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He Wharekura-tini

Kaihautu 0 Aotearoa

THE OPE N
P0l.YTE(HN|(
OF NEW ZEALAND

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Main and Tail Rotor Theory


55533

CONTENTS
Basic Rotors

The Main Rotor

Tilting the Tip-path Plane

Coning and Flapping

Forces of the Rotor Head

11

Dissymmetry of Lift

13

Gyroscopic Effect

21

Coriolis Effect

23

Hooke's Joint Effect

25

Drag Effect

27

The Tail Rotor

30

Principle of Operation

31

Forces of the Tail Rotor

32

Dissymmetry of Lift

33

Drift

36

10/91

Copyright
This rn'a'Yerial is for the sole use of enrolled students and may not be
reproduced without the written authority of the Principal, TOPNZ.

555/3/3

AIRCRAFT Er IHEERING
$-

CI)

HELICOPTERS

ASSIGNMENT 3

s
BASIC ROTORS

The main rotor of a helicopter converts the power supplied


to it from the engine into a lifting force. When tilted forwards,
backwards, or to either side, the lifting force propels the
helicopter. The mechanism within the rotor head that tilts the
lifting force is controlled by the pilot through the collective
pitch lever and the cyclic pitch~control column.

By tilting

the lifting force, the pilot controls the helicopter about the
lateral and longitudinal axes.
The tail rotor is the helicopter's rudder.
It consists of
a rotor mounted vertically and at 90 to the centre line of the
helicopter.

It is driven by the engine through the same power

train used to drive the main rotor and is arranged to turn


whenever the main rotor turns. The tail rotor provides an opposing
force to the torque reaction of the main rotor and controls the
helicopter about the vertical axis, especially when hovering.
is

It

controlled through the tail rotor (rudder) pedals.

In this assignment, we will show you how the lifting force of


a main rotor is tilted and resolved into lift and thrust. We will
consider the tail rotor and discuss the aerodynamic and mechanical
forces acting on the helicopter.

You will find the terms used in the

Table of Definitions in the Basic Helicopter assignment.


THE MAIN ROTOR

WW

As with an aircraft propeller, the thrust generated by a


helicopter rotor acts at right angles to the tip-path plane.
Opposing this force and exactly equalling it, when hovering, is
the weight of the helicopter. In this condition, iii; is equal

555/3/8

to weight and, because the


helicopter is not moving, 532

Lift
TOTAL

Tta|

REACTION

ltladkm

and thrust are zero.

To obtain

horizontal movement of the

helicopter, the tip-path plane


is tilted and the total reaction
resolves into lift and thrust,
with the lift supporting the
weight and the thrust being
equal to the drag for straight

(El) Hovering Qrillair); Tip path Plane horizontal.

rout

'i

as/\c'r |ou

E vvmic-=1
>

:( lift J
Ifnrr|1rIMI'\f

_ _

'4Ferward (thrill!)
wmpumni

Div-cc! ion of
mot] In

and level flight.

shows these forces acting on a


helicopter in hover and in
forward flight.

When lift and weight are

wucur

unbalanced, the helicopter will


climb or descend. When thrust
and drag are unbalanced, the

(b) Forward flight. Tip path Plane lilted forward.

LIFT

-rnausr

Figure l

e-
X

_ ;
i

helicopter will accelerate or


slow down.

DRAG

Dlndinn J
Ivnhnn

For example, in

a climbing, accelerating flight,

the thrust exceeds the drag and


the lift exceeds the weight.
(c) Total reaction resolved into lift and thrust for
for-ward flight.

FIG. l .Ti1ting the tip-path plane to


obtain thrust

Tilting the Tip-path Plane

The tip-path plane can be tilted in several ways:

l.

By tilting the complete rotor head, gearbox, and


engine assembly;

2.

By changing the centre of gravity of the helicopter


by, for example, moving the cabin assembly;
555/3/3

_ 3 _
3.

By tilting a gimbal or centrally pivoted rotor


head;

4.

By using aerodynamic forces to lift and depress


rotor blades hinged to a rotor head that is
rigidly mounted on its drive shaft; or

5.

By using aerodynamic forces to lift and depress


rotor blades rigidly fixed to the rigidly mounted
rotor head, thus bending the blades near their
root ends.

In practice, the last three methods are used, and the rotors
that use these methods are

1.

The semirigid rotor,

2.

The articulated rotor, and

3.

The rigid rotor or hingeless rotor.

Thehingeless and articulated rotor heads tilt the tip~path plane


by simply increasing the angle of attack of the retreating blade and
decreasing that of the advancing blade.

The retreating blade then

generates more lift and the advancing blade, less lift.

As a

result, the retreating blade flaps up and the advancing blade


flaps down, as shown in Fig. 2 (a) and(b).

555/3/3

_ u _

The tilting is controlled


by the cyclic-pitch control column
usually called the cyclic, and
can be effected in any direction.
The cyclic column is moved
forward to tilt the tip-path
plane forward, which moves the
helicopter forward.
It is
moved to the right to tilt the
(a)

An articulated rotor with

tip-path plane to the right

the tip-path plane tilted

moving the helicopter to the


right.

The same principle

applies to left and aft movements


___ ~

F;

-Et?fI:D

of the cyclic column and, of


course, for any intermediate
position.
The tip~path plane of the
semi-rigid rotor is tilted in
the same way, with the rising

(b)

A hingeless rotor with the

of the retreating blade being

tip-path plane tilted

equalled by the dropping of


the advancing blade. Because
both blades are mounted on a

___===r-

rigid, centrally pivoted yoke,


the complete rotor head tilts
or seesaws in the direction
chosen.
Figure 2 (c) shows
a tilted tip-path plane for
a semirigid rotor.

(c)

A semi-rigid rotor with the

tip-path plane tilted


FIG. 2

Types of rotor

For vertical flight, the


angle of attack of all the blades
is increased or decreased
simultaneously. This is

controlled by the collectivepitch control column, usually called the collective. The
pilot raises the collective for the helicopter to go up and
lowers it to go down.

555/3/3

_ 5 _
The control inputs to the rotor head from the cyclic and the
collective pitch controls are superimposed upon each other
mechanically so that, for example, a climbing, turning, forward
flight path is possible.

$9

I7 7

7 7

' ""7"

77

SUMMARY
The main rotor converts engine power into a force that

can both lift and propel the helicopter.


The total reaction of a rotor is at right angles to
the tip-path plane.

Flight in any direction is obtained by tilting the


tip-path plane.

In flight, the total rotor reaction is resolved into


lift and thrust.
I

Three types of rotor are generally used:

l.

The semirigid rotor,

2.

The articulated rotor, and

3.

