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# He Wharekura-tini

Kaihautu 0 Aotearoa

THE OPE N
P0l.YTE(HN|(
OF NEW ZEALAND

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55533

CONTENTS
Basic Rotors

## Forces of the Rotor Head

11

Dissymmetry of Lift

13

Gyroscopic Effect

21

Coriolis Effect

23

25

Drag Effect

27

## The Tail Rotor

30

Principle of Operation

31

## Forces of the Tail Rotor

32

Dissymmetry of Lift

33

Drift

36

10/91

This rn'a'Yerial is for the sole use of enrolled students and may not be
reproduced without the written authority of the Principal, TOPNZ.

555/3/3

AIRCRAFT Er IHEERING
\$-

CI)

HELICOPTERS

ASSIGNMENT 3

s
BASIC ROTORS

## The main rotor of a helicopter converts the power supplied

to it from the engine into a lifting force. When tilted forwards,
backwards, or to either side, the lifting force propels the
helicopter. The mechanism within the rotor head that tilts the
lifting force is controlled by the pilot through the collective
pitch lever and the cyclic pitch~control column.

By tilting

the lifting force, the pilot controls the helicopter about the
lateral and longitudinal axes.
The tail rotor is the helicopter's rudder.
It consists of
a rotor mounted vertically and at 90 to the centre line of the
helicopter.

## train used to drive the main rotor and is arranged to turn

whenever the main rotor turns. The tail rotor provides an opposing
force to the torque reaction of the main rotor and controls the
helicopter about the vertical axis, especially when hovering.
is

It

## In this assignment, we will show you how the lifting force of

a main rotor is tilted and resolved into lift and thrust. We will
consider the tail rotor and discuss the aerodynamic and mechanical
forces acting on the helicopter.

THE MAIN ROTOR

WW

## As with an aircraft propeller, the thrust generated by a

helicopter rotor acts at right angles to the tip-path plane.
Opposing this force and exactly equalling it, when hovering, is
the weight of the helicopter. In this condition, iii; is equal

555/3/8

## to weight and, because the

helicopter is not moving, 532

Lift
TOTAL

Tta|

REACTION

To obtain

## helicopter, the tip-path plane

is tilted and the total reaction
resolves into lift and thrust,
with the lift supporting the
weight and the thrust being
equal to the drag for straight

## (El) Hovering Qrillair); Tip path Plane horizontal.

rout

'i

as/\c'r |ou

E vvmic-=1
>

:( lift J
Ifnrr|1rIMI'\f

_ _

'4Ferward (thrill!)
wmpumni

Div-cc! ion of
mot] In

## shows these forces acting on a

helicopter in hover and in
forward flight.

wucur

## unbalanced, the helicopter will

climb or descend. When thrust
and drag are unbalanced, the

LIFT

-rnausr

Figure l

e-
X

_ ;
i

slow down.

DRAG

Dlndinn J
Ivnhnn

For example, in

## the thrust exceeds the drag and

the lift exceeds the weight.
(c) Total reaction resolved into lift and thrust for
for-ward flight.

obtain thrust

l.

engine assembly;

2.

## By changing the centre of gravity of the helicopter

by, for example, moving the cabin assembly;
555/3/3

_ 3 _
3.

4.

## By using aerodynamic forces to lift and depress

rigidly mounted on its drive shaft; or

5.

## By using aerodynamic forces to lift and depress

rotor blades rigidly fixed to the rigidly mounted
root ends.

In practice, the last three methods are used, and the rotors
that use these methods are

1.

2.

3.

## Thehingeless and articulated rotor heads tilt the tip~path plane

by simply increasing the angle of attack of the retreating blade and

As a

flaps down, as shown in Fig. 2 (a) and(b).

555/3/3

_ u _

## The tilting is controlled

by the cyclic-pitch control column
usually called the cyclic, and
can be effected in any direction.
The cyclic column is moved
forward to tilt the tip-path
plane forward, which moves the
helicopter forward.
It is
moved to the right to tilt the
(a)

right.

___ ~

F;

-Et?fI:D

## of the cyclic column and, of

course, for any intermediate
position.
The tip~path plane of the
semi-rigid rotor is tilted in
the same way, with the rising

(b)

## equalled by the dropping of

both blades are mounted on a

___===r-

## rigid, centrally pivoted yoke,

or seesaws in the direction
chosen.
Figure 2 (c) shows
a tilted tip-path plane for
a semirigid rotor.

(c)

FIG. 2

Types of rotor

## For vertical flight, the

angle of attack of all the blades
is increased or decreased
simultaneously. This is

controlled by the collectivepitch control column, usually called the collective. The
pilot raises the collective for the helicopter to go up and
lowers it to go down.

555/3/3

_ 5 _
The control inputs to the rotor head from the cyclic and the
collective pitch controls are superimposed upon each other
mechanically so that, for example, a climbing, turning, forward
flight path is possible.

\$9

I7 7

7 7

' ""7"

77

SUMMARY
The main rotor converts engine power into a force that

## can both lift and propel the helicopter.

The total reaction of a rotor is at right angles to
the tip-path plane.

tip-path plane.

lift and thrust.
I

l.

2.

3.

## The tail rotor counteracts the torque of the main rotor

and gives directional control during hovering.

## Coning and Flapping

when the helicopter is hovering in still air, the airflow
comes from directly above and goes straight down through the rotor
The lift force generated by the turning rotor acts vertically
upward and is equal to the weight (mass) of the helicopter acting
vertically downward.

1.

2.

