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HDPE Pressure Pipe


Occasional and Recurring
Surge Design Considerations
Mark Knight PhD, P. Eng.
University of Waterloo

Camille George Rubeiz, P.E.


Plastics Pipe Institute

Larry Petroff, P.E.


Plastic Pipe Consultant

Developers of Industry Leading Design Tools


BOREAID

Full commercial licenced HDD design tool Fall 2013 a Vermeer


Product

free web based HDD PE pipe design tool limited version of


BOREAID

free web based HDPE and PVC pressure pipe calculator that
follows ASTM and AWWA standards

Disclaimers
I am a product independent academic and
researcher
I am not paid to represent any pipe manufacturers
or suppliers

Confused Plastic Pipe Industry


Different terminology for HDPE and PVC
Pressure Class (PC) vs Pressure Rating (PR)
DIOD, CIOD, IPS, DIPS

HDPE vs PVC marketing


Lack of industry understanding of ASTM
and AWWA design methods

HDPE and PVC


Pressure Pipe Design Standards
ASTM
F714

AWWA C901

AWWA
C906

AWWA
C900/C905

PE3608
PE 4710
@ 1000 psi

PE3608
PE 4710
@1000 psi

PE3608
PE4710
@800 psi

PVC12454
PVC12454
@ 2000 psi
PVC12454

HDPE Pipe Resin = PE3608 and PE4710


PVC Pipe Resin = PVC12454

Plastic Pressure Pipe Design


PIPE Design Input Properties
Velocity

Min ID

Flow

Pressure

Disinfectant

Complete Operational Design


Working and Surge Pressure Analysis

Complete Life Cycle Design Analysis


Fatigue Determine No. of cycles to failure over design life

Working Pressure Design

Hydrostatic Design Stress (HDS)


HDPE
ASTM
F714
PE4710
PE3608
PVC12454

AWWA
C901

1000psi

PVC
AWWA
C906

AWWA
C900/C905

800psi

800psi
2000psi

Pressure Class (PC) @ 73oF


PC = 2 HDS/(DR-1)
HDS = Hydrostatic Design Stress
DR = Dimension Ratio = OD/tmin

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Allowable Pressure Design


PVC
AWWA
C900/C905

HDPE
AWWA M55
WPR

PC x FT

WPR + Pos

2.0 x PC x FT

1.6 x PC x FT

WPR + PRS

1.5 x PC x FT

PC x FT

WPR = Working Pressure Rating


POS = Occasional Surge
PRS = Recurring Surge

Temperature Factors (FT)

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Temperature Factors (FT)


HDPE
AWWA M55
FT
1.0
0.9
0.8

PVC
AWWA
C900/C905

Continuous Long-Term
Temperature

< 81oF
81 90oF
91-100oF

80oF
90oF
100oF

FT
0.88
0.75
0.62

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Allowable Design Pressure Example


PC = 2 HDS/(DR-1)
HDPE
DR-17
ASTM
F714
PE 4710
PE 3608
PVC
12454

AWWA
C901

125 psi

AWWA
C906

PVC
DR-18
AWWA
C900
C905

100 psi

100 psi
235 psi

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Surge Design (Wing Flex Design)

What are the major design Issues for Wing design?

TypicalPressureFluctuationfrom
SuddenValveClosureinDR11Pipe
Pressure
(bar)

LoadRate~120psig/sec

Time(seconds)
G.P.Marshall,S.Brogden,M.A.Shepherd(1998)EvaluationoftheSurgeandFatigueResistanceofPVCand
PEPipelineMaterialsforuseintheU.K.WaterIndustry,
PlasticsPipeX,Goteburg,Sweden
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Surge Design
Design system such that it can withstand the
highest expected surge load event over its
design life
While a full transient analysis is recommended,
a full flow stoppage at the max. flow velocity
provides a good basis for considering surge
events.