The rigid or hingeless rotor.

The tail rotor counteracts the torque of the main rotor


and gives directional control during hovering.

Coning and Flapping


when the helicopter is hovering in still air, the airflow
comes from directly above and goes straight down through the rotor
The lift force generated by the turning rotor acts vertically
upward and is equal to the weight (mass) of the helicopter acting
vertically downward.

In this condition, the main forces acting

on the rotor assembly are


1.

The lift force from each blade, and

2.

The centrifugal force of each blade.

555/3/3

_ 5 _
The lift force acts to lift each blade tip upwards, and the
centrifugal force acts to keep each blade horizontal. The two
forces resolve into a single force, that results in a small upward
movement of the blade tip.
The angle formed between the blade
and a plane at right angles to the rotor shaft is called the
coning angle.

See Fig.

3.

The articulated rotor has each blade mounted on a horizontal


or flapping hinge, which permits its blade to freely move up and
down or flap.

The rigid rotor permits the blade tip to move up andcbwn by


the bending of the blade and the bending of the rotor head just
inboard of the blade attachment.
Z/B

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Coning angle

=>- w:>

Hovering in sffll air


Comng angk dbphced.
FIG. 3

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Coning angle

Neither the articulated nor the rigid rotor system can give
flight other than hovering unless a coning angle is generated.
The coning angle must be displaced about the main rotor shaft
by the flapping of the blades to give the tilted tip-path plane
necessary for horizontal movement. See Fig. 2 (a) and (b).
Because the semi-rigid rotor has its tip-path plane tilted by
the complete rotor-head assembly tilting about its central pivot
point, both blades flap together but in opposite directions.
As one blade flaps up, the other blade simultaneously flaps down
by an equal amount.
See Fig. 2 (c). Thus, the semi-rigid rotor
does not need to make a coning angle, and the lift force bends
the stiff, heavily built blades evenly but slightly along their
span.

However, the yoke of the semi-rigid rotor does have a small

built-in coning angle of between 2 and 6.

555/3/3

This is done for

_ 7 _

a reason that we shall discuss later in this assignment under


Coriolis Effect.

In fact, the coning angle hardly varies during all stages of


flight because the rotor and engine rev/min are held in a narrow
operating range.

During flight, fuel is burned off and so the

helicopter becomes lighter.

Also during flight, loads may be

winched aboard or released from a cargo hook.

Any increases/decreases

in load make only a small difference to the coning angle and soonly small changes in bladepitch angle are made to correct for
them.
The following simplified example shows the change in coning
angle caused by an increase in the weight of a helicopter with a
four-bladed articulated rotor head.

The figures used are not

exact.

Helicopter AUW

8000 lbf

Weight of each blade

llO lbf

C of G location

13 ft

Rotor rev/min

210

Lift generated by each blade

gggg

2000 lbf

alloz ><<1TXn2n2n0*x 210)

21 477 lbf

Radius of blade at its

2
Centrifugal force

555/3/3

>< 113 lbf

_ 8 _

**
4*

FIG. 4

.7]

.Wt

m+77mf

fjzmmur

Generating a coning angle


2000

tans = are
6

tan 0.093l2

Coning angle or 9

5 19

The helicopter is now loaded to ll 000 lb max. AUW.

Lift generated
by each blade

Centrifugal force

iiggg

2750 lb

21477 lb
2750

tan " nan"


9

tan 0.1280

Coning angle or G

7 18

A weight increase of 3000 lb has increased the coning


angle by about 2.

During flight, the rotor and engine rev/min can be considered


as constant, with the power being changed by alteration to the
engine induction manifold pressure or fuel flow and, at the
same time, collectively altering the main rotor blade angles.

555/3/3

i Q _

The power is changed because the inertia of the rotor head and
blades assembly makes an increase or decrease in rotor rev/min
impossible to get in a reasonable time, but a quick response
to a change in power may be obtained by changing the blade pitchangles with a change in engine fuel flow.
We cannot overemphasise the importance of keeping the rev/min
in the correct range.
If the recommended rev/min are exceeded,
damage to the engine, transmission, rotor head, and blades will
result, the severity of the damage depending upon the amount and
duration of the overspeed.
If the rev/min fall below those recommended, the collective
pitch must be decreased or the engine power increased and the
rev/min allowed to increase to their normal value.

However,

if no more engine power is available, the helicopter will have to


descend with the reduced collective pitch.
If the collective
pitch is increased to maintain altitude, the increase in blade
angle above normal will produce more drag for the lift generated,
the rev/min will decay (slow down) further, and the helicopter will
descend rapidly.

When this occurs with a fully articulated rotor,

the coning angle increases due to the reduced centrifugal force


until a position is reached where it takes a long time to bring
the blades down again by reducing collective pitch.

A very

heavylandingp is then unavoidable.


Early helicopters with articulated rotors could get their
blades pointing almost vertically upwards.

This condition, known

as candling,

Modern articulated

resulted in a crash landing.

rotor heads have inbuilt or adjustable upper coning stops to


prevent excessive coning of the blades.

These stops are set at

an angle well outside the normal coning angle of the blades


but small enough to allow a reasonably rapid increase in rev/min
when collective pitch is reduced.

555/3/3

_ 19 _

SUMMARY
In flight, the engine and rotor rev/min are kept in a

narrow operating range .


The coning angle is caused by the balance of lift and
centrifugal forces.
The tip-path plane is tilted to give forward flight
by flapping the blades up at the rear and down at the
front of the helicopter.
3

In a semi-rigid rotor, as one blade flaps up, the


other blade flaps down by an equal amount.
A very low rotor rev/min will produce a large coning

angle, which could endanger flight.

PRACTICE EXERCISE A

State whether each of the following statements is true


or false:

l.

The main rotor is controlled by the pilot through


the collective and cyclic pitch control columns.

2.

The main purpose of the tail rotor is to control


the helicopter about the vertical axis when in
level flight.

3.

The total reaction of the main rotor is resolved


into lift and drag when the tip-path plane is
tilted.

4.

When the tip-path plane is tilted to the right,


the helicopter moves to the right.

5.

During hovering, the lift of the main rotor must


slightly exceed the weight of the helicopter.

6.

In tilting the tip~path plane of a semi-rigid


rotor, the complete rotor head assembly is tilted.

7.

The total reaction of a rotor is at right angles

to the tip-path plane.


8.

The coning angle is the angle formed between the

blades and the relative airflow.

555/3/3

-11..

9.

10.

The horizontal or flapping hinges of an articulated


rotor permit the blades to freely flap up and down.
A rigid rotor has its blades rigidly attached to
the rotor head, which is itself rigidly attached
to the rotor drive shaft.