## The centrifugal force of each blade.

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_ 5 _
The lift force acts to lift each blade tip upwards, and the
centrifugal force acts to keep each blade horizontal. The two
forces resolve into a single force, that results in a small upward
The angle formed between the blade
and a plane at right angles to the rotor shaft is called the
coning angle.

See Fig.

3.

## The articulated rotor has each blade mounted on a horizontal

or flapping hinge, which permits its blade to freely move up and
down or flap.

## The rigid rotor permits the blade tip to move up andcbwn by

the bending of the blade and the bending of the rotor head just
Z/B

kg

A7

T
l?

1%

%Z

/?\\

Coning angle

=>- w:>

## Hovering in sffll air

Comng angk dbphced.
FIG. 3

EIIJ

Coning angle

Neither the articulated nor the rigid rotor system can give
flight other than hovering unless a coning angle is generated.
The coning angle must be displaced about the main rotor shaft
by the flapping of the blades to give the tilted tip-path plane
necessary for horizontal movement. See Fig. 2 (a) and (b).
Because the semi-rigid rotor has its tip-path plane tilted by
point, both blades flap together but in opposite directions.
by an equal amount.
See Fig. 2 (c). Thus, the semi-rigid rotor
does not need to make a coning angle, and the lift force bends
the stiff, heavily built blades evenly but slightly along their
span.

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_ 7 _

Coriolis Effect.

## In fact, the coning angle hardly varies during all stages of

flight because the rotor and engine rev/min are held in a narrow
operating range.

## winched aboard or released from a cargo hook.

Any increases/decreases

in load make only a small difference to the coning angle and soonly small changes in bladepitch angle are made to correct for
them.
The following simplified example shows the change in coning
angle caused by an increase in the weight of a helicopter with a

exact.

Helicopter AUW

8000 lbf

llO lbf

C of G location

13 ft

Rotor rev/min

210

gggg

2000 lbf

## alloz ><<1TXn2n2n0*x 210)

21 477 lbf

2
Centrifugal force

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_ 8 _

**
4*

FIG. 4

.7]

.Wt

m+77mf

fjzmmur

## Generating a coning angle

2000

tans = are
6

tan 0.093l2

Coning angle or 9

5 19

## The helicopter is now loaded to ll 000 lb max. AUW.

Lift generated

Centrifugal force

iiggg

2750 lb

21477 lb
2750

## tan " nan"

9

tan 0.1280

Coning angle or G

7 18

## During flight, the rotor and engine rev/min can be considered

as constant, with the power being changed by alteration to the
engine induction manifold pressure or fuel flow and, at the
same time, collectively altering the main rotor blade angles.

555/3/3

i Q _

The power is changed because the inertia of the rotor head and
blades assembly makes an increase or decrease in rotor rev/min
impossible to get in a reasonable time, but a quick response
to a change in power may be obtained by changing the blade pitchangles with a change in engine fuel flow.
We cannot overemphasise the importance of keeping the rev/min
in the correct range.
If the recommended rev/min are exceeded,
result, the severity of the damage depending upon the amount and
duration of the overspeed.
If the rev/min fall below those recommended, the collective
pitch must be decreased or the engine power increased and the
rev/min allowed to increase to their normal value.

However,

## if no more engine power is available, the helicopter will have to

descend with the reduced collective pitch.
If the collective
pitch is increased to maintain altitude, the increase in blade
angle above normal will produce more drag for the lift generated,
the rev/min will decay (slow down) further, and the helicopter will
descend rapidly.

## the coning angle increases due to the reduced centrifugal force

until a position is reached where it takes a long time to bring
the blades down again by reducing collective pitch.

A very

## heavylandingp is then unavoidable.

Early helicopters with articulated rotors could get their

## This condition, known

as candling,

Modern articulated

## resulted in a crash landing.

prevent excessive coning of the blades.

## an angle well outside the normal coning angle of the blades

but small enough to allow a reasonably rapid increase in rev/min
when collective pitch is reduced.

555/3/3

_ 19 _

SUMMARY
In flight, the engine and rotor rev/min are kept in a

## narrow operating range .

The coning angle is caused by the balance of lift and
centrifugal forces.
The tip-path plane is tilted to give forward flight
by flapping the blades up at the rear and down at the
front of the helicopter.
3

## In a semi-rigid rotor, as one blade flaps up, the

other blade flaps down by an equal amount.
A very low rotor rev/min will produce a large coning

## angle, which could endanger flight.

PRACTICE EXERCISE A

or false:

l.

## The main rotor is controlled by the pilot through

the collective and cyclic pitch control columns.

2.

## The main purpose of the tail rotor is to control

the helicopter about the vertical axis when in
level flight.

3.

## The total reaction of the main rotor is resolved

into lift and drag when the tip-path plane is
tilted.

4.

## When the tip-path plane is tilted to the right,

the helicopter moves to the right.

5.

## During hovering, the lift of the main rotor must

slightly exceed the weight of the helicopter.

6.

## In tilting the tip~path plane of a semi-rigid

rotor, the complete rotor head assembly is tilted.

7.

8.

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-11..

9.

10.

## The horizontal or flapping hinges of an articulated

rotor permit the blades to freely flap up and down.
A rigid rotor has its blades rigidly attached to
the rotor head, which is itself rigidly attached
to the rotor drive shaft.

## Forces of the Rotor Head

To achieve flight, the tip-path plane is tilted in the desired
assembly becomes resolved into lift to support the weight and
thrust to propel the helicopter. As the helicopter moves, the
airflow direction into the rotor head changes from directly

## rotor changes from straight down, forming a ground cushion, to aft

and down.
These changes in the airflow through the rotor disc, and the
fact that the tip-path plane has been tilted, create extra forces
and effects above those experienced when hovering.

