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1. The Birth i

2. Living in the Palace . . . . . . .20

3. Disgust at Sorrow 29

Putting away Desire
Leaving the City ....... .38


6. The Return of A^andaka 59

7. Entering the Place (Wood) of Austerities . .
8. The General Grief of the Palace . . . .81
9. The Mission to seek the Prince . . .

10. Bimbisara Ra^-a invites the Prince . . . . in

11. The Reply to Bimbisara Ra^a . . .
12. Visit to AraVa Udrarama 131
13. Defeats Mara "147
14. O-wei-san-pou-ti (Abhisambodhi) . . .
15. Turning the Law-wheel 168


16. Bimbisara Rag-a becomes a Disciple . . . .180

17. The Great Disciple becomes a Hermit . .
18. Conversion of the 'Supporter of the Orphans and
Destitute' (Anathapiw^/ada) 201
19. Interview between Father and Son 218

20. Receiving the etavana Vihara . .

21. Drunken Elephant and Devadatta.
Escaping the .
22. The Lady Amra (Amrapali) sees Buddha . . .249


23. By Spiritual Power fixing his (Term of) Years . .

24. The Differences of the Li&taavis . . . .268

Praising Nirvawa
. .... 277
28. Division of the .Sariras . . . . .

I. Comparative List of 17 Chapters of the Sanskrit and
Chinese Copies of the Buddha/fcarita .340 . .

II. Example of the Style of the Expanded Sutras, as trans-

lated into Chinese . . . . .
III. The same Title given to different Works . . .

Transliteration of Oriental
Alphabets adopted for the

Translations of the Sacred Books of the East .

HAVING been asked by the Editor of the Sacred Books

of the East' to contribute to the series a volume from the

Buddhist literature of China, I undertook, with some dis-
trust, to translate from that language the Phu-yau-king,
which is the second version of the Lalita Vistara, known
in China, and dated A. D. 308.
After some months of rather disappointing work I found
the text so corrupt and imperfect, and the style of the
composition so inflated, that I gave up my task, having
completed the translation of six chapters (kiouen) of the
text, out of eight.
The editor being still desirous to have one book at least
from the Chinese Tripi/aka in his collection of translations
(and more especially a translation of some Life of Buddha,
the date of which could be fixed), kindly renewed his request,
and proposed that the Fo-sho-hing-tsan-king, which pro-
fessed to be a translation of Ajvaghosha's Buddha^arita,
made by an Indian priest called Dharmaraksha (or Dharma-
kshara), about the year 420 A. D., should be substituted for
the work first selected.
This is the work here translated. The difficulties have
been many, and the result can only be regarded as tenta-
tive. The text itself, and I have had only one Chinese
text to work on, is in many places corrupt, and the style
of the composition, especially in the metaphysical portions
of it, is abstruse and technical. The original Sanskrit, I
am told, differs considerably from the Chinese translation,
and except proper names, in which
in the restoration of
the editor of these books has most readily helped me, the
assistance derived from it has been very little. I offer the

result of my work, therefore, with some mistrust, and yet with

this confidence, that due allowance will be made for imper-
fections in the preparation of a first translation of a text

comprising nearly 10,000 lines of poetry, printed in the

original without stops or notes of any sort, and in a diffi-
cult style of Chinese composition.


is now well recognised.

This term It is used to denote the
Buddhism of Nepal, Thibet, China, Japan, and Mongolia,
as distinguished from the Buddhism of Ceylon, Burmah,
and Siam. The radical difference between the two schools is
this, that Northern Buddhism is the system developed after
contact with Northern tribes settled on the Indus, while
the Southern school, on the contrary, represents the pri-
mitive' form of the Buddhist faith as it came (presumably)
from the hands of its founder and his immediate successors.
We might, without being far wrong, denote the developed
school as the Buddhism of the valley of the Indus, whilst
the earlier school is the Buddhism
of the valley of the Ganges.
In China there is a curious mixture of the teaching of both
schools. The books of the contemplative sect in Southern
China are translations or accommodations from the teaching
of men belonging to the South of India, whilst in the North
we find the books principally followed are those brought by
priests from the countries bordering on the Indus, and
therefore representing the developed school of the later
complex system.
Northern Buddhism, again, may be divided into two, if
not three, distinct periods of development, or epochs. The
earliest includes in it the period during which the teaching
of the immediate followers of Buddha, who brought their
books or traditions northward and there disseminated them,
generally prevailed this is called the teaching of the 'little

vehicle' (Hinayana), or 'imperfect means of conveyance'

(across the sea of sense). The second period is that during

which the expanded form of beliefdenoted as the great

vehicle (Mahaydna) was accepted ;
here the radical idea is

that the teaching of Buddha provides universal salvation


for the world. Thirdly, the indefinitely expanded form,
known as Vaipulya, which is founded on the idea of a uni-
versal nature, to which all living things belong, and which,
by recovering each case, secures for the subject
itself in

complete restoration to the one nature from which all living

things have wandered. This is evidently a form of pure Pan-
theism, and denotes the period when the distinctive belief
of Buddhism merged into later Brahmanism, if indeed it did
not originate it.
Wecannot lay down any sharp line of division (either as
to time or minute difference of doctrine) between these forms
of thought as they are found in the books but they may ;

be traced back, through the teaching of the sects into which

the system became separated, to the great schism of the
primitive Buddhist church at Vai^ali, 100 years after the
With respect to this schism the statement made in the Di-
pava^sa is this :The wicked Bhikkus, the Va^fiputtakas

(i.e. the VaLyali Buddhists), who had been excommunicated by

the Theras, gained another party and many people, holding

a wrong doctrine, ten thousand, assembled and (also) held a

council. Therefore this Dhamma Council is called the Great
Council (Mahasangiti),' (Oldenberg's translation, p. 140.)
Turning now to the Mahasanghika version of the Vinaya,
which was translated into Chinese by Fa-hien (circ. 420 A.D.),
who brought it from Pa/aliputra (chap. XXXVI), we read
(K. 40, fol. 23 b), After the Nirvawa (Ni-pan, i. e. Nibbana)
of Buddha the Great Kajyapa, collecting the Vinaya Pi/aka,
was the (first) Great Master (Mahasthavira), and his collec-
tion of the Dharmapifeka was in 80,000 divisions. After the
death (mih to, destruction) of the great Kasyapa the next
master (lord) was Ananda, who also held the Dharma-
pi/aka in 80,000 (divisions). After him the honourable (lord)
Mo-yan-tin (Madhyantika) was and he also held
the Dharmapi/aka in 80,000 (divisions). After him came

The Dipavamsa, an early historical record of Buddhism compiled in Ceylon


between the beginning of the fourth and the first third of the fifth century A. D.

Sanavasa (she-na-po-sa), who also held the Dharmapi/aka

in 80,000 (divisions). After him came Upagupta, of whom
the lord of the world (Buddha) predicted that as " a Buddha
without marks (alaksha;zako Buddha/2 see Burnouf, Introd.

p. 378, note i) he should overcome Mara, which is related

in the Avadanas (yin tin). This (master) could not hold
the 80,000 divisions of the Dharmapi/aka. After him
there were five schools (the school of the <; Great Assembly
being the first of the five) to which the following names were
given :
(i) Dharmaguptas, (2) Mahlrasakas, (3) Klryapiyas,
(4) Sarvastivadas. This last is also called the school "that
holds the existence of all," because it maintains the distinct
nature of (things existing in) past, present, and future time.
Each of these schools had its own president and distinctive
doctrine. Because of this in the time of Ajokara^a, when
the king was in doubt what was right and what was wrong,
he consulted the priests as to what should be done to
settle the matter. "
The law (dharma) ought
They replied,
to be settled by the majority." The king said, " If it be
so, let the matter be put to the vote (by lots or tokens of

wood), and so let it be seen who is right (in the majority)."

On this they cast lots, and our sect (i.e. the Mahasanghikas)
was in great preponderance. Therefore it is called the
Mahasangiti or Great Assembly.'
From this it appears that the Mahasanghikas, on their part,
claimed to be the original portion of the Buddhist church, and
that they regarded the four sects, whose names are given, to be
heretical. The same colophon has a further notice respecting
this subject. It states that '
There was in former times in
Mid-India a wicked king who ruled the world. From him
allthe vSrama^as fled, and the sacred books were scattered
far and wide. This wicked king having died, there was
a good king who in his turn requested the Sramanas to
come back to their country to receive his protection (nur-
ture). At this time in PaYaliputra there were 500 priests
who wished to decide (matters of faith), but there was no
copy of the Vinaya, or teacher who knew the Vinaya, to be
found. They therefore sent forthwith to the etavana
Vihara to copy out the Vinaya in its original character, as

it had been handed down to that period. Fa-hien, when he

was in the country of Magadha, in the town of Pa/aliputra,
in the temple of Ajokara^a, in the Vihara of the Southern

Devara^a (Virudhaka), copied out the Sanskrit (Fan) ori-

ginal and brought it back with him to P'ing au, and in
the twelfth year of the title I-hi (417 A. D.) [416 according
to the cyclical characters] and the tenth month, he
translated it.' Here we seem to have an obscure allusion
to a first and second A.roka. Is it possible that the refer-
ence is to an actual council held at Pa/aliputra in opposition
to the orthodox assembly under Moggaliputta ? The 500
priests who were sent to the etavana might have repre-
sented the popular party, and being without a copy of their
version of the Vinaya, they procured one from Sravasti.
This may or may not be so, and in the absence of further
details we cannot give it much weight.
Onexamining the copy of the Vinaya alluded to by
Fa-hien, viz. that belonging to the Mahasahghikas, we
find ample reason for adhering to the statement of the

Dipavawsa, viz. that the members of the great congrega-


tion proclaimed a doctrine against the faith' (p. 139 op. cit.)
The sections illustrating the Para^ika and other rules are
of a gross and offensive character. -The rules are illus-
trated by an abundance of tales or ^atakas introduced in the
text (this seems to favour the presence of a Northern ele-
ment in the redaction). The account of the two councils
differsfrom that found in the other copies of the Vinaya,
and in the history of the second council at Vaijali there is
mention made only of one of the sins of the Va^iput- '

takas,' viz. receiving money but ; the council itself is called,

according to this account, for the purpose of revising the

canon. Now
this seems to show that the Mahasanghika
school took its and that a redaction of
rise at this time,
the canon was prepared by that school distinct from that
in common use.
According to the statement found in the
Dipavawsa, 'they composed other Suttas and another
Vinaya' (p. 141, 36). This is confirmed by an account
which we have given us in a work belonging to the Vinaya
class in the Chinese Tripifaka, called 'The
Questions of Sari-

putra' (Catalogue, case 48, miscellaneous). I thought this

might be the work referred to in the edict of Asoka.

as the Questions of Upatissa,' but on examination it ap-
pears to be a production of the Mahasanghika school, and
not exclusively bearing on questions of the Vinaya. Perhaps
it was written and named in opposition to the orthodox

text alluded to in the edict. To exhibit the teaching of

the school to which it
belongs I will briefly allude to the
earlier portion of this Sutra. The scene is laid in Ra^a-
grzha, the question proposed by .Sariputra is,
Who is the
true disciple of Buddha, and who not?' Buddha replies,
The true disciple is one who attends to and obeys the
precepts, as the Bhikshu Pao-sse, e.
precious thing (Yasa),

who hearing the statement of Buddha

that all things

(sa;;/skara) were impermanent, immediately perceived the

whole truth. The disciple who attends to the tradition
of the church is also a true one, as the Bhikshu who
attended to 5ariputra's statement respecting Kaludayi's
drinking wine. Those, on the other hand, who neglect
either the direct instruction of Buddha, or that of his suc-
cessors these are not true disciples.' 5ariputra then pro-
ceeds to ask what are the permissions and what the
prohibitions made by Buddha in the rules of the Vinaya,
example, where Buddha
especially in respect of food, as, for
forbids an early meal at the invitation of a villager, or where
he permits the use of fish and other condiments. Buddha
replies that these things must depend on circumstances,
and that the rule of the true disciple is to follow the direc-
tions of the president of the church. For instance, after
my Nirvana (he proceeds) the great Kajyapa will have '
authority equal to mine after Kajyapa, Ananda after
; ;

Ananda, Madhyantika after Madhyantika, .Sanakavasa

; ;

after ^Sanakavasa, Upagupta after Upagupta there will be


a Maurya (king) Ku-ko (A^oka), who will rule the world

and extend the Scriptures (Dharmavinaya). His grandson
will be called Pushyamitra (Fu-sha-mih-to-lo), who will
succeed to empire of the righteous king (or who
will succeed directly to the empire of the king, or the
royal estate). This one will ask his ministers what he must

do to gain an undying fame and being told he must either


patronise religion as his predecessor or persecute it, he will

adopt the latter course, overthrow the pagodas (dagobas),
destroy the Scriptures, murder the people. Five hundred
Arhats, however, will escape the persecution. Meantime the
Scriptures being taken up to Maitreya, he will preserve them.
At last the king and his army being destroyed (by a moun-
tain cast on them), this line of kings will perish. Afterwards
a righteous king will succeed, and Maitreya will send down
300 youths, born apparitionally among men, who will recover
the law from the 500 Arhats, and go amongst men instructing
them, so that once more the Scriptures, which had been
taken to heaven by Maitreya, will be disseminated in the
world. At this time the king of the country will divide
the Dharmavinaya into many parts, and will build a strong-
hold in which to preserve them, and so make it difficult for
those wishing to consult them, to do so. Then an old
Bhikshu of good repute will write a remonstrance, and
selecting such passages of the Vinaya as are in accordance
with Kajyapa's council, and known as the Vinaya of the
Great Congregation (will make them known) the other
* '

party on their part, include with these the false addi-

tions that have been since made. Thus will begin the
contention and wrangling. At length the king will order
the two schools to assemble, and the matter to be put to
the vote, in this way, taking a number of slips of wood,
some black, the others white, he will say, let the adherents

of the old school take the black slips, and the new school
the white slips.' Then
those taking the black slips will be
myriads in
number, those taking the white only hundreds.
Thus there will be a separation. The old school will be
called 'the Mahasanghikas/ the new 'the school of the

elders,' and hence also named the Ta-pi-lo (Sthavira


This obscure account tends at any rate to show that the
original separation of the church, from which resulted the
later schisms, began at the time of the Great Assembly at
VaLrali. Whether we
are to gather that a second and final
separation took place afterwards when the good king was

reigning (Dharma-A^oka ?) is not certain, but it seems to be

implied in this and the former record, and is in every
respect probable. This would therefore account for the
silence of the Northern school respecting the Council at

Pa/aliputra, and would fully explain why the Sthavira

school insists on that council as the charter, so to speak,
of their orthodoxy.

There is no life of Buddha in the Southern school.
Facts connected with his life are found in the different
canonical books, and these being put together give an out-
line of his career, though there is no single work devoted to
the account of his life. But there are many such works in
the Chinese collection of books. Some of them still exist,
others have been lost. The earliest of which we have any
record was translated by ^u-fa-lan (Gobhara?/a) between
A. D. 68 and A. D. 70. It was called the

(i) Fopen-hing-king
0& # ft
in five chapters. It is lost, but there are quotations from
it found in Chinese Buddhist books which indicate its cha-
racter. In the commentary, for example, of Taou-shih,
who edited alife of Buddha by Wong pun, there is
reference to a work, Pen-hing-king, which in all probability
is the book under our
present consideration. This we
gather from a comparison of these quotations with the text
of other works that bear a similar title. For instance, there
isa book called Fo-pen-hing-tsih-king, which is stated to
be a Chinese version of the Abhinishkrama^a Sutra, that is
sometimes quoted as the Pen-hing-king, but the passages
given by Taou-shih are not to be found in this work.
Neither are they taken from the Pen-hing-king, written by
Paou-Yun, nor are they to be found in the Pen-hing-king
by A^vaghosha. We may justly argue therefore that the
commentator, Taou-shih, in quoting from the Pen-hing-
king, refers to the work translated by ^Tu-fa-lan, which is

now lost. If so, the book can have differed in no material

point from the common legendary account of Buddha's
early career. In 8 the Pen-hing is quoted in reference to
the selection of Buddha's birth-place in ;
the dream of
Maya at the conception of the child is referred to. In
23 there is the history of Asita and his horoscope. In 27
the trial in athletic sports. In 29 the enjoyment of the
prince in his palace for ten years. In 3 1 the account of
the excursion beyond the walls and the sights of suffering.
In 33 the interview with his father before his flight from
the palace. 38 the act of cutting his hair with his
sword and the intervention of 5akra. In 39 his exchange
of garments with the hunter. In 40 his visit to the
^z'shis in the snowy mountains. In 41 the account of his
six years' fast at Gaya. In
44 there is allusion to the
Nagas Kalika and Mu/ilinda. In 46 the rice milk given
by the two daughters of Su^ata. Here the quotations
from the Pen-hing come to an end. We can scarcely
doubt therefore that this work ended with the account of
the supreme enlightenment of Buddha. It is said that the
Fo-pen-hing was in five kiouen it could not therefore have

been a short abstract, but must have been a complete history

of Buddha from his birth to the period of his victory over
Mara. It would thus correspond with what is termed the
intermediate epoch/ in the Southern records. We may

conclude therefore that such a life of Buddha was in circu-

lation in India in a written form at or before the beginning
of our era. It was brought thence by ATu-fa-lan, and trans-
lated into Chinese A. D. 67-70. M. Stanislas Julien, in the
well-known communication found on p. xvii n. of the trans-
lation of the Lalita Vistara from Tibetan by M. Foucaux,

speaks of this work as the first version of the Lalita Vis-

tara into Chinese.
We havenext to consider a work translated into Chinese
by two Srama;*as from India in the year A. D. 194, and
(2) Siu-hing-pen-k'i-king.

flt- ft $ tt g
[19] b

This work belongs to case Ixviii in my Catalogue of the

Buddhist Tripi/aka, and is numbered 664 by Mr. Bunyiu
Nanjio. It was translated by A^u-ta-lih (Mahabala) and

Kong-mang-tsiang. As the title indicates, it is a brief

memoir of Buddha's preparatory career (i. e. preparatory to
his enlightenment), in two parts 1 and seven vargas. It is

stated in the work, Kao-sang-fu, K. i, fol. f that this book


was brought from Kapilavastu by the 5rama;za Dharma-

phala (Tan-kwo). This is also repeated in the work Lai-tai-
san-pao, K. iv, fol. 18. The opening scene therefore lies in
Kapilavastu. Its language is sufficiently exaggerated, but
not to that wearisome degree found in the later Sutras. It
begins with the nomination of Buddha by Dipahkara,
and ends with the defeat of Mara under the tree of know-
ledge. It therefore includes both the distant and the
intermediate epochs. I shall give the headings of the

seven vargas, with some remarks on the character of the


Varga i 'Exhibiting change.'

(pp. 1-9). The scene
is laid in Kapilavastu, in the Nyagrodha Vihara. Sur-
rounded by a vast assembly of disciples, Buddha enquires
of Maudgalyayana, Can you for the sake of all living things 2

declare the origin of my career (pen k'i) ? On this Maud-


galyayana, addressing Buddha in the usual orthodox way,

asks him to recite the history in virtue of his own inherent
spiritual power. On this Buddha declares how he had been
born during innumerable kalpas in every character of life
for the sake of stemming the tide of lust and covetousness
which engulphed the world, and by a life of continual
progress through the exercise of the virtues of wisdom,
patience, charity, &c. had arrived at the final condition of
enlightenment. He then gives the history of his nomina-
tion when Dipahkara was Buddha, and of his successive
births until finally, after having been born as Vessantara, he

occupied the Tushita heaven, and thence descended to be

Abstract of Four Lectures, p. 10.
is given in Chinese Ta-sa-ho-kie, which can only be restored to Tasa.
See Childers, sub voce.

born in Kapilavastu as the Bodhisattva about to accomplish

his career as Buddha.
Varga 2. Bodhisattva descends as a spirit. In this section
we find an account of Bodhisattva's conception. He descends
under the form l of a white elephant, and is seen by Maya
in a dream She beholds
in the middle of heaven a white
elephant resplendent with glory, and lighting up the world,
accompanied by music and sounds of rejoicing, and whilst
accompanying Devas scatter flowers and incense, the elephant
approaches her, and for a moment hovers above the spot
and disappears.' The dream is interpreted by the sooth-
sayers as an exceedingly fortunate one, because it indicated
the descent of a holy spirit (Shing-shin) into the womb.'
The child born therefore would be either a wheel-turning
flying-as-he-goes (fi-hing), universal monarch, or a Buddha
born to save the world.' The queen from that moment
leads a pure, uncontaminate life.

Now on account of this conception,
Bearing as I do a Mahasattva,

I give up all false,

polluting ways,
And both in heart and body rest in purity.'

The kings of neighbouring countries bring their presents of

gold, silver, jewels, and robes, and on the eighth day of the
fourth month the child is born under an A.yoka tree. The
angels sing for joy, and thirty-two supernatural events indi-
cate the nativity. We
need not enumerate all these events ;

the first, however, is that the earth was greatly shaken, and
all rough and hilly places became smooth. The fifteenth

is, the star Pushya came down and appeared waiting on

the prince. The last is that the tree spirit (i.
e. the spirit
residing in the tree under which the Bodhisattva was born)
appearing from it as a man bowed his head in worship .
then have an account of Asita's visit and prediction. The

Or, riding on a white elephant. The phrase in the Chinese is ambiguous.
There is reason to
suppose that the original thought was that the Bodhisattva
was riding on an elephant, but was invisible as a spirit.
Tree and Serpent Worship, plate xci, fig. 4.

b 2

varga concludes with the account of his superiority over

his teachers.

Varga 3. The athletic contest. This section contains an

account of the prince's marriage with Ku-i (Gopi) after the
exhibition of his strength in fighting, wrestling, and archery.
The prince in this account restores the elephant to life
which Devadatta had killed, and is charged by Devadatta
and his followers as being strengthened by Mara (the devil)
in doing the wonders he did. He marries Gopi, and with
6c,oco attendant women dwells in his palace. But his
heart is not at rest.

Varga 4. The excursion for observation. This is the

usual account of the prince's visit to the garden and the
sights he beheld. The charioteer is accompanied by 1000
other chariots and 10,000 cavalry. A
Suddha Deva called
Nandahara assumes the form of an old man, a sick man,
a corpse, and a 5rama;/a successively, and thus determines
the prince to leave the world (worldly life) and become an
ascetic. In order to distract his mind the king requests
the prince to attend a ploughing festival. Whilst thus
engaged he beholds the suffering of the oxen, and the heat
and toil of the men, and the countless insects being

destroyed and devoured by the birds. Retiring under the

shadow of a ambu tree 1 he enters Dhyana (profound medi-
tation). The king hearing where he was proceeds to the spot,
and observes the branches of the trees bent down 2 over the
prince, and on approaching the horses bend their knees in
reverence. The king and his retinue then return to the

city. On entering the gate he is met by countless thousands

of people with flowers and incense, whilst the soothsayers
shout with joy, O king live for ever
! The king enquiring

the reason, the Brahmans tell him that to-morrow the seven
treasures would appear, and the king would become a holy '

ruler' (a j&Takravartin).

Varga 5. Leaving his home. The prince without ceasing

Tree and Serpent Worship, plate xxv, fig. I where the three buildings repre-

sent the three palaces built for the prince.

The leaves are bent down in the plate (op. cit.)

meditated on the joy of a contemplative life in the desert.

Being now nineteen years old, he vowed on the seventh
day of the fourth month to leave his home. In the middle
of the night he was addressed by Ku-i his wife, who had
been troubled by five dreams. Having appeased her, the
gods determined, ere he composed himself again, to induce
him to leave his home. They sent Ou-suh-man [is this
Wesamuna? (Manual of Buddhism, p. 51)] to lull the
people to sleep, whilst the Deva Nandahara causes all the
women of the palace to appear in loathsome attitudes, &c.
The prince beholding the sight, and regarding all things
that exist 'as a phantom, a vision; a dream, an echo/ called
his coachman and accompanied by count-
to bring his horse,
less divine beings left the city.
Leaving the city they fled
on their way, till at morning light they had gone 480 lis,
and arrived at the A-nu-ma country (the river Anavama or
Anoma a Chinese note explains it as the 'ever-full'). Here

he dismisses his attendant and sends him back with the horse
and his jewels to Kapilavastu. Having cut off his hair, he
proceeded totheMagadha country, and there has an interview
with Bimbisara ra^a. To the enquiry whence he came and
what his title was, he replies, I come from Ka-wei (Kapila

or Kavila) to the east of the fragrant mountains and north of

the snowy mountains.' On this Bimbisara asks him in haste,
'Surely you are not that celebrated Siddhartha?' On his
replying in the affirmative, the king bows down at his feet,
and asks why one so richly endowed and so distinguished
in his person was not a universal monarch, and why he had
left his home. The prince replies that he had gone forth
to seek deliverance from old age, disease, and death. On
this follows a long series of lines (geyas), beginning, Sup-

pose we could.' Finally Bodhisattva leaves the king and

encounters Arata and Kalama (i. e. Arala Kalama), but not
satisfied with their teaching he again departs.
Varga 6. Six years' austerities. Bodhisattva goes forward
and arrives at the valley (river-valley 0uen)) of Se-na.
This valley was level and full of fruit trees, with no
noxious insects or snakes. Here dwelt the Rtshi (Tao-
sse) Se-na, with 500 followers. Here Bodhisattva took his

residence under a 5ala tree. The gods offer him nectar

(sweet dew), but he receives it not, but vows to take one
grain of millet (hemp) a day. When he had continued thus
for six years, and reduced himself to the verge of death,
the two daughters of Se-na have a dream, in which they
see a lily having seven colours wither away there comes

a man who waters it, and it revives, whilst other buds

spring up on the face of the water. Awaking they ask
their father to explain the dream, but neither he nor
his followers can do so. On this .Sakra descends under the
form of a Brahma^arin, who explains the dream. The girls
having prepared a dish of cream convey it to Bodhisattva ;

he receives it, and his strength revives. Having washed

his hands and flung the dish into the river, whence it is
carried by a golden^winged bird to heaven, he proceeds to
the Bodhi tree.
Varga 7. Defeats Mara. Seated under the tree he causes
a stream of light to proceed from between his eyes and to
enter the dwelling of Mara. Mara, greatly disconcerted,
knowing that the Bodhisattva if he fulfils his purpose will
overthrow his power, resolves to oppose him. His son
Sumati warns him against such an attempt, but Mara,
summoning his three daughters, acquaints them with his
design. They robe themselves in their choicest attire, and
with 500 attendants go to the spot where Bodhisattva was.
They proceed to tempt him with lascivious offers. Bodhi-
sattva with a word changes their appearance into that of
old women. On Mara, enraged, summons the king
of the demon assemble with eighteen
spirits (kwei-shin) to
myriads of others. They surround the tree for a distance
of thirty-six yo^anas, and assuming every shape (lions,
bears, tigers, elephants, oxen, horses, dogs, monkeys, &c.)
they belch forth smoke and fire. Bodhisattva sits unmoved.
Mara then advances and endeavours to induce him to give

up his purpose. Bodhisattva replies in loving words, and

finally the entire host is dispersed. Buddha then arrives
wisdom, the condition which neither Brahma nor
at perfect

any other being had yet attained, and so completes his


Thefollowing life of Buddha, although named in the

catalogues, has not come under my notice :

(3) Siau-pen-k'i-king
^#& 15
in two kiouen ;
translated by the 5ramaa A'i-yau, A. D. 196.
The next history of Buddha in point of the date of its

translation is the

(4) Ta-tseu-sui-y ing-pen-k' i-king.

This is the work of an Upasaka belonging to the Wu dynasty

(222 264 A. D.), who came
to China towards the end of the
After-Han dynasty, and was a diligent translator. The
work before us is a brief one, divided into two parts,
without any subdivision into sections. The first part,
which resembles the translation last noticed, takes us to
the defeat of Mara. The second includes in it a descrip-
tion of Buddha's condition as the fully enlightened,' and

also the conversion of the fire -

worshipping Kajyapas.
With respect to his work of preaching, this book has the

peculiarity of excluding all mention of the journey to

Benares after the enlightenment. It makes the conversion
of the five men
take place near the Bodhi tree in Magadha,
and omits mention of Yasa, 5ariputra, or Maudgalya-

yana. The account of the conversion of the Ka^yapas is

full and circumstantial. It agrees in a marked way with
the particulars given in the Manual of Buddhism (Spence
Hardy, pp. 188-191). The illustrations of this event, given
in the Sanchi Sculptures (plates xxiv, xxxi, xxxii, ist ed.),
show that it was a popular episode in the history of
Buddha at the time of the completion of the Sanchi StCipa.
It is also given in the following pages in A^vaghosha's
work, so that we cannot doubt this event formed part of
the recognised work of Buddha as a teacher. This short
life therefore includes in it the three portions known in the

South as the distant, intermediate, and proximate epochs.

The last
named, however, differs materiallyfrom the more
expanded account found in other books, and is in fact

confined to the labour of the conversion of the five men

and the three KcLryapa brothers.
We now come to the consideration of the life of Buddha
known as the

(5) AAmg-pen-k'i-king.
# #& If
This translation was made by the Dharmaphala
in conjunction with Kong-mang-tsiang, about the year
208 A.D. was brought by Dharmaphala from Kapila-

vastu, and said to be extracted from the Dirghagama

it is

(the long Agama), which is undoubtedly a primitive and,

as we should say, a canonical work. This translation is in

two parts, divided into 15 vargas.

Varga Turning the wheel of the law. This section

begins with Buddha's interview with Upaka, after he

had attained enlightenment, and gives an account of the
conversion of the five men.
Varga 2. Indicating changes. Contains the history of
Yasa, and the conversion of his four friends (Fu-nai, Pu;/ya-
it; Vimala; Kiu-yen-pih, Gavampati Su-to, ;

Varga 3. The conversion of Kasyapa.

Varga 4. Converts Bimbisara ra^a.
Varga 5. Conversion of 5ariputra and Maudgalyayana.
Varga 6. Returns to his own country.
Varga 7. The history of Su-ta (i.
e. Sudatta or Anatha-

Varga 8. The
history of the queen of Udyana, king of
Kaujambi. She would not comply with the king's wishes,
because it was a fast day.
Varga 9. Gautami becomes a Bhikshu/n.
Varga o. Inconstancy.
i Contains the history of Prasena-
^it's interview with Buddha, and of the minister who had
lost his child.

Varga u. Self-love. Contains the history of an inter-

view with Prasena^it, and a sermon preached by Buddha
on self-love.
Varga 12. Conversion of Mahaka.syapa (Agnidatta).
Varga 13. Conversion of Ambapali.

Varga 14. Discussion with the Nirgranthas.

Varga 15. Buddha eats the food fit for horses 1 .

be seen from the above summary, that so early

It will

at least as theend of the second century A. D. a life of

Buddha, with the details above named, was in circulation
in Kapilavastu.
The next life of Buddha, in point of date, is the second
version of the Lalita Vistara, known in China as the

(6) Phft-yau-king.

This was translated by the Indian priest Dharmaraksha,

during the Western Tsin dynasty, about A.D. 300. It is
in eight chapters, and belongs to the expanded class of
Buddhist literature. The story of Buddha's life is here
told from his birth to his death, but in the exaggerated
and wearisome form peculiar to the works of this (expanded)
school. It would seem as if the idea of merit attaching to

the reproduction of every word of the sacred books had

led the later writers, not only to reproduce the original, but
to introduce, by an easy but tiresome method, the repetition
of a simple idea under a multitude of verbal forms, and so
secure additional merit 2 .

There is another life of Buddha named in the Chinese

Catalogues, translated A. D. 420 by Buddhabhadra, who was
a descendant of Amrztodana, the uncle of Buddha. This
life is named
(7) Kwo-hu-yin-ko-king.

It is in four kiouen. It has not come under my notice ;

but another translation of the same text, likewise in, four

kiouen, and made shortly after Buddhabhadra by a native
of Mid-India called Gu;/abhadra (A.D. 436), is before me.
This work is called

See Abstract of Four Lectures, p. 52.
To show the character of this style of composition we give at the end
(Note II) a section from this Sutra relating to the birth of Bodhisattva.

(8) Kwo-hu-hien-tsai-yin-ko-king.

It is not divided into sections, but each kiouen embraces

a distinct portion of the history.
Kiouen I contains an account of Sumedhas and his
nomination by Dipankara Buddha. It then proceeds to
narrate the events attending the conception, incarnation,
and early years of the Bodhisattva until his tenth year, and
his superiority at school (p. 26).
Kiouen II begins with the martial contest and victory of
Bodhisattva over his compeers, and ends with the flight
from his palace at nineteen years of age (p. 27).
Kiouen IILbegins with Bodhisattva's interview with the
different ^/shis, and concludes with the conversion of the
five men after Buddha's enlightenment (p. 34).
Kiouen IV begins with the conversion of Yasa and his
father, and afterwards his fifty friends. It then gives in

great detail the history of the Klsyapas, and ends with

an account of the gift of the etavana. This life of Buddha
is of a circumstantial character, and is full of interesting

The next memoir in point of time of translation is the

history of Buddha occurs in the Vinaya Pi/aka. I shall

as it

take as my example the Vinaya according to the Mahi-

jasaka school. In the i5th and i6th chapters of this work
is a brief life of This copy of the Vinaya was
brought from Ceylon by Fa-hien at the beginning of the
fifth century (A.D. 414); it was not translated by him,

but by Buddha^-iva, a native of Cophene, A.D. 423 (see

Abstract of Four Lectures, p. 21), with the assistance of
Tao-sing (^u-tao-sing), a 5rama;za of Khoten.
In this life the order of events (and the precise words
as pub-
occasionally) agree with the Pali of the Mahavagga,
lished by Oldenberg. It begins, however, with the history of
the origin of the Sakyas, and in this it resembles the account
except that in the Chinese the
in the Manual of Buddhism ,

Spence Hardy, p. 130.

description of Ganta, the son of Ambi, is that he was con-

temptible and ugly, whilst in the Singhalese account he is
described as lovely and well-favoured. After the complete
enlightenment, Buddha sits in contemplation at the foot of
different trees. Here there occurs a divergence from the
Pali, as it is in the interval of his remaining thus in con-
templation that he the village of Senapati, and gives
to his daughter Su^ata the two refuges in Buddha and the
law. This is a curious statement, as it seems to imply that
at that time the triple refuge was not known ;
in other words,
that there was no Sahgha, or Church.
The interview with Upaka is identical with the Pali.
The sermon at Benares and the conversion of the five men,
the and conversion of Bimbisara, the conversion of
visit to

Yasa and his friends, the visit to Uruvilva and the Kajya-
pas, the conversion of Upatishya and Kolita all this is as

in the Southern account. The narrative then breaks off

suddenly, and the rules of the Vinaya with respect to

teacher and pupil &c. are introduced. This notice of Bud-
dha's life, although not translated in China before the fifth

century, must date back from the time when the Southern
copy of the Vinaya, which Fa-hien brought from China,
was first put together. The Matmasika school was an
offshoot from the Aryasthavira branch of the Buddhist
church, and in all probability was regarded in Ceylon as
orthodox, opposition to the Mahasanghikas.
in It is
curious that the Mahasanghika copy of the Vinaya
which Fa-hien brought from Patna, and which he himself
translated into Chinese, there no section corresponding

to the one just adduced, that this copy of the Vinaya


contains no record of Buddha's life. This may be accounted

for on the ground that the two redactions were made at
different times and at places far apart, But yet it is curious
that a copy of the Vinaya brought from Patna, and said to
have been copied from an authentic original, should differ
so widely from a .copy found by the same person at the
same time in Ceylon 1 This circumstance at any rate will

Fa-hien, p. 144.

show the mixed character of Buddhist books in China, and

the difficulty of classifying them in any distinct order.
Wecome now to notice a life of Buddha translated by
a native Chinese priest. It is called the

(9) Fo-pen-hing-king
$ * fr If
and was translated by Pao-yun, a companion of Fa-hien
in his in India, about A. D. 420.
travels It is in seven

chapters, and composed in varying measures or verses of 4,

5 or 7 symbols to the line. We have no means of deter-

mining the name of the original work from which Pao-yun

translated his book, but it evidently was not the Buddha-

arita-kavya of A.rvagriosha. It resembles it in no parti-

cular, except that it is in verse. The contents of this work

I have already given elsewhere (Abstract of Four Lectures,

p. 100) ;
so that there is no need to allude to it here at any
Nor need I refer, except to name it, to the Chinese
version of the Lalita Vistara. This translation was made
by the v$rama;/a Divakara during the Tang dynasty. He
was a native of Mid-India, and flourished in China A.D. 676.
It is in 12 chapters and 27 sections. The headings of these
chapters have been given elsewhere (Catalogue, pp. 18, 19).
The contents of the Chinese version agree in the main
with the Tibetan. It is named
( o) Fang-kwang-tai-^wang-yan-king.

There is a life of Buddha translated by an Indian priest

of Cophene, about A. D. 445, which is called

1 1)
( Sang-kia-lo-c'ha-sho-tsih-fo-hing-king.

This appears to have been written by a priest called San-

gharaksha, who was born in the kingdom of Su-lai, and
came to Gandhara when Kanishka flourished. This
monarch is called in the text Kien-to-ki-ni-wang. The

symbols Kien-to correspond with the family title given

elsewhere to Kanishka, viz. ^Tan-tan, i. e. bandana or sandal-
wood (see the work Tsah-pao-tsang-king in the Indian
Office Collection of Buddhist Books, kiouen vi, fol. 12 [Cata-

logue, case Ixvi]). This Chinese title may

probably cor-
respond with the tribal name of Gushan, or perhaps (accord-
ing to Oldenberg) with the title Koiranos, of the coins.
in any case Sahgharaksha is have lived during the
said to
time of this monarch, and to have written the life of Buddha,
which was afterwards translated into Chinese by Sangha-
bhadanta (?). This work is in 5 kiouen it comprises the

usual stories from the birth of Buddha to the distribution

of his relics after his death. There is at the end a curious
story about A^oka, who reigned 100 years after the Nir-
va;/a. He is said to have had a dream which induced him
to assemble the Bhikshus in a convocation. He was told
by them that there was in Ra^agnha a casket on which
there was a record enshrined, or a gold plate, which had
been delivered by Buddha. On opening the casket a pro-
phecy was found stating that in Magadha, in the city of
Ra^ag^'ha, there were two householders whose two sons
were called Vi^ayamitra andVasudatta of these the former,

in consequence of his merit in giving a ball of earth to

Buddha, should be born 100 years after as A^oka ra^a of
the Maurya family. In consequence of this prophecy A^oka
built 84,000 shrines for the relics of Buddha, obeying in
this the direction of his dream, that he should cause the
jariras of the holy one to be everywhere diffused.
Another life of Buddha is one I have partly translated
in the Romantic History of Buddha. It is called

(12) Fo-pen-hing-tsih-king
&# fr
and was translated by ;7anagupta or #anakuta of the
Tsui dynasty (circ. A. D. 588). It is said to be the same
as the Abhinishkrama;/a Sutra, but of this there is no

positive evidence. It is in 60 kiouen, and embraces Bud-

dha's history from the beginning to the time of the con-

version of the Kajyapas and others.

The following is the title of a life of Buddha, trans-

latedby Fa-khin of the Sung dynasty (began 960 A.D.),
and named

(13) Fo-shwo-^ung-hu-mo-ho-ti-king

which is, as it appears, a work of the Sammatiya school of

Buddhism, corresponding with the Mahavastu. The phrase

JI^J g is used in the introductory chapter to denote Sam-

mata, who was chosen by '

all to be the first king ; and

Jljl ||pi][ ^ is the Chinese form of Mahavastu,

This memoir is in 2 vols. and 13 kiouen
the great
it is
(thing).' ;

very complete, agreeing in its details with the notices found

in the Manual of Buddhism, and in Bigandet's Life of
Godama. It was probably in the original a Pali work.
The last version of the Lalita Vistara, known as the
(14) Shin-t'ung-yaou-hi-king,

has not come under my notice.

The most reliable of the lives of Buddha known in
China that translated in the present volume, the Buddha-

arita-kavya. It was no doubt written by the Bodhisattva

A^vaghosha, who was the twelfth Buddhist patriarch, and

a contemporary of Kanishka l Translators in China attri- .

bute both this book and the work which I have called the
f '
Sermons of
A^vaghosha (ta wang yan king lun) to him,
and there is no reason to question it. Kumara^iva, who
translated the latter work, was too familiar with Indian
subjects to be mistaken in this particular, and Dharma-
raksha (we will employ this restoration of his name) was
also a native of Mid-India, and deeply versed in Buddhist

There is no absolute certainty about the date of Kanishka ; it may proba-
bly be referred to the beginning of the latter half of the first century A. D. (see

next page).

literature (he became a

disciple at six years of age). Both
these translators lived about A. D. 400.
I am told, however, by Mr. Rockhill, that Taranatha,

the Tibetan author, mentions three writers of the name

of Awaghosha, the 'great one,' the younger, and one
who lived in the eighth century A. D. This latter, who
was also called (Jura, could not be the Aj-vaghosha of our

text, as the translation of the work dates from the fifth

century. And as of the other two, one was called
great' and the other 'the younger,' it admits of little
question that the Bodhisattva would be the former. But
in the Chinese Catalogues, so far as I have searched, there
is no mention made of more than one writer called by this

name, and he is ever affirmed to have been a contemporary

of Kanishka. In the book Tsah-pao-tsang-king, for instance

(kiouen vi), there are several tales told of the ATandan

'Kanika' or 'Kanishka,' in one of which (fol. 13) Asva.-
ghosha is distinctly named as his religious adviser, and he
is there called 'the Bodhisattva;' so that, according to evi-
dence derived from Chinese sources, there seems no reason
to doubt that the author of the book I have here translated
was and before the time of the Scythian invasion
living at
of Magadha under the A^andan king Kanishka. With
respect to the date of this monarch we have no positive
evidence the weight of authority sides with those who

place him at the beginning of the 5aka period, i. e. A.D. 78.

It is therefore possible that the emissaries who left China

A. D. 64 and returned A. D. 67 may have brought back with

them some knowledge of the work of A^vaghosha called
Fo-pen-hing, or of the original then circulating in India, on
which Ajvaghosha founded his poem. It is singular at
least that the work of A.rvaghosha is in five chapters as
well as that translated by ATu-fa-lan. In any case we
may conclude that as early as about A.D. 70, if not
before, there was in India a work known as Buddha^arita
As to the origin of such a work, it seems likely to have
sprung from an enlargement of the Mahaparinirva;/a Sutra.
We know that the record of the history of Buddha's last

days was extant under this title from early times, and
nothing would be simpler than the gradual enlargement of
such a record, so as to include in it not only his last days,
but his work throughout his life. Each district in which
Buddha taught had probably its own recollections on this
point, and to any zealous writer the task of connecting
these several histories would be an easy one. Such a man
was A^-vaghosha. Brought up in Central India, travelling
throughout his life as a preacher and musician, and finally
a follower of Kanishka through his Northern campaigns ;

such a man would naturally be led to put together the

various tales or traditions he had gathered as to the birth
and life of his great master, and connect them with the

already recognised account of his end or last days on earth.