(Answers on page39)

Forces of the Rotor Head


To achieve flight, the tip-path plane is tilted in the desired
direction, and the total reaction from the rotor head and blades
assembly becomes resolved into lift to support the weight and
thrust to propel the helicopter. As the helicopter moves, the
airflow direction into the rotor head changes from directly
above to ahead and above.

At the same time, the airflow from the

rotor changes from straight down, forming a ground cushion, to aft


and down.
These changes in the airflow through the rotor disc, and the
fact that the tip-path plane has been tilted, create extra forces
and effects above those experienced when hovering.

555/3/3

_12_

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If

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(a)

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When hovering

4*

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it ,_%;; w |~
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Z--\\

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(la)

In eve| flight

(b)

In level flight

FIG. 5

Airflow through the rotor

555/3/3

_ 13 _

Dissymmetry of Lift
The area within the tip~path plane of the main rotor is called
the disc area or, more generally, the rotor disc. when the
Q

helicopter is hovering in still air, lift is generated by the


rotor blades equally at all positions around the rotor disc.

As the helicopter moves, or as a wind is felt, the velocity of the


airflow over the rotor blades changes, with a higher velocity
in one half of the rotor disc and a lower velocity in the other
half.

As a result of the different air velocities, different

lift forces will be generated from one side of the rotor disc to
the other.

Unless this unequal distribution of lift is counteracted,

the helicopter would roll over in the direction of the side with
the least lift.

The unequal distribution of lift, called the

dissgngetrg of 1ift,was a considerable problem to the designers


of early helicopters and autogiros.
Figure 6 (a) shows typical velocities at different positions
on a rotor blade when the helicopter is hovering in still air.
Because the air is still and the helicopter is hovering, the
rotor blade velocity is also the velocity of the air over the
blade.
The blade will thus experience the same air velocities
at all positions in the rotor disc.
Figure 6 (b) shows the same helicopter in forward flight
with an IAS of 100 kt.

With this IAS, the air velocity felt

by the tip of the blade when it is advancing and at 90 to the


line of flight is the tip velocity pigs the 100 kt TAS, giving
a total of 500 kt. This increase in air velocity of 100 kt is
felt along the span of the advancing blade. when the blade is
retreating and at 90 to the line of flight, the air velocity
felt at the tip is the tip velocity minus the lU0kt IAS, giving
2

a total of 300 kt.


This decrease in air velocity of 100 kt is
felt along the span of the retreating blade.
For any given angle
of attack, the lift generated increases as the velocity of the

airflow over the airfoil increases.


In fact, the lift increases
as the square of the air velocity. That is
If an air velocity of A m/s gives l unit of lift, then an air
velocity of ZXA m/s gives 4 units of lift, and an air velocity

of 3XA m/s gives 9 units of lift.

555/3/3

.. 11; _

FORWARD

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Drrecon

RETREATING
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ADVANCiNG
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HALF

Blade vei5cir)/ in know

HALF

/_

400

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AFT

(a)

Hovering

A FORWARD

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ho
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RIETREAHNG
zoo

Y
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ADVANCING
0

V V*T1gp_

zoo

Loo

Blade vetodfy in knols

W 500
F

HALF

HALF

AFT

(b)
FIG. 6

Forward flight of 100 kt


Rotorblade velocities in hovr and in forward flight

555/3/3

_ 15 _

Bearing this in mind, a study of Fig. 6 (b) will show that


more lift will be generated in the advancing half than in the
retreating half of the rotor disc unless some correction is used
an

We have seen that the articulated rotor and the rigid rotor
systems have blades that either flap or bend in the vertical

4%

plane.

In forward flight, the increased lift on the advancing

blade due to forward motion of the helicopter will cause the


blade to flap or bend up.
This upward movement will decrease
the angle of attack because the relative wind will change from
a horizontal direction to more of a downward direction while the
blade is moving upward.

See Fig.

7.

AIRFLOW
FROM ABOVE

its ,d

AIRFLOW mom AHEAD

APParen1 angle of attack

Space

diagram of two velocities

-- MRFLOW FROM ABOVE

R55!-1:.rAN r
-_L>_AlRFLOw
AIRFLOW FROM AHEAD

-__ __ _ __ __

True angle of attack

6:

FIG. 7

Change in angle of attack due to flapping

555/3/ 3

_ 15 _

The decreased lift on the retreating blade will cause the


blade to flap or bend downward. This downward movement will
increase the angle of attack because the relative wind will
change from a horizontal direction to an upward direction while the
blade is moving down,

as

shown in Fig.

7.

The combination of decreased angle of attack on the advancing


blade and increased angle of attack on the retreating blade
through blade flapping tends to equalise the lift over the two
halves of the rotor disc.
The position of the cyclic pitchcontrol
column in forward flight also causes a decrease in the angle
of attack on the advancing blade and an increase in the angle of
attack of the retreating blade.

This movement of the control

column gives the major correction for dissymmetry of lift, with


the correction for blade flap being a minor but necessary contribution
The semi-rigid rotor behaves as a seesaw. As one blade flaps
up, the other blade flaps down and, as already explained, the
change in angle of attack of each blade tends to equalise the
lift over the rotor disc.

Again, however, the major correction

for dissymetry of lift is supplied by the forward movement of the


control column.
Another method that can be used on the articulated and rigid
rotor systems to decrease the angle of attack and the consequent
lift of an advancing blade flapping up and to increase the angle
of attack and the lift of a retreating blade flapping down is
to slightly offset the pitchchange horn on the blade in relation
to the flapping hinge.
exaggerated form.

Figure 8 shows this offset in a greatly

The pitch~change control rod that conveys

the input from the pilot to the rotor blade is attached to


face A on the control horn and the blade can rotate on the blade
spindle.

555/3/3

_ 17 l

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Q,

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Ftapping hinge

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.

91
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Piich corliroi

horn

Blade spindle

EII

gl

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of-f5et

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I Pikfn control
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Angle of attack

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(a) Normai
FIG. 8

horn

(5) Offs
Offset pitch~change horn

In Fig. 8 (a), when the advancing blade flaps up because of


the increased airflow, there will be no mechanical change in the
angle of attack of the blade because the centre lines of the
flapping hinge and the contro1rod attachment to the control horn
coincide.

However, in Fig. 8 (b), when the advancing blade flaps

up, the angle of attack of the blade is mechanically decreased


because the centre line of the control rod attachment to the
control horn is outboard of the centre line of the flapping hinge
As the blade flaps up, it also rotates on its blade spindle, with
the leading edge going down.

The reverse occurs when a blade

retreats and starts to flap down.