555/3/3

_12_

7
1

If

/"" -\\
*_ i4._ _

is

r\

5.

lire-2

__&

.._/

(a)

7%%

When hovering

4*

\l_l
\l__h
'

///

so

if

_r

;_

it ,_%;; w |~
n

1.

Z--\\

.
\

Q;

_\
\\

i\
(la)

In eve| flight

(b)

In level flight

FIG. 5

## Airflow through the rotor

555/3/3

_ 13 _

Dissymmetry of Lift
The area within the tip~path plane of the main rotor is called
the disc area or, more generally, the rotor disc. when the
Q

## helicopter is hovering in still air, lift is generated by the

rotor blades equally at all positions around the rotor disc.

## As the helicopter moves, or as a wind is felt, the velocity of the

airflow over the rotor blades changes, with a higher velocity
in one half of the rotor disc and a lower velocity in the other
half.

## As a result of the different air velocities, different

lift forces will be generated from one side of the rotor disc to
the other.

## Unless this unequal distribution of lift is counteracted,

the helicopter would roll over in the direction of the side with
the least lift.

## dissgngetrg of 1ift,was a considerable problem to the designers

of early helicopters and autogiros.
Figure 6 (a) shows typical velocities at different positions
on a rotor blade when the helicopter is hovering in still air.
Because the air is still and the helicopter is hovering, the
rotor blade velocity is also the velocity of the air over the
The blade will thus experience the same air velocities
at all positions in the rotor disc.
Figure 6 (b) shows the same helicopter in forward flight
with an IAS of 100 kt.

## by the tip of the blade when it is advancing and at 90 to the

line of flight is the tip velocity pigs the 100 kt TAS, giving
a total of 500 kt. This increase in air velocity of 100 kt is
retreating and at 90 to the line of flight, the air velocity
felt at the tip is the tip velocity minus the lU0kt IAS, giving
2

## a total of 300 kt.

This decrease in air velocity of 100 kt is
felt along the span of the retreating blade.
For any given angle
of attack, the lift generated increases as the velocity of the

## airflow over the airfoil increases.

In fact, the lift increases
as the square of the air velocity. That is
If an air velocity of A m/s gives l unit of lift, then an air
velocity of ZXA m/s gives 4 units of lift, and an air velocity

555/3/3

.. 11; _

FORWARD

{
so
'b

\-

Iv

'5

8*
Drrecon

RETREATING
|4gq

\\

I lgw

/////~_\\\\
I00

i H

_0

\lO0

\3QD

HALF

HALF

/_

400

\
AFT

(a)

Hovering

A FORWARD

<\

-;~

63

'7

ho
r'|-EC
_
Q

RIETREAHNG
zoo

Y
1-=00

0

V V*T1gp_

zoo

Loo

W 500
F

HALF

HALF

AFT

(b)
FIG. 6

## Forward flight of 100 kt

Rotorblade velocities in hovr and in forward flight

555/3/3

_ 15 _

## Bearing this in mind, a study of Fig. 6 (b) will show that

more lift will be generated in the advancing half than in the
retreating half of the rotor disc unless some correction is used
an

We have seen that the articulated rotor and the rigid rotor
systems have blades that either flap or bend in the vertical

4%

plane.

## blade due to forward motion of the helicopter will cause the

blade to flap or bend up.
This upward movement will decrease
the angle of attack because the relative wind will change from
a horizontal direction to more of a downward direction while the

See Fig.

7.

AIRFLOW
FROM ABOVE

its ,d

Space

R55!-1:.rAN r
-_L>_AlRFLOw

-__ __ _ __ __

6:

FIG. 7

555/3/ 3

_ 15 _

## The decreased lift on the retreating blade will cause the

blade to flap or bend downward. This downward movement will
increase the angle of attack because the relative wind will
change from a horizontal direction to an upward direction while the

as

shown in Fig.

7.

## The combination of decreased angle of attack on the advancing

through blade flapping tends to equalise the lift over the two
halves of the rotor disc.
The position of the cyclic pitchcontrol
column in forward flight also causes a decrease in the angle
of attack on the advancing blade and an increase in the angle of

## column gives the major correction for dissymmetry of lift, with

the correction for blade flap being a minor but necessary contribution
The semi-rigid rotor behaves as a seesaw. As one blade flaps
change in angle of attack of each blade tends to equalise the
lift over the rotor disc.

## for dissymetry of lift is supplied by the forward movement of the

control column.
Another method that can be used on the articulated and rigid
rotor systems to decrease the angle of attack and the consequent
lift of an advancing blade flapping up and to increase the angle
of attack and the lift of a retreating blade flapping down is
to slightly offset the pitchchange horn on the blade in relation
to the flapping hinge.
exaggerated form.

## the input from the pilot to the rotor blade is attached to

face A on the control horn and the blade can rotate on the blade
spindle.

555/3/3

_ 17 l

\.

. _r.\" { ''a'5>n\_ \

/ -_

r"

i.

Q,

/.-X \

K.

_ .

*3

"

1'

Ftapping hinge

I
1

____|

I
.

91
_

Piich corliroi

horn

EII

gl

'

of-f5et

"

I Pikfn control
'
Angle of attack

mcP.ET.s_

d
J

A .

.-I

.-a:---

D5-"M55

(a) Normai
FIG. 8

horn

(5) Offs
Offset pitch~change horn

## In Fig. 8 (a), when the advancing blade flaps up because of

the increased airflow, there will be no mechanical change in the
angle of attack of the blade because the centre lines of the
flapping hinge and the contro1rod attachment to the control horn
coincide.