The detailed account of Buddha's death, recorded in the
Mahaparinirva;/a Sutra, finds a place at the end of the pre-
sentwork this account being well known to A^vaghosha,

there can be no difficulty in understanding how he came to

write an entire poem on the subject of the master's life
and death.
I am told by Professor Max M tiller that the Sanskrit
versions of the Buddha/arita break off at the end of
varga 17, that is, after the account of the conversion
of the great Klryapa. Whether this is accidental, or
whether it indicates the original extent of the poem, I have
no means of judging. One thing is certain, that at the
time when the translation was made by Dharmaraksha (viz.
about A. D. 420), the work was of the size of the present
volume. There is no a priori reason for supposing the
later portion to have been added by a writer subsequent
to Aj-vaghosha. A
poem does not easily admit of 'a con-
tinuation' by another author; nor can we think that a
distinguished writer like A.rvaghosha would omit in his
biography the account of the death of his hero, especially
as the materials were at hand, and the dramatic effect of
the poem would be undoubtedly by the addition
of such a popular record. It seems therefore more natural
to suppose that the Sanskrit MSS. are incomplete copies of
the* original, and that the Chinese version before us is in

fact a translation of the entire poem as it came from its

author's hands.
There is little to add, with respect to the history of

Ajvaghosha, to the few notices I have given elsewhere

(Abstract, &c., p. 95 sqq.) One or two allusions to him
will be found the work of Wong puh (Shing tau ki,
in 186
and 190). These only confirm the general tradition that he
was originally a distinguished Brahman and became a con-
vert to Buddhism
The Buddha/arita contains sufficient

proof of his acquaintance with and hostility to Brahmanical

teaching, and the frequent discussions found therein relative
to the non-existence of I' (an individual self) illustrate the

record contained in 190 of the work (Shing tau) named

above, that Vira, a writer of Sastras (Lun sse), a disciple
of Ajvaghosha Bodhisattva, wrote a treatise in 100 gathas
on the subject of " non-individuality" (wou 'ngo lun), which
the heretics were unable to gainsay.' With reference to
this doctrine of the non-existence of the individual subject,
it not possible in such a work as this to say much.

I shallbe glad to place on record, however, my belief that

in Buddhism this question is much more than a speculative

question of philosophy. It touches the skirt of the highest

moral truth. For the individual self in Buddhism is the

the origin of sorrow. This, the
evil or carnal self, Buddhist
says (at least as I read his confession of faith), does not
exist ;
the evil self is not a separate reality, it is the delu-
' '
sion of sense ;
it is nothing.' Destroy this idea of self
and there will be light. If we regard the question thus,
it assumes a form more interesting and vital than that

of any philosophical enquiry. As I said above, it touches

the skirt of the highest truth and in this approach to truth ;

lies the power of the Buddhist doctrine.


wonderful to look through the large collection of
It is
Buddhist books translated into Chinese from the dialects

Mr. Rockhill has kindly given me an extract from a Tibetan work, Maw-
^Usrimfilatantra, in which Asvaghosha is identified with Matr/g-ata or Matrij'ita,
concerning whom, see Abstract, &c., p. 141.

[19] C

of India, principally by Indian or Indo-Scythian priests.

I use this last expression to indicate the nationality of

those translators who came to China from Cabul and

regions north of the Indus. For 600 years and more a
succession of Buddhist teachers and preachers followed one
another from India and Central Asia towards China with
little interruption. The result is, that the Buddhist Tripi-
/aka (canon) as we have it in that country is a collection
of translations without connection of parts, denoting the
Buddhism of India and neighbouring countries, in every
period of its development. Hence side by side with the
early teaching of the faith found in such books as the Dhar-
mapada (Tan poh), we have the gross form of Tantra
worship contained in the 'Dhara;n of K&nd&l Kznda. being
in fact the same as Kali or Durga or Gagatmatrz. Never-
is a most important
theless this collection of translations
one. importance has yet to be realised. To the stu-
dent of Buddhism it is an inexhaustible mine of wealth.
And to the student of history some knowledge of it is

The question presents itself, therefore, can we rely on
the truthfulness of the work done by these men in China ?
To this question only a qualified answer can be given we ;

may rely on the work of men of known ability. And in

other cases we may test the work done by comparison with
the originals. We
should have no reluctance, I think, in
accepting the translations of men like Kumara^-iva, to
whom both Chinese and Sanskrit must have been familiar,
and whose work may be tested by comparison with Sanskrit
texts. And if he may be trusted, so may others also who
worked with him or in his time. Amongst these was Dhar-
maraksha, the translator of the Buddhaarita of this volume.
He was a man of Mid-India, and became a disciple at six
years of age, and daily recited 10,000 words of Scripture.
At first he belonged to the school of the lesser develop-
ment, and was well acquainted with the discourses of the
five Vidyas. Afterwards he became a follower of the
greater development. He arrived in China in the year
412 A. D. and worked at translations till A.D. 454. Now

we can hardly suppose that a man of such natural gifts as

Dharmaraksha could have laboured for forty -two years
at translations, without being worthy of trust. Moreover
we find that Kumara^iva was working at this period in
China, and that he translated the work of A^vaghosha
called Ta-/wang-yan-king-lun, which appears to be related
to the Ta-^wang-yan-king, another name for the Life of
Buddha (Lalita Vistara). Is it likely that the two translators
were unknown to one another ?
It is true, indeed, that I have not been able to test the

translation of Dharmaraksha by comparison with the San-

skrit. As I understand Professor Max Miiller, the Sanskrit
text is not always easy to interpret, and differs in many
places from the Chinese version. Sometimes it is possible
to see how it happened that the Chinese translator mis-
understood the text before him. Sometimes it would seem
that he omitted intentionally whole passages which would
be either unintelligible or uninteresting to Chinese readers.
As there is some prospect of the Sanskrit text of A^va-
ghosha's work being published, we may hope to arrive in
time at something like certainty on the point under con-
But with respect to the trustworthiness of Chinese trans-
lations in general, it depends, as I said before, on the
character of the individual scholar. There is no reason at
all why a Brahman should not have become familiar with

Chinese, and when we add to this the extraordinary facili-

ties- afforded the Buddhist missionaries in China for exe-

cuting their work, in the way I mean of royal patronage

and able coadjutors, there is no reason to suspect the result
of their labours. Yet doubtless there are many unreliable
versions of sacred texts to be found. Every zealous Upa-
saka who came to China was not thereby duly qualified
for the work of translation; and as a rule we should be
cautious in attaching entire credence to the literary labours
of such persons.

C 2

The Chinese priest I-tsing says that the hymns used in
the Buddhist church during his visit to India were com-
posed and arranged by A^vaghosha (Nan-hae, 32). There
can be little doubt that he was a musician as well as poet.
He travelled about, we are told, with a body of musicians,
and was the means of converting many persons of distinc-
tion by his skill (Abstract, &c., p. 97). The work before
us gives proof of his poetical talent. In translating his
verses, even from the Chinese, an impulse to follow in his
poetical vein has been But the requirements of a

any such diversion. Nevertheless

literal translation forbad

the reader will observe many passages that would have


easily allowed a more 'flowery diction. The passage in

verse 629 and following verses is very touching the con-
suming grief of Yajodhara until her breath grew less and

sinking thus, she fell upon the dusty ground.' The account
of Buddha's enlightenment in verse 1166 and following is
also striking Thus did he complete the end of self, as

firegoes out for want of grass thus he had done what he ;

would have men do he first had found the way of perfect


knowledge. He finished thus the first great lesson enter- ;

ing the great ^z'shi's house, the darkness disappeared, light

burst upon him; perfectly silent and at rest, he reached the
last exhaustless source of truth ;
lustrous with all wisdom
the great 7?zshi sat, perfect in gifts, whilst one convulsive
throe shook the wide earth.'
There are many passages throughout the poem of great
beauty there is much also that is dry and abstruse,

yet we cannot doubt that in that day and among these


people the great poem of A^vaghosha must have had


considerable popularity. Hence the translations of it are

numerous must have tested Dharmaraksha's powers

to have turned it into Chinese. There is also a Tibetan

copy of it and whether
; it was originally composed in
Sanskrit or not, we know that there are now various edi-
tions of it in that language. I do not pretend to have

found the author's meaning in all cases the Chinese is


not easy; but in the main drift of the poem I have fol-
lowed my text as faithfully and literally as possible. The
concluding portion of the last section, as it seems to sup-
port the idea of only one A.roka, first fierce and then gentle,
or religious, is, to say the least, a curious passage. But we

may not attach too much weight to an isolated statement

of this sort ; there may have been reasons more than we
know of why the orthodox tradition of the Dharma-Ajoka,
the patron of the Theravadi school, should have been
ignored by a friend of Kanishka. But in any case the evi-
dence is we can only say that in
too slight to build upon ;

Ajvaghosha's time it had become usual to put the Council

of Pa/aliputra out of sight, and to regard the Theravadi
school as one opposed to the generally received traditions
of the North.
I cannot conclude this Introduction without expressing
my thanks to Mr. Bunyiu Nanjio, who kindly suggested
emendations of my translation of some passages at the

beginning of the work, and also to Professor Max M tiller,

to whom I am indebted for the restoration of many of the

proper names that occur throughout the text.

Feb. 4, 1883.





(There was) a descendant of the I kshvaku (family),
an invincible .5akya monarch, pure in mind (mental

gifts) and of unspotted virtue, called therefore Pure-

rice' (.Suddhodana). i

Joyously reverenced by all men (or, beings '), as


the new moon (is welcomed by the world), the king

indeed (was) like the heaven-ruler 6akra 3 his queen ,

Sa&L 2
like (the divine)

Strong and calm of purpose as the earth, pure

in mind as the water-lily, her name, figuratively

assumed, Mya, she was in truth incapable of class-

comparison. 3

The Ikshvaku (sugar-cane) family of Potala. -Suddhodana
was the father of the Bodhisattva.
Wou-shing; this is the equivalent for the Agitavati (river).
But it here refers to the Sakyas, as a race of A"akravartin
\ j monarchs.
Or, like -Sakra, king of Devas, the husband

[19] B

resting evenly upon the ground as he went, his foot-

marks remained bright as seven stars. 16

Moving king of beasts, and looking

like the lion,

earnestly towards the four quarters, penetrating to

the centre the principles of truth, he spake thus with
the fullest assurance : 1
This birth is in the condition of a Buddha 1 after

this I have done with renewed birth; now only am I

born this once, for the purpose of saving all the
world.' 1 8
And now from the midst of heaven there de-
scended two streams of pure water, one warm, the
other cold, and baptized his head 2 causing refresh- ,

ment to his body. 19

And now he is placed in the precious palace hall,
a jewelled couch for him to sleep upon, and the
heavenly kings with their golden flowery hands hold
fast the four feet of the bed. 20
Meanwhile the Devas
space, seizing their in

jewelled canopies, attending, raise in responsive har-

mony their heavenly songs, to encourage him to

accomplish his perfect purpose 21 .

Then the Naga-ra^as filled with joy, earnestly desir-

ing to show their reverence for the most excellent law

as they had paid honour to the former Buddhas, now

went to meet Bodhisattva 22 ;

cloth heldby the attendants at the birth of Bodhisattva. See Tree

and Serpent Worship, plate Ixv, figure 2, middle scene.
This birth is a Buddha-birth.
He was thus consecrated to be a king; see Childers, Pali
Diet., sub Abhisiw&iti ;
also Eitel, Handbook, sub Murddha-
Inviting him to perfect the way of Buddha.
That is,
to advance the cause of true

They scattered before him Mandara flowers, re-

joicing with heartfelt joy to pay such religious

homage; (and so, again,) Tathagata having appeared
in the world, the Buddha angels
rejoiced with glad-
ness ; 23
With no selfish or partial joy, but for the sake of
religionthey rejoiced, because creation engulfed ,

in the ocean of pain, was now to obtain perfect

release. 24
Then the precious Mountain -rd^a, Sume(ru) 3 ,

firmly holding this great earth when Bodhisattva
appeared in the world, was swayed by the wind of
his perfected merit. 25
every hand the world was greatly shaken,
as the wind drives the tossing boat; so also the
minutest atoms of sandal perfume, and the hidden
sweetness of precious lilies, 26
Floated on the air and rose through space and
then commingling came back to earth so again ;

the garments of Devas descending from heaven

touching the body, caused delightful thrills of

joy; 27
The sun and moon with constant course redoubled
the brilliancy of their light, whilst in the world the

^Suddha-vasas, 'beings dressed in pure garments/ A
class of heavenly beings, supposed to take peculiar interest in
the religious welfare of men.
2 ' '
Creation/ in the sense of all that lives/
Sumeru, written also Sume and Meru. The primeval moun-
tain ;
the Alborz, Atlas, or Olympus of other tribes. It is explained
as '
the high, or resplendent, mountain/ On it was the heaven of
the gods (the thirty-three gods).
It would seem from this that the original idea of Sumeru was

the mountain of Heaven ;' the visible heaven, or firmament, which


firmly holds the earth.'


fire's gleam of itself prevailed without the use of

fuel. 28
Pure water, cool and refreshing from the springs,
flowed here and there, self-caused in the palace all ;

the waiting women were filled with joy at such an

unprecedented event. 29
Proceeding all in company, they drink and bathe
themselves; in all arose calm and delightful thoughts;
countless inferior Devas (bhutas), delighting in reli-
gion, like clouds assembled. 30
In the garden of Lumbinl, filling the spaces be-
tween the trees, rare and special flowers, in great
abundance, bloomed out of season. 3 1
All cruel and malevolent kinds of beings, together
conceived a loving heart all diseases and afflictions

among men without a cure applied, of themselves

were healed. 32
The various cries and confused sounds of beasts
were hushed and reigned the stagnant
silence ;

water of the river-courses flowed apace, whilst the

polluted streams became clear and pure. 33
No clouds gathered throughout the heavens, whilst
angelic music, self-caused, was heard around the ;

whole world of sentient creatures enjoyed peace and

universal tranquillity. 34

Just as when a country visited by desolation, sud-

denly obtains an enlightened ruler, so when Bodhi-
sattva was born, he came to remove the sorrows of
all living things. 35
Mara 1
the heavenly monarch, alone was grieved
and rejoiced not. The Royal Father (.Suddhodana)

Mara, the king of the world of desire. According to the
Buddhist theogony he is the god of sensual love. He holds the

strange and miraculous as to

1 2
beholding his son , ,

his birth, 36

Though self-possessed and assured in his soul,

was yet moved with astonishment and his coun-
tenance changed, whilst he alternately weighed with
himself the meaning (of such an event), now rejoiced
and now distressed. 37
The queen-mother beholding her child, born thus
contrary to laws of nature, her timorous woman's
heartwas doubtful her mind through fear, swayed

between extremes 38 :

Not distinguishing the happy from the sad por-

tents, again and again she gave way to grief and ;

now the aged women of the world, (of the 'long

night ') in a confused way supplicating heavenly
guidance, 39
Implored the gods to whom were paid,
their rites
to bless the child ; (cause peace to rest upon the
royal child.) Now there was at this time in the
grove, a certain soothsayer ,
a Brahman, 40
Of dignified mien and wide-spread renown, famed
for his skill and scholarship :
beholding the signs his ,

world in sin. He was the enemy of Buddha, and endeavoured in

every way to defeat him. He is also described as the king of

1 ' '
Beholding his born son,' or begotten son.'
K'i-teh, truly unique (Williams' Diet.) Mi tsang yau,
unseen before, miraculous.
The text seems to point to alternately recurring hope and grief.
The text here is difficult. I take .A^ang-suh to be equal to

JOang-ye,which a frequent expression to denote the long night'


of transmigration or ignorance. If this be not so, then ^Oang-

suh may be simply aged.'
Kh'\ Siang, a discerner of signs or portents.
That is, either the signs on the child's body, or the occurrences

attending his birth.


heart rejoiced, and he exulted at the miraculous

event. 41
the king's mind to be somewhat per-
plexed, he addressed him (thus) with truth and
earnestness, Men born in the world, chiefly desire

to have a son the most renowned 1 42 ;

But now the king, like the moon when full, should

feel in himself a perfect joy, having begotten an

unequalled son, (for by this the king) will become
illustrious among his race 43 ;

Let then his heart be joyful and glad, banish all


anxiety and doubt, the spiritual omens that are

everywhere manifested indicate for your house and
dominion a course of continued prosperity 3 44 .

The most excellently endowed child now born will


bring deliverance to the entire world none but a ,

heavenly teacher has a body such as this golden ,

coloured, gloriously resplendent.
One endowed with such transcendent marks, must

reach the state of Samyak 6 -Sambodhi," or if he be
induced to engage in worldly delights, then he must
become a universal monarch 7 46 ;

Or, a most victorious son ; or, a son most renowned.
K'i-teh, truly unique; strange or wonderful; (p. 7, n. 2.)
Increasing or advancing prosperity.
Must assuredly save the world.
A body, such a masterpiece.
KMng-hsio, perfect illumination, Samyak-Sambuddha ; or,
as in the text.
A wheel-turning monarch. A monarch like the sun '
that flies
as he goes;' the old conceit of a king of the age of gold a ; the

expectation of peace and prosperity resulting from the universal

authority of such a righteous king, is an old, perhaps a primitive,
one. The JTakravartin is the eastern form of the myth.
a That '
a golden (wheel) king.'
is, probably,
I, i.


Everywhere recognised as the ruler of the great

earth, mighty in his righteous government, as a
monarch ruling the four empires *, uniting under his
sway all other rulers ; 47
'As among alllesser lights, the sun's brightness
is by far the most excellent. But if he seek a
dwelling among the mountain forests, with single
heart searching for deliverance 2 48 ,


Having arrived at the perfection of true

he willbecome illustrious 3 throughout the world ;

for as mount Sumeru is monarch among all moun-

tains, 49

Or, as gold is chief among all precious things,

or, as the ocean is supreme among all streams ,

or, as the moon is first among the stars, or, as the

sun is brightest of all luminaries, 50
So Tathagata, born is the most in the world,
eminent 5 of men
and expanding 6
his eyes clear ,

the lashes both above and below moving with the

lid, 51
of the eye of a clear blue colour 7 in
iris ,

shape like the moon when half full, such character-

istics as these, without contradiction, foreshadow the

most excellent condition of perfect (wisdom).' 52.

The four empires, that is, the four continents or quarters of
the world.
Deliverance, that is, from sin; or sorrow the result of sin
Shine universally; as the light of the sun.
The ocean is always in Buddhist works, as in Homer, asso-
ciated with 'flowings/ The expression in the Chinese, liu-hai,
corresponds exactly with 'Q/ceai/oIo peetipa.
The most worshipful.
Widening more and more.
Of a deep purple or violet colour.

At thistime the king addressed the twice-born 1 t

If it be as you say, with respect to these miracu-
lous signs, that they indicate such
consequences, 53
'Then no such case has happened with former
kings, nor down to our time has such a thing
occurred/ The Brahman addressed the king thus,

Say not so for it is not right 54; ;

For with regard to renown and wisdom, personal


celebrity, and worldly substance, these four things

indeed are not to be considered according to pre-
cedent or subsequence ; 55
But whatever
produced according to natureis 2

such things are liable to the law of cause and effect :

but now whilst I recount some parallels let the king

attentively listen ; 56
Bhrzgu, Arigira (Angiras ?),
these two of -/frshi
family having passed many years apart from men,

each begat an excellently-endowed son, 57


B^'haspati with ^ukra, skilful in making royal trea-

tises, not derived from former families (or, tribes) 58 ;

Sarasvata, the ^z'shi, whose works 5 have long

disappeared, begat a son, Po-lo-sa
who compiled
illustrious Sutras 7 and Shastras 59 ;

That is, the Brahman ; wearing the twice-born thread.
Or, whatever is born according to the nature of things.
I restore these names according to the Sanskrit text, supplied

by Professor Max Miiller.

That is,
belonging to the .foshi tribe ; in other words, these
two J?ishis.'
Or, it may, perhaps more correctly, be rendered separated

by a long period from Sutras or Shastras/ or, when these works

had long been lost.
Is this Parajara, the reputed father of Vyasa ? (see Max Mailer's
Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 479.)
Illustrious Sutras (Ming King) may possibly refer to the Vedas,
but the five vidyas are also called by this name (Jul. II, 73).

That which now we know and see, is not there-
fore dependent on previous connection; Vyasa, the
y^z'shi, the author of numerous treatises, 60
After his death had among his descendants,

Poh-mi (Valmiki), who extensively collected Gatha

sections ; Atri, the jRishi, not understanding the
sectional treatise on medicine, 61
Afterwards begat Atreya, who was able to control
diseases ;
the twice-born ^z'shi Kusi (Kurika), not
occupied with heretical treatises, 62
'Afterwards (begat) Kia-ti-na ra^a,who thoroughly
understood heretical systems the sugar-cane ;

monarch \ who began his line, could not restrain

the tide of the sea, 63
But Sagara-ra^a, his descendant, who begat a

thousand royal sons, he could control the tide of the

great sea so that it should come no further. 64

kanaka, the ^z'shi, without a teacher acquired

power of abstraction. All these, who obtained such
renown, acquired powers of themselves ; 65
Those distinguished before, were afterwards for-

gotten those before forgotten, became afterwards


distinguished kings like these and godlike T^'shis

have no need of family inheritance, 66

therefore the world need not regard those

going before or following. So, mighty king is it !

with you, you should experience true joy of heart, 67

And because of
this joy should banish for ever
doubt or anxiety.' The king hearing the words

That is, the first of the Ikshvaku monarchs who reigned at
Potala (Tatta) at the mouth of the Indus.
Or, were born by their own power.
Or, the former were better, the later inferior; the former
inferior, the later better.

of the seer was glad, and offered him increased

gifts . 68
Now have begotten a valiant (excellent) son

(he said), who will establish a wheel

authority, whilst
I, when old and grey-headed, will go forth to lead a
hermit's life 2 69 ,

So that my holy king-like son may not give up
the world and wander through mountain forests/
And now near the spot within the garden, there
was a TtYshi, leading the life of an ascetic 3 70 ;

His name was Asita, wonderfully skilful in the

interpretation of signs he approached the gate of ;

the palace ;the king (beholding him) exclaimed,

This is none other but Brahmadeva, 71
Himself enduring penance from love of true
religion, these two characteristics so plainly visible
as marks of his austerities/ Then the king was
much rejoiced 72 ;

And forthwith he invited him within the palace,

and with reverence set before him entertainment,
whilst he, entering the inner palace, rejoiced only

(in prospect of) seeing the royal child. 73

Although surrounded by the crowd of court-ladies,

yet still he was as if in desert solitude and now ;

they place a preaching throne and pay him increased

honour and religious reverence, 74
As Antideva ra^a reverenced the priest Vasish//a.
Then the king addressing the /frshi, said, Most

fortunate am I, 75
Great -/foshi that you have condescended to !

Or, extended his religious offerings.
Leaving my home will practise a pure (Brahman) life.
Practising austerities.
That is, 'purity' and 'penance/
I, i. THE BIRTH. 13

come here to receive from me becoming gifts and

reverence ;
pray you therefore enter on your
exhortation.' 76
Thus requested and invited the fit'shi felt un-
utterable joy, and

said, All hail, ever victorious

monarch !
possessed of all noble (virtuous) quali-
ties , 77
Loving to meet the desires of those who seek,

nobly generous in honouring the true law, con-

spicuous as a race for wisdom and humanity, with
humble mind you pay me homage, as you are
bound. 78
Because of your righteous deeds in former lives 2 ,

now are manifested these excellent fruits ;

listen to

me, then, whilst I declare the reason of the present

meeting. 79
'As I was coming on the sun's way 3 I heard ,

the Devas in space declare that the king had born

to him (begotten) a royal son, who would arrive at
perfect intelligence ;
Moreover I beheld such other portents ,
as have

The Chinese symbol 'teh' properly means 'virtue/ as in the
title of Laou Tseu's work, Tau-teh-king. But in Buddhist books
it generally corresponds with the Sanskrit guwa, in the sense of
a 'quality' or 'characteristic/
The expression suh kh\\\ points to conduct in former conditions
of existence. It properly means 'a night's rest' or 'a lodging
one night* (Williams), but in Buddhist books it commonly refers to
abodes or conditions of life, occupied during the night (long night)
of transmigration.
Following the way of the sun.
Complete the way of true wisdom (Sambodhi or Sambuddha).
Such miraculous portents going before. It would seem from
Asita's description that hecame from the East following the sun,
and as he came he saw before him miraculous portents.

constrained me now to seek your presence ;


siring to see the .Sakya monarch who will erect the

standard of the true law.' 8 1

The king hearing the /foshi's words was fully

assured ; escaping from the net of doubt, he ordered
an attendant to bring the prince, to exhibit him to
the /fr'shi. 82
The 7?zshi, beholding the prince, the thousand-
rayed wheel on the soles of his feet, the web-like
filament between his fingers l between his eyebrows

the white 2 wool-like prominence, 83

His privy parts hidden as those of the horse,
his complexion bright and lustrous; seeing these
wonderful birth-portents, the seer wept and sighed
deeply. 84
king beholding the tears of the 7?zshi, think-
ing of his son, his soul was overcome, and his breath
fast held his swelling heart. Thus alarmed and ill
at ease, 85
Unconsciously he arose from his seat, and bowing
his head at the 7?zshi's feet he addressed him in
these words,
This son of mine, born thus wonder-
fully, 86
and surpassingly graceful, little
Beautiful in face,
different from the gods in form, giving promise of
superiority in the world, ah why has he caused !

thee grief and pain ? 87

Forbid it, that my son should die (should be !

short-lived!) (the thought) creates in me grief and

Or, his fingers and his toes.
That is, the ura. This white wool-like mark seems to have
been derived in the first instance from the circle of hair on the
forehead of the bull. Moschus describes the bull that carried off
' '

Europa as having this silver white circle on his forehead.

I, i. THE BIRTH. 15

anxiety; that one athirst, within reach of the

eternal draught ,
should after all reject and lose
it! sad indeed! 88
Forbid it,he should lose his wealth and treasure !

dead to his house lost to his country for he who

! !

has a prosperous son in life, gives pledge that his
country's weal is well secured 89 ;

And then, coming to die, my heart will rest
content, rejoicing in the thought of offspring sur-
viving me ; even as a man possessed of two eyes,
one of which keeps watch, while the other
sleeps ; 90
Not autumn, which though
like the frost-flower of
itseems to bloom, is not a reality. A man who,
midst his tribe and kindred, deeply loves a spotless
son, 91
At every proper time in recollection of it has

joy; O! that you would cause me to revive !*


The Tv'zshi, knowing the king-sire to be thus greatly

afflicted at heart,92

Immediately addressed the Maharaja Let not :

the king be for a moment anxious the words I have !

spoken to the king, let him ponder these, and not

permit himself to doubt ; 93
The portents now are as they were before, cherish

The 'eternal draught' or sweet dew' of Ambrosia. This expres-
sion is
constantly used in Buddhist writings. It corresponds with the
Pali amataffz, which Childers explains as the 'drink of the gods/
Or, if I have.
This jloka may be translated otherwise thus A man among :

all his kindred loves deeply a spotless a son ; at this time, in recol-
lection thereof, speaking, cause me to revive ; or the latter lines

may still be rendered, in memory of what you said before, cause


me now, by speaking as before, to revive.'

Wou-kwo-tseu ;
either '
a faultless son or '

nothing beyond his son.'


then no other thoughts But recollecting I

myself !

am old, on that account I could not hold my

tears; 94
For now my end is
coming on. But this son
of thine will rule the world, born for the sake of
all that lives this is indeed one difficult to meet

with; 95
shall give up his royal estate,
escape from
the domain of the five desires 2 with resolution and ,

with diligence practise austerities, and then awaken-

ing, grasp the truth. 96
Then constantly, for the world's sake (all living
things), destroying the impediments of ignorance
and darkness, he shall give to all enduring light,
the brightness of the sun of perfect wisdom. 97
All flesh submerged in the sea of sorrow ; all

diseases collected as the bubbling froth decay and ;

age like the wild billows death like the engulfing ;

ocean ; 98

Embarking lightly in the boat of wisdom he will

save the world from all these perils, by wisdom
stemming back the flood. His pure teaching like
to the neighbouring shore, 99
The power of meditation, like a cool lake, will

be enough for all the unexpected birds thus deep ;

and full and wide is the great river of the true

law; 100
parched by the drought of lust
All creatures
may freely drink thereof, without stint those ;

This line may be also rendered
because he has done with
birth, therefore he is born/ The text is full of such double-

The five desires, or five appetites of sight, smell, taste, hearing,
and touch.
1,1. THE BIRTH. 17

enchained in the domain of the five desires, those

driven along by many sorrows, 101
And deceived amid the wilderness of birth and

death, in ignorance of the way of escape, for these

Bodhisattva has been born in the world, to open
out a way of salvation l 102 .

The of lust and covetousness, burning with

the fuel of the objects of sense, (on the flames) he has

caused the cloud of his mercy to rise, so that the
rain of the law may extinguish them. 103
The heavy gates of gloomy unbelief, fast kept

by covetousness and lust, within which are confined

all living things, he opens and gives free deliver-
ance. 104
With the tweezers of his diamond wisdom he
plucks out the opposing principles of lustful desire.
In the self-twined meshes of folly and ignorance all
flesh poor and in misery, helplessly (lying), 105
The king of the law has come forth, to rescue
these from bondage. Let not the king in respect
of this his son encourage in himself one thought of
doubt or pain ;
But rather let him grieve on account of the
world, led captive by desire, opposed to truth but ;

I, indeed, amid the ruins of old age and death, am

far removed from the meritorious condition of the

holy one 107 ,

Possessed indeed of powers of abstraction, yet

The word '

corresponds to the Sanskrit moksha,

deliverance or escape. The garden of Lumbint is sometimes called
the ' garden of deliverance,' because Maya was there delivered of
her child.
Or, removed from an opportunity of reaping merit by the
teaching of the holy one.

[19] C

not within reach of the gain he will give, to be

derived from his teaching as the Bodhisattva; not
permitted to hear his righteous law, 108

My body worn out, after death, alas !

to be born as a Deva *
still liable to the three
calamities (old age, decay, and death), (therefore I
weep).' king The
and all his household attendants,
hearing the words of the ^z'shi, 109
Knowing the cause of his regretful sorrow,
banished from their minds all further anxiety And :

now (the king said) to have begotten this excellent

son, gives me rest at heart ;
But that he should leave kingdom and home,
and practise the life of an ascetic, not anxious to
ensure the stability of the kingdom, the thought
of this still brings with it pain/ in
At this time the Tv^'shi,turning to the king with
true words, said,

It must be even as the king

anticipates, he will surely arrive at perfect en-

lightenment.' 112
Thus having appeased every anxious heart among
the king's household, (the ffishi) by his own inherent

spiritual power ascended into space and disap-

peared. 113
At this time 6uddhodana ra^a, seeing the excellent
marks (predictive signs) of his son, and, moreover,
hearing the words of Asita, certifying that which
would surely happen, 114
Was greatly affected with reverence to the child,
he redoubled measures for its protection, and (was

The condition of the highest Deva, according to Buddhism,
does not exempt him from re-birth ; subject to the calamities inci-
dent on such a renewal of life.

filled) with constant thought ; (moreover) he issued

decrees through the empire, to liberate all captives
in prison, 115.
According to the custom when a (royal) son was
born, giving the usual largess, in agreement with
the directions of the Sacred Books, and extending
his gifts to all; (or, all these things he did com-
pletely). 116
The child
whenten days old, (his father's) mind

being now c^uite tranquil, he announced a sacrifice

to all the gods, and prepared to give liberal offerings
to all the religious bodies 117 ;

Srmanas and Brdhma^as invoked by their prayers

a blessing from the gods, whilst he bestowed gifts on
the royal kinspeople and the ministers and the poor
within the country ;
The women who dwelt in the city or the villages,
(all those who needed) cattle or horses or elephants
or money, each, according to his necessities, was
liberally supplied ; 119
selecting by divination a lucky time, they
took the child back to his own palace, with a
double-feeding white-pure-tooth carried in a richly- ,

adorned chariot (cradle), 1 20

With ornaments of every kind and colour round
his shining with beauty, exceedingly re-
splendent with unguents. The queen embracing

1 '

Shing-tseu,' the born or begotten child.

I am unable to translate this line except literally,

[I am
white pure ivory (or, tooth)/ 'rh fan pih tsing 'nga.

informed, however, by Professor Max Muller that it refers to the

'elephant.' The elephant is called dvipa, the twice-drinker,
corresponding to 'rh fan (for 'rh yin), the double-feeder (drinker),
in the Chinese.]

C 2

him her arms, going around, worshipped the


heavenly spirits. 121

Afterwards she remounted her precious chariot,
surrounded by her waiting women the king, with ;

his ministersand people, and all the crowd of

attendants, leading the way and following, 122
Even as the ruler of heaven, 6akra, is surrounded

by crowds of Devas as Mahesvara, when suddenly


his six-faced child was born,

Arranging every kind of present, gave gifts, and
asked for blessings; so now the king, when his
royal son was born, made all his arrangements in
like manner; 124
So Vai^rava^a, the heavenly king, when Nala-
kuvara 1 was born, surrounded by a concourse of
Devas, was filled with joy and much gladness 125 ;

So the king, now the royal prince was born, in

the kingdom of Kapila, his people and all his
subjects were likewise filled with joy. 126


And now in the household of .Suddhodana ra^a,
because of the birth of the royal prince, his clansmen
and younger brethren (namesakes), with his ministers,
were all
generously disposed, 127
Whilst elephants, horses and chariots and the
wealth of the country and precious 2 vessels, daily
increased and abounded, being produced wherever
requisite 128;

Na-lo-kiu-po. Nalakuvara was the son
Vessels of the seven precious (substances).
According to occasion in abundance produced. The expres-
sion 'tsah' may either refer to variety or number. Thus the

countless hidden treasures came of them-

So too
selves from the earth. From the midst of the
pure snowy mountains, a wild herd of white ele-
phants, 129
Without noise, of themselves, came ;
not curbed
by any, self-subdued, every kind of colour'd horse,
inshape and quality surpassingly excellent, 130
With sparkling jewelled manes and flowing tails,
came prancing round, as if with wings these too, ;

born in the desert, came at the right time, of them-

selves. 131
A (herd of) pure-colour'd, well-proportioned cows,
fat and fleshy, and remarkable for beauty, giving

fragrant and pure milk with equal flow, came toge-

ther in great number 2 at this propitious time: 132
Enmity and envy gave way to peace content ;

and rest prevailed on every side, whilst there was

closer union amongst the true of heart, discord and
variance were entirely appeased 133 ;

The gentle air distilled a seasonable rain, no

crash of storm or tempest was heard, the springing
seeds, not waiting for their time, grew up apace and
yielded abundant increase 1 34 ;

The five cereals grew ripe with scented grain,

soft and glutinous, easy of digestion all creatures ;

big with young, possessed their bodies in ease and

their frames well-gathered 135 ;

All men, even those who had not received the

seeds of instruction derived from the four holy

convocation of the Arhats at Vai-fali is called

tsah ;' a miscellaneous
collection of anecdotes or tales is called by the same name.
Or, every kind of party-colour'd horse.
Like the clouds.

ones ;
all these, throughout the world, born under
the control of selfish appetite, without any thought
for others' goods, 136
Had no proud, envious longings no angry, hateful ;

thoughts. All men and women 2 were grave (pro-

found) as the first man of the age (kalpa). 137
All the temples of the gods and sacred shrines,
the gardens, wells, and fountains, all these like things
in heaven, produced of themselves, at the proper
time, (their several adornments). 138
There was no famishing hunger, the soldiers'
weapons were at rest, all diseases disappeared ;

throughout the kingdom all the people were bound

close in family love and friendship; 139

Piously affectioned they indulged in mutual

pleasures, there were no impure or polluting desires,
they sought their daily gain righteously, no covetous
money-loving spirit prevailed, 140
But with religious purpose they gave liberally ;

there was no thought of any reward (return), but

all practised the four rules of purity and every ;

hateful thought was suppressed and destroyed. 141

Even as in days gone by, Manu ra^a begat a child
Brilliancy of the Sun,' on which there pre-

vailed through the country great prosperity, and all
wickedness came to an end ; 142

This seems to mean that those who had not received benefit

from the teaching of the four previous Buddhas, that even these
were placable and well-disposed.
This is a difficult verse, it may be translated literally thus, 'All
learned women (or, all the wives of sages) were profoundly grave
as the first man of the kalpa.' Whether it refers to the docility
of the otherwise quarrelsome women, or to their gravity and learn-
it is not
ing, easy to say.

So now the king having begotten a royal prince,

these marks of prosperity were seen ; and because
of such a concourse of propitious signs, the child
was named Siddhartha 143

And now mother, the queen Maya,

his royal
beholding her son born under such circumstances,
beautiful as a child of heaven, adorned with every
excellent distinction, 144
From excessive joy which could not be controlled
died, and was born in heaven 2
. Then Pra^apati
Gautaml, beholding the prince, like an angel, 145
With beauty seldom seen on earth, seeing him
thus born and now his mother dead, loved and
nourished him as her own child and the child

regarded her as his mother. 146

So as the light of the sun or the moon, little by
little increases, the royal child also increased each

day every mental excellency and beauty of per-

son 147

(His body exhaled) the perfume of priceless

sandal wood, (decorated with) the famed 6*ambu-
nada gold (gems); divine medicines (there were) to
preserve him in health, glittering necklaces upon his
person ; 148
The members of tributary states, hearing that

The description here given of the peace and content prevailing
in the world on the birth of Bodhisattva (and his name given to him
in consequence) resembles the account of the golden age in classic
Maya is generally stated to have died after seven days from the
birth of her child. But here the context seems to require a longer
interval, as he was ten days old when taken to the temple. Maya
was born in the Trayastriw^as Heaven, or the Heaven of the Thirty-
three Gods. The legend states that Buddha after his enlightenment

proceeded there to convert her.


the king had an heir born to him, sent their presents

and gifts of various kinds, oxen, sheep, deer, horses,
and chariots, 149
Precious vessels and elegant ornaments, fit to
delight the heart of the prince but though pre- ;

sented with such pleasing trifles, the necklaces and

other pretty ornaments, 150
The mind (nature) of the prince was unmoved,
his bodily frame small indeed, but his heart esta-
blished ;
his mind at rest within its own high
purposes ,
was not to be disturbed by glittering
baubles. 151
And nowhe was brought to learn the useful arts,
when lo once instructed (at one hearing) he sur-

passed his teachers. His father, the king, seeing

his exceeding talent, and his deep purpose to have
done with the world and its allurements, 152
Began to enquire as to the names of those in his
tribe who were renowned for elegance and refine-
ment. Elegant and graceful, and a lovely maiden,
was she whom they called Yasodhara 153 ;

In every way fitting to become a consort for

the prince ;
and to allure
by pleasant wiles his
heart. The prince with a mind so far removed
(from the world), with qualities so distinguished, and
with so charming an appearance, 154
Like the elder son of Brahmadeva, Sanatkumara
(She-na Kiinna-lo) the virtuous damsel, lovely and

refined, gentle and subdued in manner; 155

Majestic like the queen of heaven, constant ever,

His mind resting on its high and excellent purpose; so at

least the expression K'ai, domain or precinct, may sometimes be

means, within the limits of its own high excellent
rendered. It


cheerful night and day, establishing the palace in

purity and quiet, full of dignity and exceeding
grace, 156
Like a lofty hill rising up in space ;
or as a white
autumn cloud ;
warm or cool according to the season ;

choosing a proper dwelling according to the year, 157

Surrounded by a return of singing women, who
join (their voices) in harmonious heavenly concord,
without any jarring or unpleasant sound, exciting (in
the hearers) forgetfulness of worldly cares. 158
As the heavenly Gandharvas 2 of themselves in
their beauteous palaces (cause) the singing women
to raise heavenly strains, the sounds of which and
their beauty ravish both eyes and heart 159 ;

(So) Bodhisattva dwelt in his lofty palace, with

music such as this. The king his father, for the
prince's sake, dwelt purely in his palace, practising
every virtue ;
in the teaching of the true law, he 4

put away from him every evil companion, (that) his

heart might not be . polluted by lust ; regarding
inordinate desire as poison, 161
Keeping his passion and his body in due control,

destroying and repressing all trivial thoughts, de-

siring to enjoy virtuous conversation, loving instruc-
tion (fit) to subdue the hearts of men, 162

That is, rising from the earth above other hills."
Gandharvas, heavenly musicians ; muses.
With nobleness of purpose (^in) loving the transforming power
of the true law. That is, leading a religious life.
That is, as I understand it, the king himself, for his son's sake,
devoted himself to piety.
Or, by means of loving instruction subduing men's hearts; or, by
love, teaching to subdue men's hearts.

Aiming accomplish the conversion of unbe-


removing all schemes of opposition (from

lievers ;

whatever source they came), by the enlightening

power of his doctrine, aiming to save the entire
world; (thus he desired) that the body of people
should obtain rest 163 ;

Even we
desire to give peace to our children,
so did he long to give rest to the world 2 He also .

attended to his religious duties (sacrificing by fire

to all the spirits), with clasped hands adoring the
moon (drinking the moon's brightness); 164
Bathing his body in the waters of the Ganges ;

cleansing his heart in the waters of religion, perform-

ing his duties with no private aim, but regarding
his childand the people at large, 165
Loving righteous conversation righteous words ,

with loving (aim), loving words with no mixture of

falsehood, true words imbued by love, 166
And yet withal so modest and self-distrustful, un-
able on that account to speak as confident of truth ;

loving to all, and yet not loving the world, with no

thought of selfishness or covetous desire, 167
Aiming to restrain the tongue and in quietness to
find rest from wordy contentions, not seeking in the

Or, every kind of doctrine (magical art) that opposed religion.
Or, (he said) like as I desire rest for my child, so &c.
This and the whole of the context is obscure ; the account
evidently refers to <Suddhodana ; the line which I have translated
' ' '

loving righteous conversation may be rendered loving conversa-

tion (or, converse), opposing a want of truth or righteousness (i),'

loving an absence of all unrighteousness in conversation.' The

next line, which is evidently in contrast with the previous one, may
be translated, Righteous words, opposed to an absence of love.'

The next line is, Loving words, opposed to that which is not true.'

And then follows, 'Truthful words, opposed to that which is not love.'

multitude of religious duties to condone for a worldly

principle in action 168 ;

But aiming to benefit the world, by a liberal and

unostentatious charity any ;
the heart without
contentious thought, but resolved by goodness to
subdue the contentious, 169
Composing the one whilst protecting the seven, ,

removing the seven, guarding and adjusting the

five, reaching to the three, by having learned the

three, knowing the two, and removing the two 1

70 ;

Desiring to mortify the passions, and to destroy

every enemy of virtue, not multiplying coarse or

unseemly words, but exhorting to virtue in the use
of courteous language, 171
Full of sympathy and ready charity, pointing out
and practising the way of mutual dependence, re-
ceiving and understanding the wisdom of spirits
and ^e'shis, crushing and destroying every cruel and
hateful thought ; 172
Thus fame and virtue were widely renowned,

(and yet himself) finally (or, for ever) separate from

the ties of the world, showing the ability of a master
builder, laying a good foundation of virtue, an ex-
ample for all the earth 173 ;

So a man's heart composed and at rest, his limbs

and all his members will also be at ease. And now

I would rather translate these two lines thus,
Not regarding
so much the assemblies convoked for sacrificing to the gods, as

excelling in the merit (happiness) of separation from worldly

things;' or the word 'sse' may mean 'sacrifice' itself (as Trotew in
Greek), and then
it would be excelling in merit without sacrifice/
These four lines are enigmatical. They perhaps have some
reference to the teaching of the seven Osiris, or the number seven

may refer to the seven passions.'


the son of ^uddhodana, and his virtuous wife

Ya^odhara, 1 74
As time went on, growing to full estate, their
child Rahula was born and then .Suddhodana ra^a

considered thus, My son, the prince, having a son
born to him, 175
The affairs of the empire will be handed down in
succession, and there
will be no end to its righteous

government the prince having begotten a son,


will love his son as I love him *, 1 76

And no longer think about leaving his home as


an ascetic, but devote himself to the practice of

virtue ; I now have found complete rest of heart,
likeone just born to heavenly joys/ 177
Like as
in the first days of the kalpa, ^zshi-kings

by the way in which (they walked), practising pure

and spotless deeds, offered up religious offerings,
without harm to living thing, 1 78
And illustriously prepared an excellent karma,
so the king excelling in the excellence of purity 2 ,

in family and excellency of wealth, excelling in

strength and every exhibition of prowess, 179

Reflected the glory of his name through the world,
as the sun sheds abroad his thousand rays. But
now, being the king of men (or, a king among men),
he deemed it right to exhibit his son's (prowess), 180
For the sake of his family and kin, to exhibit him ;

to increase his family's renown, his glory spread so

high as even to obtain the name of 'God begotten;'

and having partaken of these heavenly joys, 181

Or, loving his son, and loving me also.
We have here a succession of lines in which there is a play on
' ' '
the word excellency (shing), or
victorious (ina).