In flight, the blades are allowed to flap as they wish.
No damping devices or mechanicalrestraintsare used to inhibit or
prevent flapping other than the limits of movement imposed by the
design of the rotor head and,in some helicopters, an upper coning
stop.
For practical design and construction reasons, the flapping
hinges are offset.

That is, they do not lie in the geometric

centre of the rotor head.

This offset of the flapping hinges

has a useful dynamic effect in the control of the helicopter.

555/3/3

_ 13 _
In Fig. 9, the strings represent the rotor blades, the arrows
show the centrifugal force, and the weight represents the fuselage
of the helicopter.
In Fig. 9 (a), the tip-path plane is tilted,
but because the blades are hinged in the centre of the rotor, the
fuselage hangs straight down and will be slow to adapt its
attitude to the tilt of the rotor.

If its centre of gravity was

anywhere but in the same lateral plane as the lift vector of the
rotor, the helicopter would be unmanageable.
In Fig. 9 Cb), the
fuselage quickly follows the tilt of the tip-path plane, and
the position of the centre of gravity is now not so critical.
The
result is a helicopter that is sensitive to the control of the
pilot and has a useful working range of permissible centreofgravity movement.
Offset of hi--51.;

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__

ti

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-1

(a) NOT OFFSET


FIG. 9

D-

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(b) ovrszr

Dynamic effect of offset flapping hinges

The offset distance of the flapping hinges determines the


size of this dynamic effect.
The blades in a rigid rotor are,
in effect, stiff continuous flapping hinges, and the overall
effect is similar to widely offset flapping hinges.
The semi-rigid rotor also uses a dynamic effect to give a
manageable and sensitive response to the pilots controls.
This
effect is obtained by having the rotor assembly underslung on

555/3/3

.-...]_Q..

its pivot.

That is, the centre of gravity of the rotor assembly

lies below its central pivot axis.


Figure l0 Ca) shows a semi-rigid rotor helicopter hovering,
with the lift vector acting vertically upward and the weight
vector acting vertically downward and in the same plane.

Figure l0

Cb) shows the tip-path plane tilted for forward flight, with the
lift vector moved aft because of the tilt of the assembly. As a
result of this movement, a couple is formed by the lift and weight
vectors, which lowers the nose of the helicopter.

The underslung

mounting of the semi-rigid rotor assembly has another important


service to perform, which we shall discuss later on in this
assignment under Coriolis Effect.
LIFT

Rnior Pivol Pom?

C. cf G. cf" rofar assembly

/'7

.. 5..

WEi6H'|'

(a)

Hovering

Tofal
reaciion

Rotor pivu+

L";-r

pn'|v1~|THRUST
Q--i

--C of 6 of mfer asumbly

c J

tcf;Z'
WEIGHT

(b)

Rotor tilted for forward flight

FIG. 10
-

Semi-rigid rotor helicopter


555/3/3

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in
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_ 29 _

SUMMARY
Dissymmetry of lift is caused by horizontal flight or
by wind during hover.
Y
\

Dissymmetry of lift is the difference in lift that occurs


between the advancing blade half and the retreating blade
half of the rotor disc area.

Unless corrected, dissymetry of lift will roll the


helicopter to the side opposite to the advancing blade.
Dissymmetry of lift is corrected by

l.
T

An aerodynamic reduction in the angle of attack


as the advancing blade flaps up and an increase
as the retreating blade flaps down;

l
2.

The blade's angle of attack being reduced as it


advances and increased as it retreats by the
position of the cyclic control column; and sometimes by

3.

Mechanically reducing the angle of attack of the

advancing blade and increasing it on the retreating

blade by offsetting the blade control horn with


respect to the flapping hinge.

PRACTICE EXERCISE B
l.

Show, with the aid of a sketch, why the adyancing


blade of a helicopter in horizontal flight tends
to develop more lift than the retreating blade

unless corrected.
2.

Make a freehand sketch of an airfoil section meeting

an airflw, and show the chord line and angle of


attack of the airfoil.
3.

With the aid of a sketch, show that, when a rotor


blade flaps up, its angle of attack is aerodynamically reduced.

(Answers on page39)

555/3/3

_ 21 _

Gyroscopic Effect
The turning main rotor assembly behaves as a large gyroscope
in that it tilts at right angles to the direction of a push that
it receives.

This behaviour in a gyroscope is called precession

in a helicopter if is called ggrgscopic effect or phase lag.

Figure ll shows how a gyroscope tilts or precesses in a


reaction to an applied force or push.

t
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(2) Forget all the others.

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(gen tgwtlrrxovgggeztgd tltggnulilguoaie

2 /ct_j):{,
(i) Now suppose we apply a torque
to the axle an the horizontal plane,

lg

"lhis imparts a mation in the horizontal (lg) 7,4,", the ngmenls mm M" both
dlrecnnn to the segments, one to the right _ 0 ;,,,|z,,nm/ and G "mm, momm
and the other to the left.

L\

t -_.
._\_-.L2.|

1-My me";-are mu" dwgcnay

_.__t

eff!

..

<;
\ I

%%%g;%%%:%?%?%E
(M) This is the key diagram. Study it carefH"Y- The axle is rigidly connected In the
segments and must therefore tilt when the
segments move diagonally.

gggg
(H) All the other segment: must
n in we mm, wan

FIG. ll

C::(@;%:::D EiEi!!;g%iiifir
(0) T-h='=l're the whole wheel trlu.

How a gyroscope tilts


555/3/3

(P) Thu: when a gyroscope is given a push


il "'15 1" Pith! angle: to the directwn uf
the push.

._ 22 _

Figure 12 shows the gyroscope


rotor without its gimbals, and

f~\
i?T
r/,/IF
\\\\'i._M/
A'/
Ll

lying in a horizontal plane such


as a main rotor assembly.
If
we apply a push to the rotor
'
at A,it will move in the direction
marked tilt at B. Compare this
movement with that shown in

PUSH

Fig. ll and you will find that


FIG. 12

it is the same.

Tilting of a rotor

You can thus

see that the tilting of the


o
rotor occurs 90 later in the direction of rotation from, and in
the same sense as, the applied force.
We have seen earlier that, for horizontal flight, the tip~
path plane is tilted forward by the retreating blade being made
to flap up and the advancing blade being allowed to flap down, and
that a blade is made to flap up or down by its angle of attack,
and thus the lift-force generated being increased or decreased.
Because of the gyroscopic effect of the turning rotor, the change
in angle of attack must be made 90 before it is to take effect.
Thus, the desired change for forward flight is made at 90 to the
centre line on the lefthand side of the helicopter see Fig. 13.
LOW NTCH APPLIED
HIGH FLAP RESULT

W-I

F ""_\\,-__

\%f"ilktow rm aesutt

- FIG. 13

id

\|

"

IGH mcla APPLIED

Where the angle of attack is changed

This applies to a rotor which is turning in the conventional


direction, which is counterclockwise when viewed from above.