## up, the angle of attack of the blade is mechanically decreased

because the centre line of the control rod attachment to the
control horn is outboard of the centre line of the flapping hinge
As the blade flaps up, it also rotates on its blade spindle, with

## retreats and starts to flap down.

In flight, the blades are allowed to flap as they wish.
No damping devices or mechanicalrestraintsare used to inhibit or
prevent flapping other than the limits of movement imposed by the
design of the rotor head and,in some helicopters, an upper coning
stop.
For practical design and construction reasons, the flapping
hinges are offset.

## has a useful dynamic effect in the control of the helicopter.

555/3/3

_ 13 _
In Fig. 9, the strings represent the rotor blades, the arrows
show the centrifugal force, and the weight represents the fuselage
of the helicopter.
In Fig. 9 (a), the tip-path plane is tilted,
but because the blades are hinged in the centre of the rotor, the
fuselage hangs straight down and will be slow to adapt its
attitude to the tilt of the rotor.

## If its centre of gravity was

anywhere but in the same lateral plane as the lift vector of the
rotor, the helicopter would be unmanageable.
In Fig. 9 Cb), the
fuselage quickly follows the tilt of the tip-path plane, and
the position of the centre of gravity is now not so critical.
The
result is a helicopter that is sensitive to the control of the
pilot and has a useful working range of permissible centreofgravity movement.
Offset of hi--51.;

if}

,_ _.v__>__\3_H

__

ti

.___

-1

FIG. 9

D-

\\V

(b) ovrszr

## The offset distance of the flapping hinges determines the

size of this dynamic effect.
The blades in a rigid rotor are,
in effect, stiff continuous flapping hinges, and the overall
effect is similar to widely offset flapping hinges.
The semi-rigid rotor also uses a dynamic effect to give a
manageable and sensitive response to the pilots controls.
This
effect is obtained by having the rotor assembly underslung on

555/3/3

.-...]_Q..

its pivot.

## lies below its central pivot axis.

Figure l0 Ca) shows a semi-rigid rotor helicopter hovering,
with the lift vector acting vertically upward and the weight
vector acting vertically downward and in the same plane.

Figure l0

Cb) shows the tip-path plane tilted for forward flight, with the
lift vector moved aft because of the tilt of the assembly. As a
result of this movement, a couple is formed by the lift and weight
vectors, which lowers the nose of the helicopter.

The underslung

## mounting of the semi-rigid rotor assembly has another important

service to perform, which we shall discuss later on in this
assignment under Coriolis Effect.
LIFT

/'7

.. 5..

WEi6H'|'

(a)

Hovering

Tofal
reaciion

Rotor pivu+

L";-r

pn'|v1~|THRUST
Q--i

c J

tcf;Z'
WEIGHT

(b)

FIG. 10
-

## Semi-rigid rotor helicopter

555/3/3

/,.\

in
5///\}\\

_ 29 _

SUMMARY
Dissymmetry of lift is caused by horizontal flight or
by wind during hover.
Y
\

## Dissymmetry of lift is the difference in lift that occurs

half of the rotor disc area.

## Unless corrected, dissymetry of lift will roll the

Dissymmetry of lift is corrected by

l.
T

## An aerodynamic reduction in the angle of attack

as the retreating blade flaps down;

l
2.

## The blade's angle of attack being reduced as it

advances and increased as it retreats by the
position of the cyclic control column; and sometimes by

3.

## Mechanically reducing the angle of attack of the

respect to the flapping hinge.

PRACTICE EXERCISE B
l.

## Show, with the aid of a sketch, why the adyancing

blade of a helicopter in horizontal flight tends
to develop more lift than the retreating blade

unless corrected.
2.

## an airflw, and show the chord line and angle of

attack of the airfoil.
3.

## With the aid of a sketch, show that, when a rotor

blade flaps up, its angle of attack is aerodynamically reduced.

555/3/3

_ 21 _

Gyroscopic Effect
The turning main rotor assembly behaves as a large gyroscope
in that it tilts at right angles to the direction of a push that

## Figure ll shows how a gyroscope tilts or precesses in a

reaction to an applied force or push.

t
s
(Q) 11,, grm,c,,p_

## (5) The rg':eJegr?;;:>l;!;::I:Pi41Y~F"

13!!
(C) 5ubpose"t|;::'Inr;-is split into

Ii; ~23

::;:see%m&n3,ca;ifgidIy

11

## fhei, 5|-mp: 5, not man"

-;~t>
(gen tgwtlrrxovgggeztgd tltggnulilguoaie

2 /ct_j):{,
(i) Now suppose we apply a torque
to the axle an the horizontal plane,

lg

"lhis imparts a mation in the horizontal (lg) 7,4,", the ngmenls mm M" both
dlrecnnn to the segments, one to the right _ 0 ;,,,|z,,nm/ and G "mm, momm
and the other to the left.

L\

t -_.
._\_-.L2.|

## 1-My me";-are mu" dwgcnay

_.__t

eff!

..

<;
\ I

%%%g;%%%:%?%?%E
(M) This is the key diagram. Study it carefH"Y- The axle is rigidly connected In the
segments and must therefore tilt when the
segments move diagonally.

gggg
(H) All the other segment: must
n in we mm, wan

FIG. ll

C::(@;%:::D EiEi!!;g%iiifir
(0) T-h='=l're the whole wheel trlu.

555/3/3

## (P) Thu: when a gyroscope is given a push

il "'15 1" Pith! angle: to the directwn uf
the push.