Enjoying the happiness of increased wisdom ;

understanding the truth, by his own righteousness

derived from previous hearing of the truth the ;

reward of previous acts, widely known 1

182 .

Would that this might lead my son (he prayed) to

love his child and not forsake his home the kings of ;

all countries, whose sons have not yet grown up, 1 83

Have prevented themexercising authority in the

empire, in order to give their minds relaxation, and
for this purpose have provided them with worldly

indulgences, so that they may perpetuate the royal

seed; 184
So now the king, having begotten a royal son,
indulged him in every sort of pleasure desiring that ;

he might enjoy these worldly delights, and not wish

to wander from his home in search of wisdom 185 ;

In former times the Bodhisattva kings, although

their way (life) has been restrained (severe), have

yet enjoyed the pleasures of the world, and when

they have begotten a son, then separating themselves
from family ties, 186
Have afterwards entered the solitude of the
mountains, to prepare themselves in the way of a
silent recluse. 187



Without are pleasant garden glades, flowing foun-

tains, pure refreshing lakes, with every kind of

These verses are very obscure, and can only be understood by
comparison with the Sanskrit.
In this section we have an account of the excursion of the
royal prince without the precincts of the palace, and the sights
which affected his mind with a desire to leave the world.

flower, and trees with fruit, arranged in rows, deep

shade beneath. 188
There, too, are various kinds of wondrous birds,
flying and sporting in the midst, and on the surface
of the water the four kinds of flowers, bright coloured,
giving out their floating scent 189 ;

Minstrel maidens * cause their songs, and chorded

music, to invite the prince. He, hearing the
sounds of singing, sighs for the pleasures of the
garden shades, 190
And cherishing within these happy thoughts 2 he ,

dwelt upon the joys of an outside excursion even ;

as the chained elephant ever longs for the free

desert wilds. 191
Theroyal father, hearing that the prince would
enjoy to wander through the gardens, first ordered
all his attendant officers to adorn and
arrange them,
after their several offices :
To make level and smooth the king's highway,
to remove from the path
all offensive matter, all old

persons, diseased or deformed, all those suffering

through poverty or great grief, 193
that his son in his present humour might see

nothing likely to afflict his heart. The adornments

being duly made, the prince was invited to an
audience; 194
The king
seeing his son approach, patted his head
and looking at the colour of his face, feelings of
sorrow and joy intermingled, bound him. His mouth
willing to speak, his heart restrained. 195
(Now see) the jewel-fronted gaudy chariot ;
four equally-pacing, stately horses; good-tempered

1 2
Otherwise, singing-women. Or, thoughts of happiness.

and well - trained ;

young and of graceful appear-
ance; 196
Perfectly pureand white, and draped with flowery
coverings. In the same chariot stands the (stately)
driver the streets were scattered over with flowers
; ;

precious drapery fixed on either side of the way, 197

With dwarfed trees lining the road, costly vessels
employed for decoration, hanging canopies and varie-
gated banners, silken curtains, moved by the rustling
breeze, 198
Spectators arranged on either side of the path.
With bodies bent and glistening eyes, eagerly gazing,
but not rudely staring, as the blue lotus flower (they
bent) drooping in the air, 199
Ministers and attendants flocking round him, as
stars following the chief of the constellation ;

uttering the same suppressed whisper of admiration,

at a sight so seldom seen in the world 200 ;

Rich and poor, humble and exalted, old and young

and middle-aged, paid the greatest respect, and

invoked blessings on the occasion 201 :

So the country-folk and the town-folk, hearing

that the prince was coming forth, the well-to-do not

waiting for their servants, those asleep and awake

not mutually calling to one another, 202
The six kinds of creatures not gathered together
and penned, the money not collected and locked up,
the doors and gates not fastened, all went pouring
along the way on foot 203 ;

The towers were- filled and the mounds by the

trees, the windows and the terraces along the streets ;

with bent body fearing to lift their eyes, carefully

As stars following the constellation-king.

seeing that there was nothing about them to

offend, 204
Those seated on high addressing those seated on
the ground, those going on the road addressing those
passing on high, the mind intent on one object alone ;

so that a heavenly form had flown past, 205


Or a form entitled to highest respect, there would

have been no distraction visible, so intent was the
body and so immovable the limbs. And now beautiful
as the opening lily, 206
advances towards the garden glades, wishing
to accomplish the words of the holy prophet (Rishi).
The prince seeing the ways prepared and watered, and
the joyous holiday appearance of the people, 207
(Seeing too) the drapery and the chariot pure,
bright, shining, his heart exulted greatly
and rejoiced.
The people (on their part) gazed at the prince, so
beautifully adorned, with all his retinue, 208
Like an assembled company of kings (gathered)
to see a heaven-born prince. And now a Deva-ra^a
of the Pure abode, suddenly appears by the side of
the road 209;

His form changed into that of an old man,

struggling for his heart weak and oppressed.


The prince seeing the old man, filled with appre-

hension, asked his charioteer, 210
What kind of man is this ? his head white and

his shoulders bent, his eyes bleared and his body

withered, holding a stick to support him along the
way. 211
body suddenly dried up by the heat, or
Is his
has he been born in this way?' The charioteer,
his heart much embarrassed, scarcely dared to
answer truly, 212

Till pure-born (Deva) added his spiritual

power, and caused him to frame a reply in true
words : His appearance changed, his vital powers
decayed, filled with sorrow, with little pleasure, 213
gone, his members nerveless, these
His spirits
are the indications of what is called old age." This
man was once a sucking child, brought up and
nourished at his mother's breast, 214
as a youth full of sportive life, handsome,
and enjoyment of the five pleasures as years
in ;

passed on, his frame decaying, he is brought now to

the waste of age/ 215
The prince greatly agitated and moved, asked his
charioteer another question and said, Is yonder

man the only one afflicted with age, or shall I, and

others also, be such as he ?' 216
The charioteer again replied and said, '
highness also inherits this lot, as time goes on, the
form changed, and this must doubtless come,
itself is

beyond hindrance
all 217 :

The youthful form must wear the garb of age,


throughout the world, this is the common lot/

Bodhisattva, who had long prepared the foundation

of pure and spotless wisdom, 218
Broadly setting the root of every high quality,
with a view to gather large fruit in his present life,
hearing these words respecting the sorrow of age,
was afflicted in mind, and his hair stood up-
right. 219
Just as the roll of the thunder and the storm
alarm and put to flight the cattle; so was Bodhi-
sattva affected by the words shaking with appre- ;

hension, he deeply sighed; 220

Constrained at heart because of the pain of 'age;'
[19] D

with shaking head and constant gaze, he thought

upon this misery of decay what joy or pleasure ;

can men take (he thought), 221

In that which soon must wither, stricken by the
marks of age affecting all without exception though
; ;

gifted now
with youth and strength, yet not one
but soon must change and pine away. 222
The eye beholding such signs as these before it,

how can it not be oppressed by a desire to escape 1 ?

Bodhisattva then addressed his charioteer, Quickly
turn your chariot and go back, 223
Ever thinking on this subject of old age approach-

ing, what pleasures now can these gardens afford, the

years of my life like the fast-flying wind turn your ;

chariot, and with speedy wheels take me to my

palace/ 224
Andso his heart keeping in the same sad tone, (he
was) as one who returns to a place of entombment ;

unaffected by any engagement or employment, so he

found no rest anything within his home. 225
king hearing of his son's sadness urged (his
companions) to induce him again to go abroad, and
forthwith incited his ministers and attendants to de-
corate the gardens even more than before. 226
The Deva then caused himself to appear as a sick
man struggling for life, he stood by the
; wayside,
his body swollen and disfigured, sighing with deep-
drawn groans, 227
His hands and knees contracted and sore with
disease, his tears flowing as he piteously muttered
(his petition). The prince asked his charioteer,
What sort of man, again, is this ?' 228

How can a man not (desire) to remove it
old age) as
a hateful thing?

Replying he said, This is a sick man. The four


elements all confused and disordered, worn and feeble,

with no remaining strength, bent down with weak-
ness, looking to his fellow-men for help.' 229
The prince hearing the words thus spoken, imme-
diately became sad and depressed in heart, and
asked, Is this the only man afflicted thus, or are

others liable to the same (calamity)?' 230

In reply he said, Through all the world, men

are subject to the same condition those who have


bodies must endure affliction, the poor and ignorant,

as well as the rich and great/ 231
The prince, when these words met his ears, was
oppressed with anxious thought and grief; his body
and his mind were moved throughout, just as the
moon upon the ruffled tide.
Placed thus in the great furnace of affliction,
say! what rest or quiet can there be! Alas! that
worldly men, (blinded by) ignorance and oppressed
with dark delusion, 233

Though the robber sickness may appear at any

time, yet live with blithe and joyous hearts !' On
this, turning his chariot back again, he grieved to
think upon the pain of sickness. 234
As a man beaten and wounded sore, with body
weakened, leans upon his staff, so dwelt he in the
seclusion of his palace, lone-seeking, hating worldly

pleasures. 235
The king hearing once more of his son's return,
asked anxiously the reason why, and in reply was
told he saw the pain of sickness/ The king in

fear like one beside himself, 236

Roundly blamed the keepers of the way; his

heart constrained, his lips spoke not again he ;

D 2

increased the crowd of music women, the sounds

of merriment twice louder than aforetime, 237
If by these sounds and
sights (the prince) might
be and indulging worldly feelings, might
not hate his home. Night and day the charm of
melody increased, but his heart was still unmoved

by it. 238
Theking himself then went forth to observe
everything successively, and to make the gardens
even yet more attractive, selecting with care the
attendant women, that they might excel in every
point of personal beauty 239;

Quick in wit and able to arrange matters well,

fit to ensnare men
by their winning looks he placed ;

additional keepers along the king's way, he strictly

ordered every offensive sight to be removed, 240
And earnestly exhorted the illustrious coachman,
to look well and pick out the road as he went. And
now that Deva of the pure abode, again caused the
appearance of a dead man ; 241
Four persons carrying the corpse lifted it on high,
and appeared (to be going on) in front of Bodhi-
sattva the surrounding people saw it not, but only

Bodhisattva and the charioteer 242 ;

(Once more) he asked, What is this they carry ?


with streamers and flowers of every choice descrip-

tion, whilst the followers are overwhelmed with

grief, tearing their hair and wailing piteously.' 243

And now the gods instructing the coachman, he

replied and said, This is a dead man," all his

powers of body destroyed, life departed; his heart
without thought, his intellect dispersed 244 ;

His spirit gone, his form withered and decayed ;

stretched out as a dead log; family ties broken


all his friends who once loved him, clad in whfte

cerements, 245
Now no longer delighting to behold him, remove
him to lie in some hollow ditch (tomb)/ The prince
hearing the name of DEATH, his heart constrained

by painful thoughts, 246

asked, 'Is this the only dead man, or does the
world contain like instances ?' Replying thus he said,

All, everywhere, the same ;

he who begins his life

must end it 247likewise ;

The and lusty and the middle-aged,
having a body, cannot but decay (and -die)/ The
prince now harassed and perplexed in mind his body ;

bent upon the chariot leaning-board, 248

With bated breath and struggling accents, stam-
mered thus, Oh worldly men how fatally deluded
! !

beholding everywhere the body brought to dust,

yet everywhere the more carelessly living 249 ;

'The heart is neither lifeless wood nor stone, and

" "
yet it thinks not all is vanishing ! Then turning,
he directed his chariot to go back, and no longer
waste his time in wandering. 250
could he, whilst in fear of instant death, go
wandering here and there with lightened heart !

The charioteer remembering the king's exhortation

feared much nor dared go back ; 25 1

Straightforward then he pressed his panting steeds,

passed onward to the gardens, (came to) the groves
and babbling streams of crystal water, the pleasant
trees, spread out with gaudy verdure, 252
The noble living things and varied beasts so
wonderful, the and their notes
flying creatures
melodious, charming and
all delightful to the eye
and ear, even as the heavenly Nandavana. 253


The prince on entering the garden, the women
came around to pay him court and to
arouse ;

in him thoughts frivolous with ogling ways and ;

deep design, 254

Each one setting herself off to best advantage ;

or joining together in harmonious concert, clapping

their hands, or moving their feet in unison, or

joining close, body to body, limb to limb ; 255

Orindulging repartees, and mutual
in smart
smiles or assuming a thoughtful saddened counte-

nance, and so by sympathy to please the prince, and

provoke in him a heart affected by love. 256
But all the women beheld the prince, clouded in
brow, and his godlike body not exhibiting its wonted
signs of beauty ;
fair in bodily appearance, surpass-
ingly lovely , 257
All looked upwards as they gazed, as 'when we
call upon the moon Deva to come 2 but all their ;

subtle devices 3
were ineffectual to move Bodhi-
sattva's heart.258
At commingling together they join and look
astonished and in fear, silent without a word. Then
there was a Brahmaputra, whose name was called
Udayi (Yau-to-i). 259
(He) addressing the women, said,
Now all of

Surpassingly adorned or magnificent.
Or, as when the moon Deva (first) comes.

In every way practising subtle devices (up ay a).
There is mention of Udayi in the Fo - pen -hing-tsah- king,
chap. XIV. See also note i, p. 124, Romantic History of Buddha.

you, so graceful and (see if you cannot) by your


combined power on some device for beauty's

hit ;

power is not for ever. 260

holds the world in bondage, by secret
'Still it

ways and lustful arts but no such loveliness in all;

the world (as yours), equal to that of heavenly

nymphs ;
The gods it would leave their queens,
spirits and
would be misled by it why not
^z'shis ;

then the prince, the son of an earthly king 2 ? why

should not his feelings be aroused ? 262
This prince indeed, though he restrains his heart
and holds it fixed 3 pure-minded, with virtue un-

contaminated, not to be overcome by power of

women ; 263

(Yet) of old there was Sundarl (Su-to-li) able to

destroy the great /Kshi, and to lead him to indulge
in love, and so degrade his boasted eminence 4 264 ;

Undergoing long penance, Gautama fell likewise


(by the arts of) a heavenly queen Shing-ku, a jRishi ;

putra, practising lustful indulgences according to

fancy , (was lost). 265
'The Brahman ftishi Virvamitra (Pi-she-po),
living religiously for ten thousand years, deeply

In appearance equal to Devis.
Or, what then is man (to do), though son of a king, that his

feelings should not be aroused ?

Holding his will, though firmly fixed.
And bend his head beneath her feet.
The phrase which ends this line is obscure. It may be rendered

thus, Shing-ku, the 7?zshi putra, practised lustful ways, beside the
flowings of the fountain/ [See a similar case, Catena of Buddhist
Scriptures, p. 259.] The Sanskrit text is as follows :

the son of a Muni, unlearned with women.'

Practising religious rules, or, preparing a religious life.

ensnared by a heavenly queen, in one day was com-

pletely shipwreck'd in faith *; 266
Thus those enticing women, by their power, over-

came the Brahman ascetics how much more may ;

ye, by your arts, overpower (the resolves) of the

king's son ; 26.7
Strive therefore after new devices ,
let not the
king fail in a successor to the throne women, altho'

naturally weak ,
are high and potent in the way of

ruling men. 268

What may not their arts accomplish in promoting

in men a lustful (impure) desire ? At this time all

the attendant women, hearing throughout the words
of Udayi, 269
Increasing their powers of pleasing, as the quiet
horse when touched by the whip, went into the
presence of the royal prince, and each one strove
in the practice of every kind of art, 270
(They) joined in music and in smiling conversa-

tion, raising their eyebrows, showing their white

teeth, with ogling looks, glancing one at the other,
their light drapery exhibiting their white bodies, 271

Daintily moving with mincing gait, acting the

part of a bride as if coming gradually nearer ,

desiring to
promote in him a feeling of love, re-
membering the words of the great king , 272

Completely ruined. The name of the queen was Ghr/ta^i.
The Chinese 'fong pien' denotes the use of 'means to an
' '
end generally it can be rendered expedients.'

women although weak.
Or, the nature of
understand the passage, as if a coy wife gradually ap-

proached her husband.

Who the great king is I do not find, but I take the two lines
following to be a quotation. [The great king was probably the
father of Buddha.]

With dissolute form and slightly clad, forgetful
of modesty and womanly reserve/ The prince with
resolute heart was silent and still, with unmoved
face (he sat) 273 ;

Even as the great elephant-dragon, whilst the

entire herd moves round him 1 so nothing could

disturb or move his heart, dwelling in their midst

as in a confined room 2 274 . .

Like the divine .5akra, around whom all the Devis

assemble, so was the prince as he dwelt in the gar-
dens; (the maidens) encircling him thus; 275
Some arranging their dress, others washing their
hands or others perfuming their bodies with

scent, others twining flowers for decoration, 276

Others making strings for jewelled necklets,
others rubbing or striking their bodies, others
resting, or lying, one beside the other, others, with
head inclined, whispering secret words, 277
Others engaged in common sports, others talking
of amorous things, others assuming lustful attitudes,

striving thus to move his heart; 278

But Bodhisattva, peaceful and collected, firm as
a rock, difficult to move, hearing all these women's
talk,unaffected either to joy or sorrow, 279
Was driven still more to serious thought, sighing
to witness such strange conduct, and beginning to
understand the women's design, by these means to
disconcert his mind, 280
Not knowing that youthful beauty soon falls,

destroyed by old age and death, fading and perish-

ing This is the great distress
! What ignor- !

Or, surrounded by the entire herd.
That is, cramped in the midst of the encircling crowd of girls.

ance and delusion (he reflected) overshadow their

minds, 281

Surely they ought to consider old age, disease,

and death, and day and night stir themselves up
to exertion, whilst this sharp
double-edged sword
hangs over the neck. What room for sport or
laughter, 282

Beholding those (monsters) old age, disease, and

death ? A
man who is unable to resort to this
inward knowledge, what is he but a wooden or
a plaster man, what heart-consideration in such a
case! 283
Like the double tree that appears in the desert,
with leaves and fruit all perfect and ripe, the first

cut down and destroyed, the other unmoved by

apprehension, 284

So it is in the case of the mass of men, they

have no understanding either!' At this time
Udayi came to the place where the prince
was, 285
And observing his silent and thoughtful mien,
unmoved by any desire for
indulgence (the five
desires), he forthwith addressed the prince, and
The Maharaja, by his former appoint-
ment 1 ,
Has selected me to act as friend to his son

may I therefore speak some friendly words ? an

enlightened friendship (or, friend) is of three sorts,
that which removes things unprofitable, 287

Promotes that which is real gain, and stands

by a friend in adversity. I claim the name of

This passage is obscure ; literally it is
former seeing com-

enlightened friend," and would renounce all that
is magisterial, 288
But yet not speak lightly or with indifference.
What then are the three sources of advantage ?
listen, and I will now utter true words, and prove

myself a true and sincere adviser. 289

When the years are fresh and ripening, beauty

and pleasing qualities in bloom, not to give proper

weight to woman's influence, this is a weak man's
policy (body) 290 .

'It is right sometimes to be of a crafty mind,

submitting to those little subterfuges, which find a

place in the heart's undercurrents, and obeying what
those thoughts suggest, 291
In way of pleasures to be got from dalliance, this is
no wrong in woman's (eye) even if now the heart has !

no desire, yet it is fair to follow such devices ; 292

'Agreement (acquiescence) the joy of woman's

heart, acquiescence is the substance (the full) of true

adornment ;
but if a man reject these overtures, he's
likea tree deprived of leaves and fruits 293 ;

Why then ought you to yield and acquiesce ?

that you may share in all these things. Because
in taking, there's an end of trouble no light and
changeful thoughts then worry us 294
For pleasure is the first and foremost thought

of all, the gods themselves cannot dispense with

it. Lord .Sakra was drawn by it to love the wife
of Gautama the Tv^'shi 295 ;


So likewise the fitshi Agastya, through a long

1 '
This is the character of non- victorious men.' Again there is

a play on the word '

Shing' a Gina. The Sanskrit renders it

'rudeness.' The Chinese fi-shing-^in may also mean coarse or


period of discipline J practising austerities, from


hankering after a heavenly queen (Devi), lost all

reward of his religious endeavours, 296
The jRishi IWhaspati, and A^andradeva putra; the

Tfo'shi Parajara, and Kava^/ara 2

(Kia-pin->e-lo) :

All these, out of many were overcome by
woman's love. How much more
then, in your case,
should you partake in such pleasant joys 298 ;

Nor refuse, with wilful heart, to participate in


the worldly delights, which your present station,

possessed of such advantages, offers you, in the
presence of these attendants/ 299
At time the royal prince, hearing the words
of his friend Udayi, so skilfully put, with such fine
distinction, cleverly citing worldly instances, 300
Answered thus to Udayi :
Thank you for having
spoken sincerely to me, let me likewise answer

you in the same way, and let your heart suspend

its judgment whilst you listen 301 ;

It is not that I am careless about beauty, or am
ignorant of (the power of) human joys, but only that
I see on all the impress of
change therefore my ;

heart is sad and heavy 302 ;

If these things were sure of lasting, without the
ills of age, disease, and death, then would I too take
my fill of love and to the end find no disgust or

sadness ; 303

you will undertake to cause these women's


beauty not after-while to change or wither, then,

though the joy of love may have its evil, still it
might hold the mind in thraldom; 304
To know that other) men grow old, sicken, and
*.ATang-y/ the long night.
The Sanskrit text has, Vasish/^a begat Kapm^alada.'

die,would be enough to rob such joys of satisfaction ;

yet how much more in their own case (knowing this)

would discontentment fill the mind 305 ;


(To know) such pleasures hasten to decay, and

their bodies likewise ; if, notwithstanding this, men
yield to the power of love, their case indeed is like
the very beasts. 306
And now you cite the names of many ^shis,
who practised lustful ways in life ;
their cases like-
wise cause me sorrow, for in that they did these
things, they perished. 307

Again, you the name

of that illustrious king,

who freely gratified his passions, but he, in like way,

perished in the act; know, then, that he was not a
conqueror (Cina) ; 308
With smooth words to conceal an intrigue, and
to persuade one's neighbour to consent, and by con-

senting to defile his mind how can this be called a


just device ? 309

It is but to seduce one with a hollow lie, such
ways are not for me to practise or, for those who ;

love the truth and honesty for they are, forsooth, ;

unrighteous ways, 310

And such a disposition
is hard to reverence ;

shaping one's conduct after one's likings, liking this

or that, and seeing no harm in it, what method of
experience is this 311 !

hollow compliance, and a protesting heart,
such method is not for me to follow; but this I
know, old age, disease, and death, these are the
great afflictions which accumulate, 312
And overwhelm me with their presence ;
these I find no friend to speak, alas ! alas !
Udayi !

these, after all, are the great concerns; 313


pain of birth, old age, disease, and death ;

this grief is that we have to fear the eyes see all ;

things falling to decay, and yet the heart finds joy in

following them; 314
But I have strength of purpose, or com-

mand ;
this heart of mine is feeble and distraught,

reflecting thus on age, disease, and death. Dis-

tracted, as I never was before ; 315

Sleepless by night -and day, how can I then

indulge in pleasure ? Old age, disease, and death
consuming me, their certainty
beyond a doubt, 316
And still to have no heavy thoughts, in truth my
heart would be a log or stone/ Thus the prince, for
Uda's sake, used every kind of skilful argument, 317
Describing the pains of pleasure; and not

perceiving that the day declined. And now the

waiting women all, with music and their various

Seeing that all were useless for the end, with

shame began to flock back to the city; the prince
beholding all the gardens, bereft of their gaudy
ornaments, 319
The women all returning home, the place becoming
silent and deserted, felt with twofold strength the
thought of impermanence. With saddened mien
going back, he entered his palace 320 ;

The king, his father, hearing of the prince, his

heart from thoughts of pleasure, was
greatly overcome with sorrow, and like a sword it
pierced his heart. 321
Forthwith assembling
all his council, he sought

of them some means to gain his end they all ;

replied, These sources of desire are not enough


to hold and captivate his heart/ 322



And so the king increased the means for gratify-

ing the appetite for pleasure ;

both night and day
the joys of music wore out the prince, opposed to
pleasure; 323
Disgusted with them, he desired their absence,
his mind was weaned from all such thoughts, he

only thought of age, disease, and death ;

as the
lion wounded by an arrow. 324
The king then sent his chief ministers, and the
most distinguished of his family, young in years
and eminent for beauty, as well as for wisdom and
dignity of manners, 325
To accompany, and him, both night
rest with
and day, in order to influence the prince's mind.
And now within a little interval, the prince again
requested the king that he might go abroad. 326
Once more the chariot and the well-paced horses
were prepared, adorned with precious substances and
every gem and then with
all the nobles, his asso-
ciates, surrounding him, he left the city gates: 327

Just as the four kinds of flower

when the sun ,

shines, open out their leaves, so was the prince in

all his spiritual splendour; effulgent in the beauty

of his youth time ; 328

As he proceeded to the gardens from the city,
the road was well prepared, smooth, and wide, the
trees were bright with flowers and fruit, his heart
was joyous, and forgetful of its care. 329

It may be a description of some particular flower, four-seed


Now by theroadside as he beheld the ploughmen,

plodding along the furrows, and the writhing worms,
his heart again was moved with piteous
feeling, and
anguish pierced his soul afresh; 330
To see those labourers at their toil, struggling
with painful work, their bodies bent, their hair dis-
hevelled, the dripping sweat upon their faces, their
persons fouled with mud and dust; 331
The ploughing oxen, too, bent by the yokes, their
lolling tongues and gaping mouths; the nature of
the prince, loving, compassionate, his mind con-
ceived most poignant sorrow, 332
nobly moved to sympathy, he groaned with
pain; then stooping down he sat upon the ground,
and watched this painful scene of suffering reflect- ;

ing on the ways of birth and death 333


Alas he cried, for all the world how dark and

! !

ignorant, void of understanding !' And then to give

his followers chance of rest, he bade them each
repose where'er they list;334
Whilst he beneath the shadow of a Gambu tree,

gracefully seated, gave himself to thought. He

pondered on the fact of life and death, inconstancy,
and endless progress to decay. 335
His heart thus fixed without confusion, the five
desires (senses) covered and clouded over, lost in

possession of enlightenment and insight, he entered

on the first pure state of ecstacy. 336
All low desire removed, most perfect peace
ensued; and fully now in Samadhi (he saw) the
misery and utter sorrow of the world the ruin ;

wrought by age, disease, and death 337


The great misery following on the body's death ;

and yet men not awakened to the truth oppressed !


with others' suffering (age, disease, and death), this

load of sorrow weigh'd his mind 338 ;

I now will seek (he said) a noble law, unlike the
worldly methods known to men, I will oppose disease
and age and death, and strive against the mischief
wrought by these on men.' 339
Thus lost in tranquil contemplation, (he con-
sidered that) youth, vigour, and strength of life,
constantly renewing themselves, without long stay,
in the end fulfil the rule of ultimate destruc-
tion 340 ;

(Thus he pondered) without excessive joy or

grief,without hesitation or confusion of thought,
without dreaminess or extreme longing, without
aversion or discontent, 341
But perfectly at peace, with no hindrance, radiant
with the beams of increased illumination. At this
time a Deva of the Pure abode, transforming him-
self into the shape of a Bhikshu, 342
Came to the place where the prince was seated ;

the prince with due consideration rose to meet him,

and asked him who he was. In reply he said, I *

am a Shaman, 343
Depressed and sad
at thought of age, disease,
and death, I have left my home to seek some way
of rescue, but everywhere I find old age, disease,
and death, all (things) hasten to decay and there is
no permanency 344 ;

Therefore I search for the happiness of some-
thing thatdecays not, that never perishes, that
never knows beginning, that looks with equal mind
on enemy and friend, that heeds not wealth nor
beauty, 345
The happiness of one who finds repose alone in

[19] E

solitude, in some unfrequented

dell, free from
molestation, about
thoughts the world destroyed,
dwelling in some lonely hermitage, 346
Untouched by any worldly source of pollution,
begging food sufficient for the body.'
for And
forthwith as he stood before the prince, gradually

rising up he disappeared in space. 347

Theprince with joyful mind, considering, recol-
lected former Buddhas, established thus in perfect

dignity of manner; with noble mien and presence,

as this visitor. 348
Thus things to mind with perfect self-
possession, he reached the thought of righteousness,
and by what means it can be
gained. Indulging
thus for length of time in thoughts of religious
solitude, 349
He now
suppressed his feelings and controlled
his members, and rising turned again towards the

city. His followers all flocked after him, calling

him to stop and not go far from them, 350
But in his mind these secret thoughts so held
him, devising means by which to escape from the
world, that tho' his body moved along the road,
his heart was far away among the mountains; 351
Even as the bound and captive elephant, ever
thinks about his desert wilds. The prince now
entering the city, there met him men and women,
earnest for their several ends ; 352
The old besought him for their children, the
young sought something for the wife, others sought
something for their brethren ;
all those allied by
kinship or by family, 353
Aimed to obtain their several suits, all of them
joined in relationship dreading the pain (expectation)

of separation. And now the prince's heart was filled

with joy, as he suddenly heard those words separa-
tion and association/ 354
These are joyful sounds to me/ he said, they
' *

assure me that my vow shall be accomplished.' Then


deeply pondering the joy of snapped relationship,'

the idea of Nirvana, deepened and widened in
him 1
355 ,

His body as a peak of the Golden Mount, his

shoulder like the elephant's, his voice like the spring-
thunder, his deep-blue eye like that of the king of
oxen, 356
His mind of religious thoughts (aims), his

face bright as the full moon, his step like that of

the lion king, thus he entered his palace, 357
Even as the son of Lord .Sakra (or, .Sakra-putra)
his mind reverential, his person dignified, he went
straight to his father's presence, and with head

inclined, enquired, Is the

king well ?' 358
Then he explained his dread of age, disease, and
death,and sought respectfully permission to be-

come a hermit. For all things in the world


(he said), 'though now united, tend to separa-

tion;' 359
Therefore he prayed to leave the world ;
to find His royal father hearing
true deliverance.'
the words 'leave the world,' was forthwith seized
with great heart- trembling, 360
Even as the strong wild elephant shakes with
his weight the boughs of some young sapling ; going
forward, seizing the prince's hands, with falling
tears, he spake as follows: 361

Literally, 'deeply widened the mind of Nirvana (Ni-pan).'
E 2


Stop ! nor speak such words, the time is not yet

come a religious life," you are young and

strong, your heart beats full, to lead a religious life

frequently involves trouble, 362
It is rarely possible to hold the desires in check,
the heart not yet estranged from their enjoyment ;

to leave your home and lead a painful ascetic life,

your heart can hardly yet resolve on such a
course; 363
To dwell amidst the desert wilds or lonely dells,

this heart ofyours would not be perfectly at rest,

for though you love religious matters, you are not

yet like me
years 364 in ;

should undertake the kingdom's govern-
ment, and let me first adopt ascetic life but to ;

give up your father and your sacred duties, this

is not to act religiously; 365
You should suppress this thought of " leaving
home," and undertake your worldly duties, find your
delight in getting an illustrious name, and after this
give up your home and family/ 366
The prince, with proper reverence and respectful
feelings, again besought his royal father but pro- ;

mised if he could be saved from four calamities,

that he would give up the thought of leaving

home;' 367
If he would grant him life without end, no disease,
nor undesirable old age, and no decay of earthly
possessions then he would obey and give up the


thought of leaving home.' 368

The royal father then addressed the prince, Speak '

not such words as these, for with respect to these

four things, who is there able to prevent them, or

say nay to their approach ; 369


'Asking such things as these (four things), you

would provoke men's laughter But put away this !

thought of "leaving home," and once more take

yourself to pleasure.' 370
The prince again besought his father, 'If you may
not grant me
these four prayers, then let me go I
pray, and leave my home. O
place no difficulties

in my path ; 371
Your son
dwelling in a burning house, would
you indeed prevent his leaving it To solve a !

doubt is only reasonable, who could forbid a man

to seek its 372
explanation ?
he were forbidden, then by self-destruction

he might solve the difficulty, in an unrighteous way :

and if he were to do so, who could restrain him after

death?' 373
Theroyal father, seeing his son's mind so firmly
fixed that it could not be turned, and that it would
be waste of strength to bandy further words or
arguments, 374
Forthwith commanded more attendant women, to
provoke still more hisday and
mind to pleasure;

night (he ordered them) to keep the roads and

ways, to the end that he might not leave his
palace; 375
(He moreover ordered) all the ministers of the
country to come to the place where dwelt the
prince, quote and illustrate the rules of filial

piety, hoping to cause him to obey the wishes of

the king. 376
The prince, beholding his royal father bathed
with tears and overwhelmed with grief, forthwith
returned to his abode, and sat himself in silence to
consider; 377

All the women

of the palace, coming towards him,
waited as they circled him, and gazed in silence on
his beauteous form. They gazed upon him not with
furtive glance, 378
But like the deer in autumn brake looks wistfully
at around the prince's straight and
the hunter ;

handsome form, (bright) as the mountain of true

gold (Sumeru), 379
The dancing women gathered doubtingly, waiting
to hear him bid them sound their music repressing ;

every feeling of the heart through fear, even as the

deer within the brake 380 ;

Now gradually the day began to wane, the prince

still sitting in the evening light, his glory streaming

forth in splendour, as the sun lights up Mount

Sumeru; 381
Thusseated on his jewelled couch, surrounded
by the fumes of sandal-wood, the dancing women
took their places round; then sounded forth their
heavenly (Gandharva) music, 382
Even Valsaman (Vaijrava/za) produces every
kind of rare and heavenly sounds. The thoughts
which dwelt within the prince's mind entirely drove
from him desire for music, 383
And tho' the sounds filled all the place, they fell
upon his ear unnoticed. At this time the Deva
of the Pure abode, knowing the prince's time was
come, 384
The destined time for quitting home, suddenly
assumed a form and came to earth, to make the

shapes of all the women unattractive, so that they

might create disgust, 385

And no desire arise from thought of beauty.
Their half-clad forms bent in ungainly attitudes,

forgetful in their sleep, their bodies crooked or

supine, the instruments of music lying scattered in
disorder; 386
Leaning and facing one another, or with back to
back, or like those beings thrown into the abyss,
their jewelled necklets bound about like chains,
their clothes and undergarments swathed around
their persons; 387

Grasping their instruments, stretched along the

earth, even as those undergoing punishment at the
hands of keepers (eunuchs), their garments in con-
fusion, or like the broken kani flower (poppy?); 388
Or some with bodies leaning in sleep against the
wall, in fashion like a hanging bow or horn, or with
their hands holding to the window-frames, and look-

ing like an outstretched corpse 389 ;

Their mouths half opened or else gaping wide,

the loathsome dribble trickling forth, their heads
uncovered and in wild disorder, like some unreason-
ing madman's ; 390
The flower wreaths torn and hanging across their
face, or slipping off the face upon the ground ;

others with body raised as if in fearful dread, just

like the lonely desert (?) bird; 391
Orothers pillowed on their neighbour's lap, their
hands and feet entwined together, whilst others
smiled or knit their brows in turn, some with eyes
closed and open mouth, 392
Their bodies lying in wild disorder, stretched here
and there, like corpses thrown together. And now
the prince seated, in his beauty, looked with thought
on the waiting women
all 393 ;

Before, they had appeared exceeding lovely, their

laughing words, their hearts so light and gay, their

forms so plump and young, their looks so bright but ;

now, how changed so uninviting and repulsive. 394


And such is woman's disposition how can they, !

then, be ever dear, or closely trusted such false ;

appearances and unreal pretences they only mad-

! ;

den and delude the minds of men. 395

And now (he said),' I have awakened to the truth !

Resolved am I to leave such false society/ At this

time the Deva of the Pure abode descended and
approached, unfastening the doors. 396
The prince, too, at this time rose and walked
along, amid the prostrate forms of all the women ;

with difficulty reaching to the inner hall, he called

to A'andaka, in these words, 397
is now athirst and longing for the

draught of the fountain of sweet dew, saddle then

my horse, and quickly bring it here. I wish to

reach the deathless city; 398

My heart is fixed beyond all change, resolved

I am and bound by sacred oath ;
these women, once
so charming and enticing, now behold I
loathsome ; 399
The gates, which were before fast-barred and
locked, now
stand free and open! these evidences
of something supernatural, point to a climax of
my life.' 400
Then A"andaka stood reflecting inwardly, whether
to obey or not the prince's order, without informing
his royal father of it, and so incur the heaviest

punishment. 401
The Devas then gave spiritual strength; and
unperceived the horse equipped came round, with
even pace; a gallant steed, with all his jewelled

trappings for a rider ; 402


High-maned, with flowing tail, broad -backed,

short-haired and ear'd, with belly like the deer's,
head like the king of parrots, wide forehead, round
and claw-shaped nostrils, 403
Breath like the dragon's, with breast and shoulders
square, true and sufficient marks of his high breed.
The royal prince, stroking the horse's neck, and
rubbing down his body, said, 404
My royal father ever rode on thee, and found

thee brave in fight and fearless of the foe now ;

I desire to rely on thee alike ! to carry me far off

to the stream (ford) of endless life, 405
To fight against and overcome the opposing force
of men, the men who associate in search of pleasure,
the men who engage in the search after wealth, the
crowds who follow and flatter such persons 406 ;

In opposing sorrow, friendly help is difficult (to

find), in seeking religious truth there must be rare

enlightenment, us then be knit together thus


as friends; then, at last, there will be rest from

sorrow. 407
But now I wish to go abroad, to give deliverance

from pain now then, for your own sake it is, and

for the sake of all your kind, 408

That you should exert your strength, with noble
pace, without lagging or weariness/ Having thus
exhorted him, he bestrode his horse, and grasping
the reins, proceeded forth ; 409
The man like the sun shining forth from his
tabernacle (sun -palace -streams), the horse like the
white floating cloud (the white cloud-pile), exerting
himself but without exciting haste, his breath con-
cealed and without snorting 410

Four spirits (Devas) accompanying him, held up


his feet, heedfully concealing (his advance), silently

and without noise the heavy gates fastened and

barred (locked), the heavenly spirits of themselves

caused to open; 411
Reverencing deeply the virtuous (sinless) father,
loving deeply the unequalled son, equally affected
with love towards all the members of his family
(these Devas took their place). 412
Suppressing his feelings, but not extinguishing his
memory, lightly he advanced and proceeded beyond
the city, pure and spotless as the lily flowers which
spring from the mud; 413
Looking up with earnestness at his father's palace,
he announced his purpose unwitnessed and un-
If I escape not birth, old age, and death,
for evermore I pass not thus along;' 414
All concourse of Devas, the space-filling
Nagas and spirits followed joyfully and exclaimed
Well well (sadhu), in confirmation of the true
! !

words (he spoke) 415 ;

The Nagas and the company of Devas acquired

a condition of heart difficult to obtain, and each with
his own inherent light led on the way shedding
forth their brightness. 416
Thus man and horse both strong of heart went
onwards, lost to sight, like streaming stars, but ere
the eastern quarter flashed with light, they had
advanced three yo^anas. 417



And now
the night was in a moment gone, and
sight restored to all created things, (when the royal
prince) looked thro' the wood, and saw the abode of
Po-ka, the jRtshi [the hermitage of the Bhargavides,

see Burnouf, Introduction to Ind. Bud. p. 385] 418 ;

The purling streams so exquisitely pure and

sparkling, and the wild beasts all unalarmed at
man, caused the royal prince's heart to exult. Tired,
the horse 2 stopped of his own will, to breathe. 419
This, then/ he thought, is a good sign and
' '

fortunate, and doubtless indicates divine approval /


And now he saw belonging to the jRishi, the various

vessels used for (asking) charity;420
And (other things) arranged by him in order,
without the slightest of negligence. Dis-

mounting then he stroked his horse's head, and

cried, 'You now have borne me (well)!' 421

There was a tower erected on the spot where Bodhisattva
dismissed his coachman. See Fah-hien, p. 92. The distance

given by Asvaghosha, three yog-anas, or about twenty miles,


is much more probable than the

eight hundred lis, given in later
accounts as the length of Bodhisattva's journey. Compare Fah-
hien p. 92, note 2.

The name 'Aanna' may perhaps be more properly restored to


The text here seems to require the alteration of

or, unheard
^ into
or miraculous,
Mi-tsang-li, not-yet-advantage ; of,

'Ying* is often used for 'a proper measure vessel/ i.e. an
alms dish.

With loving eyes he looked at A!andaka, (eyes)

like the pure cool surface of a placid lake (and said),
Swift -footed like a horse in pace, yea
I swift as I

any light-winged bird, 422

Ever have you followed after me when riding,

and deeply have I felt my debt of thanks, but not

yet had you been tried in other ways I only knew ;

you as a man
423 true-hearted,
mind now wonders at your active powers of
body these two I now begin to see (are yours)
; ;

a man may have a heart most true and faithful, but

strength of body may not too be his 424 ;

Bodily strength and perfect honesty of heart, I

now have proof enough are yours. (To be content)
to leave the tinselled world, and with swift foot to
follow me, 425
Who would do this but for some profit, if without
profit to his kin
who would not shun it ? but you,
with no private aim, have followed me, not seeking
any present recompense 426 ;

As we nourish and bring up a child, to bind


together and bring honour to a family so we also ;

reverence and obey a father, to gain (obedience and

attention) from a begotten son 427 ;

way all think of their own advantage

In this ;

but you have come with me disdaining profit with ;

many words I cannot hold you here, so let me say

in brief to you, 428
We have now ended our relationship take, then, ;

my horse and ride back again for me, during the ;

To reject and leave, ^flf for fg.
It may also be,
to himself and kin/

long night past ,
that place I
sought to reach now I

have obtained.' 429

Then taking off his precious neck-chain, he handed
it to A"andaka, Take this/ he said, I give it you,
* *

let console you in your sorrow;' 430


The precious 2 jewel in the tire that bound his

head, bright-shining, lighting up his person, taking
off and placing in his extended palm, like the sun
which lights up Sumeru, 431
He said,
O Aandaka !take this gem, and going
back to where my father is, take the jewel and lay
reverently before him, to signify my heart's rela-
tion to him ; 432
then, for me, request the king to stifle every
fickle feeling of affection, and say that I, to escape
from birth and age and death, have entered on the
wild (forest) 4 of painful discipline, 433
Not that I may get a heavenly birth, much less

because I have no tenderness of heart, or that I

The long night is the dark passage of continued transmigra-
tion, or change ;
the sense is, that Bodhisattva having sought for
the condition of being, or life, he now has reached through a suc-
cession of previous births, the relationship or connection with his
charioteer as master and man, is at an end.
The head-jewel, or uda-ma#i. This crest-jewel is figured in
various ways in Buddhist art ; as a rule it may be taken to indicate
the highest' (the head), and in this form it is placed on the head
of the figures of Buddha (in Ceylon) ; and is found at Sanchi and
Amaravati as an object of reverence ; it symbolises the supreme
authority of Buddha, Dharma, Sahgha.
Or, holding the jewel, worship reverently at the king's feet.
The forest of mortification/ i. e. the place where mortification

was be endured. For an account of Bodhisattva's penance (six


penance [Shad?varshika-vrata]), see Rajendralala Mitra's

Buddha Gaya, p. 26.

cherish any cause of bitterness, but only that I

escape this weight of sorrow ; 434
'The accumulated long-night 1 weight of covetous
desire (love), I now desire to ease the load (cause a

break), so that it may be overthrown for ever there- ;

fore I seek the way (cause) of ultimate escape 435 ;

should obtain emancipation, then shall I
If I

never need to put away my kindred 2 to leave my ,

home, to sever ties of love. O !

grieve not for your
son! 436
The five desires of sense beget the sorrow 3 ;

those held by lust themselves induce the sorrow ;

my very ancestors, victorious kings, thinking (their

throne) established and immovable, 437
Have handed down to me their kingly wealth ;

I, thinking only on religion, put it all away; the

royal mothers at the end of life their cherished
treasures leave for their sons, 438
Those sons who covet much such worldly profit ;

but I rejoice to have acquired religious wealth if ;

you say that I am young and tender, and that the

time for seeking wisdom is not come, 439
You ought to know that to seek true religion,
there never is a time not fit; impermanence and
fickleness ,
the hate of death, these ever follow
us, 440
And therefore I
(embrace) the present day, con-

The long

night' of previous life.