555/3/3

_ 23 _

This 90 lead
Bell helicopter if
direction and then
forwards, watching

in the control can be seen very easily on a


you position the blades in a fore~andaft
move the cyclic control column backwar d s and
the blades at the same time.
No movement

takes place at all when this is done, but when the control column
is moved laterally, the blades increase and decrease their pitch
as the control is moved.

The same effect can be seen, less easily,

in a fully articulated rotor if you position the control horn pushpull rod of one blade directly over a control rod into the swashp lat e and then move the cyclic control column.

Coriolis Effect
As a blade of a fully articulated or rigid rotor flaps up, the
centre of mass of the blade moves in towards the centre of the
rotor disc, and as the blade flaps down, it moves outward.
See Fig. lu.

Axis
of rotacn

UP

X3

Blade flapping

X2

\\|

\
\

X:

DOWN

_
'

Xwn

\KC8ntre of mass

FIG. 14

Blade centre of mass movement

Remember that, because of coning, a blade of these two types


.
0 rotor will not flap down below a plane passing through the
ro t or hub and perpendicular to the axis of rotation.
f

The product of mass and velocity yields momentum.


Mass X Velocity

Momentum

555/3/3

Thatis

_ gu _
Thus, when a rotor is turning, each blade has a certain
amount of momentum.
The law of Conservation of Momentum states that

"the momentum

of a body does not change unless an unbalanced external force


acts on it".

As a blade flaps up, its centre of mass moves towards

the axis of rotation, and so the length of its path around the
axis becomes shorter.

For the blade to retain the same momentum,

which it must, its angular velocity must therefore increase.


reverse holds true as a blade flaps down.

The

This law is well demonstrated by the exhibition ice skater.


When the skater pirouettes with her arms outstretched, her rate
of spin is not very great, but as she lowers her arms, the rate
increases markedly.
When the blade flaps up and increases its angular velocity,
it is said to 551, and as it flaps down and decreases its angular
velocity, it is said to 52.

The rigid rotor handles the lead

and lag forces by allowing the blade to bend at or near its


attachment to the rotor head.

The blade on an articulated rotor

moves because it is mounted on a vertical hinge.

See Fig. 15.

This hinge is sometimes called a @532 or lead-lag hinge.

--Dirch.~

.... --

LE

W
-:4.
ca

___.--

___.

I
;

'.
_

1_

.7.

,.
.

Vcrhcal hmge

_________ __

, '=,

/__

::'

--- 'I 1.
.

___
=I

-A . __ _ __

' ' '' '

I:-5
. ~' "

\.- _

.__

If

"--\ ":
3

:'

.'

"-~~~.':.AGGVG

FIG. l5

Leading and lagging


555/3/3

: I

'

-25..

The blade is not free to lead and lag without restraint, which
would cause mechanical damage to the rotor head and would also
create an unbalanced rotor. It is attached to a damping device,
which is adjusted to give a specified rate of movement under a
given load.
The semi-rigid rotor is underslung and has a small preset
coning angle.
effect.

These two features greatly reduce the coriolis

As a blade flaps up, the centre of gravity of the rotor

assembly moves out from the axis of rotation in the direction of


that blade.

See Fig. 16 (b).

As the blades flap, they will

tend to increase their velocity to maintain their momentum but,


because the C of G of the head has moved away from the axis of
rotation, it will generate some added momentum of its own to the
system.

This added momentum

partly cancels that needed by the

blades.

The source of the momentum

does not matter, just so

long as the total momentum of the system stays the same.


Thus,
the blade flapping up will have little tendency to increase its
velocity to conserve momentum, and the blade flapping down will
have little tendency to decrease its velocity.

The small

lead-lag forces that are generated by the remaining coriolis


effect are absorbed in blade bending and by massive blade drag
braces that locate the blades in their grips.

Ho0ke's Joint Effect


Horizontal flight is obtained by tilting the tip~path plane.
When the tip-path plane is tilted, its plane of rotation differs
from that of the rotor drive shaft.
to Hooke's

This difference gives rise

joint effect, wherein the driven member of a universal

joint accelerates and decelerates twice in each revolution of the


driving member.

Figure l6 shows the effect on a fourbladed

articulated rotor.

During hover, the tip-path plane is parallel

to the rotor drive-shaft


at 90 to each other.

plane, and the blades space themselves

Because the blades are not flapping, there

is no coriolis effect, and so the blades will not move about


their vertical hinges.
In horizontal flight with the tip~path
plane tilted(for the rotor shaft plane of rotation to maintain
a constant velocity),the two athwartships blades must move on
555/3/3

_ 25 _

their vertical hinges to positions A and B.

The blades thus

accelerate and decelerate twice in each revolution of the rotor


shaft.

__|_./L ..ml-n

,........-dd;-~

wat

.~<i"at

<* rgtajg

.,_

if

Qt:

_ /

-a

Til

,_

-_._~""

---...-x._.._....----

._. ......................................................................... .._.,;__


.-

"t"

/-'

(a) Hovering

gb) Horizontal

FIG. 16

ight

Hookes joint effect

The articulated rotor caters for this effect by allowing the


blades to move on their vertical hinges, the rigid rotor by
bending the blades at or near their attachments to the rotor head,
and the semi-rigid rotor by bending its stiff and heavy blades.

555/3/3

_ 27 _

Figure l7 shows a constant-

Wmwwi
1HLJ%a
_ _
v
3.
1-

velocity universal joint where


torque is transferred at constant

'_:>.:, .;;|

\
4

1|.-4mll-=w|-I-||f"" "'w'

'.g.-.-.fi
a/..q_ :3

'1

nfrm

I
l 1
"=1|li\'1
2-.:\\1_i,1

HE

n'

wmi

1.
g '55

speed by the use of free-moving


.
.
steel balls between the driving

- -i;+%
Q

iv

\
/A J./'

in "K -_ agave"
1
vawng

and driven members.

,5

Each member

has two fingers or arms,

*hjf;&:,
fY /;
pix,/
.

~;
?QE

Z,_

in

the sides of which are specially


shaped grooves. A steel ball forms
the driving connection in the

FIG. l7

Cqnstantvelocity universal

two curved channels formed when

joint
the joint is assembled.
The
shape of these channels is such that, irrespective of the angle at
which the joint operates, the balls always lie in a plane that makes
equal angles with both driving and driven members of the joint.
This feature is common to all makes of constant~velocity universal
joints.
Rotor heads have been designed and built to behave as a
constant-velocity joint but, so far, this type of rotor head has
not been used in production-run helicopters.