._ 22 _

## Figure 12 shows the gyroscope

rotor without its gimbals, and

f~\
i?T
r/,/IF
\\\\'i._M/
A'/
Ll

## lying in a horizontal plane such

as a main rotor assembly.
If
we apply a push to the rotor
'
at A,it will move in the direction
marked tilt at B. Compare this
movement with that shown in

PUSH

## Fig. ll and you will find that

FIG. 12

it is the same.

Tilting of a rotor

## see that the tilting of the

o
rotor occurs 90 later in the direction of rotation from, and in
the same sense as, the applied force.
We have seen earlier that, for horizontal flight, the tip~
to flap up and the advancing blade being allowed to flap down, and
that a blade is made to flap up or down by its angle of attack,
and thus the lift-force generated being increased or decreased.
Because of the gyroscopic effect of the turning rotor, the change
in angle of attack must be made 90 before it is to take effect.
Thus, the desired change for forward flight is made at 90 to the
centre line on the lefthand side of the helicopter see Fig. 13.
LOW NTCH APPLIED
HIGH FLAP RESULT

W-I

F ""_\\,-__

\%f"ilktow rm aesutt

- FIG. 13

id

\|

"

## This applies to a rotor which is turning in the conventional

direction, which is counterclockwise when viewed from above.

555/3/3

_ 23 _

Bell helicopter if
direction and then
forwards, watching

## in the control can be seen very easily on a

you position the blades in a fore~andaft
move the cyclic control column backwar d s and
the blades at the same time.
No movement

takes place at all when this is done, but when the control column
is moved laterally, the blades increase and decrease their pitch
as the control is moved.

## The same effect can be seen, less easily,

in a fully articulated rotor if you position the control horn pushpull rod of one blade directly over a control rod into the swashp lat e and then move the cyclic control column.

Coriolis Effect
As a blade of a fully articulated or rigid rotor flaps up, the
centre of mass of the blade moves in towards the centre of the
rotor disc, and as the blade flaps down, it moves outward.
See Fig. lu.

Axis
of rotacn

UP

X3

X2

\\|

\
\

X:

DOWN

_
'

Xwn

\KC8ntre of mass

FIG. 14

## Remember that, because of coning, a blade of these two types

.
0 rotor will not flap down below a plane passing through the
ro t or hub and perpendicular to the axis of rotation.
f

## The product of mass and velocity yields momentum.

Mass X Velocity

Momentum

555/3/3

Thatis

_ gu _
Thus, when a rotor is turning, each blade has a certain
amount of momentum.
The law of Conservation of Momentum states that

"the momentum

acts on it".

## As a blade flaps up, its centre of mass moves towards

the axis of rotation, and so the length of its path around the
axis becomes shorter.

## which it must, its angular velocity must therefore increase.

reverse holds true as a blade flaps down.

The

## This law is well demonstrated by the exhibition ice skater.

When the skater pirouettes with her arms outstretched, her rate
of spin is not very great, but as she lowers her arms, the rate
increases markedly.
When the blade flaps up and increases its angular velocity,
it is said to 551, and as it flaps down and decreases its angular
velocity, it is said to 52.

--Dirch.~

.... --

LE

W
-:4.
ca

___.--

___.

I
;

'.
_

1_

.7.

,.
.

Vcrhcal hmge

_________ __

, '=,

/__

::'

--- 'I 1.
.

___
=I

-A . __ _ __

## ' ' '' '

I:-5
. ~' "

\.- _

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If

"--\ ":
3

:'

.'

"-~~~.':.AGGVG

FIG. l5

555/3/3

: I

'

-25..

The blade is not free to lead and lag without restraint, which
would cause mechanical damage to the rotor head and would also
create an unbalanced rotor. It is attached to a damping device,
which is adjusted to give a specified rate of movement under a
The semi-rigid rotor is underslung and has a small preset
coning angle.
effect.

## tend to increase their velocity to maintain their momentum but,

because the C of G of the head has moved away from the axis of
rotation, it will generate some added momentum of its own to the
system.

## long as the total momentum of the system stays the same.

Thus,
the blade flapping up will have little tendency to increase its
velocity to conserve momentum, and the blade flapping down will
have little tendency to decrease its velocity.

The small

## lead-lag forces that are generated by the remaining coriolis

braces that locate the blades in their grips.

## Ho0ke's Joint Effect

Horizontal flight is obtained by tilting the tip~path plane.
When the tip-path plane is tilted, its plane of rotation differs
from that of the rotor drive shaft.
to Hooke's

driving member.

## Figure l6 shows the effect on a fourbladed

articulated rotor.

## to the rotor drive-shaft

at 90 to each other.

## is no coriolis effect, and so the blades will not move about

their vertical hinges.
In horizontal flight with the tip~path
plane tilted(for the rotor shaft plane of rotation to maintain
a constant velocity),the two athwartships blades must move on
555/3/3

_ 25 _

## accelerate and decelerate twice in each revolution of the rotor

shaft.

__|_./L ..ml-n

,........-dd;-~

wat

.~<i"at

<* rgtajg

.,_

if

Qt:

_ /

-a

Til

,_

-_._~""

---...-x._.._....----

.-

"t"

/-'

(a) Hovering

gb) Horizontal

FIG. 16

ight

## The articulated rotor caters for this effect by allowing the

blades to move on their vertical hinges, the rigid rotor by
bending the blades at or near their attachments to the rotor head,
and the semi-rigid rotor by bending its stiff and heavy blades.

555/3/3

_ 27 _

Wmwwi
1HLJ%a
_ _
v
3.
1-

## velocity universal joint where

torque is transferred at constant

'_:>.:, .;;|

\
4

1|.-4mll-=w|-I-||f"" "'w'

'.g.-.-.fi
a/..q_ :3

'1

nfrm

I
l 1
"=1|li\'1
2-.:\\1_i,1

HE

n'

wmi

1.
g '55

## speed by the use of free-moving

.
.
steel balls between the driving

- -i;+%
Q

iv

\
/A J./'

in "K -_ agave"
1
vawng

,5

Each member

*hjf;&:,
fY /;
pix,/
.