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Surge - Analysis
Joukowsky Equation:
Ps = a(V/2.31g)
Ps = surge (psi)
a = wave velocity (ft/s)
V = change in velocity (fps)
g = acceleration due to gravity (32 ft/sec2)

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What are Typical


Network Water Velocities?
Jana Lab survey of 51 water utilities determined:
Average Maximum Design Velocities for Normal Flow
Average Maximum Design Velocities for Fire Flow

Jana Lab Water Velocity Survey


http://plasticpipe.org/pdf/mid-fatigue-plastic-water-pipe-01-12-12

Maximum Design
Velocity for Normal Flow
(fps)
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Average = 6.7 fps

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10

0
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51

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Fatigue Design
Recurring surges:
frequently occurring surges caused by
normal pipe operations like opening and
closing of pumps and valves, AWWA PE M55
may occur up to millions of times in a
piping systems lifetime AWWA PVC C905-10

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Fatigue Design
Occasional surges:
Caused by emergency operations
Often the result of a malfunction, such
as a power failure or system component
AWWA PE M55
failure

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PVC Fatigue Design


PVC design fatigue life is determined using AWWA
C900 and C905 Appendix B.
Well established method but not well understood in
the industry.
Often not performed due to analysis complexity
and lack of industry understanding

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PVC Fatigue Design

HDPE Fatigue Design


Fatigue surge pressure analysis in AWWA M55
Fatigue life method is not in current AWWA M55
(typically, not a limiting factor)
Fatigue life method will be implemented in revised
AWWA M55
PE 3608 / PE 4710 design fatigue life can be
determined using fatigue curves provided in
Marshall, G.P., Brogden, S: Final report of Pipeline
Innovation Contract to UKWIR, 1997.

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HDPE Fatigue Design


PPI-PACE methodology implemented from:
AWWA M55-2005, PE Pipe Design and Installation
Jana Lab, 2012, Fatigue of Plastic Water Pipe: A
Technical Review with Recommendations for PE4710
Pipe Design Fatigue
PE4710 fatigue S-N curves data from:
Resistance of PE4710 Piping to Pressure Surge Events
in Force Main Applications, PP XVI, Barcelona, 2012
UK Water Industry IGN 4-37-02 Design Against
Surge and Fatigue Conditions for Thermoplastic
Pipes

PE4710RecurringSurgePipeTests
(cycles0to1.5xPC)
Test Specimens

Cycles at 1.5 x PC
(Recurring Surge)

Status

11,213,023
Straight Pipe

10,038,073
6,754,833

Pipe with buttfused joint

10,952,363

No
Failures

11,017,153

TestsconductedbyJanaLabsSeeCrabtreeetal.,PPXVI,2012
Aftercompletionpipescycledfrom0to2xPC
for2739to6665cyclesnofailures Showslotsofliferemaining

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NumberofCyclestoFailure
StressforPE4710at1.5x PC=1500psi(10.34MPa)
Jana4tests
4thGenerationPE
at1500psi

1450psi

1st GenerationPE

G.P.Marshall,S.Brogden,M.A.Shepherd(1998)EvaluationoftheSurgeandFatigueResistanceofPVCandPE
PipelineMaterialsforuseintheU.K.WaterIndustry,
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PlasticsPipeX,Goteburg,Sweden

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http://ppipace.com/

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PPI-PACE: Purpose
1. Developauserfriendly,free&onlinepipesoftware
2. Provideprelim.calculationsforoperatingpressure,
surgepressureandfatiguedesignlife.
3. Assistdesignersandownersintheevaluationofplastic
pipeforwaterdistribution,transmissionandforcemains
4. Implementexistingstandardsandmethods:AWWA
C900/C901/C905/C906,M55andASTMF714/D2241.

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PPI-PACE Defaults
Recurring Surge
Velocity
Occasional Surge
velocity
Working
Pressure
Anticipated
Surges per day
Temperature
Min. Design Life

Default
5 fps

Allowable Range
4 8 fps

8 fps

5 - 15 fps

70 psi

40 psi (min.)

55 cycles
57 oF
100 years

40-100 oF
50 (min.)

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UNI-BELL and PPI-PACE

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Design Example
18 inch DIPS/CIOD
160 psi Operating Pressures
4.0 fps Recurring Flow Velocity
7 fps Occasional Flow Velocity
57oF Temperature
100 Year Design Life
55 cycles/day = approx. 2 million cycles/100 yrs

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Uni-Bell Design Example

1. Why HDPE DR 7.3? DR 13.5 (PC 160) is OK

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PE 4710 DR
13.5 (PC 160)
OK
PE 3608 DR
13.5 (PC 128)
NG
PVC DR 14
(PC 305) NG

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PE 4710 DR 13.5 (PC 160) OK


PE 3608 DR 13.5 (PC 128) NG
PVC DR 14 (PC 305) NG

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Summary
HDPE and PVC are both good materials
According to existing approved design standards
HDPE has much fatigue life than PVC
PPI-PACE provides a simple, easy to use plastic
pipe design tool that follows existing design
standard methodologies