As, for instance, in the Vessantara ataka (birth),
in which
Bodhisattva gave up home, children, and wife, in pursuance of
religious perfection.
The five desires are the root of sorrow.
This line may also be rendered, impermanence, no fixed con-


dition, this 1

vinced that now

time to seek religion 1 With is .

such entreaties as the above, you must make matters

plain on my behalf;
But, pray you, cause my father not to think

longingly after me ;
let him destroy all recollection of
me and cut out from his soul the ties of love 442
, ;

And you, grieve not 3 because of what I say, but
recollect to give the king my message/ Aandaka
hearing respectfully the words of exhortation,
blinded and confused through choking sorrow, 443
With hands outstretched did worship and an- ;

swering the prince, he spoke,

The orders that you
give me, will, I fear, add grief to grief, 444
And sorrow thus increased
deepen, as the will

elephant who struggles into deeper mire. When the

ties of love are rudely snapped, who, that has any

heart, would not grieve !

The golden ore may still by stamping be broken
up, how much more the feelings choked with sor-
row 4 the prince has grown up in a palace 6 with

every care bestowed upon his tender person, 446

And now he gives his body to the rough and

thorny forest ;
how will he be able to bear a life of
privation When first you ordered me to equip

your steed, my mind was indeed sorely troubled, 447

Convinced (resolved) that this is the time to seek the practice
of the law, i. e. to engage in the work of religion.
Let him destroy all recollection of me as a form, or, a living
person this does not forbid him to recollect the office and dignity

of Bodhisattva.
Or, let not slip my words.
How much rather, may the heart be broken, choked with
sorrow !

Concealed or kept securely in his palace.
Fu-hing; the practice of austerities, or mortification.


But the heavenly powers urged me on, causing

me to hasten the preparation (of the horse 1 ), but
what is the intention that urges the prince, to re-
solve thus to leave his secure palace ? 448
The people of Kapilavastu, and
all the country
afflicted with grief; your father, now an old man,
mindful of his son, loving him moreover ten-
derly ; 449

Surely this determination to leave your home,

this is not according to duty it is
wrong, surely, to;

disregard father and mother, we cannot speak of

such a thing with propriety 450 !

Gotami, too, who

has nourished you so long, fed
you with milk when a helpless child, such love as
hers cannot easily be forgotten it is impossible ; .

surely to turn the back on a benefactor 45 1 ;

highly gifted (virtuous) mother of a child, is
ever respected by the most distinguished families 3 ;
to inherit distinction 4 and then to turn round, is not
the mark of a distinguished man 452 :

The illustrious child of Ya^odhara, who has in-


herited a kingdom, rightly governed, his years now

gradually ripening, should not thus go away from

and forsake his home; 453
But though he has gone away from his royal
father, and forsaken his family and his kin, forbid it

hasten on the decoration, i.e. the harnessing, of the horse.
Or, thinking his son beloved and in security.
Illustrious families or tribes are strong, or able, to wait upon
or respect. There seems to be a play here on two words first, :

shing, illustrious or distinguished, alluding to the .Sakyas as a race

of Ginas or conquerors; secondly, neng, able, alluding to the origin

of the word Sakya, i. e. able.
To obtain 'distinction;' still referring to the word shing;
also in the next lines. Consult also p. 28, note 2 supra.

he should still drive me away, let me not depart

from the feet of my master 454 ;

My heart is bound to thee, as the heat is

up )
in the boiling
water; I cannot return without
thee to country to return and leave the prince
my ;

thus, in the midst of the solitude of the desert 455 ,

Then should I be like Sumanta (Sumantra),


who left and forsook Rama; and now if I return

alone to the palace, what words can I address to the
king? 456
HowI can
reply to the reproaches of all the
dwellers in the palace with suitable words ? Therefore
let the prince rather tell me, how I may truly 4

describe, 457
with what device, the disfigured body, and
the merit-seeking condition of the hermit I am !

full of fear and alarm, my tongue can utter no

words; 458
Tell me then what words to speak ;
but who is

there in the empire will believe me ? If I say that

the moon's rays are scorching, there are men,

perhaps, who may believe me ; 459

But they
not believe that the prince, in his

conduct, will act without piety; (for) the prince's

heart is sincere and refined, always actuated with
pity and love to men. 460
'To be deeply affected with love, and yet to

Or, my heart is bound to thee, or cherishes thee, as the fire
embraces the vessel set over it.
I have here inverted the order of the lines, to bring out the sense.
3 1

Sumantra, the minister and charioteer of Da^aratha (Rama -

yawa II, 14, 30).
The order of these lines is again inverted, as they are compli-
cated in the original. The word '

hu/ which I have translated

may mean dumbly/
1 ' '

truly,' or, unfeelingly.'

[19] F

forsake (the object of love), this surely is opposed

to a constant mind. O
then, for pity's sake! re-
turn to your home, and thus appease my foolish

longings/ 461
Theprince having listened to ATandaka, pitying
his grief expressed in so many words, with heart re-
solved and strong in its determination, spoke thus
to him once more, and said :
thus on my account do you feel the pain

of separation ? you should overcome this sorrowful
mood, it is for you to comfort yourself; 463
All creatures, each in its way, foolishly arguing
that all things are constant, would influence me to-day
not to forsakemy kin and relatives 464 ;

But when dead and come to be a ghost, how


then, let them say, can I be kept ? My loving

mother when she bore me, with deep affection
painfully carried me, 465
then when born she died, not permitted to
nourish me. One alive, the other dead, gone by
different roads, where now shall she be found ? 466
Like as in a wilderness on some high tree all the
birds living with their mates assemble in the even-

ing and at dawn disperse, so are the separations of

the world ; 467

The floating clouds rise (like) a high mountain,

from the four quarters they fill the void, in a mo-
ment again they are separated and disappear; so
is it with the habitations of
468 men ;

People from the beginning have erred thus,


binding themselves in society and by the ties of love,

and then, as after a dream, all is dispersed do not ;

then recount the names of my relatives 469 ;

'For like the wood which is produced in spring,


gradually grows and brings forth its leaves, which

again fall in the autumn-chilly-dews if the different
parts of the same body are thus divided- 470
How much more men who are united in society !

and how shall the ties of relationship escape rend-

ing ? Cease therefore your grief and expostulation,
obey my commands and return home; 471
The thought of your return alone will save me,
and perhaps after your return I also may come back.
The men of Kapilavastu, hearing that my heart is

fixed, 472
Will dismiss from their minds all
thought of
me, but you may make known my words, "when I

have escaped from the sad ocean of birth and death,

then afterwards I will come back again 473 ;

But I am resolved, if I obtain not my quest, my

body shall perish in the mountain wilds.'" The white

horse hearing the prince, as he uttered these true
and earnest words, 474
Bent his knee and licked his foot, whilst he sighed
deeply and wept. Then the prince with his soft and
glossy palm, (fondly) stroking the head of the white
horse, 475
(Said), not let
Do sorrow rise (within), I
indeed at losing you, my gallant steed so strong
and active, your merit now has gained its end 2 476 ;

'You shall enjoy for long a respite from an evil

birth 3 but for the present take as your reward 4

Or, my gentle horse !

This merit, or, meritorious deed, is now completed.
The idea is, that the horse, in consequence of the merit he has
acquired by bearing the prince from his home, shall enjoy hence-
forward a higher state of existence.
* *
A superior reward now, for the present, or,
1 *
a better reward
than that I now bestow/ viz. the jewels <fec.
F 2

these precious jewels and this glittering sword, and

with them follow closely after A^andaka.' 477
The prince then drawing forth his sword, glancing
in the light as the dragon's eye, (cut off) the knot
of hair with its jewelled stud
and forthwith cast
it into space 478 ;

Ascending upwards to the firmament, it floated there

as the wings of the phcenix then all the Devas of ;

the Trayastriwsa 2 heavens seizing the hair, returned

with it to their heavenly abodes 479 ;

Desiring always to adore the feet (offer religious

service), how much rather now possessed of the
crowning locks, with unfeigned piety do they increase
their adoration, and shall do till the true law has
died away. 480
Then the royal prince thought thus, My adorn- *

ments now are gone for ever, there only now remain
these silken garments, which are not in keeping with
a hermit's life.' 48 1
Then Deva
of the Pure abode, knowing the
heart-ponderings of the prince, transformed himself
into a hunter's likeness, holding his bow, his arrows
in his girdle,
His body girded with a Kashaya 3 -colour'd robe,
thus he advanced in front of the prince. The prince

1 '
That is, the k\id& mawi/ or hair ornament. This ornament is

represented at Sanchi and Bharhut (plates xxx and xvi respectively

['Tree and Serpent Worship' and 'The Stupa of Bharhut']. In

the former plate the figure on the upper floor with the women is

probably Mara seeing Bodhisattva fulfilling his purpose).

That is, the heaven of the thirty-three gods supposed to be
on the top of Sumeru.
Kashaya, the dark colour of the ground, adopted as the colour
for their robes by the Buddhists.

considering this garment of his, the colour of the

ground, a fitting pure attire, 483
Becoming to the utmost the person of a ^shi,
not fit for a hunter's dress, forthwith called to the
hunter, as he stood before him, in accents soft, and
thus addressed him 484 :

That dress of thine belikes me much, as if it
were not foul 2 and this my dress I'll give thee in

exchange, so please thee.' 485

The hunter then addressed the prince, Although *

I ill can
spare (am not unattached to) this garment,
which use as a disguise
among the deer, that
alluring them within reach I may kill them, 486
pleases you, I am now
as it so
willing to bestow it in exchange for yours.' The
hunter having received the sumptuous dress, took
again his heavenly body. 487
prince and Tsfandaka, the coachman, seeing
thus, This garment is of no

this, thought deeply

common character, it is not what a worldly man
has worn ;' 488
And in (the prince's) heart
great joy arose, as
he regarded the coat with double reverence, and
forthwith giving all the other things 4 to A^andaka,
he himself was clad in it, of Kashaya colour 489 ;

This may also be translated, '
a suitable colour for one who is

the opposite of, i. e. opposed to the occupation of, a hunter.'

That is, as ;
there is a play on the expression
if it were pure
'not foul' or 'impure/ meaning that the dress was itself of a dark
or impure colour, and that the occupation of the hunter made it
more so.

Thought 'deeply;'
seldom-felt thought/
the expression fifr ^p ^ means 'rare/

That is, as I understand it, giving the remaining articles of
his dress to A'andaka.

Then like the dark and lowering cloud *, that sur-

rounds the disc of the sun or moon, he for a moment
gazed, scanning his steps (way), then entered on the
hermit's grot 490 ;

.A'andaka following him with (wistful) eyes, his


body disappeared, nor was it seen again. My lord

and master now has left his father's house, his kins-
folk and myself (he cried), 49 1
He now has clothed himself garb in hermit's 2

and entered the painful forest raising his hands ;

he called on Heaven, overpowered with grief he could

not move; 492
Till holding by the white steed's neck, he tottered
forward on the homeward road, turning again and
often looking back, his steps (body) going on, his
heart back-hastening, 493
Now lost in thought and self-forgetful, now looking
down to earth, then raising up his drooping (eye) to

heaven, falling at times and then rising again, thus

weeping as he went, he pursued his way home-
wards. 494



prince having dismissed A'andaka, as he
entered the &shis abode, his graceful body brightly

have supposed that $2p is for |^. The robe is represented

as the cloud surrounding the bright person of Bodhisattva.

He now has put on a dark-colour'd robe.
The painful forest ;
that is, the forest or wood where painful
mortification is practised. ^ ^J .

shining, lit up on every side the forest 'place of

suffering;' 495
Himself gifted with every excellence (Siddhrtha),
according to his gifts, so were they reflected. As the
lion, the king of beasts, when he enters among the
herd of beasts, 496
Drives from their minds all thoughts of com-
mon things 1 as now they watch the true form

of their kind 2 so those /?/shi masters assembled


there, suddenly perceiving the miraculous por-

tent , 497
Were struck with awe and fearful gladness 4 as,

they gazed with earnest eyes and hands conjoined.

The men and women too, engaged in various
occupations, beholding him, with unchanged atti-

tudes, 498
Gazed as the gods look on king .Sakra, with
constant look and eyes unmoved; so the /frshis,
with their feet fixed fast, looked at him even
thus; 499
Whatever hands they held, without re-
in their

leasing it, they stopped and looked even as the ox ;

when yoked to the wain, his body bound, his mind

also restrained 500 ;

also the followers of the holy Tfoshis, each
called the other to behold the miracle. The peacocks
and the other birds with cries commingled flapped
their wings ; 501

That is, expels the recollection of all inferior shapes or forms.

to the
The true

'way of birth/
form of their kind,' I here take
^ to be equal

3 '
The miracle/ % If* ^f
4 <
Fearful gladness/ |jf SL

The Brahma/arins holding the rules of deer


following the deer

wandering through mountain
glades, (as the) deer coarse of nature, with flashing
eyes [shen shih], regard (or see) the prince with
fixed gaze 502 ;

So following the .deer, those Brahma/arins

intently gaze likewise, looking at the exceeding
glory of the Ikshvaku. As the glory of the rising
sun 503
Is able to affect the herds of milch kine, so as to
increase the quantity of their sweet-scented milk,
so those Brahma^drins, with wondrous joy, thus

spoke one to the other 504 :

'.Surely this is one of the eight Vasu Devas 2 ;'

others, 'this is one of the two Asvins 3 ;' others, 'this

is Mara 4 ;
others, this is one of the Brahmaka-
yikas;' 505
Others, 'this is Suryadeva or A'andradeva, com-
ing down are they not seeking here a sacrifice which

is their due ? Come let us haste to offer our religious

services !'
The prince, on his part, with respectful mien ad-
dressed to them polite salutation. Then Bodhisattva,
looking with care in every direction on the Brahma-
^arins occupying the wood, 507

Is this a name of a sect of Brahman ascetics ?


4 *
Literally, the sixth Mara/ i. e.
Mara of the sixth heaven/ or
Mara who rules over the six heavens of the Kamaloka.

The sun Devaputra, or the moon Devaputra.


Each engaged in his religious duties, all desirous

of the of heaven, addressed the senior

Brahma/arin, and asked him as to the path of true
religion .
having but just come here, I do not yet
know the rules of your religious life. I ask you
therefore for information, and I pray explain to me
what I ask.' 509
On this that twice-born (Brahman) in reply
explained in succession all the modes of pain-
ful discipline, and the fruits expected as their
result. 510
(How some brought from inhabited
ate) nothing
places (villages) (but) that produced from pure

water, (others) edible roots and tender twigs, (others)

fruits and flowers fit for food, 5 1 1
Each according to the rules of his sect, clothing
and food in each case different,some living
amongst bird-kind, and like them capturing and
eating food 512 ;

Others eating as the deer the grass (and herbs);

others living like serpents, inhaling air ;
others eat-

ing nothing pounded in wood or stone ;

some eating
with two teeth, till a wound be formed ; 513
Others, again, begging and giving their food
it in charity, taking only the remnants for them-
selves ; others, again, who let water continually
drip on their heads and those who offer up with
fire; 514

Or, 'an aged BrahmaHrin : here we have the expression

'ATtang for 'aged' (as before).

suh,' J| f|f,
Literally, 'opposed to village coming out,' or, 'that which
comes out of (fijff [fj) villages/

Others who practise water-dwelling like fish thus 1


there are (he said) Brahma^arins of every sort, who

practise austerities, that they may at the end of life

obtain a birth in heaven, 5 1

And by their present sufferings afterwards obtain

peaceable fruit. The lord of men 2

the excellent
master, hearing all their modes of sorrow-producing
penance, 516
Not perceiving any element of truth in them,

experienced no joyful emotion in his heart lost in ;

thought, he regarded the men with pity, and with his

heart in agreement his mouth thus spake 517 :

Pitiful indeed are such sufferings and merely in !

quest of a human or heavenly reward

ever revolv- ,

ing in the cycle of birth or death, how great your

sufferings, how small the recompence 518 !


friends, giving up honourable posi-

Leaving your
tion with a firm purpose to obtain the joys of

heaven, although you may escape little sorrows, yet

in the end involved in great sorrow; 519

Promoting the destruction of your outward form,

and undergoing every kind of painful penance, and
yet seeking to obtain another birth increasing and ;

prolonging the causes of the five desires, 520

Not considering that herefrom (result repeated)

birth and death, undergoing suffering and, by that,

thus it is that the world of
seeking further suffering ;

men, though dreading the approach of death, 521

That is, as I understand it, JvVshis who live in water like fish.

In the former case the 'air-inhaling snake Itishi' would be .ftzshis

who endeavour to live on air like the boa.
The lord of two-footed creatures,' i.e. of men.

Gin-tien po; if it had been tien-^in po, it would have

simply meant a heavenly reward/


Yet strive after renewed birth ;
and being thus
born, they must die again. Altho' still
(the power of) suffering, yet prolonging their stay
in the sea of pain:

Disliking from their heart their present kind

of life, yet striving incessantly after other

life ;
enduring affliction that they may partake of
joy ;
seeking a birth in heaven, to suffer further
trouble 523 ;

Seeking joys, whilst the heart sinks with feeble-


ness. For this is so with those who oppose right

reason; they cannot but be cramped and poor at
heart. But by earnestness and diligence, then we
conquer. 524
'Walking the path of true wisdom, letting

go both extremes 1 we then reach ultimate per-


fection; to mortify the body, (if) this is religion,
then to enjoy rest, is something not resulting from
religion. 525
walk religiously and afterwards to receive
happiness, this is to make the fruit of religion some-
thing different from religion but bodily exercise is ;

but the cause of death, strength results alone from

the mind's intention 526 ;

This which (with the following ones) is obscure, may be

literally translated, 'a double letting-go, eternal Nirvana,' where

Nirvawa is in the original fit
^. The two extremes are worldly

life and ascetic life.

The word ,
like dharma, is difficult to translate. It may
mean here either but the idea
'religion' or 'something formal;'
of the whole verse seems to be this, if suffering pain is a part of

religion, then to enjoy rest is different from religion, .therefore to

practise religious austerities with

the view of afterwards obtaining
different from, or
rest, is to make the fruit of religion something

opposed to, religion itself.'


If you remove (from conduct) the purpose of the
mind, the bodily act is but as rotten wood where- ;

fore, regulate the mind, and then the body will

spontaneously go right. .527

'(You say that) to eat pure things is a cause
of religious merit, but the wild beasts and the
children of poverty ever feed on these fruits and
medicinal herbs ;
these then ought to gain much
religious merit. 528
'But if you say that the heart being good then
bodily suffering is the cause of further merit, (then I

ask) why may not those who walk (live) in ease,

also possess a virtuous heart ? 529
'If joys are opposed to a virtuous heart, a virtuous
heart may also be opposed to bodily suffering; if,
for instance, all those heretics profess purity because

they use water various ways), 530 (in

Thenwho thus use water among men, even
with a wicked mind (karma), yet ought ever to be
pure. But
righteousness is the groundwork of a

fiishi's purity, then the idea of a sacred spot as his

dwelling, 531

Being the cause of his righteousness

(is wrong).
What reverenced, should be known and seen

Reverence indeed is due to righteous conduct, but let

it not redound to the
place (or, mode of life)/ 532
Thus speaking at large on religious questions,
they went on the setting sun. He then beheld

their rites in connection with sacrifice to fire, the

drilling (for sparks) and the fanning into flame, 533

This is, as it seems, the meaning of the line, or it may be
What is esteemed of weight ought to be seen in the

Also the sprinkling of the butter libations, also

the chanting of the mystic prayers, till the sun
went down. The prince considering these acts, 534
Could not perceive the right reason of them, and
was now desirous to turn and go. Then all those
Brahma^arins came together to him to request him
to stay; 535
Regarding with reverence the dignity of Bodhi-
sattva, very desirous, they earnestly besought him :

You have come from an irreligious place, to this
wood where true religion flourishes, 536
And yet, now, you wish to go away ; we beg
you, then, on this account, to stay.' All the old
Brahma^drins, with their twisted hair and bark
clothes, 537
Came following after Bodhisattva, asking him as
a god to stay a little while. Bodhisattva seeing
these aged ones following him, their bodies worn
with macerations, 538
Stood still and rested beneath a tree and sooth- ;

ing them, urged them to return. Then all the

Brahma/arins, young and old, surrounding him,
made their request with joined hands: 539
You who have
so unexpectedly arrived here,
amid these garden glades so full 2 of attraction,
why now are you leaving them and going away,
to seek perfection in the wilderness ? 540
'As a man loving (long) unwilling to let go
life, is

his body, so we are even thus would that you ;

would stop awhile. 541

I am
original is
/]\ ^
not sure whether

; probably jflljj

understand the original, or whether

is for
there is not a mistake in the text, which is
jgjp ^ $fa.

This is a spot where Brahmans and ^shis have


ever dwelt, royal /fo'shis and heavenly fiishis, these

all have dwelt within these woods. The places on the

borders of the snowy mountains, 542

Where men of high birth l undergo their penance,
those places are not to be compared to this. All the
body of learned masters from this place have reached
heaven; 543
who have sought religious
All the learned jRishis
merit, have from this place and northwards (found
those who have attained a knowledge of the
true law, and gained divine wisdom come not from
southwards ; 544
you indeed see us remiss and not earnest

enough, practising rules not pure, and on that

account are not pleased to stay, 545
Then we are the ones that ought to go you can

still remain and dwell here, all these different Brah-

ma/arins ever desire to find companions in their

penances. 546
you, because you are conspicuous for your
religious earnestness, should not so quickly cast
away their society if you can remain here, they

will honour you as god ,5akra, 547

Yea ! as the Devas pay worship to Br/haspati

(or, Virudhakapati)/ Then Bodhisattva answered

the Brahmayarins and told them what his desires
were :
I am seeking for a true method of escape, I

desire solely to destroy all mundane influences ;

but you, with strong hearts, practise your rules as

ascetics, 549


And pay respectful attention to such visitors as


may come. My heart indeed is moved with affection

towards you, for pleasant conversation is
to all, those who listen are affected
thereby 550 ;

And sowords, my mind is
hearing your
strengthened in religious feeling you indeed have ;

all paid me much respect, in agreement with the

courtesy of your religious profession 551 ;

But now am
constrained to depart, my heart

grieves thereat exceedingly, first of all, having left

my own kindred, and now about to be separated
from you. 552
pain of separation from associates, this pain
is as great as the other, it is impossible for my mind
not to grieve, as it is not to see others' faults .
But you, by suffering
pain, desire earnestly to
obtain the joys of birth in heaven whilst I desire ;

to escape from the three worlds, and therefore I

give up what my reason (mind) tells me must be

rejected .
The law which you practise, you inherit from the
deeds of former teachers, but I, desiring to destroy
all combination (accumulation), seek a law which

admits of no such accident. 555

And therefore I cannot in this grove delay for
a longer while in fruitless discussions/ At this
time all the Brahma/arins, hearing the words spoken
by Bodhisattva, 556
This and the previous line might perhaps be better rendered
thus,'A joyless life (absence of joy) is opposed to my disposition,
moreover (it is my disposition) not to observe the faults of others.'
Literally, the form (body) turning from them even as (jfjj)
the mind rejects (5j) or may be rendered,
it 'the body giving up,

though the mind is still perverse.'


Words full of right reason and truth, very excellent

in the distinction of principles, their hearts rejoiced
and exulted greatly, and deep feelings of reverence
were excited within them. 557
At this time there was one Brahma^drin, who
always slept in the dust, with tangled hair and
raiment of the bark of trees, his eyes bleared
(yellow), preparing himself in an ascetic practice
high-nose V 558

This one addressed Bodhisattva in the following
words Strong in will bright in wisdom firmly
: ! !

fixed in resolve to escape (pass beyond) the limits

of birth, knowing that in escape from birth there
alone is rest, 559
Not affected by any desire after heavenly

blessedness, the mind set upon the eternal destruc-

tion of the body (bodily form), you are indeed
miraculous in appearance, (as you are) alone in
the possession of such a mind. 560
To sacrifice to the gods, and to practise every

kind of austerity, all this is designed to secure a

birth in heaven, but here there is no mortification
of selfish desire, 561
There a selfish personal aim but to bend
is still ;

the will to seek final escape, this is indeed the work

of a true teacher, this is the aim of an enlightened
master 562 ;

This place no right halting-place for you, you

ought Mount Pinda, (Pa^ava), there

to proceed to
dwells a great Muni, whose name is A-lo-lam

(Araafa Rama). 563

He only has reached the end (of religious aims),
the most excellent eye (of the law). Go therefore
I.e. raising his nose to look up at the sun.

to the place where he dwells, and listen there to

the true exposition of the law. 564
This make your
heart rejoice, as you learn
to follow the precepts of his system. As for me,
beholding the joy of your resolve, and fearing that
I shall not obtain rest, 565
must once more let go (dismiss) those following

me, and seek other disciples straighten my head ;

(nose) and gaze with my full eyes anoint my lips ;

and cleanse my teeth, 566

Cover my shoulders and make bright my face,

smooth my tongue and make it pliable. Thus, O

excellently marked, sir !
fully drinking (at the foun-
tain of) the water you give (glorious water) 1 567 ,

I shall
escape from the unfathomable depths. In
the world nought is comparable to this, that which
old men and jRishis have not known, that shall (I) 2
know and 568 obtain/
Bodhisattva having listened to these words, left
the company of the -ffzshis, whilst they all, turning
round him to the right, returned to their place. 569


A'andaka leading back the horse, opening the way

for his heart's sorrow, as he went on, lamented and
wept : unable to disburthen his soul. 570
with the royal prince, passing along the
First of all

road for one night, but now dismissed and ordered

This line and the context, again, is obscure. Perhaps

is a mistake for
^f^, ~^ which latter

the 'sweet dew* (amr/'ta) of Bodhisattva's doctrine.

expression may

Or, that (you know) and will obtain.

[19] G

to return. As the darkness of night closed on

him, 571
Irresolute he wavered in mind. On
the eighth

day approaching the city, the noble horse pressed

onwards, exhibiting all his qualities of speed ; 572
But yet hesitating as he looked around and
beheld not the form of the royal prince his four ;

members bent down with toil, his head and neck

deprived of their glossy look, 573
Whinnying as he went on with grief, he refused

night and day his grass and water, because he had

lost his lord, the deliverer of men. Returning thus
to Kapilavastu, 574
The whole country appeared withered and bare,
as when one comes back to a deserted village or ;

as when the sun hidden behind Sumeru causes dark-

ness to spread over the world. 575
The fountains of water sparkled no more, the
flowers and fruits were withered and dead, the men
and women in the streets seemed lost in grief and
dismay. 576
Thus ^andaka with the white horse went on
sadly and with slow advance, silent to those en-
quiring, wearily progressing as when accompanying
a funeral; 577
So they went on, whilst all the spectators see-

ing jfifandaka, but not observing the royal .5akya

prince, raised piteous cries of lamentation
wept; as when the charioteer returned without
Rama. 578
Then one by the side of the road, with his body
bent, called out to A'andaka :
The prince, beloved
of the world, the defender of his people, 5 79
The one you have taken away by stealth, where

dwells he now ?' -Afandaka, then, with sorrowful

heart, replied to the people and said :
with loving purpose followed after him whom

I loved; 'tis not I who have deserted the prince,

but by him have I been sent away (by him) who ;

now has given up his ordinary adornments,

with shaven head and religious garb, has
entered the sorrow-giving grove/ Then the men
hearing that he had become an ascetic, were op-
pressed with thoughts of wondrous boding (unusual
thoughts) ; 582
They sighed with heaviness and wept, and as
their tears coursed down their cheeks, they spake
thus one to the other What then shall we do (by

way of expedient)?' 583

Then they all exclaimed at once, Let us haste '

after him in pursuit for as when a man's bodily func-


tions frame dies and his spirit flees, 584

fail, his
So is the prince our life, and he our life gone,

how shall we survive? This city, perfected with

slopes and woods ;
those woods, that cover the
slopes of the city, 585
'All deprived of grace, ye lie as Bharata when

killed Then the men and women within the town,


vainly supposing the prince had come back, 586

In haste rushed out to the heads of the way,
and seeing the horse returning alone, not knowing
whether he (the prince) was safe or lost, began to
weep and to raise every piteous sound 587 ;


(And said, Behold !) A"andaka advancing slowly

with the horse, comes back with sighs and tears;
surely he grieves because the prince is lost/ And
thus sorrow is added to sorrow! 588
Then like a captive warrior is drawn before the
G 2

king his master, so did he enter the gates with tears,

he said nought. 589
his eyes filled so that
Then looking up to heaven he loudly groaned ;

and the white horse too whined piteously then all ;

the varied birds and beasts in the palace court, and

allthe horses within the stables, 590

Hearing the sad whinnying of the royal steed,

replied in answer to him, thinking now the prince

has come back.' But seeing him not, they ceased

their cries! 591
And now the women of the after-palace, (hearing
the cries of the horses, birds, and beasts,) their hair
dishevelled, their faces wan and yellow, their forms
mouths and lips parched, 592
sickly to look at, their
Their garments torn and unwashed, the soil and
heat not cleansed from their bodies, their ornaments
all thrown aside, disconsolate and sad, cheerless in

face, 593
Raised their bodies, without any grace, even as
the feeble (little) morning star (or stars of morn-
ing); garments torn and knotted, soiled like
the appearance of a robber, 594

Seeing ATandaka and the royal horse shedding

tears instead of the hoped-for return, they all, as-
sembled thus, uttered their cry, even as those who

weep for one beloved just dead 595;

Confused and wildly they rushed about, as a herd

of oxen that have lost their way. Mahapra^apati G6-
tami, hearing that the prince had not returned, 596
on the ground, her limbs entirely
Fell fainting

deprived of strength, even as some mad tornado

wind crushes the golden-colour'd plantain tree; 597
And again, hearing that her son had become a
recluse, deeply sighing and with increased sadness
she thought, Alas those glossy locks turning to

the right, each hair produced from each orifice, 598

'Dark and pure, gracefully shining, sweeping the
earth when loose 1 or when so determined, bound

together in a heavenly crown, and now shorn and

lying in the grass !
Those rounded shoulders and that

lion step !

Those eyes broad as the ox-king's, that body

shining bright as yellow gold; that square breast
and Brahma voice 600 ;

That you possessing all these excellent quali-

ties, should have entered on the sorrow-giving forest ;

what fortune now remains for the world, losing thus

the holy king of earth ? 60 1
'That those delicate and pliant feet, pure as the
lily and of the same colour, should now be torn by
stones and thorns; O how can such feet tread on
such ground 602

Born and nourished in the guarded palace, clad
with garments of the finest texture, washed in
richly-scented water, anointed with the choicest per-
fumes, 603
'And now exposed to chilling blasts and dews of
night, O! where during the heat or the chilly morn
can rest be found Thou flower of all thy race
! !

Confessed by all the most renowned !


Thy virtuous qualities everywhere talked of and

exalted, ever reverenced, without self-seeking !
hast thou unexpectedly brought thyself upon some
morn to beg thy food for life 605 !

Thou who wert wont to repose upon a soft and
This description of the prince's hair seems to contradict the
head arrangement of the figures of Buddha, unless the curls denote
the shaven head of the recluse.

kingly couch, and indulge in every pleasure during

thy waking hours, how canst thou now endure the
mountain and the forest wilds, on the bare grass
to make thyself a resting-place!' 606
Thus thinking of her son her heart was full of
sorrow, disconsolate she lay upon the earth. The
waiting women raised her up, and dried the tears
from off her face, 607
Whilst all the other courtly ladies, overpowered
with grief, their limbs relaxed, their minds bound
fast with woe, unmoved they sat like pictured-
folk. 608
And now Yasodhara, deeply chiding, spoke thus
to Aandaka :
Where now dwells he, who ever dwells
within my mind ? 609
You two went forth, the horse a third, but now
two only have returned! My heart is utterly o'er-
borne with grief, filled with anxious thoughts, it
cannot rest. 610
'And you deceitful man Untrustworthy and false !

associate ! evil contriver !

plainly revealed a traitor,
a smile lurks underneath thy tears ! 61 1

Escorting him in going returning now with


wails Not one at heart but in league against


him openly constituted a friend and well-wisher,

concealing underneath a treacherous purpose 612 ;

So thou hast caused the sacred prince to go


forth once and not return again No questioning !

the joy you feel Having done ill you now enjoy

the fruit; 613

Better far to dwell with an
enemy of wisdom,

than work with one who, while a fool, professes

friendship. Openly professing sweetness and light,
inwardly a scheming and destructive enemy. 614

'And now this royal and kingly house, in one

short morn is crushed and ruined All these fair !

and queen-like women, with grief overwhelmed,

their beauty marred, 615
Their breathing choked with tears and sobs,
their faces soiled with crossing tracks of grief! Even
the queen (Mayd) when in life, resting herself on
him, as the great snowy mountains 616

Repose upon the widening earth, through grief

in thought of what would happen, died. How sad
the lot of these within these open lattices these

weeping ones, these deeply wailing 617 !

Born in another state than hers in heaven \

how can their grief be borne ! Then speaking to

the horse she said,
Thou unjust ! what dullness
this to carry off a man, 618
'As in the darkness some wicked thief bears off
a precious gem. When riding thee in time of battle,
swords, and javelins and arrows, 619
None of these alarmed or frighted thee But

now what fitfulness of 2

temper this to carry off by ,

violence, to rob my soul of one, the choicest jewel

of his tribe. 620
O ! thou art but a vicious reptile, to do such
wickedness as this to-day thy woeful lamentation

sounds everywhere within these palace walls, 621

But when you stole away my cherished one, why

wert thou dumb and silent then if then thy voice !

1 '
This line is be paraphrased thus, If she in
obscure ;
bearing her son brought about her own death, but yet is now born
in heaven, how shall these bear their grief, or shall this grief (of

losing him) be borne by these 1

Or, how unendurable then your present conduct

had sounded loud, and roused the palace inmates

from their sleep, 622
If then they had awoke and slumbered not,

there would not have ensued the present sorrow/

A'andaka, hearing these sorrowful words, drawing in
his breath and composing himself, 623

Wiping away his tears, with hands clasped to-

gether, answered

Listen to me, I pray, in self-justi-


fication be not suspicious of, nor blame the royal 1

horse, nor be thou angry with me either. 624

For in truth no fault has been committed (by us).

It is the gods who have effected this. For I, indeed,

extremely reverenced the king's command, it was
the gods who drove him to the solitudes, 625
Urgently leading on the horse with him thus

they went together fleet as with wings, his breathing

hushed! suppressed was every sound 2 his feet ,

scarce touched the earth 626 !

The city gates wide opening of themselves ! all

space self-lighted was the work indeed of the

! this

gods and what was I, or what my strength, com-



pared with theirs ? 62 7

Yasodhara hearing these words, her heart was lost
in deep consideration the deeds accomplished by !

the gods could not be laid to others' charge 4 as ,

faults; 628
And so she ceased her angry chiding, and allowed
her great, consuming grief to smoulder. Thus pros-
trate on the ground she muttered out her sad com-

The white horse.
They caused no sound (to be heard).
See above, p. 69, n. 3.
Or, to their charge, i. e. to the charge of Aandaka or the horse.

That the two ringed-birds l
(doves) should
be divided! 629
Now,' she cried, my stay and my support is lost,
1 '

between those once agreed in life (religious life) 2 ,

separation has sprung up those who were at one !

(as to religion) are

now divided, (let go their com-
mon action) ! where shall I seek another mode of
(religious) life ? 630
In olden days the former conquerors (inas ?)

greatly rejoiced to see their kingly retinue these ;

with their wives company, in in search of highest

wisdom, roamed through groves and plains. 631
And now, that he should have deserted me and

what is the religious state he seeks the Brahman !

ritual respecting sacrifice, requires the wife to take

part in the offering , 632
'And because they both share in the service

they shall both receive a common reward here-

after! but you (O prince!) art niggard in your

religious rites, driving me away, and wandering

forth alone! 633
'Is that you saw me jealous, and so turned

against me that you now seek some one free

! from

doves; or perhaps the symbol

may be
Or, that two birds;' it

j&nf is an error for US. meaning the 'double-headed bird.' This

Tnti -^V
double-headed bird is often alluded to in Buddhist books, as in

the Fo-pen-hing-tsi-king (Romantic History of Buddha, p. 380).

The origin of the story may be perhaps found in the myth of
Yama and Yaml.
2 well refer to the common
religious life/ but it can as
It may be
aim of life ; as, for example, in the case of the double-headed bird,
both heads having one object, viz. the care of the body.
Literally, 'the sacrificial code
of the Brahman requires husband
and wife to act together.'

jealousy! or did you see some other cause to

hate me, that you now seek to find a heaven-born
nymph 634 !

But why should one excelling in every personal
grace seek to practise self-denying austerities !

is it that you despise a common lot with me,

that variance your rises your in breast against
wife! 635

Why does not Rahula fondly repose upon 2 your

knee. Alas alas unlucky master full of grace
! ! !

without, but hard (diamond) at heart! 636

'The glory and the pride of all your tribe 3 yet ,

hating those who reverence you O can it be, you ! !

have turned your back for good (upon) your little

child, scarce able yet to smile !

My heart is
gone ! and all my strength !
my lord
has fled, to wander in the mountains he cannot !

surely thus forget me ! he is then but a man of

wood or stone/ 638
Thus having spoken, her mind was dulled and
darkened, she muttered on, or spoke in wild mad
words, or fancied that she saw strange sights, and
sobbing past the power of self-restraint, 639
Her breath grew less, and sinking thus, she fell
asleep upon the dusty ground ! The palace ladies
seeing this, were wrung with heartfelt sorrow, 640
Just as the full-blown lily, struck by the wind and
hail, is broken down and withered. And now the

'A Devi of the Pure abode/ The idea seems to be that, finding
Yasodhara less pure than a Devi, he had gone to seek the company
of one of these.
Or, below your knee, i. e. sitting or fondling around the knee.
Or, the full-brightness of your illustrious family.
4 '
Your child not yet a boy.'

king, his father, having lost the prince, was filled,

both night and day, with grief; 641
And fasting, sought the gods (for help). He prayed
that they would soon restore him, and having prayed
and finished sacrifice, he went from out the sacred 1
gates ; 642
Then hearing all the cries and sounds of mourn-
ing, his mind
distressed became confused, as when
heaven's thundering and lightning put to bewilder-
ing flight a herd of elephants. 643
Then seeing /ifandaka with the royal steed, after
long questioning, finding his son a hermit, fainting
he fell upon the earth, as when the flag of Indra
falls and breaks. 644
Then the ministers of state, upraising him,

exhort him, as was right 2 to calm himself. After a


while, his mind somewhat recovered, speaking to

the royal steed, he said 645 :

How often have I ridden thee to battle, and
every time have thought upon (commended) your
excellence but now I hate and loathe thee, more

than ever I have loved or praised thee 646 !


My son, renowned for noble qualities, thou hast

carried off and taken from me and left him 'mid ;

the mountain forests and now you have come back


alone 3 ; 647
Take me, then, quickly hence and go And going,

never more come back with me For since you have !

not brought him back, my life is worth no more pre-

serving ; 648
No longer care I about governing !
My son about
The heaven-sacrificing-gate.
In agreement with religion.
Or, 'now you return from the desert (hung) alone.'

me was my only joy ;

as the Brahman (Sayanta met 1

death for his son's sake, 649

So I, deprived of my religious son, will of myself
deprive myself of life. So Manu, lord of all that
lives, ever lamented for his son
650 ;

How much
more I, a mortal man (ever-man),
deprived of mine, must lose all rest! In old time
the king A^a, loving his son 2 wandering thro' the ,

mountains, 651

thought (or deeply affected), ended life,

Lost in
and forthwith was born in heaven. And now I
cannot die! Thro' the long night fixed in this sad
state, 652
With round me, thinking of my
this great palace

son, solitary and athirst as any hungry spirit (Preta) ;

as one who, thirsty, holding water in his hand, but

when he tries to drink lets all escape, 653
And so remains athirst till death ensues, and after

death becomes a wandering ghost 3 so I, in the ;

extremity of thirst, through loss, possessed once of

a son 4 but ,
now without 654 a son,
and cannot end my days But come
Still live, ! !

tell me at once where is my son! let me not die

athirst (for want of knowing this) and fall among the
Pretas. 655

my will was strong and

In former days, at least,

firm, difficult to move as the great earth but now ;

I've lost my son, my mind is dazed, as in old time

the king "ten chariots 5 .'" 656

The Sanskrit text gives Saw^aya as the Brahman's name.
Or, the son he loved.
Or, is born in the way (i.
e. the class) of famishing ghosts.
Obtaining a son, as (a thirsty man obtains) water.
That is, Da^aratha.

And now the royal teacher (Purohita), an illustrious

with the chief minister, famed for wisdom,
with earnest and considerate minds, both exhorted
with remonstrances, the king. 657

Pray you (they said) arouse yourself to thought,

and let not grief cramp and hold your mind! in
olden days there were mighty kings, who left their
country, as flowers are scattered 658 ;

Your son now practises the way of wisdom ; why
then nurse (increase) your grief and misery; you
should recall the prophecy of Asita, and reasonably
count on what was probable !
'(Think of) the heavenly joys which you, a univer-
sal king, have inherited
But now, so troubled and

constrained in mind, how will it not be said, The Lord
of earth can change his golden-jewel-heart!" 660

Now, therefore, send us forth, and bid us seek

the place he occupies, then by some stratagem
and strong remonstrances, and showing him our
earnestness of purpose, 66 1
We will break down his resolution, and thus
assuage your kingly sorrow.' The king, with joy,
replied and said :
Would that you both would go
in haste, 662
As 4
swiftly as the Saketa bird flies through the

void for her young's sake thinking of nought but ;

the royal prince, and sad at heart I shall await

your search !' 663

The two men having received their orders, the

1 '
To-wan-sse/ a celebrated master.
'As falling flowers/ or 'scattered blossoms,' alluding, as it

seems, to the separation of the flower from the tree.

Or it maybe rendered, 'A heaven-blessed, universal (wheel)king !