~;
?QE

Z,_

in

## the sides of which are specially

shaped grooves. A steel ball forms
the driving connection in the

FIG. l7

Cqnstantvelocity universal

## two curved channels formed when

joint
the joint is assembled.
The
shape of these channels is such that, irrespective of the angle at
which the joint operates, the balls always lie in a plane that makes
equal angles with both driving and driven members of the joint.
This feature is common to all makes of constant~velocity universal
joints.
Rotor heads have been designed and built to behave as a
constant-velocity joint but, so far, this type of rotor head has
not been used in production-run helicopters.

Drag Effect
of the airflow over the blade varies as does the drag generated.
This changing value in drag causes the blade to move about its
vertical hinge or, in the case of the rigid and semirigid rotors,
for the blade itself to bend.
The five main effects discussed, that is

l.
2.

Dissymmetry of lift,
j

Gyroscopic effect,

3.

Coriolis effect,

4.

5.

Drag effect,

555/3/3

_28..

## all take place together when the helicopter is in horizontal

flight. However, for hovering in still air, only gyroscopic
and drag effects occur.

SUMMARY
In an articulated rotor
l.

## Dissymmetry of lift is corrected by the blade

flapping up and down about the horizontal (flapping)
hinge;

2.

## Gyroscopic effect is allowed for by the angle of

attack of the blade being changed approximately
90 before the result of the pitch change is
desired; and

3.

## Coriolis, Hookes joint, and drag effects are

absorbed by each blade being mounted on a vertical
(drag) hinge, with its variations in velocity
with respect to the rotor head being controlled

1.

2.

## Dissymmetry of lift is corrected by the blades

point;
Gyroscopic effect is allowed for as in the
articulated rotor;

3.

## Coriolis effect is absorbed by the rotor assembly

being underslung on the rotor drive shaft;

4.

and

In a rigid rotor
l.

## Gyroscopic effect is allowed for as in the

articulated rotor, and

2.

## All other effects are absorbed by the blades

bending at or very near their attachment to the

555/3/3

_ 29 _

PRACTICE EXERCISE C
State whether each of the following statements is true
or false:
l.

in still air.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

## No allowance for the gyroscopic effect of the

rotating rotor is needed in its control.

8.

9.

## Because of gyroscopic effect, the angle of attack

rotation before the desired effect of the change
is to take place.
10.

in still air.

ll.

## An underslung semi-rigid rotor with between.2 to 6 of

preconing will experience little coriolis effect.

l2.

## The movement of rotor blades in the vertical plane

is called flagging.

13.

called flapping.

14.

15.

hinge.

16.

l7.

## A cyclic pitch change alters the pitch angles

of all the blades by the same amount at the
same time.

18.

vertical and horizontal hinges.

555/3/3

_ 30 _

19.

## A semi-rigid rotor seesaws spanwise about a central

point.

20.

a horizontal hinge but is damped in its dragging

on page

41)

## The Tail Rotor

A tail rotor is used to counteract the torque PacTiOn frcm
a single main rotor and, to a much lesser extent, to provide
directional control in flight.

## counteract their torque reaction by counterrotating the rotors.

Thus, they obtain directional control by mixing the cyclic
inputs to each rotor head and so don't need a tail rotor.
The tail rotor is mounted vertically, or nearly so, on one side
of the fuselage, with its centre line at right angles to the
direction of normal forward flight.

It is driven

## through shafting and gearboxes from the main rotor and is

connected mechanically with the main rotor so that, when the main
rotor turns, so must the tail rotor.
This mechanical connection
between the two rotors means that, in autorotation, the pilot
has normal behaviour from the tail rotor.
Ideally, in level
flight, the tail rotor uses little or no power, nearly all power
being available at the main rotor for lifting and propelling the
helicopter.

This is

## a climbing, left-hand turn if the main rotor turns in the

conventional direction of counter-clockwise when looked at from
above,

## with a maximum AUW the power used by the tail rotor

in such a turn can exceed 10% of the total power available from
the engine.

555/3/3

_ 31 i

/ .'.;.;.;~-~
nu
if

se\$5'

..

lllli?/_,=i\'!-'
i
.

-1-ulna-Q

..

an

F1

Q!

MI

//

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V,

7' 7

/"|

I/

Itli

L1 |"
g

// --. \

ii

y ,,~=7

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I 41 I

\
I

Rt-'te\

l________l

FIG

18

## We determine the direction of rotation by viewing the tail

rotor from the side that it is mounted on the helicopter. A
tail rotor may have between two and six blades and will turn
much faster than the main rotor, but usually slower than the
engine rev/min.

## differs from one type of helicopter to another.)

Principle of Operation
The tail rotor, which is a type of reversible pitch propeller,
is controlled by the pilot through conventional rudder pedals.
Movement of the rudder pedals increases or decreases the pitch
of all the blades by the same amount and in the same_direction,
Q!

## thereby increasing or decreasing the thrust generated and the

lateral force felt by the tail of the helicopter.
can be moved from a positive-pitch angle through 0 to a
negative-pitch angle so that a thrust to the right or left may be
obtained.

S55/3/3

._ 32 _

FORWARD
(1-innnnnu

'::T'i1>
AIR FLOW
FIG. 19

-: "'

-'_'jIi-'*"

,""_

1; <>
\_ +.

