
It was all right.
Page no.185

TT (Target Text)

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Page no. 273

It is a very unattractive wisdom

Page no. 187

Page no. 279

I said I had killed plenty

Page no. 95

Page no. 104

And much lifting I was upstairs and in bed
Page no. 95
an army travels on its stomach
Page no. 195

Page no. 104

Page no. 216

In the above examples, the translator has used idioms and proverbial expressions while
translating simple sentences but still the meaning is fully conveyed.
4) Adaptation:
It involves the changing of cultural reference when a situation in the source language culture
doesnt exist in the target language culture. For example,

ST (Source Text)
Go to hell
Page no. 52
I hope to Christ not.
Page no. 149
it was like being put to bed after early
Page no. 72

TT (Target Text)

Page no. 73

Page no. 222

Page no. 75
for Christs sweet sake take me to some
Page no. 83

Page no. 91

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Christ, I say its rotten

I say its rotten. Jesus
Page no. 39
Page no. 40
Jesus Christ, aint this all a goddamn war?

Page no. 41

Page no. 40

theyll shell the hell out of us

Page no. 52

Page no. 50

The given examples show that the writer has used or changed the words according to his beliefs
and cultural context.
The target text (TT) i.e. Widaa-e-Jung is both an expressive and informative text.
The informative text is one which provides us information about the facts. In this case, the
target text provides us information about the details and horrors of the World War.
1. Language and Dimension:
Being an informative text, the Target Text represents the full accounts of objects and figure.
Examples from the source and target texts are given below:

ST (Source Text)

TT (Target Text)

At the front they were advancing on the Carso,

they had taken Kuk across from Plava and

were taking the Bain-sizza plateau.
Page no. 85

Page no. 97
Many Germans in Italian uniform mixing with
the retreat in the North. That as one of those
things you always heard in the war
Page no. 209.

Page no. 232

Not in war times. I dont think they let the

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Italians cross the frontier.

Page no. 267

Page no. 296

I am sorry, we havent any rolls in war time
Page no. 268.

Page no. 297
The above examples show that the text type is plain communication of facts i.e. it is
informative and referential.
2. Text Focus:
The Target Text (TT) is content-focused and descriptive as well. For example:

ST (Source Text)

TT (Target Text)

We walked down the stairs instead of taking

the elevator. The carpet on the stairs was

worn. I had paid for the dinner.

Page no. 115

Page no. 167

We got into Milan early in the morning and

they unloaded us in the freight yard. An
ambulance took me to the American hospital
Page no. 62

Page no. 89

Catherine Barkley was greatly liked by the

nurses because she would do night duty
Page no. 107

Page no. 118

rain and with the rain came the cholera. But it

At the start of the winter came the permanent

was checked and in the end only seven

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)7 (page no. 6

thousand died of it in the army.

Page no. 7

The text is expressive text and transmits the aesthetic and artistic form of Source text. The
translation uses the identifying method; still the translator is adopting the stand point of ST
author. For example,

)TT (Target Text

)ST (Source Text

I watched her brushing her hair, holding her
head so the weight of her hair all came on one
side. It was dark outside and the light over the

head of the bed shone on her hair and on her


Page no. 184

Page no. 275

When I awake after the operation I had not

been away. You do not go away They only
choke you. It is not like dying, it is just a
chemical choking, so you do not feel, and
afterwards you might as well have been drunk
except that when you throw up nothing comes
but bile and you do not feel better afterwards

Page no. 106

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(page no 117)
I am afraid of rain because sometimes I see me

dead in it
Page no. 125

Page no. 133

The shutters were up but it was still going on

inside. Page no. 38

Page no. 36

It seems she had one hemorrhage after

another. They couldnt stop it. I went into the
room and stayed with Catherine until she died.
She was unconscious all the time, and it did
not take her very long to die
Page no. 317

Blow, blow ye Western wind.

Page no. 191

Page no. 352

Page no. 212

From the given examples, it can also be said that the text is a creative composition that is
aesthetic and expressive.
Importance of translator is defined as; ...the translator is a bilingual mediating agent between
monolingual communication participants in two different language communities4.
Role of a translator varies from culture to culture, country to country, and from text to text.
Translator acts as a mediator or reconciliatory and bridges the gap between source text (ST) and
aesthetics of the source text in the target text.

4 David Katans Translating Cultures (2004: 16).

Translation studies project


In the translation of the novel A Farewell to Arms as Widaa-e-Jang Ashfaq Ahmad has played a
role of both mediator and creator.
As a translator, Ashfaq Ahmad is first and foremost a mediator between the two parties for whom
mutual communication might otherwise be problematic. He not only possessed a bilingual ability
but also had bicultural vision. He has tried to overcome the incompatibilities which stand in the
way of transfer of meaning. There are certain signs which have the value in one cultural
community but are devoid of significance in another. Ashfaq Ahmad being a creative translator
has identified and resolved the disparity between two cultures.
Furthermore, the translation of the title of the novel (A farewell to Arms as Widaa-e-Jang) also
reflects his creative ability as a translator. The translation of the title of our source text is a
literary one. Because Ashfaq Ahmad has not translated it word for word but he has conveyed the
sense which renders the connotative power present in the original English words of the title.
Widaa- e -Jang reflects Ashfaq Ahmads reading and defines him as a non ordinary reader. He
has also involved his own beliefs and values in the process of translation and has also skipped
certain sentences and paragraphs in his translation. In most part of the novel he has translated
many simple sentences in the form of proverbs.
Widaa-e-Jang reflects Ashfaq Ahmads reading and defines him as a non-ordinary reader. In
short, looking at the general and specific analysis of the novel, the translators role as a creator
and mediator can be justified. He has attempted to present the original texts theme and main
idea with great fidelity and care.
An analysis of the target text(TT) and the source text(ST) i.e. Farewell to the arms by Earnest
Hemingway and Wida-e-Jung by Ashfaq Ahmed, exhibits the Equivalent effect, No formal
correspondence, Proverbial expressions, Natural and easy expressions, Sense for sense
translation, Changed according to personal beliefs, Skipping of paragraphs and sentences,
Aesthetics is preserved/maintained
All the four models given above are fully applicable to the translation of A Farewell to Arms. In a
crux it can be said that, Widaa-e-Jung is a fine translation of A Farewell to Arms by Ashfaq

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Ahmed. It carries traces of different approaches and theoretical frameworks of translation given
by theorists.


Introducing Translation Studies by Jeremy Munday, 2nd Edition

A Farewell To Arms by Earnest Hemingway
Widaa-e-Jang by Ashfaq Ahmed


Translation studies project