She-ku-to bird.

king retired among his kinsfolk, his heart somewhat

more tranquillised, and breathing freely through his
throat. 664


The king now
suppressing (regulating) his grief,
urged on his great teacher and chief minister, as
one urges on with whip a ready horse, to hasten
onwards as the rapid stream 665 ;

Whilst they fatigued, yet with unflagging effort,

come to the place of the sorrow-giving grove then ;

laying on one side the five outward marks of dignity


and regulating well their outward gestures, 666

They entered the Brahmans' quiet hermitage, and
paid reverence to the ^zshis. They, on their part,
begged them to be seated, and repeated the law for
their peace and comfort. 667
Then and
forthwith they addressed the ^z'shis
said: 'We
have on our minds a subject on which
we would ask (for advice). There is one who is called
Suddhodana rd^a, a descendant of the famous
Ikshvaku family, 668
We are his teacher and his minister, who instruct

him in the sacred books as required. The king indeed

is like Indra (for dignity); his son, like ^fe-yan-to
(ayanta), 669
In order to escape old age, disease, and death, has

become a hermit, and depends on this on his account ;

have we come hither, with a view to let your wor-

ships know of this.' 670
Replying, they said :
With respect to this youth,

The five marks of dignity were the distinguishing robes of
their office.

has he long arms and the signs of a great man ?

Surely he is the one who, enquiring into our prac-
tice, discoursed so freely on the matter of life and

death. 671
has gone to the abode of Arcida, to seek for
a complete mode of escape.' Having received this
certain information, respectfully considering the
urgent commands of the anxious king, 672
They dared not hesitate in their undertaking, but
straightway took the road and hastened on. Then
seeing the wood in which the royal prince dwelt, and
him, deprived of all outward marks of dignity, 673
His body glorious with lustrous shining, as

when the sun comes forth from the black cloud l ;

then the religious teacher of the country and the

great minister holding to the true law, 674
Put from them their courtly dress, and de-

scending from the chariot gradually advanced,

like the royal Po-ma-ti (? Bharata) and the fitshi

Vasish^a, 675
Went through woods and
forests, and seeing
the royal prince Rama, each according to his own
prescribed manner, paid him reverence, as he ad-
vanced to salute him ; 676
Or as 6ukra, in company with Angiras, with
earnest heart paid reverence, and sacrificed to
Indra ra^a. 677
Then prince in return paid reverence
the" royal
to the royal teacher and the great minister, as
the divine Indra placed at their ease .Sukra and
Angiras; 678

The character which I have translated 'black' is
J^, which
also means a crow/

Then, at his command, the two men seated them-

selves before the prince, as Pou-na (Punarvasu) and

Pushya, the twin stars attend beside the moon; 679

Then the
Purohita and the great minister respect-
fully explained to the royal prince, even as Pi-li-
po-ti (EWhaspati) spoke to that ayanta 680 :

Your royal father, thinking of the prince, is


pierced in heart, as with an iron point; his mind

distracted, raves in solitude; he sleeps upon the
dusty ground ;
68 1
By night and day he adds
to his sorrowful- reflec-
tions ;
his tears flow down like the incessant rain; and
now you out, he has sent us hither. Would
to seek
that you would listen with attentive mind; 682
We know that you delight to act religiously it

is then, without a doubt, this is not the

time for you to be a hermit (to enter the forest
wilds) ;
deep pity consumes our
feeling of
heart! 683
You, if you be indeed moved by religion, ought

to feel some pity for our case let your kindly feel- ;

ings flow abroad, to comfort us who are worn at

heart; 684
Let not the tide of sorrow and of sadness com-
pletely overwhelm the outlets of our heart as the ;

torrents (which roll down) the grassy mountains or ;

the calamities of tempest, fiery heat, and light-

ning; 685
For so the grieving heart has these four sorrows,

turmoil and drought, passion and overthrow. But

come return to your native place, the time will arrive

when you can go forth again as a recluse. 686

But now to disregard your family duties, to turn

against father and mother, how can this be called


love and affection ? that love which overshadows

and embraces all. 687

Religion requires not the wild solitudes you can ;

practise a hermit's duties in your home studiously ;

thoughtful, diligent in expedients, this is to lead a

hermit's 688
life in truth.
A shaven head, and garments soiled with dirt,
to wander by yourself through desert wilds, this
is but to
encourage constant fears, and cannot be
rightly called an awakened hermit's (life)." 689
Would rather we might
take you by the hand,
and sprinkle water on your head, and crown you
with a heavenly diadem, and place you underneath
a flowery canopy, 690
That eyes might gaze with eagerness upon

you ;
after this, in truth, we would leave our home
with joy. The former (Dru- kings Teou-lau-ma
ma?), A-neou-/e-o-sa (Anu^asa or Anudasa), 691

Po-^e-lo-po-yau (Va^rabahu), Pi-po-lo-'an-

ti (Vaibhra^-a), Pi-ti-o-^e-na (Vata^ana ?), Na-lo-
sha-po-lo (Narasavara ?), 692
All these several kings refused not the royal
crown, the jewels, and the ornaments of person their ;

hands and feet were adorned with gems, 693

Around them were women
to delight and please,
these things they cast not from them, for the sake of
escape you then may also come back home, and

undertake both necessary duties ; 694
Your mind prepare higher law, whilst itself in
for the sake of earth you wield the sceptre; let
there be no more weeping, but comply with what
we say, and let us publish it; 695
I have here substituted pJ^J
That is, the duties of religion and also of the state.

[19] H

'And having published it with your authority,

then you may return and receive respectful welcome.
Your father and your mother, for your sake, in grief
shed tears like the great ocean ; 696

stay and no dependence now

Having no no
source from which the .5akya stem may grow you
ought, like the captain of the ship, to bring it
across to a place of safety. 69 7
'The royal prince Pi-san-ma, as also Lo-me-
po-ti, they respectfully attended to the command
of their father, you also should do the same 698 !

Your loving mother who cherished you so kindly,
with no regard for self, through years of care, as
the cow deprived of her calf, weeps and laments,

forgetting to eat or sleep 699 ;

You surely ought to return to her at once, to
protect her life from evil as a solitary bird, away

from its fellows, or as the lonely elephant, wandering

through the jungle, 700


Losing the care of their young, ever think of

protecting and defending them, so you the only
child, young and defenceless, not knowing what you
do, bring trouble and solicitude 701 ;

Cause, then, this sorrow to dissipate itself; as

one who rescues the moon 1 from being devoured,
so do you reassure the men and women of
the land, and remove from them the consuming

grief, 702

suppress) the sighs that rise like breath to

heaven, which cause the darkness that obscures
their sight seeking you, as water, to quench the

fire, the fire quenched, their eyes shall open.' 703

Referring to an eclipse of the moon.

Bodhisattva, hearing of his father the king, expe-

rienced the greatest distress of mind, and sitting
still, gave himself to reflection and then, in due ;

course, replied respectfully 704 :

I know indeed that my royal father

is possessed of

a loving and deeply considerate mind, but my fear


of birth, old age, disease, and death has led me to

disobey, and disregard his extreme kindness. 705
Whoever neglects right consideration about his

present life, and because he hopes to escape in the

end, therefore disregards all precautions (in the
present), on this man comes the inevitable doom
of death. 706
It is the knowledge of that weighs this, therefore,
with me, and after long delay has constrained me to a
hermit's life hearing of my father, the king, and his

grief, my heart is affected with increased love ; 707

But yet, all is like the fancy of a dream, quickly
reverting to nothingness. Know then, without fear
of contradiction, that the nature of existing things is
not uniform ; 708
The cause of sorrow is not necessarily 2
relationship of child with parent, but that which
produces the pain of separation, results from the
influence of delusion ; 709
'As men going along a road suddenly meet mid-
way with others, and then a moment more are
separated, each one going his own way 4 , 710

Or, as we should say,
of deep consideration.'
Or, does not necessarily exist either in child or parent.
Delusion is here equivalent to * moha/
4 '
This line may be more literally translated each one acting for
himself according to his purpose.'own The words run thus,

opposite purpose, private, of himself.'


H 2

So by the force of concomitance, relationships
are framed, and then, according to each one's
there ,
is separation he ;
who thoroughly
investigates this false connection of relationship
ought not to cherish in himself grief 711 ;


In this world there is rupture of family love, in

another life (world) it is
sought for again ; brought
together for a moment, again rudely divided every- ,

where the fetters of kindred are formed 3 712 !

Ever being bound, and ever being loosened !

who can lament such constant separa-

tions ;
and then gradually
born into the world ,

changing, constantly separated by death and then

born again. 713
All things which exist in time must perish 5

the forests and mountains all things thus exist ;
time are born sensuous things (things possessing

the five desires), so is it both with worldly substance 7

and with time. 714

Because, then, death pervades all time, get rid

of death 8 and time will disappear. You desire to

The word for 'destiny' is li; it means the 'reason' or 'rule
of action.'
Or, separated in opposite directions.
In every place (place-place) there is no (place) without rela-
From the moment of conception (placed in the womb) gradu-
ally changing.
All things (in) time have death.
The text is very curt, ' mountains, forests, what (is there) with-
out time/
'Seeking wealth (in?) time, even thus;' or, 'Seeking wealth
and time, are even thus.'
8 '
Exclude the laws of death (sse fa), there will be no time/

make me king, and it is difficult to resist the offices

of love ; 715
But as a disease (is difficult to bear) without
medicine, so neither can I bear (this weight of
dignity) ;
in every condition, high or low, we find

folly and ignorance, (and men) carelessly following

the dictates of lustful passion; 716
At last, we come 1 to live in constant fear thinking

anxiously of the outward form, the spirit droops ;

following the ways of men the mind resists the


right but, the conduct of the wise is not so. 717


The sumptuously ornamented 4 and splendid

palace (I look upon) as filled with fire; the hundred
dainty dishes (tastes) of the divine kitchen, as
mingled with destructive poisons; 71 &
The lily growing on the tranquil lake, in


midst harbours countless noisome insects; and so

the towering abode of the rich is the house of

calamity; the wise will not dwell therein. 719

In former times illustrious kings, seeing the

many crimes of their home and country, affecting

as with poison the dwellers therein, in sorrowful
disgust sought comfort in seclusion 720 ;

know, therefore, that the troubles of a royal
estate are not to be compared with the repose of
a religious life ;
far better dwell in the wild moun-
tains 6
and eat the herbs like the beasts of the
field; 721
In the end the body (that is, the person) ever fearful.'
Following the multitude.
The heart opposes religion (fa).
The seven-jewelled, beautiful palace hall.
Became hermits.
6 ' '
In the mountains. I take
lin in the expression shan lin' in

this and other passages to be the sign of the plural. It corresponds


Therefore I dare not dwell in the wide palace,
for the black snake has its
dwelling there. I
the kingly estate and the five desires [desires of the

senses], to escape such sorrows I wander thro' the

mountain wilds. 722
This, then, would be the consequence of com-

pliance, that I, who, delighting in religion, am

gradually getting wisdom
should now quit these
quiet woods, and returning home, partake of sensual
pleasures, 723

thus by night and day increase 3 my store
of misery. Surely this is not what should be done !

that the great leader of an illustrious tribe, having

left his home from love of religion, 724

And for ever turned his back upon tribal

honour , desiring to confirmpurpose as a his
leader ,
that he, discarding outward form, clad in
religious garb, loving religious meditation, wandering
thro' the wilds, 725
Should now reject his hermit vestment, tread
down his sense of proper shame (and give up his

aim). This, though I

gained heaven's kingly state,
cannot be done how much less to !
gain an earthly,
though distinguished home
726 ,

with vana so used in other languages (the Sinhalese, according
to Childers).
The wide or deep palace seems to refer to the well-guarded
and secure condition of a royal abode.
Am gradually increasing enlightenment.
Here the increase of sorrow is contrasted with the increase of

wisdom, in the previous verse.

Or,on his honourable, or renowned, tribe.
Here the word leader (/fcang fu) refers to a religious leader, in
contrast with a leader of a tribe, or family.
There seems to be a fine and delicate sarcasm in these words.
For having spued forth lust, passion, and igno-
rance, shall I return to feed upon it ? as a man
might go back to his vomit! such misery, how
could I bear ? 727
Like a man whose house has caught fire, by

some expedient finds a way to escape, will such

a man forthwith go back and enter it again ? such
conduct would disgrace a man M 728
So I, beholding the evils, birth, old age, and death,

to escape the misery, have become a hermit shall ;

I then go back and enter in, and like a fool dwell

in their company 729 ?
He who enjoys a royal estate and yet seeks
rescue ,
cannot dwell thus, this is no place for him ;

escape (rescue) born from quietness and rest to

is ;

be a king is to add distress and poison 730 ;

'To seek for rest and yet aspire to royal con-

dition is but a contradiction, royalty and rescue,
motion and rest, like fire and water, having two
principles cannot be united. 731

So one resolved to seek escape cannot abide


possessed of kingly dignity and if you say a !

man may be king and at the same time prepare

a 4

deliverance for himself, 732

'There is no certainty in this ! to seek certain

How would such a man be not accounted insignificant (tim, a
dot or spot).
I have translated '
kiai tuh,' rescue ;
it means rescue from sor-

row, or deliverance in the sense of salvation.

Two, or different, principles (li).
A man may occupy a kingly estate.
This is still opposed to certainty; or, this cannot be esta-


escape is not to risk it thus it is
through this ;

uncertain frame of mind that once a man gone

forth is led to go back home again 733 ;

But I, my mind is not uncertain 2 severing the


baited hook 3 of relationship, with straightforward

purpose I have left my home.
, Then tell me, why
should I return again ?' 734
The great minister, inwardly reflecting, (thought),
The mind of the royal prince, my master 6 is full of ,

wisdom, and agreeable to virtue 6 what he says is ,

reasonable and fitly framed 7 .' 735

Then he addressed the prince and said Accord- :

ing to what your highness states, he who seeks

religion must seek it rightly but this is not the ;

fitting time (for you); 736

royal father, old and of declining years,
thinking of you his son, adds grief to grief; you say
indeed, I find
my joy in rescue. To go back would
be apostacy 8 ." 737
But yet your joy denotes unwisdom
and argues
want of deep reflection you do not ; see, because
you seek the fruit, how vain to give up present
duty .

Certain escape, or certainty in escape, is not thus.
But now I have attained to certainty.
That is, taking the bait off the hook of relationship ;
the love
of kindred is the bait.
Using a right (or straight) expedient (upaya).
The purpose of the prince, the master (ang fu).
Deep in knowledge, virtuously accordant.
Or, has reasonable sequence (cause and effect).
Fi-fa, opposed to religion ; or, a revulsion from religion.
Although you rejoice, it comes forth from no-wisdom.
10 '
This is a free rendering the original is, in fa kwan,' which

means present

religious consideration.'

There are some who say, There is hereafter 1 ;"
others there are who say, Nothing hereafter." So
whilst this question hangs in suspense, why should
a man give up his present pleasure ? 739

If perchance there is "hereafter," we ought to

bear (patiently) what it brings 2 if you say, " Here- ;

after is not 3 /' then there is not either rescue (sal-

vation) 740 !

' "
If you say, Hereafter is," you would not say,
Salvation causes it V As earth is hard, or fire is

hot, or water moist, or wind is mobile, 741

" 4
Hereafter" is just so. It has its own distinct
nature. So when we speak of pure and impure,
each comes from its own distinctive nature. 742
' "
If you should say, By some contrivance this
can be an opinon argues folly.
removed," such
Every root within the moral world (world or
domain of conduct) has its own nature predeter-
mined ; 743

Loving remembrance and forgetfulness, these

have their nature fixed and positive so likewise ;

A discussion now
begins as to the certainty or otherwise of a

hereafter ;' the words in the text which I have translated 'hereafter,'
heou shai,' i. e. after world. The phrase seems to correspond
with the Pali paro loko,' as in the sentence, N' ev' atthi
' '
na n'
atthi paro loko (see Childers' Pali Diet., sub voce na).
We ought to trust it, whatever it is.

3 '
These two lines may also be translated thus, If you say the
after world is nothingness, then nothingness is also rescue (from
the present world).'
This seems to mean that if we say there is another world, we
cannot mean that escape from the present world is the cause of
the future. Literally and word for word, Not-say-escape-the
The word ' '
here means '
sense.' The sentence seems
to mean every '
sense united with its object.'

age, disease, and death, these sorrows, who can

escape by strategy ? (contrivance, upaya). 744
" "
If you say, Water can put out fire," or Fire
can cause water to boil and pass away," (then this
proves only that) distinctive natures may be mutu-
ally destructive ;
but nature in harmony produces
living things ; 745
So man when first conceived within the womb,
his hands, his feet, and all his separate members,
his spirit and his understanding, of themselves are

perfected ;
but who is he who does it ? 746
Who is he that points the prickly thorn ? This
too is nature, self-controlling And take again the 2

different kinds of beasts, these are what they are,

without desire (on their part 3 ); 747
And so, again, the heaven-born beings,
whom the
self-existent (I^vara) rules and all the world of his

creation ;
these have no self-possessed power of
expedients ; 748
For if they had a means of causing birth,

there would be also (means) for controlling death,

and then what need of self-contrivance, or seeking
for deliverance ? 749
There are those who say, " I 5 (the soul) is the

" "
cause of birth, and others who affirm, I (the soul)
is the cause of death. There are some who say,
The word translated

strategy is of very frequent occurrence.

It means contrivance, use of means to an end.
Tsz' in, 'of itself.'
This line seems to mean that these beasts are made, or come
into being, without desire on their part.
have supposed that the symbol
I in the text is for if?, but

the first symbol may be retained, and then the passage would
mean whom the self-existent made.'

The word '
here seems to mean '
the self,' or, the soul.

comes from nothingness, and without any

plan of ours we perish ." 750


Thus one is born a fortunate child, removed from


poverty, of noble family, or learned in testamentary

lore of y?/shis, or called to offer mighty sacrifices to
the gods, 751
Born in either state, untouched by poverty, then

their famous name becomes to them escape," their
virtues handed down by name to us 2 yet if these ;

attained their happiness (found deliverance), 752

Without contrivance of their own, how vain and

fruitless is the toil of those
escape." who seek
And you, desirous of deliverance, purpose to prac-
tisesome high expedient, 753

Whilst your royal father frets and sighs for a ;

short while you have assayed the road, and leaving

home have wandered thro' the wilds, to return then
would not now be wrong 754 ;

'Of old, king Ambarisha for a long while dwelt in

the grievous forest, leaving his retinue and all his
kinsfolk, but afterwards returned and took the royal
office; 755
And so Rama, son of the king of the country,
leaving his mountains, but
country occupied the
3 4
hearing he was acting contrary to usage returned ,

and governed righteously. 756

1 ' '
I have taken the symbol iu here in the sense of without,'
like the Latin careo.'
The sense seems to be that the great name and renown of
such persons handed down through successive generations is sal-

vation or deliverance ;' not the reward of another world, but the

immortal character of their good deeds in this.

So I translate the expression fung-tsuh-li/ usage-separation.

There is a symbol here which may denote the name of the

'And so the king of Sha-lo-po, called To-

lo-ma (Druma) father and son, both wandered

forth as hermits, but in the end came back again

'So Po-'sz-tsau Muni (Vasish//fo. ?),
with On-
tai-tieh (Atreya ?), in the wild mountains practis-
ing as Brahma/frmns, these too returned to their
own country. 758
Thus all these worthies of a by-gone age, famous
for their advance in true religion, came back home and
royally governed, as lamps enlightening the world. 759
Wherefore for you to leave the mountain wilds,
religiously to rule, is not a crime.' The royal prince,
listening to the great minister, loving words without
excess of speaking, 760
Full of sound argument, clear and unconfused,
with no desire to wrangle after the way of the
schools, with fixed purpose, deliberately speaking,
thus answered the great minister: 761
The question of being aftd not-being
is an idle

one, only adding to the uncertainty of an unstable

mind, and to talk of such matters I have no strong
(fixed) inclination ; 762
Purity of life, wisdom, the practice of asceticism ,

these are matters to which I earnestly apply myself ,

the world of empty studies (discoveries) which

is full

our teachers in their office skilfully involve 763 ;

But they are without any true principle, and I



place to which he returned ; wei is often used in the composi-


tion of proper names, especially those ending in vastu.'
Drumaksha, king of the .Salvas.

Or, purely and wisely to practise self-denial (mortification).

Or, these are the certainties I for myself know.

will none of them The enlightened man distin-


guishes truth from falsehood but how can truth


(faith) be born from such as those ? 764

For they are like the man born blind, leading
the blind man
as a guide; as in the night, as in thick
darkness [both wander on], what recovery is there
for them ? 765
Regarding the question of the pure and impure,

the world involved in self-engendered doubt cannot

perceive the truth better to walk along the way of

purity, 766
rather follow the pure law of self-denial, hate
the practice of impurity, reflect on what was said of
old 2 not obstinate in one belief or one tradition, 767

'With sincere (empty) mind, accepting all true

words, and ever banishing sinful sorrow (i.e. sin,
the cause of grief). Words which exceed sincerity
(simplicity of purpose) are vainly (falsely) spoken ;

the wise man uses not such words. 768

what you say of Rama and the rest, leaving
their home, practising a pure life, and then returning
to their country, and once more mixing themselves
in sensual pleasures, 769
Such men as these walk vainly those who are

wise place no dependence on them. Now, for your

sakes, permit me, briefly, to recount this one true
principle (i.
e. purpose) (of action) :
'"The sun, the moon may fall to earth, Sumeru
and all the snowy mountains overturn, but I will
never change my purpose ;
rather than enter a for-
bidden place, 771

The word '
-f=| may mean faith or truth.
Consider what has been handed down.

Let me be cast into the fierce fire ;
not to accom-
plish rightly (what I have entered on), and to return
once more to own land, there to enter the fire of
the five desires, 772
Let it befall me as my own oath records :"- so
spake the prince, his arguments as pointed as the
brightness of the perfect sun then rising up he ;

passed some distance off/ 773

The Purohita and the minister, their words and dis-
course prevailing nothing, conversed together, after
which, resolving to depart on their return, 774
With great respect they quietly inform 1 the prince,
not daring to intrude their presence on him further ;

and yet regarding the king's commands, not willing

to return with unbecoming haste, 775
They loitered quietly along the way, and whomso-
ever they encountered, selecting those who seemed
like wise men, they interchanged such thoughts as
move the learned, 776
Hiding their true position, as men of title; then
passing on, they speeded on their way.

They breathe it to the prince.



royal prince departing from the court-master
e. the
Purohita) and the great minister, Sad-
dharma T keeping along 2 the stream, then crossing

the Ganges, he took the road towards the Vulture

Peak 3 , 777

Saddharma may be the name of the minister, or it may be
rendered the great minister of the true law,' i. e. of religion.

The whole
For the symbol
^ I have substituted ^f
to go towards.'
line may be translated 'following the turbulent (streams)

he crossed the Ganges/ in would be But

this case
the sentence obscure, as lang tsai
may be a proper name.
The distance from the place of the interview with the
Peak would be in a straight line about
ministers to the Vulture

150 miles. In the Southern books (Nidana-katha Buddhist ;

Birth Stories, by Mr. Rhys Davids, pp. 85 and 87 n.) it is said

that from Kapilavastu to the River Anoma, near which the
interview took place, is thirty yo^anas ; this is greatly in excess
of the real distance, which is about thirty-three miles, or five yo-
#anas. Then again from the Anoma River, or the village of
Maneya (Mhaniya), where the Bodhisattva halted (see Romantic
Legend of Buddha, p. 140, and compare vol. xii, plate viii, Archaeo-
logical Survey of India), to Ra^agriha by way of Vawali would
not be more than 180 miles, so that the whole distance from
Kapilavastu (assuming Bhuila to represent this old town) would be
about 215 miles, or about thirty yq^anas. Hence we assume that
the thirty yo^anas of the Southern account is intended to represent
the entire distance from Kapilavastu, and not from the River
Anoml Mr. Rhys Davids supposes the distance from Kapilavastu
to Ra^agriha (via Vaijali) to be sixty yo^anas (loc. cit. Birth
In the Southern account the journey from the Anoma

to Ra^agriha is described as having been accomplished in one


Hidden among the five mountains 1 standing alone


a lovely peak as a roof amid (the others). The

trees and shrubs and flowers in bloom, the flowing

fountains, and the cooling rills, 778

(All these he gazed upon) then passing on, he
entered the city of the five peaks, calm and peaceful,
as one come down from heaven 2 The country folk, .

seeing the royal prince, his comeliness and his ex-

cessive grace, 779
Though young in years, yet glorious in his person,

incomparable as the appearance of a great master,

seeing hirn thus, strange thoughts affected them,
as if they gazed upon the banner (curtain) of
Isvara 3 .
They stayed the foot, who passed athwart the
path ;
those hastened on, who were behind those;

going before, turned back their heads and gazed

with earnest, wistful 4 look. 781
The marks and distinguishing points of his person

on these they fixed their eyes without fatigue, and

then approached with reverent homage, joining both
their hands in salutation :

The five mountains, viz., which surrounded Ra^agriha, see
Fah-hian, p. 112 n. The text seems to imply that the Vulture
Peak towered above the others, but its base was hidden among
the five.
As a Deva, outside (heaven).
The banner ofLrvara (Indra) is frequently represented in Bud-

dhist sculptures. There is a pleasing figure of it in Mrs. Speir's

Ancient India, p. 230; see also Tree and Serpent Worship, plate
xxxviii and elsewhere.
is, constant or fixed gaze.
Unsatisfied look, that
The marks and
distinguishing points are the signs to be found
on the person of one destined to be a Buddha. In the text the

expression on the four limbs means on the body.'

' '

With there was a sense of wondrous joy, as in


their several ways they offered what they had, look-

ing at his noble and illustrious features; bending

down their bodies 1 modestly, 783
Correcting every careless or unseemly gesture,
thus they showed their reverence to him silently 2 ;

thosewho with anxious heart, seeking release, were

moved by love, with feelings composed, bowed down
the more 3784 .

Great men and women, in their several engage-

ments 4 at the same time arrested on their way, paid

to his person and his presence homage and follow- :

ing him as they gazed, they went not back. 785

For the white circle between his eyebrows 6 adorn-
ing his wide and violet colour'd eyes, his noble body

bright as gold, his pure and web-joined fingers, 786

All these, though he were but a hermit, were
marks of one who was a holy king and now the ;

men and women of Ra^agriha, the old and young

alike, were moved, 787

(And cried), This man so noble as a what


common joy is this for us 7
!' At this time Bimba-
sara Ra^a, placed upon a high tower of observa-
tion, 788
Seeing all those men and women, in different ways
Their different bodies, or forms.
Silently they added their respectful homage.
These lines seem to refer to the ease of mind given to the
care-worn by the presence of Bodhisattva.
Whether engaged on public or private affairs ; so at least the

seems to mean,
^^ |p|.
the urna, or circle of hair, supposed to be on the fore-

head of every great man.

The colour is indefinite blue-like ; compare the Greek
That is,
what an occasion for uncommon joy is this !'

exhibiting one mark of surprise

, calling before him
some man outside, enquired at once the cause
of 789 it ;

This one bending his knee below the tower, told

fully what he had seen and heard, That one of the

.Sakya race, renowned of old, a prince most excellent

and wonderful, 790
Divinely wise, beyond the way of this world, a

fitting king to rule the eight regions, now

home, is here, and all men are paying homage
to him.' 791
king on hearing this was deeply moved at
heart and though his body was restrained, his soul

had gone 3 Calling his ministers speedily before


him, and all his nobles and attendants, 792

He bade them follow secretly the (prince's) steps, to
observe what charity was given 4 (So in obedience to .

the command) they followed and watched -him stead-

fastly, as with even gait and unmoved presence 793
He entered on the town and begged his food,
according to the rule of all great hermits, with joyful
mien and undisturbed mind, not anxious whether
much or little alms were given ; 794
Whatever he
received, costly or poor, he placed
within his bowl, then turned back to the wood, and
having eaten it and drank of the flowing stream, he
joyous sat upon the immaculate mountain .
Scared in different ways, assuming one attitude, or unvarying
attitude ; the line simply means they all showed the same indication
of astonishment.
Rejoiced with fear, or with astonishment.
His body held (to the place), his soul (shin) had already
hastened, i. e. to the spot where Bodhisattva was.
Or, what religious offering should be made.
The White Mountain, meaning probably the Royal Mountain.

(There he beheld) the green trees fringing with

theirshade the crags, the scented flowers growing
between the intervals, whilst the peacocks and
the other birds, joyously flying, mingled their
notes 796 ;

His sacred garments bright and lustrous, (shone)

as the sun-lit mulberry leaves the messengers be- ;

holding his fixed composure, one by one (returning),

reported what they had seen 797 ;

The king hearing it, was moved at heart, and

forthwith ordered his royal equipment to be brought,
his god-like crown and his flower-bespangled robes ;

then, as the lion-king, he strided forth, 798

And choosing certain aged persons of considera-
tion, learned men, able calmly and wisely to dis-
criminate, he (with them) led the way followed by a
hundred thousand people, who like a cloud ascended
with the king the royal mountain. 799
And now beholding the dignity of Bodhisattva,
every outward gesture (spring of action) under
government, sitting with ease upon the mountain
as the
moon shining limpid in the pure
heavens, 800
So his matchless beauty and purity of
grace then as the converting presence of reli-

gion dwelling within the heart makes it reve- %

rential 3 ,
so (beholding him) he reverently ap-
proached, 80 1
Even as divine 6akara comes to the presence of
On the lofty abode of the mountain (peak).
This expression is singular, it will bear no other translation
than this, 'the converting body (or, presence) of the law, i.e.

Or, causes reverence (on the part of the beholder).
I 2

Mo-hi-su-ma 1 ,
so with outward form of
courtesy and reverence (the king approached) and
asked him respectfully of his welfare. 802
Bodhisattva, answering as he was moved in his

turn made similar enquiries. Then the king, the

questioning over, sat down with dignity upon a
clean-faced rock. 803
And so he steadfastly beheld the divine appear-
ance (of the prince), the sweetness and complacency
of his features 4 revealing 5 what his station was and
high estate, his family renown, received by inheri-
tance, 804
The king who for a time restrained his feelings,
now wishful to get rid of doubts, (enquired) (why
one) descended from the royal family of the sun-
brightness having attended to religious sacrifices
thro' ten thousand generations, 805
Whereof the virtue had descended as his full in-

heritance, increasing and accumulating until now


(why he) so excellent in wisdom, so young in years,

had now become a recluse, 806
Rejecting the position of a ^fakravartin's son,
begging his food, despising family fame, his beau-

Probably the symbol ma is here used for va, in which case the
name would be restored to Mahe^vara.
It is difficult to render such passages as this literally, but it

might be translated thus, 'With collected air and every mark of

That is, according to the circumstances of the enquiry.
The sweet expression blended with a joyfulness of countenance.
Or it may be rendered, 'Correctly hearing his name and high
degree/ as though one of the king's attendants had whispered the
name and family of Bodhisattva in his ear.
Largely possessed (or, collected) in his own person.
Son of a holy king.

teous form, fit for perfumes and anointings, why

clothed with coarse Kasaya garments 807 ;

The hand which ought grasp the reins of to

empire, instead thereof, taking its little stint of food;

if indeed
(the king continued) you were not of royal
descent, and would receive as an offering the trans-
fer of this land,808
Then would I divide with you my empire 1 saying ;

this, he scarcely hoped to excite his feelings, who

had left his home and family, to be a hermit. Then
forthwith the king proceeded thus :
'Give just weight I
pray you to my truthful words,
desire for power is kin to nobleness, and so is just
pride of fame or family or wealth or personal appear-
ance ; 810
longer having any wish to subdue the proud,
or to bend (others) down and so get thanks from
men, it were better, then, to give to the strong and
warlike martial arms to wear, for them to follow
war and by their power to get supremacy 8 1 1 ;

But when by one's own power a kingdom falls to


hand, who would not then accept the reins of empire ?

The wise man knows the time to take religion, wealth,
and worldly pleasure. 812
But if he obtains not 2 the three (or, threefold
profit), then in the end he abates his earnest efforts,
and reverencing religion, he lets go material wealth.
Wealth is the one desire 3 of worldly men 813 ;

The absence of covetousness in Bimbasara has passed into a
proverb or a typical instance in Buddhist literature. (Compare
Asvaghosha's Sermons, passim.)
If he desires not to possess the three, that is, wealth, pleasure,
Wealth affects (makes) all men of the world.

To be rich and lose
desire for religion, this

is to gain but outside wealth. But to be poor and

even thus despise religion, what pleasure can indul-
gence give in such a case !
But when possessed of all the three, and when
enjoyed with reason and propriety, then religion,
wealth, and pleasure make what is rightly called a
great master 815 ;

Permit not, then, your perfectly-endowed body
to lay aside (sacrifice) its glory, without reward

(merit); Mandha(ri) the A'akravartin, as a monarch,

ruled the four empires of the world, 816
And shared with 6akra his royal throne, but
was unequal to the task of ruling heaven. But you,
with your redoubtable strength, may well grasp both
heavenly and human power ; 817
1 do not rely upon my kingly power 1 in my ,

desire to keep you here by force, but seeing you

change your comeliness of person, and wearing the

hermit's garb, 818
Whilst it makes me reverence you for your virtue,
moves me with pity and regret for you as a man ;

you now ^go begging your food, and I offer you

(desire to offer) the whole land as yours 819 ;

Whilst you are young and lusty enjoy yourself 2 .

During middle life acquire wealth, and when old

and all your abilities ripened, then is the time for
following the rules of religion ;
When young to encourage religious fervour, is

to destroy the sources of desire but when old and ;

That is, I do not command you as a king, but desire you to
share my
kingly power.
Receive the pleasure of the five enjoyments (of sense), i. e. the

indulgence of the five senses.


the breath (of desire) is less eager, then is the time

to seek religious solitude 821 ;

old we should avoid, as a shame, desire of
wealth, but get honour in the world by a religious
life but when young, and the heart light and elastic,

then is the time to partake of pleasure, 822

In boon companionship to indulge in gaiety, and

partake to the full of mutual intercourse but as ;

years creep on, giving up indulgence, to observe the

ordinances of religion, 823
To mortify the five desires, and go on increasing
a joyful and religious heart, is not this the law of the
eminent kings of old, who as a great company paid
worship to heaven, 824
'And borne on the dragon's back, received the
joys of celestial abodes ? All these divine and
victorious monarchs, glorious in person, richly
adorned, 825
Thus having as a company performed their reli-

gious* offering, in the end received the reward of

their conduct in heaven/ Thus Bimbasara Ra^a
(used) every kind of winning expedient in argu-
ment; 826
The royal prince unmoved and fixed remained
firm as Mount Sumeru.


Bimbasara Ra^a having, in a decorous manner,

and with soothing speech, made his request, the
prince on his part respectfully replied, in the follow-
ing words, deep and heart-stirring 827 :

Illustrious and world renowned Your words are


not opposed to reason, descendant of a distinguished

family an Aryan 1 amongst men 2 a true friend
indeed, 828
Righteous and sincere to the bottom of your

heart, it is proper for religion's sake to speak thus .

In the world, in its different sections, there is no


chartered place 4 for solid virtue (right principles), 829

virtue flags and folly rules, what reverence

can there be, or honour paid, to a high name or

boast of prowess, inherited from former genera-
tions !
And so there may be
midst of great dis-
in the

tress, large goodness, these are not mutually opposed.

This then is so with the world in the connection of
true worth and friendship. 831
A true friend who makes
good (free) use of
wealth is rightly called a fast and firm treasure,

but he who guards and stints the profit he has made,

his wealth will soon be spent and lost; 832
The wealth of a country is no constant treasure,

but that which is

given in charity is rich in returns,
therefore charity is a true friend, altho' it scatters,

yet it
brings no repentance ; 833
You known
as liberal and kind, I
indeed are
make no reply in opposition to you, but simply as
we meet, so with agreeable purpose we talk. 834
The symbols are 'ho-lai;' the translation may be simply
descendant of a noble (ariya) and renowned family/
Or, for men's sake.
This line literally translated

is, Religion requires (me) thus to

speak/ the expression 'gu shi' refers to what has been said
or, if
(as it generally does), then the line will run thus, Religion justifies
you in speaking as you have.'
We cannot place (i. e. fix the place) where religion (or, virtue
and right principle) must dwell.

fear birth, old age, disease, and death, and so I


seek to find a sure mode of deliverance I ;

have put
away thought of relatives and family affection, how
is it possible then for me to return to the world

(five desires) 835

'And not to fear to revive the poisonous snake,
(and after) the hail to be burned in the fierce fire;

indeed I fear the objects of these several desires,

this whirling in the stream (of life) troubles my
heart, 836
* 2
These five desires, the inconstant thieves steal-

ing from men their choicest treasures, making them

unreal, false, and fickle are like the man called up
as an apparition 3 837 ;

For a time the beholders are affected (by it), but
it has no
lasting hold upon the mind so these five ;

desires are the great obstacles, for ever disarranging

the way of peace ; 838
If the joys of heaven are not worth having, how

much less the desires common to men, begetting

the thirst of wild love, and then lost in the enjoy-
ment, 839
'As the fierce wind fans the fire, till the fuel be
spent and the fire expires of all unrighteous things

in the world, there is nothing worse than the domain

of the five desires ; 840
For all men maddened by
the power of lust,
giving themselves to pleasure, are dead to reason.
The wise man fears these desires, he fears to fall
into the way of unrighteousness ; 841

Like frozen hail and fierce burning fire.
Robbers of impermanency.
That is, are as unreal as an apparition.

a king who rules all within the four seas,

For like

yet still seeks beyond for something more, (so is

lust) like the unbounded ocean, it knows not when

and where to stop. 842


Mandha, the jfifakravartin, when the heavens

rained yellow gold, and he ruled all within the seas,
yet sighed after the domain of the thirty-three
heavens ; 843

Dividing with -Sakra his seat, and so thro' the

power of this lust he died ;

Nung-Sha (Nyasa ?),
whilst practising austerities, got power to rule the
thirty-three heavenly abodes, 844
But from lust he became proud and supercilious,
the JRtshi whilst stepping into his chariot, through
carelessness in his gait, fell down into the midst of
the serpent pit. 845
Yen-lo (Yama
the universal monarch (Aakra-

vartin) wandering abroad thro' the Trayastriw^as

heaven, took a heavenly woman (Apsara) for a queen,

and unjustly extorted 1 the gold of a ^z'shi 846 ;

The y&shi, in anger, added a charm, by which


the country was ruined, and his life ended. Po-lo,

and .Sakra king of Devas 2 .Sakra king of Devas, ,

and Nung-sha (Nyasa), 847

'Nung-sha returning (or, restoring) to .Sakra;
what certainty (constancy) is there, even for the
lord of heaven ? Neither is any country safe, though

kept by the mighty strength of those dwelling in

it. 848

The literal translation of this line would be, Taxing the gold (

of Lim the 7?r'shi;' or, 'of the harvest ingathered by the J?*shL'
These lines refer to the transfer of heavenly power from Sakra
to others, but the myth is not known to me ; and there is confusion
in the text, which is probably corrupt.

But when one's clothing consists of grass, the
berries one's food, the rivulets one's drink, with long
hair flowing to the ground, silent as a Muni, seeking

nothing, 849
In this way practising austerities, in the end lust

shall be destroyed. Know then, that the province

(indulgence) of the five desires is avowedly an enemy
of the religious man. 850
'Even the one-thousand-armed invincible king,
strong in his hard to conquer this.
might, finds it

The fiishi Rama perished because of lust, 851

How much more ought I, the son of a Kshatriya,
to restrain lustful desire but indulge in lust a little,

and like the child it

grows apace, 852
'The wise man hates it therefore; who would
take poison for food? every sorrow is increased and
cherished by the offices of lust. 853
If there is no the risings of sorrow
lustful desire,
are not produced, the wise man seeing the bitterness
of sorrow, stamps out and destroys the risings of
desire; 854
That which the world calls virtue, is but another
form of worldly men enjoying the
this baneful ;

pleasure of covetous desire then every form of care-

less conduct results 855 ;

These careless ways producing hurt, at death,
the subject of them reaps perdition (falls into one of
the evil ways). But by the diligent use of means,
and careful continuance therein, 856
of negligence are avoided, we
The consequences

should therefore dread the non-use of means recol- ;

The sense of this passage seems to be that what is called by
men a virtuous life, is but a form of regulated vice.

lecting that all things are illusory, the wise man

covets them not; 857
He who desires such things, desires sorrow, and
then goes on again ensnared in love, with no cer-
tainty of ultimate freedom he advances still and

ever adds grief to grief, 858

Like one holding a lighted torch burns his hand,
and therefore the wise man enters on no such things.
The man and the one who doubts, still

encouraging the covetous and burning heart, 859

In the end receives accumulated sorrow, not to
be remedied by any prospect of rest covetousness ;

and -anger are as the serpent's poison the wise ;

man casts away 860

The approach of sorrow as a rotten bone he ;

tastes it not nor touches it, lest should corrupt his


teeth, that which the wise man will not take, 86 1

king go through fire and water to
obtain, the wicked sons labour for wealth as for
a piece of putrid flesh, o'er which the hungry flocks
of birds contend. 862
So should we regard riches ;
the wise man is ill

pleased at having wealth stored up, the mind wild

with anxious thoughts; 863
'Guarding himself by night and day, as a man
who fears some powerful enemy, like as a man's

feelings revolt with disgust at the (sights seen)

beneath the slaughter post of the East Market, 864
So the high post which marks the presence of

lust,and anger, and ignorance, the wise man always

avoids as those who enter the mountains or the

seas have much to contend with and little rest, 865

'As the fruit which grows on a high tree, and is
The foolish world.

grasped at by the covetous at the risk of life, so

is the
region (matter) of covetous desire, tho' they
see the difficulty of getting 866 it,
Yet how painfully do men scheme after wealth,
difficult to acquire, easy to dissipate, as that which
is got in a dream, how can the wise man hoard
up (such trash)! 867
Like covering over with a false surface a hole
full of fire, slipping thro* which the body is burnt,

so is the fire of covetous desire. The wise man

meddles not with it. 868
'Like that Kaurava [Kau-lo-po], or Pih-se-ni
Nanda, or Ni-^'^e-lai Danta, as some /andala's
(butcher's) appearance *, 869
Such also is the appearance of lustful desire ;

the wise man

have nothing to do with it, he
would rather throw his body into the water or fire,
or cast himself down over a steep precipice. 870

Seeking to obtain heavenly pleasures, what is

this but to remove the place of sorrow, without

profit. Slin-tau, Po-sun-tau (Sundara and Vasun-

dara), brothers of Asura, 871
Lived together in great affection, but on account
of lustful desire slew one another, and their name
perished; all this then comes from lust; 872
It is this which makes a
vile, and lashes man
and goads him with piercing sorrow lust debases ;

a man, robs him of all hope, whilst through the long

night his body and soul are worn out 873 ;

Like the stag 2 that covets the power of speech

This line may be translated, 'as the appearance of the shambles/
I do not know to what this refers; the symbol shing' may '

not only mean 'the power of speech/ but also 'musical power' or

may mean
' '
music ;
or it

and or the winged bird that covets l sensual


pleasure (the net), or the fish that covets the baited

hook, such are the calamities that lust brings; 874
Considering what are the requirements of life,

none of these possess permanency; we eat to

appease the pain of hunger, to do away with thirst
we drink, 875
Weclothe ourselves to keep out the cold and
wind, we lie down to rest to get sleep, to procure
locomotion we seek a carriage, when we would halt
we seek a seat, 876
We wash to cleanse ourselves from dirt, all these
things are done to avoid inconvenience we may ;

gather therefore that these five desires have no

permanent character 877 ;

For as a man suffering from fever seeks and
asks for some cooling medicine, so covetousness
seeks for something to satisfy its longings foolish ;

men regard these things as permanent, 878

Andas the necessary requirements of life, but, in
sooth, there is no permanent cessation of sorrow;
for by coveting to appease these desires we really
increase them, there no character of permanency

therefore about them. 879

To be filled and clothed are no lasting pleasures,
time passes, and the sorrow recurs summer is cool ;

during the moon-tide shining winter comes and ;

cold increases 880 ;

And the eightfold laws of the
so through all

world they possess no marks of permanence, sorrow

and joy cannot agree together, as a person slave-
governed loses his renown. 88 1

1 '
Or, that follows after form-covetousness.'

religion causes all things to be of service,

as a king reigning in his sovereignty so religion ;

controls sorrow, as one fits on a burthen according

to power of endurance. 882
'Whatever our condition in the world, still
sorrows accumulate around us. Even in the con-
dition of a king, how does pain multiply, though
bound to others by love, yet this is a cause of
grief; 883
Without friends and living alone, what joy can

there be in this ? Though a man rules over the four

kingdoms, yet only one part can be enjoyed 884 ;

To be concerned in ten thousand matters, what


profit is there in this, for we

only accumulate anxie-
ties. Put an end to sorrow, then, by appeasing
desire, refrain from busy work, this is rest. 885
king enjoys his sensual pleasures deprived ;

of kingship there is the joy of rest in both cases ;

there are pleasures (but of different kinds) ; why

then be a king! 886
Make then no plan or crafty expedient, to lead
back to the what my heart prays for,
five desires ;

is somequiet place and freedom (a free road) 887 ;

But you desire to entangle me in relationships


and duties, and destroy the completion of what I

seek I am in no fear of a hated house
hatred), nor do I seek the joys of heaven 888 ;

My heart hankers after no vulgar profit, so

I have put away
my royal diadem and contrary ;

to your way of thinking, I prefer, henceforth, no

more to rule. 889
A hare rescued from the serpent's mouth, would

go back again to be devoured ? holding a torch
and burning himself, would not a man let it go ? 890

A man blind and recovering would he
his sight,

again seek to be in darkness ? the rich, does he

sigh for poverty ? the wise, does he long to be
ignorant? 891
Has the world such
men as these ? then will
again enjoy my country. (But) I desire to get
rid of birth, old age, and death, with body restrained,
tobeg my 892 food ;

With appetites moderated, to keep in my retreat


and then to avoid the evil modes of a future life,

this is to findpeace in two worlds now then I pray :

you pity me not. 893

Pity, rather, those who rule as kings
their !

souls ever vacant and athirst, in the present world

no repose, hereafter receiving pain as their
meed. 894
You, who possess a distinguished family name,

and the reverence due to a great master, would

generously share your dignity with me, your worldly
pleasures and amusements 895 ;


I, too, in return, for your sake, beseech you to

share my reward with me ;

he who indulges in

(practises) the threefold kinds of pleasure, this man

the world calls Lord," 896
But not according to reason either, be-
this is
cause these things cannot be retained, but where
there is no birth, or life, or death, he who exercises
himself in this way, is Lord indeed 897 !