## Forces of a Tail Rotor

The tail rotor is a rotating airfoil sited in an airflow. As
with the main rotor, the airflow causes dissymmetry of lift to be
felt across the disc of the tail rotor.

In correcting for

## dissymmetry of lift, the effects of drag, Hooke's joint, and

coriolis are introduced and absorbed by the relatively stiff
blades and heavily built hub assembly. The presence of gyroscopic
effect or phase lag does not matter because the pitch of the
tail~rotor blades is always changed collectively.

As with the

## articulated and semi-rigid main rotors, dissymmetry of lift is

catered for by blade flapping or by the assembly seesawing in a
vertical plane, and by the geometry of the pitchchange mechanism

555/3/3

_ 33 _
Dissymmetry of Lift
From Fig. 18, you will see that the velocity of the airflow
over the top tailrotor blade is

## Thus, if both blades have the same angle of attack, then

much more thrust will be produced by the top half of the disc
than by the lower half.

## This uneven distribution of the thrust

will cause vibration and will unevenly load the tail rotor and
the tailrotor gearbox assembly.

## This problem is overcome by

the blades flapping in much the same way as the main rotor

## helicopter, its angle of attack becomes less, and less thrust is

produced. At the same time, the lower blade flaps inwards, its
angle of attack is increased, and more thrust is produced.
The
net result of the flapping action is an even distribution of
thrust over the disc area.
Figure 20 shows schematically a twobladed tail rotor with
both the blades mounted on a yoke freely pivoted in the centre
axis and is connected to the pitch-change mechanism by a push-pull
rod.

## The trunnion is mounted so that its axis lies at an angle

to the centre line of the yoke, which gives an angled hinge called
a delta three hinge, This hinge reduces the angle of attack of
as the tail rotor flaps.

## by the pitchmchange linkage, because each push-pull rod is

attack of an outward-flapping blade is reduced.

The result of

## tail~rotor flapping is that for level flight in calm air, the

assembly assumes a less than vertical angle. Note angle 6 in Fig.2O
555/3/3

_ 34 _

____,/

Fuih-Pu" Nd

./
"'

I
-iv

Fnfch-change

Yo kg

Yakg

G \$

..

Trunnion

"W \\

an

/3
|F@jrg|{@7

Fa

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""'

,-

>
~

"Fail-rota:
dnv: shaft

"_'

/6

'

---_--4 "L

'

r''\""

Trunnion

Pushpunrod

:1

r
5+

## P=-+-.+.-.,.. .r-1., r=""'

L
in --vi FLAP -------->- Ouk

FIG. 20

Tail--rotor flapping

You can see the change in the angle of attack of the blades
due to tail~rotor flapping on the delta three hinge very easily
if you balance a 30cm rule on a pencil with the rule inclined
(offset) at a small angle to the pencil.

555/3/8

## See Fig. 21.

Seesaw

_ 35 _
the rule on the pencil.

As

## the 30 cm end of the rule lifts

up, the numbers between 15 and 30
incline down, and the opposite
happens with the other end of
the rule.
Increase the angle

'
'

edge
n5

Tra'
ragedge

## of the rule relative to the

pencil and see the effect.
Position the pencil almost
lengthwise under the rule and

QQR

## see the effect.

The delta-hinge-mounted
tail rotor can have only two

edge
ng

Tra

FIG; 21

ag:

## because more thrust is necessary

1-

or because a large~diameter

L.;d';g

## tail rotor cannot be used, a

different type of tail rotor

Deltathree-hinge effect

is called for.

One common

type of tail rotor that can have as few as two and as many as
six blades has a central hub rigidly fixed to the tailrotor
gearbox output shaft, with each blade attached to the hub by a
axis and is connected to the pitchchange head by a pushpull
rod. The geometry of the pitch~change head and the attachment
of the pushpull rod to the blade is arranged so that, as the
blade flaps outward, its angle of attack is reduced and vice
versa.

## Figure 22 shows schematically this angle change and the

tip-path plane of this tail rotor during level flight in calm
air.

555/3/3

'- as -

I
Ft? Our
I

ROTATION
-4----

I
4

-~_a_

HI

C)

Hing

e
l ., 7

H_'PLKE}
"
Pikh - change. hand
\

_Q

p/.

WW
\

\\l

QTH
TP

/
f

L?

.\'1-4';';;;n

FIG. 22

## Tail rotor with flapping hinge

Drift
The force or thrust from the tail
' rotor 15
' u sed to counteract
the torque reaction of the main rotor. A couple is a pair of
equal and opposite parallel forces that tend to produce rotation,
that is, a torque. The force produced by the tail rotor acts
perpendicularly to an arm.

## That is, the tail rotor produces

The main
' rotor torqu e is balanced by the moment, which
stops its rotational effect but results in a s mall translationa

l
force that drifts the helicop
'
ter sideways.

a moment.

555/3/3

- 37 _

Dlrechon of rotation
of mam rater

F
Q

\ I

RESULTANT

Reaction for ue

t: 1*;=. : a.*:.

\
,

_2_+_

- FIG. 23

Tail~rotor drift

## Drift is counteracted by tilting the main rotor to one side

The tilt can be achieved by the design of the mount supporting
the main transmission or by the cyclic controls being rigged so
that neutral on the cyclic control column results in the tipa
path plane of the main rotor being tilted.

A combination of

## both methods is often used.

The main rotor control system is often designed to give a
progressively increasing tilt of the tip-path plane as the
collective is raised.

## the collective and as more tailrotor thrust is applied by the

pilot, the resulting increase in drift is automatically opposed.