Drag Effect
As a turning blade advances and then retreats, the velocity
of the airflow over the blade varies as does the drag generated.
This changing value in drag causes the blade to move about its
vertical hinge or, in the case of the rigid and semirigid rotors,
for the blade itself to bend.
The five main effects discussed, that is

l.
2.

Dissymmetry of lift,
j

Gyroscopic effect,

3.

Coriolis effect,

4.

Hooke's joint effect, and

5.

Drag effect,

555/3/3

_28..

all take place together when the helicopter is in horizontal


flight. However, for hovering in still air, only gyroscopic
and drag effects occur.

SUMMARY
In an articulated rotor
l.

Dissymmetry of lift is corrected by the blade


flapping up and down about the horizontal (flapping)
hinge;

2.

Gyroscopic effect is allowed for by the angle of


attack of the blade being changed approximately
90 before the result of the pitch change is
desired; and

3.

Coriolis, Hookes joint, and drag effects are


absorbed by each blade being mounted on a vertical
(drag) hinge, with its variations in velocity
with respect to the rotor head being controlled
by a blade damper.

For a semi-rigid rotor


1.

2.

Dissymmetry of lift is corrected by the blades


flapping up and down about the rotor-head pivot
point;
Gyroscopic effect is allowed for as in the
articulated rotor;

3.

Coriolis effect is absorbed by the rotor assembly


being underslung on the rotor drive shaft;

4.

and

Hookes joint and drag effects are absorbed by


blade bending.

In a rigid rotor
l.

Gyroscopic effect is allowed for as in the


articulated rotor, and

2.

All other effects are absorbed by the blades


bending at or very near their attachment to the
rotor head.

555/3/3

_ 29 _

PRACTICE EXERCISE C
State whether each of the following statements is true
or false:
l.

Dissymmetry of lift is experienced when hovering


in still air.

2.

The rotor disc is the area within the tip~path plane.

3.

A retreating blade experiences a greater air velocity


than does an advancing blade.

4.

A horizontal hinge is often called a flapping hinge.

5.

As a blade flaps up, its angle of attack decreases.

6.

An offset pitchchange horn has no effect on a

flapping blade.
7.

No allowance for the gyroscopic effect of the


rotating rotor is needed in its control.

8.

Phase lag is another name for gyroscopic effect.

9.

Because of gyroscopic effect, the angle of attack

of a blade is changed at about 90 of rotor


rotation before the desired effect of the change
is to take place.
10.

Coriolis effect is apparent only during hovering


in still air.

ll.

An underslung semi-rigid rotor with between.2 to 6 of


preconing will experience little coriolis effect.

l2.

The movement of rotor blades in the vertical plane


is called flagging.

13.

Rotor blade movement on the vertical hinge is


called flapping.

14.

Coriolis, Hookes joint, and drag effects cause


a blade to move about the vertical hinge.

15.

The vertical hinge is often called the drag


hinge.

16.

The rate of blade flap is controlled by a rotor


blade damper.

l7.

A cyclic pitch change alters the pitch angles


of all the blades by the same amount at the
same time.

18.

A rigid rotor uses blade bending instead of


vertical and horizontal hinges.

555/3/3

_ 30 _

19.

A semi-rigid rotor seesaws spanwise about a central


point.

20.

An articulated rotor blade is free to flap about


a horizontal hinge but is damped in its dragging
about a vertical hinge.

(Answers

on page

41)

The Tail Rotor


A tail rotor is used to counteract the torque PacTiOn frcm
a single main rotor and, to a much lesser extent, to provide
directional control in flight.

Helicopters with twin main rotors

counteract their torque reaction by counterrotating the rotors.


Thus, they obtain directional control by mixing the cyclic
inputs to each rotor head and so don't need a tail rotor.
The tail rotor is mounted vertically, or nearly so, on one side
of the fuselage, with its centre line at right angles to the
direction of normal forward flight.

See Fig. 18.

It is driven

through shafting and gearboxes from the main rotor and is


connected mechanically with the main rotor so that, when the main
rotor turns, so must the tail rotor.
This mechanical connection
between the two rotors means that, in autorotation, the pilot
has normal behaviour from the tail rotor.
Ideally, in level
flight, the tail rotor uses little or no power, nearly all power
being available at the main rotor for lifting and propelling the
helicopter.

The tail rotor uses most power during a climbing

turn in the direction of rotation of the main rotor.

This is

a climbing, left-hand turn if the main rotor turns in the


conventional direction of counter-clockwise when looked at from
above,

with a maximum AUW the power used by the tail rotor

in such a turn can exceed 10% of the total power available from
the engine.

555/3/3

_ 31 i

/ .'.;.;.;~-~
nu
if

se$5'

..

lllli?/_,=i\'!-'
i
.

-1-ulna-Q

..

an

F1

Q!

MI

//

%A:'|-

V,

7' 7

/"|

I/

Itli

L1 |"
g

// --. \

ii

y ,,~=7

'

'

//* \\
I 41 I

\
I

Rt-'te\

l________l

FIG

18

Position of the tail rotor

We determine the direction of rotation by viewing the tail


rotor from the side that it is mounted on the helicopter. A
tail rotor may have between two and six blades and will turn
much faster than the main rotor, but usually slower than the
engine rev/min.

(The rev/min ratio between tail rotor and engine

differs from one type of helicopter to another.)

Principle of Operation
The tail rotor, which is a type of reversible pitch propeller,
is controlled by the pilot through conventional rudder pedals.
Movement of the rudder pedals increases or decreases the pitch
of all the blades by the same amount and in the same_direction,
Q!

thereby increasing or decreasing the thrust generated and the


lateral force felt by the tail of the helicopter.
The blades
can be moved from a positive-pitch angle through 0 to a
negative-pitch angle so that a thrust to the right or left may be
obtained.

See Fig. l9.

S55/3/3

._ 32 _

FORWARD
(1-innnnnu

\f'Tai| - rofor gearbox

'::T'i1>
AIR FLOW
FIG. 19

-: "'

-'_'jIi-'*"

,""_

1; <>
\_ +.

Positive and negative angles of a


tail rotor blade

Forces of a Tail Rotor


The tail rotor is a rotating airfoil sited in an airflow. As
with the main rotor, the airflow causes dissymmetry of lift to be
felt across the disc of the tail rotor.

In correcting for

dissymmetry of lift, the effects of drag, Hooke's joint, and


coriolis are introduced and absorbed by the relatively stiff
blades and heavily built hub assembly. The presence of gyroscopic
effect or phase lag does not matter because the pitch of the
tail~rotor blades is always changed collectively.