You say that while young a man should be gay,


and when old then religious (a recluse), but I regard

the feebleness of age as bringing with it loss of

power (to be
religious), 898
Unlike the firmness and power of youth, the will

determined and the heart established; but death


as a robber with a drawn sword follows us all,

desiring to catch his prey; 899

How then should we wait for old age, ere we
bring our mind to a religious life ? Inconstancy is
the great hunter, age his bow, disease his arrows, 900
In the fields of life and death he hunts for living
things the deer; when he can get his
as for

opportunity, he takes our life who then would wait ;

for age ? 901

And what the teachers say and do, with refer-
ence to matters connected with life and death,
exhorting the young, mature, or middle-aged, all
to contrive by any means, 902
To prepare vast meetings for sacrifices, this they
do indeed of their own ignorance; better far to
reverence the true law (religion), and put an end
to sacrifice to appease the gods 903 !

Destroying life to gain religious merit, what love

can such a man possess ? even if the reward of such
sacrifices were lasting, even for this, slaughter would
be unseemly ; 904
How much more, when the reward is transient !

Shall we
(in search of this) slay that which lives, in
worship ? this is like those who practise wisdom,
and the way of religious abstraction, but neglect the
rules of moral conduct. 905
behoves us then to follow with the world,
It ill

and attend these sacrificial assemblies, and seek some

present good in killing that which lives; the wise
avoid destroying 906 life !

Muchdo they engage in general sacrifices,
for the purpose of gaining future reward the fruit !

(reward) promised in the three worlds is none of

mine to choose for happiness 907 !

[19] K

All these are governed by transient, fickle laws,
like the wind, or the drop that is blown from the
grass such things therefore I put away from me,

and seek for true escape. 908


'I hear there is one O-lo-lam (Ara^a Kalama)

who eloquently (well) on the way of discourses

escape, I must go to the place where he dwells,

that great ^z'shi and hermit. 909
But in truth, sorrow must be banished I regret

indeed leaving you may your country have repose


and quiet! safely defended (by you) as (by) the

divine .Sakra-ra^a 910 !

May wisdom be shed abroad as light upon your

empire, like the brightness of the meridian sun may !

you be exceedingly victorious as lord of the great

earth, with a perfect heart ruling over its destiny .'911

May you direct and defend its sons !

ruling your
empire in
righteousness Water and snow and fire !

are opposed to one another, but the fire by its influ-

ence causes vapour, 9 1 2
The vapour causes the floating clouds, the floating
clouds drop down rain there are birds in space, who

drink the rain, with rainless bodies
(?) 913

'Slaughter and peaceful homes are enemies!

those who would have peace hate slaughter, and if
those who slaughter are so hateful, then put an end,
O king, to those who
practise it! 914
'And bid these find release, as those who drink

drink rain, not rain-body ;
line literally translated is, Who '

there may be a misprint, but I cannot see how to correct the text.
The sense of the text and context appears to be this, that as there
are those who drink the rain-clouds and yet are parched with
thirst, so there are those who constantly practise religious duties
and yet are still unblest. Compare Epistle by Jude, ver. 1 2, Clouds
without water.'

and yet are parched with the king

thirst.' Then
clasping together his hands, with greatest reverence
and joyful heart, 915
(Said), 'That which you now seek, may you obtain
quickly the fruit thereof; having obtained the perfect

fruit, return I pray and graciously receive me 916 !

Bodhisattva, his heart inwardly acquiescing, pur-

posing to accomplish his prayer, departing, pursued
his road, going to the place where Arada Kalama
dwelt, 917
Whilst the king with all his retinue, their hands
clasped, themselves followed a little space, then
with thoughtful and mindful heart, returned once
more to Ri^agr/ha !


The child of the glorious sun of the Ikshvaku race,

going to that quiet peaceful grove, reverently stood

before the Muni, the great JRishi Ara^a Rama; 919
The dark-clad (?) followers of the Kalam (Sarigha-
rama) seeing Bodhisattva approaching,
afar off
with loud voice raised a joyful chant, and with
suppressed breath muttered 'Welcome/ 920
As with clasped hands they reverenced him.
Approaching one another, they made mutual en-
quiries and this being done, with the usual apolo-

gies,according to their precedence (in age) they
sat down; 921
The Brahma/arins observing the prince, (beheld)
his personal beauty and carefully considered his

The compound in the original probably represents AraVa
Kalama and Udra(ka) Ramaputra.
Tsi'ang tsu may mean after invitation/

K 2

appearance; respectfully they satisfied themselves
of his high qualities, like those who, thirsty, drink
the 'pure dew.' 922
(Then) with raised hands they addressed the
Have you 2
(or, may we know whether you

have) been long an ascetic, divided from your family

and broken from the bonds of love, like the elephant
who has cast off restraint? 923
Full of wisdom (your appearance), completely
enlightened, (you seem) well able to escape the
poisonous fruit (of this world) In old time the .

monarch Ming
Shing (brightly victorious) gave
up his kingly estate to his son, 924
'As a man who has carried a flowery wreath,
when withered casts it away but such is not your :

case, full of youthful vigour, and yet not enamoured

with the condition of a holy king 925 ;

see that your will is strong and fixed, capable
of becoming a vessel of the true law, able to em-
bark in the boat of wisdom, and to cross over the
sea of life and death 926 :

'The common class 5 ,

enticed to come to learn,
their talents first are tested, then they are taught ;

but as I understand your case, your mind is already

fixed and your will firm :
mind probably the same as

High qualities,' powers of his ;

the tai^-asa of the (jrainas (see Colebrooke, Essays, p. 282). This

line may be literally translated, bathing themselves in a respectful
admiration of his high qualities/
The symbol kV may '

possibly mean '

friend/ in which case the
line would be,
have you long been a homeless one ?'
friend !

Or the poisonous fruit of that which is low or base.
I have taken Ming Shing as a proper name, but it may be

also translated illustrious conquering (kings).'
5 '
Fan fu/ the common class of philosophers, or students. The
vulgar herd.

'And now you have undertaken the purpose of

learning, (I am persuaded) you will not in the end
shrink from it/ The prince hearing this exhorta-
tion,with gladness made reply: 928
'You have with equal intention, illustrious 1 !

cautioned me with impartial mind; with humble

heart I
accept the advice, and pray that it may be

so with me, (as you anticipate) ; 929

may my night-journey obtain a torch,
I in
to guide me safely thro' treacherous places a handy ;

boat to cross over the sea may it be so even now ;

with me! 930

But as I am somewhat
doubt and anxious to in

learn, I will venture to make known my doubts, and

ask, with respect to old age, disease, and death, how
are these things to be escaped ?' 931
At this time O-lo-lam (Arada Kalima) hearing
the question asked by the prince, briefly from the
various Sutras and 6astras, quoted passages in ex-
planation of a way of deliverance. 932
But thou (he said) illustrious youth so highly !

gifted, and eminent among the wise hear what I !

have to say, as I discourse upon the mode of ending

birth and death 933 ;

Nature, and change, birth, old age, and death,


2 "
these five (attributes) belong to all ;
nature" is (in
itself) pure and without fault ;
the involution of this
with the five elements 4 934 ,

Or, 'illustriously admonished me without preference or dis-
like;' or 'against preference or dislike.'
The discourse following is very obscure, being founded on
the philosophical speculations of Kapila and others.
Or, Nature is that which is pure and unsullied (tabula rasa).
The five

great (Mahat).

Causes an awakening and power of perception,
which, according to its exercise is the cause of ,

"change ;" form, sound, order, taste, touch, these

are called the five objects of sense (dhatu); 935
'As the hand and foot are called the two ways"
(methods of moving?) so these are called "the roots"
of action (the five skandhas); the eye, the ear, the
nose, the tongue, the body, these are named the
" "
roots (instruments) of understanding. 936
'The root of "mind" (manas) 2 is twofold, being
both material, and also intelligent; "nature" by its
involutions is the cause," the knower of the cause
is I" (the soul); 937

Kapila the ^shi 'and his numerous followers,

on deep principle of" soul ," practising wisdom

(Buddhi), found deliverance. 938

'Kapila and now Va^aspati
by the power of ,

"Buddhi" perceiving the character of birth, old

age, and death, declare that on this is founded
true philosophy 5 ; 939
opposed to this, they say, is false.

"Ignorance" and "passion," causing constant "trans-

migration," 940
1 '
That is, as the power of perception is exercised, change is

Refer to Colebrooke, on the Sahkhya philosophy.
Much of this discourse might be illustrated from the Chinese
version of the seventy golden -Sastra' (Sahkhya Karika) of Kapila;
but the subject would require distinct treatment.
This verse is obscure, and the translation doubtful. Literally
rendered it runs as follows That Kapila (or, that which Kapila

said) now (is affirmed respecting) Pra^apati [po-^e-po-ti ; this

may be restored to Vakpati, or to Pra^apati ;
the latter however

(as I am told) is the reading found in the Sanskrit original] (by the
power of) Buddhi, knowing birth/ &c.
This, they say, is called to see.'

Abiding in the midst of these (they say) is the lot

" " "
of all that lives." Doubting the truth of soul is
called excessive doubt," and without distinguishing
aright, there can be no method of escape. 941

Deep speculation as to the limits of perception is

but to involve the soul ;" thus unbelief leads to
confusion, and ends in differences of thought and
conduct. 942
" "
'Again, the various speculations on soul (such
as) "I say," "I know and perceive," "I come" and
"I go" or "I remain fixed," these are called the
intricacies (windings) of
soul 943 V
'And then the fancies raised in different natures,
some saying " this is so," others denying it, and this
condition of uncertainty is called the state of dark-
ness 2 ." 944
Then who say that outward
there are those
things (resembling forms) are one with " soul," who
say that the "objective" is the same as "mind,"
" "
who confuse intelligence with "instruments," who
" " "
say that number is the soul." 945
Thus not distinguishing aright, these are called
" " "
quibbles," marks of folly," nature
changes," and so on. 946
To worship and recite religious books, to slaugh-

ter living things in sacrifice, to render pure by fire

and water, and thus awake the thought of final
rescue, 947
'All these ways of thinking are called "without

right expedient," the result of ignorance and doubt,

by means of word or thought or deed 948 ;

1 '
The ' ' '

(ahawkara) of the Sahkhya system, con-

soul is the I

cerning which see Colebrooke (Essays), p. 153.



Involving outward relationships, this is called

"depending on means;" making the material world

the ground of "soul," this is called "depending on
the senses." 949
these eight sorts of speculation are we in-

volved in birth and death. The foolish masters of
the world make their classifications in these five
ways, (viz.) 950
Darkness, folly, and great folly, angry passion,

with timid fear. Indolent coldness is called "dark-

ness; "birth and death are called "folly;" 951
Lustful desire is "great folly;" because of great
men subjected to error 1 cherishing angry feelings,

"passion" results; trepidation of the heart is called

"fear." 952
Thus these foolish men dilate upon the five
desires ;
but the root of the great sorrow of birth
and death, the life destined to be spent in the five
ways, 953
'The cause of the whirl of life, I clearly perceive,
is to be placed in the existence of "I;" because of

the influence of this cause, result the consequences

of repeated birth and death 954 ;

This cause is without any nature of its own, and
its fruits have no nature rightly considering what

has been said, there are four matters which have to

do with escape, 955
Kindling wisdom opposed to dark ignorance,

making manifest opposed to concealment and ob-

scurity, if these four matters be understood, then

we may escape birth, old age, and death. 956

Literally great men producing error,' or

1 ' '
it may be because
of the birth-error (delusion) of great men/

Birth, old age, and death being over, then we


attain a final place; the Brahmans 1 all depending

on this principle,957

Practising themselves in a pure life, have also

largely dilated on it, for the good of the world/
The prince hearing these words again enquired of
Ara^/a 958 :

Tell me what are the expedients you name, and
what is the final place to which they lead, and what

is the character of that pure (Brahman) life and ;

again what are the stated periods 959


During which such life must be practised, and

during which such life is lawful; all these are princi-
ples to be enquired into and on them I pray you ;

discourse for my sake.' 960

Then that Arada, according to the Sutras and 6a-
stras, spoke, Yourself using wisdom is the expe-

dient; but I will further dilate on this a little 961 ;

First by removing from the crowd and leading a
hermit's depending entirely on alms for food,

extensively practising rules of decorum, religiously

adhering to right rules of conduct, 962
Desiring little and knowing when to abstain,

receiving whatever is given (in food), whether

pleasant or otherwise, delighting to practise a quiet
(ascetic) life, diligently studying all the Sutras and
6astras,* 963
Observing the character of covetous longing and

fear, without remnant of desire to live in purity,

to govern well the organs of life, the mind quieted
and silently at rest, 964

Removing desire, and hating vice, all the sorrows

The Brahmans in the world.

of life (the world of desire) put away, then there is

happiness; and we obtain the enjoyment of the

first 1 dhyana. 965

Having obtained dhyana, then with the

this first
illumination thus obtained, by inward meditation
isborn reliance on thought alone, and the entangle-
ments of folly are put away 966 ;

The mind depending on this, then after death,


born in the Brahma heavens, the enlightened are

able to know themselves ; by the use of means is

produced further inward illumination; 967


Diligently persevering, seeking higher advance,

accomplishing the second dhyana, tasting of that
great joy, we are born in the Kwong-yin heaven

(Abhisvara); 968
'Then by means putting away this
the use of
delight, practising the third dhyana, resting in such
delight and wishing no further excellence, there is a
birth in the .Subhakrztsna (hin-tsing) heaven 969 ;


Leaving the thought of such delight, straightway

we reach the fourth dhyana, all joys and sorrows
done away, the thought of escape produced, 970
'We dwell in this fourth dhyana, and are born
in the Wzhat-phala heaven; because of its long
enduring years, it is thus called Wzhat-phala (ex-
tensive-fruit); 971
Whilst in that state of abstraction rising (higher),

perceiving there is a place beyond any bodily con-

dition,adding still and persevering further in practis-
ing wisdom, rejecting this fourth dhydna, 972
The dhyanas
are the conditions of ecstasy, enjoyed by the
Brahmaloka heavens.
inhabitants of the
We have here an account of the different heavens of the
Brahmalokas, concerning which consult Burnouf, Introduction to
Indian Buddhism/


Firmly resolved to persevere in the search, still

contriving to put away every desire after form,
gradually from every pore of the body there is
perceived a feeling of empty release, 973
'And end this extends to every solid part,
in the
so that the whole is perfected in an apprehension of
emptiness. In brief, perceiving no limits to this
emptiness, there is opened to the view boundless
knowledge. 974
Endowed with inward rest and peace, the idea of
" " "
departs, and the object of
clearly discrimi- I :"

nating the non-existence of matter (bhava), this is

the condition of immaterial life. 975
As the Mu%a (grass) when freed from its horny
case, or as the wild bird which escapes from its prison
trap, so, getting away from all material limitations,
we thus find perfect release. 976
Thus ascending above the Brahmans (Brahma-

lokas ?), deprived of every vestige of bodily existence,

we still endure Endued 1
. with wisdom 2 ! let it be
known this is real and true deliverance. 977
'You ask what are the expedients for obtaining
this escape ;
even as I have before detailed, those
who have deep faith will learn. 978
The y?/shis 6aigishavya, kanaka, W/ddha
^ara 3 , and other searchers after truth, 979

All by the way I have explained, have reached true

deliverance.' The
prince hearing these words, deeply
pondering on the outline of these principles, 980
And reaching back to the influences produced by
1 '
Literally, endurance not exhausted/
That is, O thou endued with wisdom/ or, generally, those
2 '

endued with wisdom.'

These proper names were supplied from the Sanskrit text.

our former again asked with further words

lives, I :

have heard your very excellent system of wisdom,

the principles very subtle and deep-reaching, 981
From which I learn that because of not letting
go" (by knowledge as a cause), we do not reach
the end of the religious life but by understanding ;

nature in its involutions, then, you say, we obtain

deliverance ; 982
perceive this law of birth has also concealed
in it another law as a germ; you say that the "I"
(i.e. "the soul," of Kapila) being rendered pure 1 ,

forthwith there is true deliverance; 983

But if we encounter a union of cause and effect,
then there a return to the trammels of birth; just

as the germ in the seed, when earth, fire, water, and

wind 984
Seem to have destroyed
the principle of in it

life, meeting with favourable concomitant circum-

stances will yet revive, without any evident cause,

but because of desire so those who have gained

this supposed release, (likewise) 985

* " " "
Keeping the idea of I and living things,"
have in fact gained no final deliverance in every ;

" "
condition, letting go the three classes 2 and again
reaching the three "excellent qualities," 986
Because of the eternal existence of soul, by the
subtle influences of that, (influences resulting from the

past,) the heart lets go the idea of expedients, 987

'And obtains an almost endless duration of years.
This, you say, is true release ; you say "letting go the
ground on which the idea of soul rests," that this frees
us from " limited 4 existence,"
1 2
See Colebrooke, 1. c. p. 150. Three sorts of pain.
3 4
Perception, inference, affirmation. Bhava.

And that the mass of people have not yet re-
moved the idea of soul, (and are therefore still in
bondage). But what is this letting
go "gu^as

the soul) if one is fettered by these

(cords fettering ;

gu^as," how can there be release ? 989
For guni (the object) and "gu;za" (the quality)
in idea are different, but in substance one if you ;

say that you can remove the properties of a thing

(and leave the thing) by arguing it to the end, this
is not so. 990
you remove heat from fire, then there is no
such thing as fire, or if you remove surface (front)
from body, what body can remain ? 99 1
Thus " gu^a is as it were surface, remove

this and there can be no guni" So that this
deliverance, spoken of before, must leave a body
yet in bonds. 992
'Again, you say that by "clear knowledge" you
get rid of body there is then such a thing as know-

ledge or the contrary if you affirm the existence of


clear knowledge, then there should be some one who

possesses it (i.e. possesses this knowledge);993
be a possessor, how can there be deli-
If there
verance (from this personal I
") ? If you say
there is no "knower," then who is it that is spoken
of as knowing?'* 994
If there is knowledge and no person, then the

subject of knowledge may be a stone or a log more- ;

over, to have clear knowledge of these minute causes

of contamination and reject them thoroughly, 995
These being so rejected, there must be an end,

then, of the doer." What Arada has declared can-
not satisfy my heart. 996
Colebrooke, p. 157.

This clear knowledge is not " universal wisdom,"


I must
go on and seek a better explanation.' Going
on then to the place of Udra 1 Tv^'shi, he also expa-
tiated on this question of 'I.' 997

(But) although he refined the matter to the


utmost, laying down a term of thought and no

' '

' '

thought taking the position of removing thought

and no thought,' yet even so he came not out of

the mire ; 998

For supposing creatures attained that state, still

(he said) there is a possibility of returning to the

whilst Bodhisattva sought a method of getting

out of it. So once more leaving Udra T&'shi, 999

He went on in search of a better system, and came
at last to Mount Kia-^e 2 [the forest of mortifica-
tion], where was a town called Pain-suffering
forest (Uravilva?). Here the five Bhikshus had
gone before. 1000
When then he beheld these five, virtuously keeping
in check their senses (passion-members), holding to
the rules of moral conduct, practising mortification,
dwelling in that grove of mortification 1001 ;

Occupying a spot beside the Naira^ana river,

perfectly composed and filled with contentment,
Bodhisattva forthwith by them (selecting) one spot,
quietly gave himself to thought. 1002
The five Bhikshus knowing him with earnest
heart to be seeking escape, offered him their
services with devotion, as if reverencing Isvara
Deva {

1 2
Yuh-to. Gaya, or Gayajirsha.
Or is the word fu-hing = the name of a plant, such as the
uruvu (betel)?

Having finished their attentions and dutiful ser-

vices, then going on he took his seat not far off, as
one about to enter on a course of religious practice,
composing all his members as he desired. 1004
Bodhisattva diligently applied himself to 'means/
as one about to cross over old age, disease, and
death. With full purpose of heart (he set him-
self) to endure mortification, to restrain every
bodily passion, and give up thought about sus-
tenance, 1005
With purity of heart to observe the fast-rules,
which no worldly man (active man) can bear silent ;

and still, lost in thoughtful meditation and so for ;

six years he continued, 1006

Each day eating one hemp grain, his bodily form
shrunken and attenuated, seeking how to cross (the
sea) of birth and death, exercising himself still

deeper and advancing further; 1007

Making his way perfect by the disentanglements
of true wisdom, not eating, and yet not (looking to
that as) a cause (of emancipation), his four members

although exceedingly weak, his heart of wisdom in-

creasing yet more and more in light; 1008
His spirit free, his body light and
refined, his
name spreading far and wide, as 'highly gifted,'
even as the moon when produced, or as the

Kumuda flower spreading out its sweetness; 1009

Everywhere thro' the country his excellent fame
extended the daughters of the lord of the place

both coming to see him, his mortified body like a

withered branch, just completing the period of six
years, 1010
Fearing the sorrow of birth and death, seeking
earnestly the method (cause) of true wisdom, he

came to the conviction that these were not the

means to extinguish desire and produce ecstatic

contemplation ;
Nor yet (the means by which) in former time,
seated underneath the 6ambu tree 1 he arrived at ,

that miraculous condition, that surely was the proper

way, (he thought), 1012
The way opposed to this of
withered body/ I

should therefore rather seek strength of body, by

drink and food refresh my members, and with con-
tentment cause my mind to rest. 1013
My mind at rest, shall enjoy silent composure
I ;

composure is the trap for getting ecstasy (dhydna) ;

whilst in ecstasy perceiving the true law (right law,

i. e.
truth), then the force of truth (the law) obtained,
disentanglement will follow. 1014
And thus composed, enjoying perfect quiet, old
age and death are put away and then defilement is

escaped by this first means

thus then by equal

steps the excellent law results from life restored by

food and drink. 1015
Having carefully considered this principle, bath-
ing in the Naira^ana river, he desired afterwards
to leave the water (pool), but" owing to extreme
exhaustion was unable to rise; 1016
Then a heavenly spirit holding out (pressing
down) a branch, taking this in his hand he (raised
himself and) came forth. At this time on the oppo-
site side of the grove there was a certain chief
herdsman, 1017
Whose eldest daughter was called Nanda. One of
the .Suddhavasa Devas addressing her said,

See above, p. 48, ver. 335.

sattva dwells in the grove, go you then, and present

to him a religious offering.' 1018
Nandd Balada Bala^a or Baladhya) with
joy came to the spot, above her hands (i. e. on her
wrists) white chalcedony bracelets, her clothing of a
grey (bluish) colour (dye) 1019 ;

The grey and the white together contrasted in the

light, as the colours of the rounded river bubble ;

with simple heart and quicken' d step she came, and,

bowing down at Bodhisattva's feet, 1020
She reverently offered him perfumed rice milk,
begging him of his condescension to accept it Bodhi-

sattva taking it, partook of it (at once), whilst she

received, even then, the fruits of her religious act. 102 1
Having eaten it, all his members he refreshed,
became capable of receiving Bodhi body and ;
limbs glistening with (renewed strength), and his
energies swelling higher still 1022 ,

As the hundred streams swell the sea, or the first

quarter'd moon daily increases in brightness. The

five Bhikshus having witnessed this, perturbed, were
filled with suspicious reflection; 1023
They supposed (said) that his religious zeal

(heart) was flagging, and that he was leaving and

looking for a better abode, as though he had
obtained deliverance, the five elements entirely
removed .

See Tree and Serpent Worship, plate 1.
This is a free translation; the text is probably defective,

^Q being a mistake for ^jj or for "^T.

'The five elements,' in the original 'the five great;' the sense
seems to be that the Bodhisattva was acting as though he had
attained his aim, and overcome the powers of sense. At the same

[19] L

Bodhisattva wandered on alone, directing his


tree, beneath whose

* l
course to that fortunate
shade he might accomplish his search after com-
plete enlightenment 1025 .

(Over) the ground wide and level, producing soft

and pliant grass, easily he advanced with lion step,
pace by pace, (whilst) the earth shook withal 1026 ;

And shook, Kala naga aroused, was

as it filled

with joy, as his eyes were opened to the light.

Forthwith he exclaimed :
When formerly sawI

the Buddhas of old, there was the sign of an

earthquake as now; 1027
The virtues of a Muni are so great in majesty, that

the great earth cannot endure 3 them as step by step ;

his foot treads upon the ground, so is there heard

the sound of the rumbling earth-shaking 1028 ;

brilliant light now illumes the world, as the
shining of the rising sun five hundred bluish tinted ;

birds (I wheeling round to the

see), right, flying
through space 1029 ;

A gentle, soft, and cooling breeze blows around
in an agreeable way ;
allthese auspicious (miracu-

lous) signs are the same as those of former

Buddhas 1030 ;

Wherefore I know that

this Bodhisattva will

certainly arrive at perfect now, be- wisdom. And

hold from yonder man, a grass cutter, he obtains

some pure and pliant grass, 1031

Which spreading out beneath the tree, with

upright body, there he takes his seat; his feet placed

' '
time possible that
it is the five great may allude to the five
Bhikshus. But in any case it is better to hold to the literal sense.
The '
fortunate tree/ the tree of good omen,' the Bodhi tree.

2 3
Samyak-Sambodhi. Cannot excel or surpass them.
Ill, 13. DEFEATS MARA. 147

under him, not carelessly arranged (moving to and

fro), but like the firmly fixed and compact body of a

Naga; 1032
Nor shall he rise again from off his seat till he

has completed his undertaking.' And so he (the

Naga) uttered these words by way of confirmation.
The heavenly Nagas, with joy, 1033

(Caused a) cool refreshing breeze to rise ;

trees and grass were yet unmoved by it, and all
the beasts, quiet and silent, (looked on in wonder-

ment.) 1034
These are the
signs that Bodhisattva will certainly
attain enlightenment. 1035


The great Tfo'shi, of the royal tribe of T&'shis,
beneath the Bodhi tree firmly established, resolved
by oath to perfect the way of complete deliver-
ance. 1036
The spirits, Nagas, and the heavenly multitude *,

all were with joy but Mara Devara^a, enemy

filled ;

of religion, alone was grieved, and rejoiced not 1037 ;

Lord of the five desires 2 skilled in all the arts of


warfare, the foe of those who seek deliverance, there-

fore his name is rightly given Pi^una 3 1038 .

Now this Mdra ra^a had three daughters, minc-

ingly beautiful and of a pleasant countenance, in
every way fit by artful ways to enflame a man with
love, highest in this respect among the Devls. 1039
The first was named Yuh-yen (lust-pollution),
the second Neng-yueh-^in (able to delight a man),

of sensua
The wicked one.
L 2

the third Ngai-loh

(love-joy). These three, at
this time, advanced together, 1040
And addressed their father Pi sun a and said:
May we not know the
trouble that afflicts you?'

The father
calming his feelings, addressed his

daughters thus 1041 :

The world has now a great Muni, he has taken a


strong oath as a helmet, he holds a mighty bow in

his hand, wisdom isthe diamond shaft he uses, 1042
His object is to get the mastery in the world, to
ruin and destroy my territory (domain) ;
I am myself
unequal to him, for all men will
believe in him, 1043
And all find refuge in the way of his salvation

then will my land be desert and unoccupied. But as

when a man transgresses the laws of morality, his
body (or, he himself) is then empty (i.e. unpro-
tected), 1044
So now, the eye of wisdom, not yet opened (in
this man), whilst empire still has peace (quiet),
I will
go and overturn his purpose, and break down
and divide the ridge-pole (of his house) 2 / 1045
Seizing then his bow and his five arrows, with all
his retinue of male and female attendants, he went

to that grove of fortunate rest

with the vow that
the world (all flesh) should not find peace .
Thenseeing the Muni, quiet and still (silent),
preparing to cross the sea of the three worlds, in
his left hand grasping his bow, with his right hand
pointing his arrow, 1047
See Childers, sub Maro, for the name of the daughters. In
Sanskrit, Rati, Priti, and Trzsh/za.
swept and gar-
I will return to the house . . . .
he findeth it

nished, but empty/

Should not find '
rest.' There is a play on the word.
Ill, 13. DEFEATS MARA. 149

He addressed Bodhisattva and said: 'Kshatriya!

rise up quickly for you may well fear your death
! !

is at you may practise your own religious

system 1048 ,

But let go this effort after the law of deliver-


ance (for others) ;

wage warfare in the field of charity 2

as a cause of merit, appease the tumultuous world, and

so in the end reach your reward in heaven 1049 ;

This is a way renowned and well established, in


which former saints (victors) have walked, JZishis

and kings and men of eminence but this system of ;

penury and alms-begging unworthy of you. 1050


Now then if you rise not, you had best consider


with yourself, that if you give not up your vow, and

tempt me to let fly an arrrow, 1051
How that Aila, grandchild of Soma 3 by one of

these arrows just touched, as by a fanning of the

wind, lost his reason and became a madman 1052 ;

'And how the Jfishi practising auste-

rities, hearing the sound of one of these darts, his
heart possessed by great fear, bewildered and
darkened he lost his true nature;
How much can you a late-born one hope
to escape this dart of mine. Quickly arise then !

if hardly you may get away 1054 !

This arrow full of rankling poison, fearfully in-

sidious where it strikes a foe See now with

! ! all

my force, I point it ! and are you resting in the face

of such calamity? 1055
How is it that you fear not this dread arrow ? say !

why do you not tremble ?' Mara uttered such fear-in-

spiring threats, bent on overawing Bodhisattva. 1056
1 2
Or, a system of religion for yourself. Religious almsgiving.
Ait/a, the grandson of Soma (i.e. Pururavas, the lover of Urvari?).

But Bodhisattva' s heart remained unmoved no ;

doubt, no fear was present. Then Mara instantly

discharged his arrow, whilst the three women came
in front 1057;

Bodhisattva regarded not the arrow, nor con-

sidered ought the women three. Mara rafa now
was troubled much with doubt, and muttered thus
'twixt heartand mouth 1058 :

Long since the maiden of the snowy mountains,


shooting at Mahesvara, constrained him to change

his mind and yet Bodhisattva is unmoved, 1059

And heeds not even this dart of mine, nor the


three heavenly women nought prevails to move !

his heart or raise one spark of love within

him. 1060
Now must army-host, and press
I assemble my

him sore by force having thought thus awhile,


Mara's army suddenly assembled round 1061 ;

Each (severally) assumed his own peculiar form ;

some were holding spears, others grasping swords,

others snatching up trees, others wielding diamond
maces (thus were they) armed with every sort of

weapon ;
Some had heads hogs, others
like like fishes,
others like asses, others like horses ;
some with
forms like snakes or like the ox or savage tiger ;

lion-headed, dragon-headed, (and like) every other

kind of beast; 1063
Some had many heads on one body-trunk, with
faces having but a single eye, and then again
with many eyes ;
some with great-bellied mighty
bodies, 1064
And others thin and skinny, bellyless ;
long-legged, mighty-knee'd ;
others big- shanked

and fat-calved ;
some with long and claw-like
nails ; 1065
Some were headless, breastless, faceless ;
with two feet and many bodies ;
some with big
faces looking every way ;
some pale and ashy-
coloured, 1066
Others colour'd like the bright star rising,
others steaming fiery vapour, some with ears like
elephants, with humps like mountains, some with
naked forms covered with hair, 1067
Some with leather skins for clothing, their faces
party-coloured, crimson and white some with tiger ;

skins as robes, some with snake skins over

them, 1068
Some with tinkling bells around their waists,
others with twisted screw-like hair, others with
hair dishevelled covering the body, some breath-
suckers, 1069
Others body-snatchers, some dancing and shrieking
awhile, some jumping onwards with their feet toge-
ther, some striking one another as they went, 1070
Others waving (wheeling round) in the air, others
flying and leaping between the trees, others howling,
or hooting, or screaming, or whining, with their evil
noises shaking the great earth 1071 ;

Thus this wicked goblin troop encircled on its

four sides the Bodhi tree ;
some bent on tearing his

body to pieces, others on devouring it whole 1072 ;

From the four sides flames belched forth, and

fiery steam ascended up to heaven tempestuous ;

winds arose on every side 1 the mountain forests ;

shook and quaked 1073 ;

Kik for pien?

Wind, fire, and steam, with dust combined, (pro-

duced) a pitchy darkness, rendering all invisible.

And now the Devas well affected to the law, and all
the Nagas and the spirits (kwei-shin), 1074
All incensed at this host of Mara, with anger
fired, wept tears of blood the great company of

Suddhavasa gods, beholding Mara tempting Bodhi- 1

sattva, 1075
Free from low-feeling, with hearts undisturbed by
passion, moved by pity towards him and commise-
ration, came in a body to behold the Bodhisattva, so

calmly seated and so undisturbed, 1076

Surrounded with an uncounted host of devils,
shaking the heaven and earth with sounds ill-
omened. Bodhisattva silent and quiet in the midst
remained, his countenance as bright as heretofore,
unchanged; 1077
Like the great lion-king placed amongst all the
beasts howling and growling round him (so he sat), a

sight unseen before, so strange and wonderful 1078 !

The host of Mara hastening, as arranged, each

one exerting his utmost force, taking each other's
place in turns, threatening every moment to destroy
him, 1079
Fiercely staring, grinning with their teeth, flying
tumultuously, bounding here and there; but Bodhi-
sattva, silently beholding them, (watched them) as one
would watch the games of children 1080 ;

And now the demon host waxed fiercer and more

angry, and added force to force, in further conflict;
grasping at stones they could not lift, or lifting them,
they could not let them go; 1081

111,13. DEFEATS MARA. 153

Their flying spears, lances, and javelins, stuck fast

in space, refusing to descend; the angry thunder-

drops and mighty hail, with these, were changed into

five-colour d lotus flowers, 1082
Whilst the foul poison of the dragon snakes was
turned to spicy-breathing air. Thus all these count-
less sorts of creatures, wishing to destroy the Bodhi-

sattva, 1083
Unable remove him from the spot, were with
their own weapons wounded. Now Mara had an
aunt-attendant whose name was Ma-kia-ka-li
(Maha Kail?), 1084
Who held a skull-dish in her hands, and stood in
front of Bodhisattva, and with every kind of winsome

gesture, tempted to lust the Bodhisattva. 1085

So these followers of Mara, possessed of every

demon-body form, united in discordant uproar,

hoping to terrify Bodhisattva; 1086
But not a hair of his was moved, and Mara's host
was filled with sorrow. Then in the air the crowd
of angels (spirits), their forms invisible, raised their
voices, saying: 1087
Behold the great Muni his mind unmoved by

any feeling of resentment, whilst all that wicked

Mara race, besotted, are vainly bent on his destruc-
tion 1088


Let go your foul and murderous thoughts against

that silent Muni, calmly seated ! You cannot with a
^ove the Sumeru mountain ; 1089
Fire may freeze, water may burn, the roughened
earth may grow soft and pliant, but ye cannot hurt
the Bodhisattva ! Thro' ages past disciplined by
suffering, 1090

Bodhisattva rightly trained in thought, ever


advancing in the use of means," pure and illustrious
for wisdom, loving and merciful to all, 1091
'These four conspicuous (excellent) virtues cannot
with him be rent asunder, so as to make it hard or
doubtful whether he gain the highest wisdom. 1092
For as the thousand rays of yonder sun must

drown the darkness of the world, or as the boring

wood must kindle fire, or as the earth deep-dug
gives water, 1093
So he who perseveres right means," by in the
seeking thus, will find. The world without instruc-
tion, poisoned by lust and hate and ignorance, 1094
Because he pitied " flesh," so circumstanced, he

sought on their account the joy of wisdom. Why

then would you molest and hinder one who seeks
to banish sorrow from the world ? 1095
The ignorance that everywhere prevails is due
to false pernicious books (stitras), and therefore

Bodhisattva, walking uprightly, would lead and draw

men after him. 1096
'To obscure and blind the great world-leader, this
undertaking is impossible for 'tis as though in the ,

Great Desert a man would purposely mislead the

merchant-guide; 1097
'So "all flesh" having fallen into darkness, ignorant
of where they are going, for their sakes he would
light the lamp of wisdom say then ;
why would you
extinguish it ? 1098
All flesh engulphed and overwhelmed in tfye great
sea of birth and death, this one prepares the boat of
wisdom say then why destroy and sink it? 1099

'Patience is the sprouting of religion, firmness

1 '
In the sense of not commendable.'
111,13. DEFEATS MARA. 155

its root, good conduct is the flower, the enlightened

heart the boughs and branches, 1 100
'Wisdom supreme the entire tree, the tran-
scendent law 1 the fruit, its shade protects all

living things ; say then !

why would you cut it

down? HOT
Lust, hate, and ignorance, (these are) the rack

and bolt, the yoke placed on the shoulder of the

world ; through ages long he has practised austerities
to rescue men from these their fetters, 1 102
He now shall certainly attain his end, sitting
on this right-established throne; (seated) as all
the previous Buddhas, firm and compact like a
diamond; 1103

Though all moved and shaken,

the earth were
yet would this place be fixed and stable him, thus ;

fixed and well assured, think not that you can over-
turn. 1104

Bring down and moderate your mind's desire,


banish these high and envious thoughts, prepare

yourselves for right reflection, be patient in your
services.' 1105
Mara hearipg these sounds in space, and seeing
Bodhisattva still unmoved, filled with fear and

banishing his high and supercilious thoughts, again

took up his way to heaven above 1 106 ;

Whilst his host (were scattered), o'erwhelmed


with grief and disappointment, fallen from their

high estate, 'reft of their warrior pride, their warlike
weapons and accoutrements thrown heedlessly and
cast away 'mid woods and deserts. 1 107
Like as when some cruel chieftain slain, the hateful


band is all
dispersed and scattered, so the host of
Mara disconcerted, fled away. The mind of Bodhi-
sattva (now reposed) peaceful and quiet. 1108
The morning sun-beams brighten with the dawn,
the dust-like mist dispersing, disappears; the moon
and stars pale their faint light, the barriers of the
night are all removed, 1109

Whilst from above a fall of heavenly flowers pay

their sweet tribute to the Bodhisattva. mo.


Bodhisattva having subdued Mara, his firmly fixed

mind at rest, thoroughly exhausting the first prin-
ciple of truth he entered into deep and subtle

1 1 1 1
Every kind of Samadhi in order

passed before his eyes. During the first watch he

entered on right perception 3 and in recollection all


former births passed before his eyes 1112 ;

Born in such a place, of such a name, and downwards

to his present birth, so through hundreds, thousands,

myriads, all his births and deaths he knew 1113 ;

Countless in number were they, of every kind and

sort; then knowing, too, his family relationships,
great pity rose within his heart. 1114
This sense of deep compassion passed, he once
again considered 'all that lives,' and how they
moved within the six 4 portions of life's revolution,
no final term to birth and death ; 1115
The condition that looks wisdom face to face.
'Eternally exhausting the highest truth' (paramartha).
The word for 'perception' is vedana (sheu).
The six modes of birth (transmigration).
Ill, 14. 0-WEI-SAN-POU-TI. 1

Hollow all, and false and transient (unfixed)

as the plantain tree, or as a dream, or phantasy.
Then in the middle watch of night, he reached to
knowledge (eyes) of the pure Devas
1 1 16
And beheld before him every creature, as one sees
images upon a mirror all creatures born and born

again to die, noble and mean, the poor and rich, 1117
Reaping the of right or evil doing, and

sharing happiness or misery in consequence. First

he considered and distinguished evil-doers (works),
that such must ever reap an evil birth 1 1 18 ;

Then he considered those who practise righteous

deeds, that these must gain a place with men or
gods but those again born in the nether hells, (he

saw) participating in every kind of misery 1119 ;

Swallowing (drinking) molten brass (metal), the

iron skewers piercing their bodies, confined within
the boiling caldron, driven and made to enter the
fiery oven (dwelling), 1120
Food for hungry, long-toothed dogs, or preyed
upon by brain-devouring birds dismayed by fire, ;

then (they wander through) thick woods, with leaves

like razorsgashing their limbs, 1121
While knives divide their (writhing) bodies, or
hatchets lop their members, bit by bit drinking the ;

bitterest poisons, their fate yet holds them back

from death. 1122
Thus those who found their joy in evil deeds, he
saw receiving now their direst sorrow; a momentary
taste of pleasure here, a dreary length of suffering
there; 1123
A laugh or joke because of others' pain, a crying

Deva sight.

out and weeping now at punishment received. Surely

if living creaturessaw the consequence of all their
evils deeds, self-visited, 1124
With hatred would they turn and leave them,
fearing the ruin following the blood and death.
He saw, moreover, all the fruits of birth as beasts,
each deed entailing its own return, 1125
(And) when death ensues born in some other form
(beast shape), different in kind according to the deeds.
Some doomed to die for the sake of skin or flesh l ,

some bones or wings, 1126

for their horns or hair or
Others torn or killed in mutual conflict, friend or
relative before, contending thus (some) burthened ;

with loads or dragging heavy weights, (others)

pierced and urged on by pricking goads, 1127
Blood flowing down their tortured forms, parched
and hungry no relief afforded ; then, turning round,
(he saw) one with the other struggling, possessed of
no independent strength 1128 ;

Flying through air or sunk in deep water, yet no

place as a refuge left from death. He saw, more-

over, those, misers and covetous, born now as hungry
ghosts, 1129
Vast bodies like the towering mountain, with
mouths as small as any needle-tube, hungry and
thirsty, nought but fire and poison'd flame to en-
wrap their burning forms within.
Covetous, they would not give to those who
sought, or duped the man who gave in charity, now
born among the famished ghosts, they seek for food,
but cannot find withal. 1131
The refuse of the unclean man they fain would
That is, some born as beasts, whose hides are of value, and
for which they are killed.
111,14. O-WEI-SAN-POU-TI. 159

eat, but this is changed and lost (before it can be

eaten) ;
oh ! if a man believes that covetousness is
thus repaid, as in their case, 1 132
Would he not give his very flesh in charity
even as .Sivi rga. did Then, once more (he saw),

those reborn as men, with bodies like some foul

sewer, 1133
Ever moving 'midst the direst sufferings, born
from the womb to fear and trembling, with body
tender, touching anything its feelings painful, as if
cut with knives ; 1134
Whilst born in this condition, no moment free
from chance of death, labour, and sorrow, yet
seeking birth again, and being born again, enduring
pain. 1135
Then saw those who) by a higher merit were
enjoying heaven a thirst for love ever consuming

them, their merit ended with the end of life, the

five signs 1 warning them of death (their beauty

fades), 1136
Just as the blossom that decays, withering away,
is robbed of all its shining tints not all their asso- ;

ciates, living still, though grieving, can avail to save

the rest; 1137
palaces and joyous precincts empty now, the
Devls all alone and desolate, sitting or asleep upon
the dusty earth, weep bitterly in recollection of their
loves; 1138
Those who are born, sad in decay; those who are
dead, belovdd, cause of grief; thus ever struggling
on, preparing future pain, covetous they seek the
joys of heaven, 1139
The five signs are the indications of a Deva's life in heaven
coming to an end.