SUMMARY

## The tail rotor counteracts the torque of the main rotor.

The tail rotor's blade angles are changed collectively.
That is, all blades have their pitch angle changed by
the same amount and in the same direction at the
same time.

555/3/3

_33_

## The tail rotor, like the main rotor, experiences

dissymmetry of lift, which is corrected by blade
flapping.
Whenever the main rotor turns, so does the tail
rotor. They are mechanically connected.
The tail rotor is controlled by the pilot through
the tail rotor (rudder) pedals.

PRACTICE

EXERCISE D

false.

l.

the helicopter.

2.

3.

4.

5.

pitch angle.

6.

work.

7.

8.

main rotor.

9.

tail rotor.

10.

during hovering.

555/3/3

_ 39 i

EXERCISE A

## Statements 1, H, 6, 7, 9, and 10 are true.

Statement 2 is false. The main purpose of the tail rotor
is to counteract the torque reaction of the main rotor.
Statement 3 is false. The total reaction of the main
rotor is resolved into lift and thrust.
Statement 5 is false. when the lift exceeds the weight,
the helicopter climbs. To hover (neither gain nor
lose height), lift must exactly equal weight.
Statement 8 is false. The coning angle is the angle
formed between the blades and a plane at right angles to
the rotor shaft.
EXERCISE

1.
1

E-4

<

Q.

I./'\.S. 60 knbfs

->

'>
fer,/8

0/

1
W;

E
*,

s' O

REYREANNG

0
'7:1.' ' O.
HALF

r|Au=

80
I

a' Q

an

K. Q

4&0

AH
FIG. 24

555/3/3

...L[Q_

## If, instead of the helicopter flying forward at 60 kt IAS,

60 IAS. when the advancing blade is at 90 to the aircraft centre line, the velocity of the air over the blade
tip is now the stillair tip velocity plus the air
velocity of 60 kt, and the retreating blade tip experiences
the still-air tip velocity minus the air velocity of 60 kt.
lift by the retreating blade. As a result, the helicopter
will tend to roll to the side of the retreating blade.
2.

Relam Iir'_f|OW

FIG. 25

3.

chord ne

,._ L

-_->-

-v'- E

"

"7

## when a rotor blade is turning and flapping up, it

has two velocities.
One velocity is in the direction
of rotation and the other is upwards and at right
angles to the first.
If we hold the blade still and
apply to it the air velocities it felt when turning
and flapping up, we will have an airflow from ahead
and an airflow from above.
Figure 26 shows the
space diagram of the two velocities.

Air moon

'

7L"i'

t|n

lI"Qr\

irigle of aliids

FIG. 26

555/3/3

-141-

## These two velocities are combined to give a

triangle of velocities.
Its resultant gives us
the new velocity and direction.
See Fig.27.

/'

A"_f|w
mm abut

, 7,

-;:.:. .

"'

_ _ -

FIG. 27

~ ~ _ _ ___

* ~ -___ __ 5

## The change in direction gives a decrease in the

angle of attack of the blade and, it follows, a
decrease in the lift generated. The opposite
occurs as a blade flaps down.
EXERCISE C

are true.

## Statement l is false. Dissymmetry of lift is caused by

an airflow meeting the rotor disc and causing differing
air velocities over the advancing and retreating rotor
Thus, during hover in still air, there is no
dissymmetry of lift.
Statement 3 is false. A retreating blade experiences a
Statement 6 is false. An offset pitch change horn
changes the pitch angle of the blade as it flaps
up and down. The offset is arranged so that, as the
blade flaps up, the pitch angle is reduced.
Statement 7 is false. Because of the gyroscopic effect
the change in angle of attack must be made 90 of rotor
"rotation ahead of where the effect is to take place.
Statement 10 is false. Coriolis effect occurs because
of the flapping up and down of the blades needed to
tilt the rotor disc for flight other than hover. During
hover in still air, no tilting of the rotor disc is
needed, and so no Coriolis effect will be felt.
Statement l3 is false.

555/3/3

_ n2 _

## Statement 16 is false. A rotor blade damper controls

Statement 17 is false. A collective pitch change alters
the pitch angles of all the blades by the same amount
at the same time.
F
e

EXERCISE D

\$3

ii

## Statements 2, 3, 5, 6, 8 and 10 are true.

Statement l is false. The propulsive force for the
helicopter is supplied by the main rotor.
Statement H is false.
The tail rotor turns at all
times that the main ro tor turns.
Statement 7 is false.

## Tail rotor-blade angles are only

changed collectively.

Statement 9 is false.
The rev/min of the tail rotor
are higher than those of the main rotor.

TEST PAPER 3
l.

2.

(a)

(b)

A tail rotor.

(a)

(b)

## In each sketch, show the main rotor force resolved into

lift and thrust forces and also show the drag and weight
forces. Assign values to the lift, drag, and thrust
forces.

555/3/3

..L1_3

## Discuss briefly the main differences between semi-rigid,

articulated, and hingeless rotors.

## With the aid of a diagram, show how dissymmetry of lift

may be felt by a main rotor unless corrected. What
would happen to the helicopter if no correction were

%
%
e

(a)

## A vertical hinge, and

(b)

A horizontal hinge.

(c)

hinges?

## Explain why the angle of attack of a main rotor blade is

changed 90 of rotor~head rotation before the desired
effect of the change is to take place.

8-

(a)

(b)

## with the aid of a diagram, show how dissymmetry of lift

can be felt by a tail rotor unless corrected. What
would happen to the tail rotor if no correction were made?

## Briefly describe one method used to correct dissymmetry of

lift of a tail rotor.
9

-3

## Why is the tail rotor mechanically connected to the main

rotor so that it must turn when the main rotor turns?

555/3/3