As with the

articulated and semi-rigid main rotors, dissymmetry of lift is


catered for by blade flapping or by the assembly seesawing in a
vertical plane, and by the geometry of the pitchchange mechanism
to the blades.

555/3/3

_ 33 _
Dissymmetry of Lift
From Fig. 18, you will see that the velocity of the airflow
over the top tailrotor blade is

Blade velocity plus airflow velocity.

Over the lower blade, it is

Blade velocity minus airflow velocity.

Thus, if both blades have the same angle of attack, then


much more thrust will be produced by the top half of the disc
than by the lower half.

This uneven distribution of the thrust

will cause vibration and will unevenly load the tail rotor and
the tailrotor gearbox assembly.

This problem is overcome by

the blades flapping in much the same way as the main rotor
blades flap.

As the top blade flaps outwards away from the

helicopter, its angle of attack becomes less, and less thrust is


produced. At the same time, the lower blade flaps inwards, its
angle of attack is increased, and more thrust is produced.
The
net result of the flapping action is an even distribution of
thrust over the disc area.
Figure 20 shows schematically a twobladed tail rotor with
both the blades mounted on a yoke freely pivoted in the centre
about a trunnion. Each blade can turn on a feathering (spanwise)
axis and is connected to the pitch-change mechanism by a push-pull
rod.

The trunnion is mounted so that its axis lies at an angle

to the centre line of the yoke, which gives an angled hinge called
a delta three hinge, This hinge reduces the angle of attack of
the advancing blade and increases that of the retreating blade
as the tail rotor flaps.

The angle of attack is further altered

by the pitchmchange linkage, because each push-pull rod is


attached to the leading-edge side of a blade, the angle of
attack of an outward-flapping blade is reduced.

As the blade

flaps inward, its angle of attack is increased.

The result of

tail~rotor flapping is that for level flight in calm air, the


assembly assumes a less than vertical angle. Note angle 6 in Fig.2O
555/3/3

_ 34 _

~..4---~1?d\-5-Han of +=-:1 v-,b__

____,/

Fuih-Pu" Nd

./
"'

I
-iv

Fnfch-change

Yo kg

Yakg

G $

..

Trunnion

"W \\

Tall-rotor drive. shaft

an

/3
|F@jrg|{@7

Fa

'

""'

,-

Pdch-change head

>
~

"Fail-rota:
dnv: shaft

Roiaiiu of blade

ab BUrfnQ1:11 C-T axis

"_'

/6

'

---_--4 "L

'

r''\""

Trunnion

Pushpunrod

:1

r
5+

P=-+-.+.-.,.. .r-1., r=""'

L
in --vi FLAP -------->- Ouk

FIG. 20

Tail--rotor flapping

You can see the change in the angle of attack of the blades
due to tail~rotor flapping on the delta three hinge very easily
if you balance a 30cm rule on a pencil with the rule inclined
(offset) at a small angle to the pencil.

555/3/8

See Fig. 21.

Seesaw

_ 35 _
the rule on the pencil.

As

the 30 cm end of the rule lifts


up, the numbers between 15 and 30
incline down, and the opposite
happens with the other end of
the rule.
Increase the angle

'
'

Lead'
edge
n5

Tra'
ragedge

of the rule relative to the


pencil and see the effect.
Position the pencil almost
lengthwise under the rule and

QQR

see the effect.


The delta-hinge-mounted
tail rotor can have only two
blades.

edge
ng

Tra

FIG; 21

If more are needed

ag:

because more thrust is necessary

1-

or because a large~diameter

L.;d';g

tail rotor cannot be used, a


different type of tail rotor

Deltathree-hinge effect

is called for.

One common

type of tail rotor that can have as few as two and as many as
six blades has a central hub rigidly fixed to the tailrotor
gearbox output shaft, with each blade attached to the hub by a
flapping hinge. Each blade can be turned about its feathering
axis and is connected to the pitchchange head by a pushpull
rod. The geometry of the pitch~change head and the attachment
of the pushpull rod to the blade is arranged so that, as the
blade flaps outward, its angle of attack is reduced and vice
versa.

Figure 22 shows schematically this angle change and the


tip-path plane of this tail rotor during level flight in calm
air.

555/3/3

'- as -

I
Ft? Our
I

ROTATION
-4----

I
4

Blade
-~_a_

HI
..__,___-- Biade spindle

C)

Hing

e
l ., 7

H_'PLKE}
"
Pikh - change. hand
\

_Q

p/.

WW
\

\\l

QTH
TP

/
f

L?

.\'1-4';';;;n

FIG. 22

Tail rotor with flapping hinge

Drift
The force or thrust from the tail
' rotor 15
' u sed to counteract
the torque reaction of the main rotor. A couple is a pair of
equal and opposite parallel forces that tend to produce rotation,
that is, a torque. The force produced by the tail rotor acts
perpendicularly to an arm.

That is, the tail rotor produces

The main
' rotor torqu e is balanced by the moment, which
stops its rotational effect but results in a s mall translationa

l
force that drifts the helicop
'
ter sideways.

a moment.

555/3/3

- 37 _

Dlrechon of rotation
of mam rater

F
Q

\ I

RESULTANT

Reaction for ue

t: 1*;=. : a.*:.

\
,

B:i:ru:|r\g momenl produced by Tall-ruler

_2_+_

Ta}? rotor fare:

- FIG. 23

Tail~rotor drift

Drift is counteracted by tilting the main rotor to one side


The tilt can be achieved by the design of the mount supporting
the main transmission or by the cyclic controls being rigged so
that neutral on the cyclic control column results in the tipa
path plane of the main rotor being tilted.

A combination of

both methods is often used.


The main rotor control system is often designed to give a
progressively increasing tilt of the tip-path plane as the
collective is raised.

Thus, as power is increased by raising

the collective and as more tailrotor thrust is applied by the


pilot, the resulting increase in drift is automatically opposed.

SUMMARY

The tail rotor counteracts the torque of the main rotor.


The tail rotor's blade angles are changed collectively.
That is, all blades have their pitch angle changed by
the same amount and in the same direction at the
same time.

555/3/3

_33_

The tail rotor, like the main rotor, experiences


dissymmetry of lift, which is corrected by blade
flapping.
Whenever the main rotor turns, so does the tail
rotor. They are mechanically connected.
The tail rotor is controlled by the pilot through
the tail rotor (rudder) pedals.

PRACTICE

EXERCISE D

State whether each of the following statements is true or


false.

l.

The tail rotor supplies a small propulsive force for


the helicopter.

2.

A two~bladed tailrotor assembly may be mounted on

an angled or delta three hinge.