Obtaining which, these sorrows come apace des- ;

picable joys oh, who would covet them using such

! !

mighty efforts (means) to obtain, and yet unable

thence to banish pain. 1140
Alas, alas these Devas, too, alike deceived no

difference is there thro' lapse of ages bearing suf-


fering, striving to crush desire and lust, 1141

Nowcertainly expecting long reprieve, and yet
once more destined to fall in hell enduring every !

kind of pain, as beasts tearing and killing one the

other, 1142
As Pretas parched with direst thirst, as men worn
out, seeking enjoyment ; although, they say, when
born in heaven, then we shall escape these greater

ills,' 1143
Deceived, alas ! no single place exempt, in every
birth incessant pain ! Alas! the sea of birth and death

revolving thus an ever- whirling wheel 1144

All flesh immersed within its waves cast here and
there without reliance ! thus with his pure Deva
eyes he thoughtfully considered the five domains of
life. 1145
He saw that all was empty and vain alike with no !

dependence like the plantain or the bubble. Then,


on the third eventful watch, he entered on the deep,

true apprehension 2 1 1 46 ;

He meditated on the entire world of creatures,

whirling in life's tangle, born to sorrow; the crowds
who live, grow old, and die, innumerable for multi-
tude, 1147

That is, the deep apprehension of truth.
Sorrow self-natured.
111,14. OWEI-SAN-POU-TI. 1 61

Covetous, lustful, ignorant, darkly-fettered, with

no way known for final rescue. Rightly considering,
inwardly he reflected from what source birth and
death proceed 1 148 ;

He was assured that age and death must come

from birth as from a source. For since a man has
born with him a body, that body must inherit pain
(disease). 1149
Then looking further whence comes birth, he saw
it came from done elsewhere then with his
life-deeds ;

Deva-eyes scanning these deeds, he saw they were

not framed by I^vara 1 150 ;

They were not self-caused, they were not personal

existences, nor were they either uncaused then, as ;

one who breaks the first bamboo joint finds all the
rest easy to separate, 1151
Having discerned the cause of birth and death, he
gradually came to see the truth deeds come from ;

u pa dan a (cleaving), like as fire which catches hold

of grass; 1152
Upadana (tsu) comes from trishn& ('ngai), just
as a little fire enflames the mountains ;
comes from vedana (shau), (the perception of pain
and pleasure, the desire for rest) 1153 ;

As the starving or the thirsty man seeks food and

drink, so 'sensation' (perception) brings 'desire'
for life; then contact (spar^a) is the cause of all

sensation, producing the three kinds of pain or

pleasure, 1154
Even as by art of man the rubbing wood pro-
duces fire any use or purpose; spar^a (con-

tact) is born from the six entrances (aya tanas) 1


The six organs of sense.
[19] M

(a man is blind because he cannot see the

light) ; 1155
six entrances are caused by name and
thing, just as the germ grows to the stem and
leaf; name and thing are born from knowledge

(vi^ana), as the seed which germinates and brings

forth leaves. 1156

Knowledge, proceeds from name and

in turn,

thing, the two are intervolved leaving no remnant;

by some concurrent cause knowledge engenders
name and thing, whilst by some other cause con-
current, name and thing engender know-
ledge; 1157
Just as a man and ship advance together, the
water and the land mutually involved 2 thus know- ;

ledge brings forth name and thing; name and

thing produce the roots (ayatanas) 1
158 ;

The roots engender contact; contact again brings

forthsensation; sensation brings forth longing
desire; longing desire produces upadana; 1159
Upadana is the cause of deeds and these again ;

engender birth birth again produces age and death

; ;

so does this one incessant round 1160

Cause the existence of all living things. Rightly
illumined, thoroughly perceiving this, firmly esta-
was he enlightened; destroy birth, old
blished, thus
age and death will cease 1 161 ;

Destroy bhava then will birth cease; destroy

'cleaving' (upadana) then will end; destroy bhava
trzshna, (desire) then will cleaving end destroy ;

sensation then will trtshn end; 1162

1 '
This clause is obscure, it
may mean, blind to darkness there-
fore he sees/
catch the meaning here ; literally translated the
It is difficult to

passage runs thus: 'Water and dry land cause mutual involution.'
Ill, 14. O-WEI-SAN-POU-TI. 163

Destroy contact then will end sensation; de-

stroy the six entrances, then will contact cease;
the six entrances all destroyed, from this, moreover,
names and things will cease; 1163
Knowledge destroyed, names and things

will sawskara (names and things) destroyed,

cease ;

then knowledge perishes ignorance destroyed, then ;

the sawskara 2 will die; the great 7?/shi was thus per-
fected in wisdom (sambodhi). 1164
Thus perfected, Buddha then devised for the
world's benefit the eightfold path, right sight,
and so on, the only true path for the world to
tread. 1165
Thus did he complete the end (destruction) of
self/ as fire goes out for want of grass thus he had

done what he would have men do he first had ;

found the way of perfect knowledge; 1166

He finished thus great lesson (para-
the first
martha) ; entering the great /foshi's house the ,

darkness disappeared ;
light coming on, perfectly
silent, all at rest, 1167
He reached at last the exhaustless source of
truth (dharma); lustrous with all wisdom the great
Rish.\ sat, perfect in gifts, whilst one convulsive
throe shook the wide earth. 1168
And now the world was calm again and bright,
when Devas, Nigas, spirits, all assembled, amidst
the void raise heavenly music, and make their
offerings as the law directs 1 169 ;

A gentle cooling breeze sprang up around, and

Here evidently equivalent to sawskara.
Sawskara, i. e. the five skandhas, or constituents of individual life.
I. e. attained Nirvawa.
4 '
As the law directs ; that is, 'religious offerings' (dharma dana).
M 2

from the sky a fragrant rain distilled; exquisite

flowers, not seasonable bloomed sweet fruits before
, ;

their time were ripened 1 1 70 ;

Great Mandaras 2 and every sort of heavenly pre-


cious flower, from space in rich confusion fell, as

tribute 3 to the illustrious monk. 1 171
Creatures of every different kind were moved
one towards the other lovingly fear and terror ;

altogether put away, none entertained a hateful

thought; 1172
And things living in the world with faultless

men 4 consorted freely; the Devas giving up their

heavenly joys, sought rather to alleviate the sin-
ner's sufferings; 1173
Pain and distress grew less and less, the moon of
wisdom waxed apace ;
whilst all the ^'shis of the
Ikshvaku clan who had received a heavenly
birth, 1174
Beholding Buddha thus benefiting men, were
filledwith joy and satisfaction and whilst through- ;

out the heavenly mansions religious offerings fell as

raining flowers, 1175
The Devas and the Naga spirits
with one voice,
praised the Buddha's virtues ;
men seeing the reli-
gious offerings, hearing, too, the joyous hymn of

praise, 1176
Were all rejoiced in turn ;
they leapt for unre-
1 '
Not seasonable;' that is, out of season ; or, before their season.
The Maha Mandara, or Mandarava ;
one of the five trees of
the paradise of Indra (Wilson); the Erythrina fulgens. See
Burnouf, Lotus, p. 306.
As a religious offering to the Muni-lord.
Wou lau gin, leakless men. It means that all things living
consorted freely with the good.
The Devas, Nagas, and heavenly spirits (kwei shin).
Ill, 14. OWEI-SAN-POU-TI. 165

strained joy; Mara, the Devara^a, only, felt in his

heart great anguish. 1177
Buddha for those seven days, in contemplation lost,
his heart at peace, beheld and pondered on the Bodhi

tree, with gaze unmoved and never wearying :

Now resting here, in this condition, I have ob-
' *
tained,' he said, my ever-shifting heart's desire,
and now at rest I stand, escaped from self 2 .' The
eyes of Buddha then considered 'all that lives,' 1 1 79

And forthwith rose there in him deep compas-

sion much he desired to bring about their welfare

(purity), but how to gain for them that most excellent

deliverance, 1180
From covetous desire, hatred, ignorance, and false
teaching (this was the question); how to suppress
this sinful heart by right direction not by anxious ;

use of outward means, but by resting quietly in

thoughtful silence. 1181
looking back and thinking of his mighty
vow, there rose once more within his mind a wish to
preach the law; and looking carefully throughout
the world, he saw how pain and sorrow ripened and
increased everywhere. 1182
Then Brahma-deva knowing his thoughts, and
considering it advance reli-
right to request him to

gion for the wider spread of the Brahma-glory, in

the deliverance of all flesh from sorrow, 1183
My heart which has experienced constant and differing birth-
in a condition without personal (ngo) limitations.
The sense seems to be, that, by casting away the limitations of the
finite, he had apprehended the idea of the infinite.
The eye of Buddha ; the last of the pa?Ua>akkhus, for which
see Childers, Pali Diet, sub voce.
The sense may be,

thinking that he ought to be requested to


Coming, beheld upon the person of the reverend

monk all the distinguishing marks of a great preacher,
visible in an excellent degree fixed and unmoved (he ;

sat) in the possession of truth and wisdom, 1 1 84

Free from all evil impediments, with a heart
cleansed from all insincerity or falsehood. Then
with reverent and a joyful heart, (great Brahma
stood and) with hands joined, thus made known his
request: 1185
What happiness in all the world so great as
when a loving master meets the unwise
the world ;

with all its occupants, filled with impurity and dire

confusion 2 ,
1 1 86
'With heavy grief oppressed, or, in some cases,

lighter sorrows, (waits deliverance) ;

the lord of
men, having escaped by crossing the wide and
mournful sea of birth and death, 1187
We now entreat to rescue others those strug-
gling creatures all engulphed therein ;
as the just

worldly man, when he gets profit, gives some rebate

withal 3 1 1 88,

So the lord of men enjoying such religious gain,
should 4
also give somewhat to living things. The
world indeed is bent on large personal gain, and
hard it is to share one's own with others 1
189 ;

let your loving heart be moved with pity


towards the world burthened 5 with vexing cares.'

1 *
In the sense of the uninstructed/
With sense-pollution and distracted heart, oppressed with
heavy grief, or, may be, with lighter and less grievous sorrow.
These lines are obscure; the sense, however, is plainly that
given in the text.
4 '
In the way of request, would that the lord of men,' &c.
Oppressed amidst oppressions (calamities).
Ill, 14. OWEI-SAN-POU-TI. 167

Thus having spoken by way of exhortation, with

reverent mien he turned back to the Brahma
heaven. 1190
Buddha regarding the invitation of Brahma-deva
rejoiced at heart, and his design was strengthened ;

greatly was his heart of pity nourished, and purposed

was his mind to preach. 1191
Thinking he ought to beg some food, each of
the four kings offered him a Patra Tathagata \ in ;

fealty to religion, received the four and joined

them all in one. 1192
And now some merchant men were passing by, to
whom *
a virtuous frienda heavenly spirit, said V :


The great ^zshi, the venerable monk, is dwelling

in this mountain grove, 1193
'(Affording) in the world a noble field for merit ;


go then and offer him a sacrifice Hearing the !

summons, joyfully they went, and offered the first

meal religiously. 1 1 94
Having partaken of it, then he deeply pondered,
who first should hear the law 4 he thought at once ;

of Ara^a Kalama and Udraka Ramaputra, 1195

Here the Buddha is called Tathagata. It is a point to be
observed that this title is only used after the Bodhisattva's en-

There isa great deal said in Buddhist books about this expres-
' '

virtuous,' or, good friend/ In general it means Bo dhi or

wisdom. It is used also in Zend literature to denote the sun
(mithra); see Haug (Parsis), p. 209.
That is, giving the world a noble opportunity of obtaining
religious merit. The -expression field for merit' is a common one,

as we say,
field for work,'
field for usefulness/ and so on.
ought instructed in religion ; or, who should
to be first

hear the first religious instruction (sermon). The first sermon is

that which is sometimes called the foundation of the kingdom of

righteousness.' It is given further on.


being fit to accept the righteous law but now ;

they both were dead. Then next he thought of

the five men, that they were fit to hear the first
sermon. 1196
Bent then on design to preach Nirvana \ as

the sun's glory bursts thro' the darkness, so went

he on towards Benares, the place where dwelt the
ancient ^?/shis ; 1197
With eyes as gentle as the ox king's, his pace as
firm and even as the lion's, because he would con-
vert the world he went on towards the Kan 2

city; 1198
Step by step, like the king of beasts, did he
advance watchfully through the grove of wisdom
(Uruvilva wood). 1 199



Tathagata piously composed and silent, radiant

with glory, shedding light around, with unmatched
dignity advanced alone, as if surrounded by a crowd
of followers. 1 200
Beside the way he encountered a young Brah-
man 4 whose name was Upaka 5
, ;
struck 6
with the

To preach the law of perfect quietude (quiet extinction ;

is, quietness or rest, resulting from the extinction of sorrow).

That is, Benares.
Concerning this expression, which means establishing the

dominion of truth/ see Childers, Pali Diet., sub voce pavatteti.

A Brahma^arin, a religious student, one who was practising
a life of purity.
Called 'Upagana' by Burnouf (Introd. p. 389), and in the
Lalita Vistara an A^ivaka (hermit), (Foucaux, 378). For some
useful remarks on this person's character, see Etudes Buddhiques
(Leon Fe'er), pp. 15, 1 6, 17.
So I construe '/ih &;' it means '
taken by/ or '
attracted by'

deportment of the Bhikshu, he stood with reverent

mien on the road side 1201 ;

Joyously he gazed at such an unprecedented

sight, and then, with closed hands, he spake
as follows: The crowds who live around are

stained with sin, without a pleasing feature, void

of grace, 1 202
And the great world's heart is everywhere dis-
turbed ;
but you alone, your senses all composed,
with visage shining as the moon when full, seem
to have quaffed the water of the immortals'
stream; 1203
The marks
of beauty yours, as the great man's
(Mahclpurusha) the strength of wisdom, as an all-

sufficient (independent) king's(samra^); what you

have done must have been wisely done, what then
your noble tribe and who your master ?' 1204
Answering he said, 'I have no master; no
honourable tribe; no point of excellence

taught in this profoundest doctrine, I have arrived

at superhuman wisdom 1205 .

That which behoves the world to learn, but

through the world no learner found, I now myself

the demeanour of the mendicant (Bhikshu). This incident is intro-

duced as the first instance of Buddha's mendicant life and its

influence on others.
1 '
Or, he questioned thus.'
that has been conquered.'

I have attained to that which man has not attained. That is,

I have arrivedsuperhuman wisdom. It appears to me that this


point in Buddha's history is a key to the whole system of his

religion. He professes to have grasped absolute truth (the word
* '
absolute corresponds with unfettered') and by letting go the

finite, with its limitations and defilements, to have passed into the
free, boundless, unattached infinite.

and by myself 1 have learned throughout ;

called Sambodhi (ying kioh); 1206
That hateful family of griefs the sword of wisdom
has destroyed ;
this then is what the world has named,
and rightly named, the "chiefest victory." 1207
Through all Benares soon will sound the drum

I have no name
of life, no stay is possible nor
do I seek profit or pleasure, 1208
'But simply to declare the truth; to save men
(living things) from pain, and to fulfil my ancient
oath, to rescue all not yet delivered. 209 1

The fruit of this my ripened now, and I
oath is

will follow out my ancient vow. Wealth, riches,

self all unnamed, given up, I still am named
"Righteous Master 3
." 1210
And bringing profit to the world (empire), I also
have the name Great Teacher 4 ;" facing sor-
rows, not swallowed up by them, am I not rightly
called Courageous Warrior? 1211
a healer of diseases, what means the name
'If not
of Good Physician? seeing the wanderer, not
showing him the way, why then should I be called
Good Master-guide ?" 1212

Like as the lamp shines in the dark, without a

This assertion is a fundamental one (see Mr. Rhys Davids'
Dhamma-/akka-ppavattana-sutta, Sacred Books of the East, vol. xi,
throughout) so that Buddha disclaims any revelation in the sense

of the result of a higher wisdom than his own. The cloud, in

fact, of sin moved away, the indwelling of light, by itself, revealed
2 '
I am a voice/
3 '

(Called by the) not-called name, Master of righteousness/

Here follow a list of names applied to Tathagata in virtue
of his office. He gives up his name Gautama, and claims to be
known only by his religious titles.

purpose of own, self-radiant, so burns the lamp


of the Tathagata, without the shadow of a personal

feeling. 1213
'Bore wood in wood, there must be fire; the wind
blows of itsown free self in space dig deep and ;

you will come to water this is the rule of self-


causation. 1214
All the Munis who perfect wisdom, must do so at
Gaya; and in the Klri country they must first turn
the Wheel of Righteousness.' 1215
The young Brahman Upaka, astonished, breathed
the praise of such strange doctrine 1 and called to ,

mind like thoughts he had before experienced 2 lost ;

inthought wonderful occurrence, 1216

at the
At every turning of the road he stopped to think ;

embarrassed in every step he took. Tathagata

proceeding slowly onwards, came to the city of
Kin, 1217
The land so excellently adorned as the palace of
.Sakradevendra the Ganges and Bara;/a 3 two twin
; ,

rivers flowed amidst 1218 ;

The woods and flowers and fruits so verdant, the

peaceful cattle wandering together, the calm retreats

1 ' '

Sighed oh ! and praised in under tone the strange behaviour

of Tathagata.
Or perhaps the following translation is better following in :

mind the circumstances which led to the strange encounter.'

The account in the text makes the city- of Benares to be
between the Ganges and the Barawa or Varaa ;
General Cunning-
ham (Archaeolog. Report, vol. i, p. 104) says, The city of Benares

is situated on the left bank of the Ganges, between the Barna

Nadi on the north-east and the Asi Nala on the south-west. The
Barna is a considerable rivulet which rises to the north of Alla-
habad, and has a course of about 100 miles. The Asi is a mere
brook of no length.'

free from vulgar noise, such was the place where the
old /foshis dwelt. 1219
Tathagata glorious and radiant, redoubled the
brightness of the place ;
the son of the Kau^inya-
tribe (Kau^inya-kulaputra), and next Da^abala-
kajyapa, 1220
And the third Vashpa, the fourth Asva^it, the fifth
called Bhadra, practising austerities as hermits, 1221

Seeing from far

Tathagata approaching, sitting

together all engaged in conversation, (said), This

Gautama, defiled by worldly indulgence, leaving the
practice of austerities, 1222
Now comes again to find us here, let us be careful
not to rise in salutation, nor let us greet him when he
comes, nor offer him the customary refreshments 1223 ;

Because he has broken his vow, he has no

claim to hospitality; [for men on seeing an ap-
proaching guest by rights prepare things for his
present and his after wants, 1224
They arrange a proper resting-couch, and take on
themselves care for his comfort.] 1 Having spoken
thus and so agreed, each kept his seat, resolved and
fixed. 1225
And now Tathagata slowly approached, when, lo !

these men unconsciously, against their vow, rose

and invited him to take a seat offering to take his;

robe and Pdtra, 1226

They begged to wash and rub his feet, and asked
him what he required more thus in everything ;

attentive, they honour'd him and offered all to him

as teacher. 1227
They did not not cease however to address him

This f ]
seems to be parenthetical.

still Gautama, after his family

as Then spake the 1

Lord to them and said: 'Call me not after my

private name, 1228
For it is a rude and careless way of speaking to

one who has obtained Arhatship 2 but whether ;

men respect or disrespect me, my mind is un-

disturbed and wholly quiet 1229 ;

But you 3 your way is not so courteous, let go,


I pray, and cast away your fault. Buddha can save

the world him, therefore, Buddha
; they call 1230 ;

living things, with
all equal heart he
looks as children, to call him then by his familiar
name is to despise a father; this is sin 4
Thus Buddha, by exercise of mighty love, in deep

compassion spoke to them; but they, from ignorance

and pride, despised the only wise 5 and true one's
words. 1232
They he practised self-denial, but
said that first

having reached thereby no profit, now giving rein to

body, word, and thought how by these means (they

asked) has he become a Buddha ? 1233

Thus equally entangled by doubts, they would
not credit that he had attained the way. Thoroughly
versed in highest truth, full of all-embracing wis-
dom, 1234
The address 'BhoGotama' or

Gotama/ according to Childers

(Pali Diet. p. 150), was an appellation of disrespect used by uncon-

verted Brahmins in addressing Buddha. The title Gautama Buddha
is rarely met with in Northern translations.
The Arhat
the highest grade among the Buddhist saints.

See Burnouf, Introd. p. 295.

Here the appeal is to them as religious persons.
Or, is the sin of dishonouring a father.
The true words of the Only Enlightened ;
that is, of the Buddha.
M for .

Tathagata on their account briefly declared to

them the one true way the foolish masters prac- ;

tising austerities, and those who love to gratify their

senses, 1235
Hepointed out to them these two distinctive
classes 1 and how both greatly erred.
Neither of
these (he said) has found the way of highest wis-
dom, nor are their ways of life productive of true
rescue. 1236
The emaciated
devotee by suffering produces in
himself confused and sickly thoughts, not conducive
even worldly knowledge, how much less to

triumph over sense 1237 !

For he who tries to light a lamp with water, will
not succeed in scattering the darkness, (and so the
man who with worn-out body to trim the lamp
of wisdom shall not succeed, nor yet destroy his
ignorance or folly. 1238
'Who seeks with rotten wood to evoke the fire

willwaste his labour and get nothing for it; but

boring hard wood into hard, the man of skill
forthwith gets fire for his
use; 1239
In seeking wisdom then it is not by these au-
sterities a man may reach the law of life. But
(likewise) to indulge in pleasure is opposed to
right, this is the fool's barrier against wisdom's
light; 1240
The sensualist cannot comprehend the Sutras or
the .Sastras, how much less the way of overcoming
all desire ! As some man grievously afflicted eats
food not fit to eat, 1241
And so in ignorance aggravates his sickness, so

The two extremes.

how can he get rid of lust who pampers lust ?

Scatter the fire amid the desert grass, dried by the

sun, fanned by the wind, 1242

The raging flames who shall extinguish ? Such

is the fire of covetousness and lust (or, hankering

lust), I, then, both these extremes, my

heart keeps in the middle way. 1243
end and finished, I rest at peace,
'All sorrow at an
all error
put away; my true sight greater than the
glory of the sun, my equal and unvarying wis-
dom 2 vehicle of insight, 1244

'Right words as it were a dwelling-place,


wandering through the pleasant groves of right

conduct 4 making a right life 5 my recrea-

tion, walking along the right road of proper

means 6 1245 ,

'My city of refuge in right recollection and


my sleeping couch right meditation 8 ; these are

the eight even and level roads 9 by which to avoid
the sorrows of birth and death 1246 ;

Those who come by these means from the forth

slough, doing thus, have attained the end such ;

shall fall neither on this side or the other, amidst

the sorrow-crowd of the two periods 10 1247 .

The tangled sorrow-web of the three worlds


thisroad alone can be destroyed this is my own ;

way, unheard of before by the pure eyes of the ;

true law, 1248

1 *
Samyag drzsh/i. Samyak sawkalpa.
3 4
Samyag va& Samyak karma.
8 6
Samyag aiva. Samyag vyaySma.
7 8
Samyak smrrii. Samyak samadhi.
The right roads (orthodox ways).
10 '
Or rather, of the two ages ;
this age and the next.


Impartially seeing the way of escape, I, only I,

now first make known this way; thus I destroy the
hateful company of TY/sh/za's host, the sorrows of
birth and death, old age, disease, 1249
'And the unfruitful aims of men, and other

springs of suffering. There are those who warring

against desire are still influenced by desire who ;

whilst possessed of body, act as tho' they had

none; 1250
Who put away from themselves all sources of
true merit, briefly will I recount their sorrowful
lot. Like smothering a raging fire, though carefully
put out, yet a spark left, 1251
So in their abstraction, still the germ of 1
," the
source 3
of great sorrow
surviving, perpetuates still

the suffering caused by lust (trzsbma), and the evil

consequences of every kind of deed survive 1252 ;

These are the sources of further pain, but let these


go and sorrow dies, even as the seed of corn taken

from the earth and deprived of water dies 1253 ;

The concurrent causes not uniting, then the bud


and leaf cannot be born the intricate bonds of every


kind of existence, from the Deva down to the evil

ways of birth, 1254

Ever revolve and never cease all this is pro-

duced from covetous desire; falling from a high

estate to lower ones, all is the fault of previous
deeds; 1255
But destroy the seed of covetousness and the

rest, then there will be no intricate binding, but all

For some account of Tn'srma, Pali Taha, see Rhys Davids
(op. cit.), p. 149 note.
The germ of self; that is, of individual existence.
Having the nature of great sorrow.

effect ofdeeds destroyed, the various degrees of

sorrow then will end for good; 1256

'Having this, then, we must inherit that; de-

stroying this, then that birth, old

is ended too ;
age, disease, or death no earth, or water, fire, or

wind; 1257
beginning, end, or middle and no deceptive ;

systems of philosophy this is the standpoint of wise


men and sages the certain and exhausted termina-


tion, (complete Nirvana). 1258


Such do the eight right ways declare one ;


expedient has no remains; that which the world

sees not, engrossed by error (I declare), 1259
I know the way to sever all these sorrow-sources ;

the way to end them

by right reason, meditating

on these four highest truths, following and per-

fecting this highest wisdom. 1260
'This is what means the knowing" sorrow; this
is to cut off the cause of all remains of being ;
destroyed, then all striving, too, has ended, the
eight right ways have been assayed. 1261
(Thus, too), the four great truths have been

acquired, the eyes of the pure law completed. In

these four truths, the equal (i. e. true or right)

eyes not yet born, 1262

There is not mention made of gaining true deli-

verance, it is not said what must be done is done,

nor that all (is finished), nor that the perfect truth
has been acquired. 1263
But now because the truth is known, then by

myself isknown " deliverance gained," by my-

self is known that "all is done," by myself is
known "the highest wisdom.'" 1264
And having spoken thus respecting truth, the

[19] N

member of the Kau^inya family, and eighty thou-

sand of the Deva host, were thoroughly imbued
with saving knowledge; 1265
They put away defilement from themselves, they
got the eyes of the pure law ; Devas and earthly
masters thus were sure, that what was to be done
was done. 1266
And now with lion-voice he joyfully enquired, and
asked Kau^inya, Knowest thou yet?' Kau^-

afinya answered
forthwith Buddha, 'I know the
mighty master's law;' 1267
And for this reason, knowing it, his name was
A^ata (a^ata, known). Amongst all
the disciples of Buddha, he was the very first in
understanding. 1268
Then as he understood the sounds of the true
law, hearing (the words of) the disciple all the
earth spirits together raised a shout triumphant,
Well done !
deeply seeing (the principles of) the
law, 1269
Tath&gata, on this auspicious day, has set re-

volving that which never yet revolved, and far and

wide, for gods and men, has opened the gates of
immortality 1270 .

wheel) the spokes


(Of this are the rules of pure

conduct; equal contemplation, their uniformity of
length; firm wisdom is the tire; modesty and
thoughtfulness, the rubbers (sockets in the nave
in which the axle is fixed); 1271

Right reflection is the nave; the wheel itself


the law of perfect truth; the right truth now

The way or gate of sweet dew.
Ill, 1-5.

has gone forth in the world, not to retire before

another teacher/ 1272
Thus the earth spirits shouted, the spirits of the
air took up the strain, the Devas all joined in

the hymn of praise, up to the highest Brahma

heaven. 1273
The Devas of the triple world, now hearing what
the great /fo'shi taught, in intercourse together
The widely-honoured Buddha moves the
world! 1274
Wide-spread, for the sake of all that lives, he

turns the wheel of the law of complete purity!'

The stormy winds, the clouds, the mists, all disap-
peared down from space the heavenly flowers

descended; 1275
The Devas revelled in their joys celestial, filled
with unutterable gladness. 1276

N 2



And now those men, Asva^it, Vashpa, and the


others, having heard that he (Kau#dfinya) 'knew'

the law, with humble mien and self-subdued, 1277
Their hands joined, offered their homage, and
looked with reverence in the teacher's face. Tatha-
gata, by wise expedient, caused them one by one to
embrace the law. 1278
And so from first to last the five Bhikshus ob-
tained reason and subdued their senses, like the five
stars which shine in heaven, waiting upon the

brightening moon. 1279

At this time in the town of Ku-i 1 (Kusinara)
there was a noble's son (called) Yasas; lost in

night-sleep suddenly he woke, and when he saw

his attendants all, 1280
Men and women, with ill-clad bodies, sleeping,
his heart was filled with loathing reflecting on the ;

root of sorrow, (he thought) how madly foolish men

were immersed in it; 1281
Clothing himself, and putting on his jewels, he
left his home and wandered forth ;
then on the way
he stood and cried aloud, 'Alas! alas! what endless
chain of sorrows/ 1282

The scene of this history of Yasas is generally laid in Benares ;

see Romantic Legend, p. 261 ;

Sacred Books of the East, vol. xiii,

p. 102.

TatMgata, by was walking forth, and

hearing sounds like these, Alas what sorrow,''

forthwith replied, You are

welcome here, on the !

other hand, there is a place of rest, 1283

The most excellent, refreshing, Nirvana, quiet
and unmoved, free from sorrow.' Yasas hearing
Buddha's exhortation, there rose much joy within
his heart,1284
And in the place of the disgust he felt, the cooling
streams of holy wisdom found their way, as when
one enters first a cold pellucid lake. Advancing
then, he came where Buddha was; 1285
His person decked with common ornaments, his
mind already freed from all defects by power of ;

the good root obtained in other births, he quickly

reached the fruit of an Arhat 1286 ;

The secret light of pure wisdom's virtue (li) ena-

bled him to understand, on listening to the law;
just as a pure silken fabric with ease is dyed a
different colour; 1287
Thus having attained to self-illumination, and
done that which was to be done, (he was converted) ;

then looking at his person richly ornamented, his

heart was filled with shame. 1288

Tathagata knowing his inward thoughts, in gathas


spoke the following words Tho' ornamented with


jewels, the heart may yet have conquered sense;

Looking with equal mind on all that lives, (in

such a case) the outward form does not affect reli-

gion the body, too, may wear the ascetic's garb,

the heart, meanwhile, be immersed in worldly

thoughts; 1290
Sacred Books of the East, vol. xiii, p. 105.

Dwelling in lonely woods, yet covetous of worldly

show, such men are after all mere worldlings the ;

body may have a worldly guise, the heart mount

high to things celestial; 1291
The layman and
the hermit are the same, when
only both have banished thought of self," but if
the heart be twined with carnal bonds, what use the
marks of bodily attention? 1292
He who
wears martial decorations, does so be-
cause by valour he has triumphed o'er an enemy,
so he who wears the hermit's colour'd robe, does so
for having vanquished sorrow as his foe/ 1293
Then he bade him come, and be a member of
his church (a Bhikshu) and at the bidding lo!

his garments changed and he stood wholly attired


in hermit's dress, complete in heart and outward


look, a 6rama^a. 1294

Now (Yasas) had in former days some light com-
panions, in number fifty and four when these beheld

their friend a hermit, they too, one by one, attained

true wisdom [entered the true law]; 1295

By virtue of deeds done in former births, these

deeds now bore their perfect fruit. Just as when
burning ashes are sprinkled by water, the water
being dried, the flame bursts forth. 1296
So now, with those above, the 6ravakas (dis-
ciples) were altogether sixty, all Arhats entirely ;

obedient and instructed in the law of perfect dis-

cipleship \ So perfected he taught them further :

ye have passed the stream and reached
the other shore," across the sea of birth and death;

The law of Arhats.

what should be done, ye now have done! and ye

may now receive the charity of others. 1
Go then through every country, convert those not
yet converted throughout the world that lies burnt

up with sorrow, teach everywhere (instruct) those ;

lacking right instruction; 1299

'Go, therefore! each one travelling by himself ;

filled with compassion, go rescue and receive. !

I too will
go alone, back to yonder Kia-^e moun-
tain ;
Where there are great ^zshis, royal y&'shis,
Brahman Tfoshis too, these all dwell there, influencing
men according to their schools 1301 ;

The y?zshi Klsyapa, enduring pain,

by all the country, making converts too of many,
him will I visit and convert.' 1 302
Then the sixty Bhikshus respectfully receiving
orders to preach, each according to his fore-deter-
mined purpose, following his inclination, went thro'

every land 1 303 ;

The honour'd of the world went on alone, till he

arrived at the Kia-^e mountain, then entering a
retired religious dell, he came to where the /frshi

KeLryapa was. 1 304

Now one had a 'fire grot' where he offered


sacrifice, where an evil Naga dwelt

who wandered ,

here and there in search of rest, through mountains

and wild places of the earth. 1 305

In after time the disciples were not allowed to travel alone,
but two and two.
Gaya^irsha, or Gayasisa in the Pali (Sacred Books of the East,
vol. xiii, p. 134).
The episode here translated is found amongst the Sanchi
sculptures. See Tree and Serpent Worship, plate xxiv.

The honoured of the world, (wishing) to instruct

this hermit and convert him, asked him, on coming,
for a place to lodge that night. Kasyapa, replying,
spake to Buddha thus I have no resting-place to

offer for the night, 1306

'Only this fire grot where I sacrifice, this is a

cool and fit place for the purpose, but an evil dragon
dwells there, who is accustomed, as he can, to poison
men.' 1307
Buddha replied,
Permit me only, and for the

night I'll take my dwelling there.' Kasyapa made

many difficulties, but the world-honoured one still
asked the favour. 1308
Then Kasyapa addressed Buddha, '

My mind
desires no controversy, only I have my fears and

apprehensions, but follow you your own good plea-

sure/ 1 309
Buddha forthwith stepped within the fiery grot,
and took his seat with dignity and deep reflection ;

and now the evil Naga seeing Buddha, belched

forth in rage his fiery poison, 1310
And the place with burning vapour.
filled But
this could not affect the form of Buddha. Through-
out the abode the fire consumed itself, the honoured
of the world still sat composed :
Even as Brahma, in the midst of the kalpa-fire
that burns and reaches to the Brahma heavens, still
sits unmoved, without a thought of fear or appre-
hension, 1312
(So Buddha sat) ;
the evil Naga seeing him, his
face glowing with peace, and still unchanged,
ceased his poisonous blast, his heart appeased he ;

bent his head and worshipped. 1313

KcUyapa in the night seeing the fire-glow, sighed ;

Ah ! what misery this most distinguished
alas ! !

man is also burnt up by the fiery Naga,' 1314

Then Klsyapa and his followers at morning light
came one and all to look. Now Buddha having
subdued the evil Naga, had straightway placed him
in his patra, 1315
(Beholding which) and seeing the power of
dha, Kasyapa conceived within him deep and secret

thoughts: 'This Gotama,' he thought, is deeply

versed (in religion), but still he said, "I am a master
of religion." 1316
Then Buddha, as occasion offered, displayed all
kinds of spiritual changes , influencing his (Kasyapa's)
heart-thoughts, changing and subduing them 1317 ;

Making his mind pliant and yielding, until "at

length prepared to be a vessel of the true law, he
confessed that his poor wisdom could not compare
with the complete wisdom of the world-honoured
one. 1318
And so, convinced at last, humbly submitting,
he accepted right instruction. (Thus) U-pi-lo
(Uravilva) Kasyapa, and five hundred of his fol-

lowers 1319
Following their master, virtuously submissive, in
turn received the teaching of the law. Kasyapa and
all his followers were thus entirely converted. 1320
The &shi then, taking his goods and all his sacri-
ficial vessels, threw them together in the river, which
floated down upon the surface of the current. 1321
Nadi and Gada, brothers, who dwelt adown the
stream, seeing these articles of clothing (and the
rest) floating along the stream disorderly, 1322

The different wonders wrought by Buddha are detailed in
Spence Hardy's Manual, and in the Romantic Legend of Buddha.

great change has happened,' and
deeply pained, were restlessly (concerned). The two,
each with five hundred followers, going up the
stream to seek their brother, 1323
Seeing him now dressed as a hermit, and all his
followers with him, having got knowledge of the
miraculous law strange thoughts engaged their
minds 1324
Our brother having submitted thus, we too
should also follow him (they said).' Thus the three
brothers, with all their band of followers, 1325
Were brought to hear the lord's discourse on the
comparison of a fire sacrifice (and in the dis- :

course he taught), How the dark smoke of ignorance


arises 2
whilst confused thoughts, like
wood drilled
into wood, create the fire, 1326

'Lust, anger, delusion, these are as fire produced,

and these enflame and burn all living things. Thus
the fire of grief and sorrow, once enkindled, ceases
not to burn, 1327
Ever giving rise to birth and death ;
but whilst
this fire of sorrow ceases not, yet are there two
kinds of fire, one that burns but has no fuel

left; 1328
So when the heart of man has once conceived
distaste for sin, this distaste removing covetous
desire, covetous desire extinguished, there is

rescue; 1329
once this rescue has been found, then with it
is born sight and knowledge, by which distinguishing

So I translate i sse fo pi ;
may mean, however,
in respect of

the matter of the fire

This is the sermon on The Burning
;' see Sacred Books of the

East, vol. xiii, p. 135.


the streams of birth and death, and practising pure

conduct, 1330
All is done that should be done, and hereafter

shall be no more life (bhava).' Thus the thousand

Bhikshus hearing the world-honoured preach, 1331
All defects 1 for ever done away, their minds
found perfect and complete deliverance. Then
Buddha for the Ka^yapas' sakes, and for the benefit
of the thousand Bhikshus, having preached, 1332
And done all that should be done, himself with
purity and wisdom and all the concourse of high
qualities excellently adorned, he gave them, as in
charity, rules for cleansing sense. 1333
The great A'shi, listening to reason, lost all re-
gard for bodily austerities, and, as a man without
a guide, was emptied of himself, and learned
discipleship. 1334
And now the honoured one and all his followers

(Ra^agr/ha), remem-
go forward to the royal city
bering, as he did, the Magadha king, and what he
heretofore had promised. 1335.
The honoured one when he arrived, remained
within the 'staff grove 3 ;' Bimbisara Ra^a hearing
thereof, with all his company of courtiers, 1336
Lords and ladies all surrounding him, came to
where the master was. Then at a distance seeing
Buddha seated, with humbled heart and subdued
presence, 1337
Putting off his common ornaments, descending
from his chariot, forward he stepped even as ;

The Ajravas.
So also in the Pali.
The 'Aang lin/ called in Sanskrit Yash/ivana.

.Sakra,king of gods, going to where Brahmadeva-

ra^a dwells. 1338
Bowing down at Buddha's feet, he asked him,
with respect, about his health of body ;
in his turn, having made enquiries, begged him to
be seated on one side. 1339
Then the king's mind reflected silently :
Sakya must have great controlling power, to sub-
ject to his will these Kasyapas who now are round
him as disciples.' 1340
Buddha, knowing all thoughts, spoke thus to
Ka^yapa, questioning him 'What profit have you:

found in giving up your fire -ado ring law?' 1341

Kasyapa hearing Buddha's words, rising with
dignity before the great assembly, bowed lowly
down, and then with clasped hands and a loud voice
addressing Buddha, said : 1
The profitIreceived, adoring the fire spirit, was
this, continuance in the wheel of life, birth
and death with all their sorrows growing, this ser-
viceI have therefore cast
away; 1343
'Diligently I persevered in fire-worship, seeking
to put an end to the five desires, in return I found
desires endlessly increasing, therefore have I cast
off this service. 1344

Sacrificing thus to fire with many Mantras, I did

but miss (i.e. I did not find) escape from birth;
receiving birth, with it came all its sorrows, there-
fore I cast it off and sought for rest. 1345
was versed, indeed, my mode
I in self-affliction,

of worship largely adopted, and counted of all most

excellent, and yet I was opposed to highest wis-
dom. 1346
Therefore have I discarded it, and gone in quest

of the supreme Nirvi^a. Removing from me birth,

old age, disease, and death, I
sought a place of
undying rest and calm. 1347
'And as I
gained the knowledge of this truth,
then I cast off the law of worshipping the fire

(or, by fire).' The honoured-of-the-world, hearing

KsUyapa declaring his experience of truth, 1348
Wishing to move the world throughout to con-
ceive a heart of purity and faith, addressing Kasyapa
further, said/ Welcome great master, welcome! 1 349 !


Rightly have you distinguished law from law, and

well obtained the highest wisdom; now before
this great assembly, pray you exhibit your excellent

endowments; 1350
As any rich and wealthy noble opens for view

his costly treasures, causing the poor and sorrow-

laden multitude to increase their forgetfulness
awhile; 1351
'(So do you now) and honour well your lord's
instruction.' Forthwith in presence of the assembly,
gathering up his body and entering Samadhi, calmly
he ascended into space, 1352
And there displayed himself, walking, standing,

sitting, sleeping, emitting fiery vapour from his

body, on his right and left side water and fire, not

burning and not moistening him ; 1353

clouds and rain proceeded from him, thun-
der with lightning shook the heaven and earth ;

thus he drew the world to look in adoration, with

eyes undazzled as they gazed; 1354
With different mouths, but all in language one,
they magnified and praised this wondrous spectacle,
then afterwards drawn by spiritual force, they came
and worshipped at the master's feet, 1355

(Exclaiming), Buddha is our great teacher we


are the honoured one's disciples/ Thus having

magnified his work and finished all he purposed
doing, 1356
Drawing the world as universal witness, the
assembly was convinced that he, the world-honoured,
was truly the Omniscient '

1357 !'