3.

Dissymmetry of lift is corrected by blade flapping.

4.

During autorotation, the tail rotor stops turning.

5.

Tail rotor blades can be moved either side of 0


pitch angle.

6.

In level cruise flight, the tail rotor does little


work.

7.

Tailrotor blade angles are changed independently

of each other, that is,cyclically.


8.

The tail rotor is connected mechanically to the


main rotor.

9.

The main rotor turns at the same rev/min as the


tail rotor.

10.

The tail rotor supplies a force to counteract the

torque reaction of the main rotor, especially


during hovering.

(Answers on page 42)

555/3/3

_ 39 i

ANSWERS TO PRACTICE EXERCISES


EXERCISE A

Statements 1, H, 6, 7, 9, and 10 are true.


Statement 2 is false. The main purpose of the tail rotor
is to counteract the torque reaction of the main rotor.
Statement 3 is false. The total reaction of the main
rotor is resolved into lift and thrust.
Statement 5 is false. when the lift exceeds the weight,
the helicopter climbs. To hover (neither gain nor
lose height), lift must exactly equal weight.
Statement 8 is false. The coning angle is the angle
formed between the blades and a plane at right angles to
the rotor shaft.
EXERCISE

1.
1

E-4

<

Q.

I./'\.S. 60 knbfs

->

'>
fer,/8

0/

1
W;

E
*,

s' O

REYREANNG

0
'7:1.' ' O.
HALF

ADVANCING

r|Au=

80
I

a' Q

an

K. Q

4&0

Blade Hp velocify when

hovering in siill a|r:400 knots.

AH
FIG. 24

Difference in blade velocities

555/3/3

...L[Q_

If, instead of the helicopter flying forward at 60 kt IAS,


we hover in a steady head wind of 60 kt, the ASI will read
60 IAS. when the advancing blade is at 90 to the aircraft centre line, the velocity of the air over the blade
tip is now the stillair tip velocity plus the air
velocity of 60 kt, and the retreating blade tip experiences
the still-air tip velocity minus the air velocity of 60 kt.
More lift is now generated by the advancing blade and less
lift by the retreating blade. As a result, the helicopter
will tend to roll to the side of the retreating blade.
2.

Relam Iir'_f|OW

FIG. 25

3.

chord ne

$74;-Aug/e 0!" EH36}:

,._ L

-_->-

-v'- E

"

"7

Relative airflow and angle of attack

when a rotor blade is turning and flapping up, it


has two velocities.
One velocity is in the direction
of rotation and the other is upwards and at right
angles to the first.
If we hold the blade still and
apply to it the air velocities it felt when turning
and flapping up, we will have an airflow from ahead
and an airflow from above.
Figure 26 shows the
space diagram of the two velocities.

Air moon

'

7L"i'

t|n

lI"Qr\

irigle of aliids

Blade motion

FIG. 26

Space diagram of two velocities


555/3/3

-141-

These two velocities are combined to give a


triangle of velocities.
Its resultant gives us
the new velocity and direction.
See Fig.27.

/'

A"_f|w
mm abut

, 7,

-;:.:. .

Airow from ahead

"'

_ _ -

FIG. 27

~ ~ _ _ ___

* ~ -___ __ 5

New angle. of aack

The new angle of attack

The change in direction gives a decrease in the


angle of attack of the blade and, it follows, a
decrease in the lift generated. The opposite
occurs as a blade flaps down.
EXERCISE C

Statements 2, H, 5, 8, 9, ll, 12, lH,l5, 18, 19, and 20


are true.

Statement l is false. Dissymmetry of lift is caused by


an airflow meeting the rotor disc and causing differing
air velocities over the advancing and retreating rotor
blades.
Thus, during hover in still air, there is no
dissymmetry of lift.
Statement 3 is false. A retreating blade experiences a
lesser air velocity than an advancing blade.
Statement 6 is false. An offset pitch change horn
changes the pitch angle of the blade as it flaps
up and down. The offset is arranged so that, as the
blade flaps up, the pitch angle is reduced.
Statement 7 is false. Because of the gyroscopic effect
the change in angle of attack must be made 90 of rotor
"rotation ahead of where the effect is to take place.
Statement 10 is false. Coriolis effect occurs because
of the flapping up and down of the blades needed to
tilt the rotor disc for flight other than hover. During
hover in still air, no tilting of the rotor disc is
needed, and so no Coriolis effect will be felt.
Statement l3 is false.

Rotor blade movement on the vertical

hinge is called dragging or leading and lagging.

555/3/3

_ n2 _

Statement 16 is false. A rotor blade damper controls


the leadlag rate of t he blade.
Statement 17 is false. A collective pitch change alters
the pitch angles of all the blades by the same amount
at the same time.
F
e

EXERCISE D

$3

ii

Statements 2, 3, 5, 6, 8 and 10 are true.


Statement l is false. The propulsive force for the
helicopter is supplied by the main rotor.
Statement H is false.
The tail rotor turns at all
times that the main ro tor turns.
Statement 7 is false.

Tail rotor-blade angles are only

changed collectively.

Statement 9 is false.
The rev/min of the tail rotor
are higher than those of the main rotor.

TEST PAPER 3
l.

2.

In your own words, state the purpose of


(a)

A main rotor, and

(b)

A tail rotor.

Draw two sketches showing a helicopter of 1200 kg AUW,


(a)

Hovering in still air, and

(b)

In straight and level flight.

In each sketch, show the main rotor force resolved into


lift and thrust forces and also show the drag and weight
forces. Assign values to the lift, drag, and thrust
forces.

555/3/3

..L1_3

Discuss briefly the main differences between semi-rigid,


articulated, and hingeless rotors.

With the aid of a diagram, show how dissymmetry of lift


may be felt by a main rotor unless corrected. What
would happen to the helicopter if no correction were
made?

%
%
e

Give alternative names for


(a)

A vertical hinge, and

(b)

A horizontal hinge.

(c)

What type of rotor head uses both of these


hinges?

Explain why the angle of attack of a main rotor blade is


changed 90 of rotor~head rotation before the desired
effect of the change is to take place.

8-

(a)

Name the three effects that will cause a main rotor


blade to lead and lag about its vertical hinge.

(b)

when the helicopter is hovering in still air, do the


blades lead and lag? Give reasons for your answer.

with the aid of a diagram, show how dissymmetry of lift


can be felt by a tail rotor unless corrected. What
would happen to the tail rotor if no correction were made?

Briefly describe one method used to correct dissymmetry of


lift of a tail rotor.
9

-3

Why is the tail rotor mechanically connected to the main


rotor so that it must turn when the main rotor turns?

555/3/3