Buddha, perceiving the whole assembly that

was ready as a vessel to receive the law, spoke
Listen now and under-
thus to Bimbisdra Ra^a :

stand; 1358
Themind, the thoughts, and all the senses are
subject to the law of life and death. This fault 1
of birth and death, once understood, then there is
clear and plain perception 1359 ;

perception, then there is born


Obtaining this clear

knowledge of self, knowing oneself and with this

knowledge laws of birth and death, then there is
no grasping and no sense-perception. 1360
'Knowing oneself, and understanding how the
senses act, then there is no room for I," or ground
for framing it; then all the accumulated mass of
sorrow, sorrows born from life and death, 1361
Being recognised as attributes of body, and as

" "
thisbody is not I," nor offers ground for I," then
comes the great superlative (discovery), the
source of peace unending; 1362
'This thought (view) of "self" gives rise to all
these sorrows, binding as with cords 2 the world, but
having found there is no "I" that can be bound,
then all these bonds are severed. 1363
There are no bonds indeed they disappear

1 2
This fault ;
that is, this flaw. As with fetters.

and seeing this there is deliverance. The world

holds to this thought of I," and so, from this,

comes false apprehension. 1364

Of those who maintain the truth of it, some say
the " I endures, some say
perishes taking the it ;

two extremes of birth and death, their error is most

grievous! 1365
is perishable, the
For if they say the I" (soul)
fruitthey strive for, too, will perish ; and at some
time there will be no hereafter, this is indeed a
meritless deliverance. 1366
" "
they say the I is not to perish, then in

the midst of all this life and death there is but one
identity (as space), which is not born and does not
die. 1367
If this is what they call the " I," then are all

things living, one for all have this unchanging

self not perfected by any deeds, but self-

perfect; 1368
If so, if such a self it is that acts, let there be
no self-mortifying conduct, the self is lord and
master what need to do that which is done ? 1 369

For if this " I" is lasting and imperishable, then


reason would teach it never can be changed. But

now we see the marks of joy and sorrow, what room
for constancy then is here ? 1370
Knowing that birth brings this deliverance then
put away all thought of sin's defilement the whole ;

world, everything, endures ! what then becomes of

this idea of rescue. 1371
We cannot even talk of putting self away,
truth is the same as falsehood, it is not "I" that
do a thing, and who, forsooth, is he that talks
of "I?" 1372

But if it is not " I" that do the thing, then there
is no "I" that does it, and in the absence of these
" "
both, there is no I at all, in very truth. 1373
No doer and no knower, no lord, yet notwith-
standing this, there ever lasts this birth and death,
like morn and night ever recurring. But now attend
to me and listen 1374

'The senses six and their six objects united cause

the six kinds of knowledge, these three (i. e. senses,
objects, and resulting knowledge) united bring
forth contact, then the intervolved effects of recol-
lection (follow). 1375
Then like the burning glass and tinder thro' the
sun's power cause fire to appear, so thro' the know-

ledge born of sense and object, the lord (of know-

ledge) (self) (like the fire) is born. 1376
'The shoot springs from the seed, the seed is not
the shoot, not one and yet not different, such is the
birth of all that lives.' 1377
The honoured of the world preaching the truth,
the equal and impartial paramartha, thus ad-
dressed the king with all his followers. Then king
Bimbisara filled with joy, 1378
Removing from himself defilement, gained reli-

gious sight, a hundred thousand spirits also, hearing

the words of the immortal law, shook off and lost
the stain of sin. 1379



At time Bimbisara Ra^a, bowing his head,


requested the honoured of the world to change his


place of abode for the bamboo grove 1

accepting it, Buddha remained silent. 1380
Then the king, having perceived the truth, offered
his adoration and returned to his palace. The
world-honoured, with the great congregation, pro-
ceeded on foot, to rest for awhile in the bamboo
garden .
(There he dwelt) to convert all that breathed to ,

kindle once for all the lamp of wisdom, to establish
Brahma and the Devas, and to confirm the lives 5 of
saints and sages. 1382
At this time Asva^it and Vashpa 6 with heart ,

composed and every member (sense) subdued, the

time having come for begging food, entered into the
town of Ra^agr/ha 1383 :

Unrivalled in the world were they for grace of

person, and in dignity of carriage excelling all.
The lords and ladies of the city seeing them, were
rilled with joy; 1384
Those who were walking stood still, those before
waited, those behind hastened on. Now the Tfo'shi

Kapila amongst all his numerous disciples 1385

This garden, called the Kara</a Vewuvana, was a favourite resi-
dence of Buddha. For an account of it, see Spence Hardy, Manual
of Buddhism, p. 194. It was situated between the old city of Ra^a-
grzha and the new city, about three hundred yards to the north of
the former (see Fa-hien, chap, xxx, Beal's translation, p. 1 1 7 and
note 2).
Ku'an 'to rest awhile,'
I have translated it
might be supposed
to refer to the rest of the But doubtful whether
rainy season. it is

this ordinance was instituted so

All living things.
To establish and settle the brightness of the lamp of wisdom.
To establish the settlement of sages and saints.
He is sometimes called Dajabala Karyapa (Eitel, Handbook,
p. 158 b).

Had one of wide-spread fame, whose name was

6ariputra he, beholding the wonderful grace of

the Bhikshus, their composed mien and subdued

senses, 1386
Their dignified walk and carriage, raising his

hands, enquiring, said Young in years, but pure :

and graceful in appearance, such as I before have

never seen, 1387
What law most excellent (have you obeyed) ?

and who your master that has taught you ? and

what the doctrine you have learned ? Tell me, I
pray you, and relieve my doubts.' 1388
Then of the Bhikshus, one 1 rejoicing at his ,

question, with pleasing air and gracious words, re-

plied :
The omniscient, born of the Ikshvaku
family, 1389
The very first one is
'midst gods and men, this

my great master. am
indeed but young, the sun

of wisdom has but just arisen, 1390

How can I then explain the master's doctrine ?

Its meaning is deep and very hard to understand,

but now, according to my poor capability (wisdom),
I will recount in brief the master's doctrine
1391 :

Whatever things exist all spring from cause,
the principles (cause) of birth and death (may be)
destroyed, the way is by the means he has de-
clared ."' 1392

In the Pali account of this incident A^va^it alone is represented

as begging his food; but here A svagit and Vashpa are joined according
to the later rule (as it would seem) which forbad one mendicant to
proceed alone through a town. (Compare Sacred Books of the East,
vol. xiii, p. 144.)
For the Southern version of this famous stanza, see Sacred
Books of the East, vol. xiii, p. 146; also Manual of Buddhism,

Then Upata (Upatishya), em-

the twice-born
bracing heartily what he had heard, put from him
all sense-pollution, and obtained the pure eyes of

the law. 1393

The former
explanations he had trusted, re-
specting cause and what was not the cause, that
there was nothing that was made, but was made by
tavara, 1394
All this, now that he had heard the rule of true

causation, understanding (penetrating) the wisdom

of the no -self, adding thereto the knowledge of
the minute (dust) troubles 1
which can never be
overcome in their completeness (completely de-
stroyed), 1395
But by the teaching of Tathagata, all this he now
for ever put away leaving no room for thought of ;

the thought of self will disappear 2

self, 1396 .

Who, when the brightness of the sun gives light,


would call for the dimness of the lamp ? for, like the
severing of the lotus, the stem once cut, the pods (?)
will also die ; 1397
So Buddha's teaching cutting off the stem of

sorrow, no seeds are left to grow or lead to further

increase/ Then bowing at the Bhikshu's feet, with
grateful mien, he wended homewards. 1 398
The Bhikshus after having begged their food,
likewise went back to the bamboo grove. .Sari-

p. 196. For a similar account from the Chinese, see Wong

Puh, 77.
The '
dust troubles
are the troubles caused by objects of sense,
as numerous as motes in a sunbeam.
2 '
Look upon the world as void, O Moghara^an, being always
thoughtful having destroyed the view of oneself (as really existing),

so one may overcome death ; the king of death will not see him
who thus regards the world,' Sutta Nipata, Fausboll, p. 208.

O 2

putra on his arrival home, (rested) with joyful face

and full of peace. 1 399
His friend the honoured Mugalin (Maudgalya-
yana), equally renowned for learning, seeing ,5ari-
putra in the distance his pleasing air and lightsome

step, 1400
Spoke thus :
As I now see thee, an
there is

unusual look I notice, your former nature seems

quite changed, the signs of happiness I now ob-
serve, 1401
'All indicate the possession of eternal truth, these
marks are not uncaused.' Answering he said The :

words of the Tathagata are such as never yet were

spoken;' 1402
And he declared (what he had
then, requested,
heard). Hearing the words and understanding them,
he too put off the world's defilement, and gained the
eyes of true religion, 1403
The reward of a long-planted virtuous cause ;

and, as one sees by a lamp that comes to hand, so

he obtained an unmoved faith in Buddha and now ;

they both set out for Buddha's presence, 1404

With a large crowd of followers, two hundred men
and fifty. Buddha seeing the two worthies 2 coming,
spoke thus to his disciples 1405 :

These two men who come shall be my two most


eminent followers, one unsurpassed for wisdom, the

other for powers miraculous ;' 1406
And then with Brahma's voice 3 , profound and
Then the paribba^aka Sariputta went to the place where the

paribba^aka Moggallana was/ Sacred Books of the East, vol. xiii,

p. 147.
The two ' ' '
bhadras,' i. e. sages/ or virtuous ones.'
3 '

(Brahmaghosha), for which, see Childers


Or, with Brahma-voice

sub voce.

sweet, he forthwith bade them 'Welcome!' Here

is the pure and peaceful law (he said) ;
here the end
of all discipleship ! 1
Their hands grasping the triple-staff ,
their twisted
hair holding the water-vessel hearing the words of ,

Buddha's welcome, they forthwith changed into com-

plete .SYama^as
1408 ;

The leaders two and all their followers, assuming

the complete appearance of Bhikshus, with prostrate

forms fell down at Buddha's feet, then rising, sat
beside him :
And with obedient heart listening to the word,
they all became Rahats. At this time there was a
twice-(born) sage , Klsyapa Shi-ming-teng (Eggi-
datta) (Agnidatta), 1410
Celebrated and perfect in person, rich in posses-
sions, and his wife most virtuous. But all this he

suppose, a mark of a
This triple (three-wonderful) staff is, I

Brahman student.

may also refer to some

Twisted hair holding the pitcher ;

custom among the Brahmans. Or the

line may be rendered, their
hair twistedand holding their pitchers/
This sudden transformation from the garb and appearance of
laymen into shorn and vested Bhikshus, is one often recounted in
Buddhist stories.
Or, saton one side (ekamantam).
This expression, which might also be rendered two religious

leaders (*rh sse), may also, by supplying the word sing,' be trans-

lated a twice-born sage/ i. e. a Brahman ;

and this appears more
apposite with what follows, and therefore I have adopted it. The
Brahman alluded to would then be called Kiryapa Agnidatta. The
story of Eggidatta is given by Bigandet (Legend, p. 180, first
edition), but there is nothing said about his name Kajyapa.

(Handbook, sub voce Mahakajyapa) gives an explanation of the

name Ka-ryapa,
he who swallowed light;' but the literal translation
of the words in our text is, 'Klryapa giving in charity a bright


had left and become a hermit, seeking the way of

salvation. 1411
And now in the way by the To-tseu 1 tower he
suddenly encountered 6akya Muni, remarkable for
his dignified and illustrious appearance, as the em-
broidered flag of a Deva (temple) ; 1412
Respectfully and reverently approaching, with
head bowed down, he worshipped his feet, whilst he
Truly, honoured one, you are my teacher, and
said :

I am your follower, 1413

Much and long
been harassed with time have I

doubts, oh would that you would light the lamp


(of knowledge).' Buddha knowing that this twice-

(born) sage was heartily desirous of finding the best
mode of escape 3 1414 ,

With soft and pliant voice, he bade him come and

welcome. Hearing his bidding and his heart com-
plying, losing all listlessness of body or spirit, 1415
His soul embraced the terms of this most excel-
lent Quiet and calm, putting away
salvation .

defilement, the great merciful, as he alone knew

how, briefly explained the mode of this deliver-
ance, 1416
Exhibiting the secrets of his law, ending with

This 'many children' tower is perhaps the one at VaLrali alluded
to by Fa-hien, chap. xxv.
Here the phrase teng ming/ light of the lamp, seems to be a

play on the name ming teng/ bright lamp.

The method and way
in which a disciple (saddhiviharika) chooses a master (upag^Mya)
is explained, Sacred Books of the East, vol. xiii, p. 154.
Literally, '(had) a heart rejoicing in the most complete method
of salvation (moksha).'
Or, 'the mode of salvation explained by the most excellent

the four indestructible acquirements l

. The great
sage, everywhere celebrated, was called Maha Ka-
syapa, 1417
His original faith was that 'body and soul are
different,' but he had also held that they are the same,

that there was both I and a place 2 for I but now


he forever cast away his former faith, 1418

And considered only (the truth) that sorrow ' '


ever accumulating so (he argued) by removing


sorrow there will be 'no remains' (i.e. no subject

for suffering) obedience to the precepts and the

practice of discipline, though not themselves the

cause, yet he considered these the necessary mode
by which to find deliverance. 1419
With equal and impartial mind, he considered the
nature of sorrow, for evermore freed from a cleaving
heart. Whether we think 'this is,' or 'this is not'
(he thought), both tend to produce a listless (idle)
mode of life; 1420
But when with equal mind we see the truth, then
certainty is produced and no more doubt. If we rely
for support on wealth or form, then wild confusion
and concupiscence result, 1421
Inconstant and impure. But lust and covetous
desire removed, the heart of love and equal thoughts

produced, there can be then no enemies or friends

(variance), 1422
But the heart is pitiful and kindly disposed to all,
and thus is destroyed the power of anger and of
hate. Trusting to outward things and their rela-
tionships,then crowding thoughts of every kind
are gendered; 1423

1 2 '

^atu^-samyak-pradhana ? the place of/


Reflecting and crushing out confusing
thought, then lust for pleasure is destroyed. Though
born in the Arupa world (he saw) that there would
be a remnant of life still left 1424 ;

Unacquainted with the four right truths, he had

felt an eager longing for this deliverance, for the
quiet resulting from the absence of all thought.
And now putting away for ever covetous desire
for such a formless state of being, 1425
His restless heart was agitated still, as the stream
is excited by the rude wind. Then entering on
deep reflection in quiet he subdued his troubled
mind, 1426
And realised the truth of there being no self,'

and that therefore birth and death are no realities ;

but beyond this point he rose not, his thought of

'self destroyed, all else was lost. 1427
But now the lamp of wisdom lit, the gloom of
every doubt dispersed, he saw an end to that which
seemed without an end ignorance finally dis-

pelled, 1428
He considered the ten points of excellence the ;

ten seeds of sorrow destroyed, he came once

more to life, and what he ought to do, he did.
And now regarding with reverence the face of his
lord, 1429
He put away the three
and gained the three 2 ;

so were there three disciples in addition to the

The three poisons, lust, hatred, ignorance.
The three treasures (triratna), Buddha, the law, the com-
The three disciples, as it seems, were -Sariputra, Maudgalyayana,
and Agnidatta (Ka^yapa).

three 1
and as the three stars range around the
Trayastriwsas heaven, 1430
Waiting upon the three and five ,
so the three
wait on Buddha. 1431


At this time there was a great householder 5 whose
name was 'Friend of the Orphan and Destitute;' he
was very and of unbounded means, and widely
charitable in helping the poor and needy. 1432
Now this man coming far away from the north,
even from the country of Ko^ala 6 stopped at the ,

house of a friend whose name was Sheu-lo 7 (in

Ra^-agrzha). 1433
Hearing that Buddha was in the world and dwell-

In addition to the three brothers (the Kajyapas).
The allusion here is obscure ; there may be a misprint in the
3 <
Literally, he converts/ &c.
Thisthe Chinese explanation of the name of Anathapi^/ada

(or Anathapiwc/ika), the protector or supporter of the destitute.'

He is otherwise called Sudatta (see Jul. II, 294).
The Chinese

simply ta &mg k&j but this is evidently the


equivalent of Maha-se/Mi,' a term applied emphatically to Anatha-

piwdada (see Rhys Davids, Sacred Books of the East, vol. xiii,
p. 102, note 2). Where I have translated it 'nobleman,' the word
'treasurer' might be substituted; the term 'elder' cannot be
allowed. Yasa the son of a se/Mi is called by Rh. D. a

youth (op. cit., p. 102, 7).


That is, Uttara Kosala (Northern Kosala), the capital of which

was -Sravasti.
Rhys Davids gives the name of one of the rich merchant's
daughters, A'ula-Subhadda (Birth Stories, p. 131); perhaps his
friend at Ra^agnha was called Sula or A"ula (see also Manual of
Buddhism, p. 219).

ing in the bamboo grove near at hand, understanding

moreover his renown and illustrious qualities,he set
out that very night for the grove. 1434

Tathagata, well aware of his character, and that

he was prepared to bring forth purity and faith 2 ,

according the case, called him by his true 3


(name), and for his sake addressed him in words of

religion: 1435

Having rejoiced in the true law and being ,

desirous for a pure and believing heart,
thou hast overcome desire for sleep, and art here to
pay me reverence ; 1436
Now then will I
your sake discharge fully the
duties of a first meeting In your former births

the root of virtue planted firm in pure and rare

expectancy 1437 ,

Hearing now the name of Buddha, you rejoiced


because you are a vessel fit for righteousness, humble

Thestatements that he came 'by night/ and that Buddha
called him by his name or, as the Chinese might be translated,
called him true' (? guileless) appear as though borrowed from the

Gospel narrative. Nicodemus was rich, and Nathaniel (Bartholo-

mew) preached in India (Euseb. Lib. v. cap. 10). He is said to
have carried the Gospel of St. Matthew there, where it was dis-

covered by Pantaenus.
That is, that he was ripe for conversion.
The name by which he was called, according to Spence
Hardy (Manual of Buddhism, p. 217), was Sudatta.
That is, because you have rejoiced. The true law is the
' ' '

same as

religious truth.'
5 '
Literally, pure and truthful of heart, with meekness thirsting
(after knowledge).'
The meaning is, as we have now met for the first time, I will

explain my doctrine (preach) in a formal (polite) way.

That is, your merit in former births has caused you to reap
a reward in your present condition.

in mind, but large in gracious deeds, abundant in

your charity to the poor and helpless 1438
The name you
possess wide spread and famous,
(this is) the just reward (fruit) of former merit. The
deeds you now perform are done of charity, done
with the fullest purpose and of single heart. 1439
Now, therefore, take from me 1 the charity of

perfect rest (Nirvana), and for this end accept my

rules of purity. rules 2 are full of grace, able to
rescue from destruction (evil ways of birth), 1440
And cause a man to ascend to heaven and share

in all its pleasures. But yet to seek for these

(pleasures) is a great evil, for lustful longing in its

increase brings much sorrow. 1441

' " 3
Practise then
giving up the
all art of
search, for giving up" desire is the joy of per-
fect rest (Nirvana) 4 Know 5 then! that age, dis-

The construction here is difficult. There seems to be a play
on the word * shi,' religious charity the sense is, that as Anatha-

pi*z</ada was remarkable for his liberality now, he should be liberally

rewarded by gaining a knowledge of salvation (Nirva/za).
Instead of 'my rules/ it would be better to understand the
word in an indefinite sense as 'rules of morality' (sila).
'Giving up/ that is, putting away all desire and giving up
'self/ even in relation to future reward; compare the hymn of
S. Francis Xavier,
O Deus, ego amo Te
Nee amo Te ut salves me/ etc.
And again,
Non ut in coelo salves me
Nee praemii ullius spe.'
This definition of Nirvawa, as a condition of perfect rest result-
ing from 'giving up' desire, is in agreement with the remarks of
Mr. Rhys Davids and others, who describe Nirvawa as resulting
from the absence of a '

grasping disposition.
It would seem, from the context, that the word '
& '

(know), in
this line, is a mistake for sing/ birth.

ease, and death, these are the great sorrows of the

world. 1442
Rightly considering the world, we put away birth

and old age, disease and death (but now) because ;

we see that men at large inherit sorrow caused by

age, disease, and death, 1443
'(We gather that) when born heaven, the case
is also thus ;
for there is no continuance there for
any, and where there is no continuance there is
sorrow, and having sorrow there is no true
self." 1444
" "
And if the state of no continuance and of
sorrow opposed to
is "self," what room is there for
such idea or ground for "self 1 ?" Know then that !

"sorrow" is this very sorrow (viz. of knowledge),

and its repetition is "accumulation 2 ;" 1445
3 4
Destroy this sorrow and there is joy, the way is

in the calm and quiet place. The restless busy nature

of the world, this I declare is at the root of pain. 1446
Stop then the end by choking up the source

The argument is, that there can be no personal self, in other
words, no
soul,' where there is no continuance, or power of inde-
pendent existence. This is one of the principles of Buddhism,
viz. that what has had a beginning must come to an end the ;

soul/ therefore, as it
began with the birth of the individual, must
If we put this
die (and as the Buddhists said) with the individual.
into modern phraseology, it will be something like this, the very
nature of phenomena demonstrates that they must have had a be-

ginning, and that they must have an end' (Huxley, Lay Sermons,
p. 17).
The sorrow of 'accumulation' is the second of the 'four
truths' (according to Northern accounts).
Destruction' is the third great truth.
The 'way' is the fourth truth.
The sentiment here enunciated is repeated, under various
forms, in Dhammapada ;
the first paragraph in the Sutra of Forty-
two Sections, also, exhibits the same truth.

Desire not either (bhava) or its opposite the

life ;

raging fire of birth, old age, and death burns up the

world on every side. 1447
(unrest) of birth and

Seeing the constant toil

death we ought to strive to attain a passive state

(no-thought), the final goal of Sammata 1
the place
of immortality and rest. 1448
" "
'Allempty! neither self," nor place for self,"

but all the world is like a phantasy this is the way ;

to regard ourselves, as but a heap of composite

qualities (sawskara).' 1449

The nobleman hearing the spoken law forthwith
attained the first degree of holiness, he emptied,
as it were, the sea of birth and death, one drop 4
alone remaining. 1450
By from men, the banishment
practising, apart
of all desire he soon attained the one impersonal

Sammata or Sammati seems to be the same as Samatha in
Pali (concerning which, see Childers, Pali Diet, sub voce). The
Chinese expression ' yih sin (one heart) is generally equivalent
to sammata/ ecstatic union. It cannot here be rendered by
place of sweet dew (amma).

That is, of a Srotapanna. Spence Hardy, in his Manual of
Buddhism, p. 218, also says that Anathapiw^/ada entered the first
path after hearing the sermon ; but in his account the sermon con-
sisted of two stanzas only, He who is free from evil desire attains

the highest estate and always in prosperity.

is He who cuts off
demerit, who subdues the
attains mind and
a state of perfect equa-
nimity, secures Nirvawa; this is his prosperity.' In this account
* ' ' '
the idea of prosperity is the same as the charity of Nirvana in
our version.
This appears to allude to the circumstance that at the dedica-
tion of the Vihara Anathapi</ada arrived at the third degree of
holiness, after which there was but one birth (drop) more to expe-
rience before reaching Nirvawa (Manual of Buddhism, p. 220).

condition, not
as common folk do now-a-day who
speculate upon the mode of true deliverance 1451 ;

For he who does not banish sorrow-causing

sawskaras does but involve himself in every kind
of question and though he reaches to the
form of being, yet grasps not the one and only
truth; 1452
Erroneous thoughts as to the joy of heaven are
still entwined
by the fast cords of lust
The noble- .

man attending to the spoken law the cloud of dark-

ness opened before the shining splendour; 1453
Thus he attained true sight, erroneous views for
ever dissipated even as the furious winds of autumn

sway to and fro and scatter all the heaped-up

clouds. 1454
He argued 3 not that tsvara was cause, nor did he
advocate some cause heretical, nor yet again did he
affirm there was no cause for the
beginning of the
world. 1455
world was made by f svara deva 4 there
If the ,

should be neither young nor old, first nor after, nor

the five ways of birth (transmigration) and when ;

once born there should be no destruction. 1456

Nor should
there be such thing as sorrow or

calamity, nor doing wrong nor doing right for all, ;

These lines appear to be by way of reflection.
2 ' ' '
Lust in the sense of appetite.'
Here follows a long dissertation on the subject of the maker ' *

of the world. The theories refuted are (i) that Iwara is maker,

(2) that self-nature is the cause, (3) that time is the maker, (4) that
self (in the sense of universal self) is the cause, (5) that there is

no cause.
Here I begin with inverted commas, as if the discourse were
either spoken by Buddha or interpolated by A-yvaghosha.

both pure and impure deeds, these must come from

I^vara deva. 1457
'Again, I^vara deva made the world there

should be never question (doubt) about the fact,

even as a son born of his father ever confesses him
and pays him reverence. 1458
Men when
pressed by sore calamity ought not
(if I rvara be creator) to rebel against him, but rather
reverence him completely, as the self-existent. Nor
ought they to adore more gods than one (other
spirits). 1459

Again, if tsvara be the maker he should not be

called the self-existent *, because in that he is the
maker now he always should have been the maker
(ever making). 1460
'But if ever making, then ever self-remembering 2 ,

and therefore not the self-existent one. And if he

made without a mind (purpose) then is he like the

sucking child; 1461

he made having an (ever prompting) pur-
But if

pose, then is he not, with such a purpose, self-

existent. Sorrow and joy spring up in all that lives,
these at least are not the works of Isvara 1462 ;

For if he causes grief 3 and joy, he must himself


1 '
In the sense of existing in himself or independently. How
entirely Northern Buddhism changed its character shortly after
Ajvaghosha's time, is evident from the fact that Avalokite-rvara,

god who down sense of protector), became an

the looks (in the
object of almost universal worship, and was afterwards regarded
as the creating god.
2 *
That is, ever purposing '
to make, and so not complete in
'This question, " unde malum
et quare," was the question
that of old met the thoughtful at every turn. And it has always

have love (preference) and hate but if he loves ;

unduly, or has hatred, he cannot properly be named

the self-existent. 1463
if Isvara be the maker,
all living things

should silently submit, patient beneath the maker's

power, and then what use to practise virtue? 1464
''Twere equal, then, the doing right or wrong,
there should be no reward of works the works ;

themselves being his making, then all things are the

same with him, the maker. 1465
But if all things are one with him, then our

deeds, and we who do them, are also self-existent.

But if t^vara be uncreated, then all things (being
one with him) are uncreated. 1466
But if you say there is another cause beside him

as creator, then Isvara is not the "end of all" (I^vara,

who ought to be inexhaustible, is not so), and there-
fore all that lives may after all be uncreated (without
a maker). 1467

Thus, you see, the thought of Isvara is over-

thrown in this discussion (^astra); and all such
contradictory assertions should be exposed ;
if not,
the blame is ours 1 1468 .

'Again, if it be said self-nature 2 is the maker, this

done so. Many of the arguments used in the text may be found
' '
in works treating on the subject of evil and its origin.
So the passage must be translated but if so, it would appear,

as before stated, that this discourse on the maker is introduced


here parenthetically by Ajvaghosha, not as spoken by Buddha.

No doubt the theories and their confutations were such as pre-
vailed in his day.
By self-nature, or, original nature, is evidently meant 'sva-
bhava/ The theory of such a cause had evidently gained ground
at this time in the North, although it seems unknown amongst

is as faulty as the first assertion ;

nor has either of
the Hetuvidya 1 jastras asserted such a thing as this,
till 1469 now.
That which depends on nothing cannot as a cause

make that which is but all things round us come ;

from a cause, as the plant comes from the seed 1470 ;

We cannot therefore say that all things are pro-


duced by self-nature. Again, all things which exist

(are made) spring not from one (nature) as a
cause; 1471
yet you say self-nature is but one, it cannot
then be cause of all. If you say that that self-nature
pervades and fills all
places, 1472
'If it
pervades and fills all things, then certainly it

cannot make them

would be nothing,
too ;
for there

then, to make, and therefore this cannot be the

cause. 1473
again, it fills all places and yet makes all


things that exist, then it should throughout "all

time have made for ever that which is. 1474
you say it made things thus, then there is
But if
nothing to be made in time ;" know then for cer-

tain self-nature cannot be the cause of all. 1475


Again, they say that that self-nature excludes all

Southern Buddhists. Nagasena wrote a Sastra ('

of one jloka ')

disprove it.
usual Chinese expression for * hetuvidya 'is 'in ming ;

here the phrase is ming in ; but I suppose this to be either an

error, or equivalent with the other. The Hetuvidya jastra is a

treatise on the '

explanation of causes.
The argument seems to be that self-nature must have made
allthings from the first as they are ; there is no room therefore for
further creation, but things are still made, therefore self-nature
cannot be the cause.

(modifications), therefore all things made

gu;zas by
ought likewise to be free from gu/zas. 1476
But we see, in fact, that all things in the world
are fettered throughout by gu^as, therefore, again,
we say that self-nature cannot be the cause of
all. 1477

If, again, you say that that self-nature is dif-

ferent from such qualities (gu^as), (we answer),

since self-nature must have ever caused, it cannot
differ in its nature (from itself) 1478 ;

But if the world (all living things) be different


from these qualities (gu^as), then self-nature cannot

be the cause. Again, if self-nature be unchangeable,
so things should also be without decay 1479 ;

If we regard self-nature as the cause, then cause
and consequence of reason should be one but be- ;

cause we see decay in all things, we know that they

at least are caused. 1480

Again, if self-nature be the cause, why should we


seek to find "escape?" for we ourselves possess this

nature patient then should we endure both birth

and death. 1481

For let us take the case that one may

find "es-

cape," self-nature still will re-construct the evil of

If self-nature in itself be blind,
yet 'tis the
maker of the world that sees. 1482
this account again it cannot be the maker,
because, in this case, cause and effectwould differ in
their character, but in all the world around us, cause
and effect go hand in hand. 1483
'Again, if self-nature have no purpose 2 (aim), it

That is, that it is
nirguwa, devoid of qualities.
2 '
No purpose
no heart ;
if we take the two powers of soul

cannot cause that which has such purpose. We know

on seeing smoke there must be fire, and cause and
result are ever classed together thus. 1484

are forbidden, then, to say an unthinking
cause can make a thing that has intelligence. The
gold of which the cup is made is gold throughout
from first to last. 1485
Self-nature then that makes these things from
first to last must permeate all it makes. Once more,
if "time" is maker of the world, 'twere needless then
to seek escape," 1486
" "
For constant and unchangeable, let us
time is
in patience bear the intervals" of time. The world
in its successions has no limits, the "intervals" of
time are boundless also. 1487
Those then who practise a religious life need

" " "

not rely on methods or expedients." The To-lo-
piu Kiu-na (Tripuna gu^a sistra?), the one strange
.Sastra in the world, 1488

Although it has so many theories (utterings), yet

still, be it known, it is opposed to any single cause.
But if, again, you say that " self 2 is maker, then
surely self should make things pleasingly, 1489
But now things are not pleasing for oneself, how

then is it said that self is maker ? But if he did not

wish to make things so, then he who wishes for
things pleasing, is opposed to self, the maker. 1490


(according to the scholastic method) to be a vis cognitiva and


a vis effectiva,' the expression in the text appears to correspond
with the latter.
do not know any other way of restoring these symbols than
the one I have used. But what is the Tripuna guwa jastra ?
'Self in the sense of a 'universal cause* co-extensive with the
things made.
P 2

'Sorrow and joy are not self-existing, how can

these bemade by " self?" But if we allow that self
was maker, there should not be, at least, an evil
karman 1
; 1491
But yet our deeds produce results both good and
evil, know then that "self" cannot be maker. But
perhaps you say self" is the maker according to
occasion (time), and then the occasion ought to be
for good alone; 1492
But as good and evil both result from " cause,"
it cannot be that self" has made it so. But if you
adopt the argument there is no maker then it is

useless practising expedients 3 1493 ;

'All things are fixed and certain of themselves,

what good to try to make them otherwise ? Deeds of
every kind, done in the world, do, notwithstanding,
bring forth every kind of fruit 1494 ;

Therefore we argue all things that exist are not


without some cause or other. There is both "mind"

and "want of mind," all things come from fixed
causation ; 1495
The world and all therein is not the result of
"nothing" as a cause/ The nobleman 4 (house-
holder), his heart receiving light, perceived through-
out the most excellent system of truth, 1496
Simple, and of wisdom born ;
thus firmly settled

There should not be works producing birth in one of the evil

I do not understand the point here ; literally the passage is

' '

ing self according to time makes the Chinese ts'ui shi means '

' * '
whenever convenient,' or at a good time so that the passage ;

may mean but if


you say that self creates only when so prompted

by itself/
That is, using means for salvation or escape from sorrow.
Here the narrative seems to take up the thread dropped at v. 145 1,

in the true doctrine he lowly bent in worship at the

feet of Buddha and with closed hands made his

request: 1497
I dwell indeed at .Sravasti (Savatthi) a land rich ,

in produce, and enjoying peace ; Prasena^it (Pasenit)
is the great king thereof, the offspring of the "lion"

family 1498 ;

His high renown and fame spread everywhere,


reverenced by all both far and near. Now am I

wishful there to found a Vih&ra, I pray you of your
tenderness accept it from me. 1499
1 know the heart of Buddha has no preferences,

nor does he seek a resting-place from labour, but on

behalf of all that lives refuse not
my request/ 1500
Buddha, knowing the householder's heart, that his
great charity was now the moving cause, untainted
and unselfish charity, nobly considerate of the heart
of all that lives 1501

(He said),
Now you have seen the true doctrine,
your guileless heart loves to exercise its charity, for
wealth and money are inconstant treasures, 'twere
better quickly to bestow such things on others. 1502
For when a treasury has been burnt, whatever
precious things may have escaped the fire, the wise

She-po-ti; evidently a Pali or Prakrit form of the Sanskrit
Sravasti. The Chinese explanation of this name is (as found in
country of abundance/
the next line) a It has been identified by
General Cunningham with Sahet Manet.
Po-sze-nih, i.e. Prasena^it (victorious army). With respect to

this king, we know from Hiouen Thsang (Jul. II, 317) that
he did
not belong to the Sakya race, but he became a convert to Bud-
dhism. His son Viru^aka massacred a number of the Sakyas,
and the ground was covered with their dead bodies as with pieces
of straw' (Jul. II, 317). The king
is here described as belonging

to the Sitfzha raceprobably he was;

a Scyth, of the same family as
the Va^is, one tribe of whom was called the 'lion' tribe.

man, knowing their inconstancy, gives freely, doing

acts of kindness with his saved possessions. 1
But the niggard guards them carefully, fearing to
lose them, worn by anxiety, but never fearing (worst
of all!) inconstancy 1 ," and that accumulated sorrow,
when he loses all 1 504 !

There is a proper time and a proper mode in
charity, just as the vigorous warrior goes to battle,
so is the man able to give," he also is an able
warrior; a champion strong and wise in action. 1505
The charitable man is loved by all, well-known
and far-renowned his friendship prized by the gentle

and the good, in death his heart at rest and full of

joy! 1506
He suffersno repentance, no tormenting fear,
nor is he born a wretched ghost or demon this is !

the opening flower of his reward, the fruit that

follows- hard to conjecture !
'In all the six conditions born there is no sweet
companion like pure charity if born a Deva or a ;

man, then charity brings worship and renown on

every hand; 1508
born among the lower creatures (beasts), the
result of charity will follow in contentment got;
wisdom leads the way to fixed composure without
dependence and without number
1509 .

And if we even reach the immortal path, still by
continuous acts of charity we fulfil ourselves in

1 ' *

Inconstancy,' or death.'
This a singular expression, implying that the character of a

good man's final condition is difficult to describe: 'it has not

entered the heart.'
These two lines appear to be irrelevant ; nor do I understand
the last '
phrase without number,' in its connection with the context.

consequence kindly chanty done elsewhere.

Training ourselves in the eightfold path of recol-
lection, 1510
with joy, firm
In every thought the heart is filled

fixed in holy contemplation (samadhi), by meditation

still we add to wisdom, able to see aright (the cause

of) birth and death ; 1511


aright the cause of these, then

Having beheld
follows in due order perfect deliverance. The chari-
table man discarding earthly wealth, nobly excludes
the power of covetous desire 1512 ;


Loving and compassionate now, he gives with

reverence and banishes all hatred, envy, anger. So
plainly may we see the fruit of charity, putting away
all covetous and unbelieving ways, 1513
The bands of sorrow all destroyed, this is the
fruit of kindly charity. Know then the charitable !

man has found the cause of final rescue 1514 ;

Even '
man who
plants the sapling, thereby
as the
secures the shade, the flowers, the fruit (of the tree
full grown) the result of charity is even so, its

reward is
joy and the great Nirvana. 1515
The charity which unstores
wealth leads to
returns of well-stored Giving away our food fruit.

we get more strength, giving away our clothes we

get more beauty, 1516

Founding religious rest-places (pure abodes) we

The eight recollections (nim) ; doubtless these are the eight

samapattis (attainments or endowments), concerning which we


may consult Childers' Pali Diet., sub samapatti.'
That is, which does not store up wealth, but unstores it to give
away. There seems to be here a tacit allusion to Sudatta's wealth,
which he unstored and gave in charity by purchasing the garden of
That is,Viharas.

reap the perfect fruit of the best charity. There is

a way of giving, seeking pleasure by it there is a ;

way of giving, coveting to get more 1517 ;

Some also give away to get a name for charity,


others to get the happiness of heaven, others to

avoid the pain of being poor (hereafter), but yours,
O friend! is a charity without such thoughts, 1518
The highest and the best degree of charity with-

out self-interest or thought of getting more. What

your heart inclines you now to do, let it be quickly
done and well completed 1519 !

uncertain and the lustful heart goes wan-
dering here and there, but the pure eyes (of virtue)
opening, the heart comes back and rests !' The

nobleman accepting Buddha's teaching, his kindly

heart receiving yet more light, 1520
invited Upatishya 2 his excellent friend, to ,

accompany him on his return to Ko^ala and then ;

going round to select a pleasant site, 1521

saw the garden of the heir-apparent, reta, the
groves and limpid streams most pure. Proceeding
where the prince was dwelling, he asked for leave to
buy the ground 1522 ;

prince, because he valued it so much, at first
was not inclined to sell, but said at last 'If you can :

cover it with gold then, but not else, you may

possess it / 1523
These two lines are probably proverbial, something of this
kind, 'the uncertain,amorous mind is profligate (wandering), the
enlightened man comes to himself.'
Upatissa is the same as Sariputra. Hiouen Thsang (Jul. II,

296) says that Buddha sent *Sariputra with Sudatta, to advise and
counsel him.
The famous contract between Sudatta and Geta, the heir-appa-
rent, is well known, and may be read in all the translations of the

The nobleman,
his heart rejoicing, forthwith began
to spread his gold. Then
eta said I will not :
why then spread you your gold ?' 1524
The nobleman replied,
Not give ; why then said

you, "Fill it with yellow gold?'" And

thus they
differed and contended both, till
they resorted to the
magistrate. 1525
Meanwhile the people whispered much about his
unwonted 1 (charity), and (^eta too, knowing the man's
sincerity, asked more about the matter what his :

reasons were. On his reply,

I wish to found a
Vihara, 1526
'And offer it to the Tathagata and all his Bhikshu
followers,' the prince, hearing the name of Buddha,
received at once illumination, 1527
And only took one half the gold, desiring to share
in the foundation Yours is the land (he said), but

mine the trees these will I give to Buddha as my


share in the offering.' 1528

Then the noble took the land, eta the trees, and
settled both in trust on ,5ariputra. Then they began
to build the hall, labouring night and day to finish
it; 1529
Lofty it rose and choicely decorated, as one of the
four kings' palaces, in just proportions, following the

lives of Buddha. There

a representation of the proceeding in

plate (Bharhut Stupa). I may observe here that the figure


immediately in front (by the side of Geta, the prince, who is

apparently giving away the trees, whilst Sudatta below him is giving
the land), whistling with thumb and forefinger, and waving the
robe,is typical of a number of others in these
sculptures similarly
engaged (see e.g. plate xiii [outer face]).
1 '

Or, the unwonted circumstance ; or, the

unusual character
of Sudatta.

which Buddha had declared the right

ones; 1530
Never yet so great a miracle as this ! the priests
shone in the streets of .Sravasti !
Tathagata, seeing
the divine shelter, with all his holy ones resorted
to the place to rest 1 1531 ;

No followers there to bow in prostrate service,

his followers rich in wisdom only. The nobleman
reaping his reward, at the end of life ascended up
to heaven, 1532

Leaving to sons and grandsons a good founda-

tion, through successive generations, to plough the
field of merit. 1533


Buddha in the Magadha country (employing him-

self in) converting all kinds of unbelievers 2 (heretics),
entirelychanged them by the one and self-same law
he preached, even as the sun drowns with its bright-
ness all the stars. 1534
Then 4
leaving the city of the five mountains with
the company of his thousand disciples, and with a

The expression
to rest

may also mean to observe the rainy


season rest/ if the ordinance of Wass had been enacted at this

2 '
I tau,' different persuasions. It was during Buddha's stay
near Ra^agr/ha that different rules for the direction of the ' Order
were framed. See Romantic Legend, p. 340 seq. There is no
reference in our text to the stately march of Buddha to Kapila-
vastu, or of the different messages sent to him, as related by
Bigandet, p. 160, and in Hardy's Manual of Buddhism, pp. 198,
199, also Romantic Legendj p. 349.
3 '
Yih-mi-fa, one-taste law.'
That is, Rag-agr/ha ;
the city surrounded by five mountains.

great multitude who went before and came after him,

he advanced towards the Ni-kin mountain, 1535
Near Kapilavastu and there he conceived in

himself a generous purpose to prepare an offering

according to his religious doctrine to present to
his father, the king. 1536
And now in anticipation of his coming the royal
teacher (purohita) and the chief minister had sent
forth certain officers and their attendants to observe
on the right hand and the left (what was taking
place) and they soon espied him (Buddha) as he

advanced or halted on the way. 1537

Knowing that Buddha was now returning to his
country they hastened back and quickly announced
the tidings, 'The prince who wandered forth afar to
obtain enlightenment, having fulfilled his aim, is now
coming back/ 1538
king hearing the news was greatly rejoiced,
and forthwith went out with his gaudy equipage to
meet (his son) and the whole body of gentry (sse)

belonging to the country, went forth with him in his

company. 1539
Gradually advancing he beheld Buddha from afar,
his marks of beauty sparkling with splendour two-

This may be the Nyagrodha garden alluded to by Spence Hardy,
Manual of Buddhism, p. 200, and also in the Romantic Legend,
p. 350. The symbols ni-kin, however, seem to have some other
equivalent, such as Nigantha.
This of course means 'a religious offering,' or 'service of
religion/ i. e. agreeable to religion.
There is no reference here to their conversion as in the
Southern accounts. The account in the Manual of Buddhism,
p. 200, of the king's preparation to meet his son, bears the appear-
ance of a late date, and in exaggeration surpasses all we find in
the Northern books.

fold greater than of yore; placed in the middle of

the great congregation he seemed to be even as
Brahma 1540
Descending from his chariot and advancing with

dignity, (the king) was anxious lest there should be

any religious difficulty (in the way of instant

recognition) ;
and now
beholding his beauty he
inwardly rejoiced, but his mouth found no words to
utter. 1541
He reflected, too, how that he
dwelling was still

among the unconverted throng, whilst his son had

advanced and become a saint (^z'shi) and although ;

he was his son, yet as he now occupied the position

of a religious lord 2 he knew not by what name to

address him. 1542

Furthermore he thought with himself how he had
long ago desired earnestly (this interview), which
now had happened unawares 3 (without arrangement).
Meantime his son in silence took a seat, perfectly

composed and with unchanged countenance. 1543

Thus for some time sitting opposite each other,
with no expression of feeling (the king reflected
How desolate and sad does he now make

my heart, as that of a man, who, fainting, longs for

water, upon the road espies a fountain pure and
cold; 1544
'With haste he speeds towards it and longs to

That is, whether religion required a greeting first from him,
the father.
An Arhat or distinguished saint.
Without any summons.
I supply this (as in many other cases); in the text we are

without direction when and where to bring in these explanatory


drink, when suddenly the spring dries up and dis-

appears. Thus, now I see

my son, his well-known
features as of old ;
1 545
But how estranged his heart and how his man-

ner high and lifted up There are no grateful !

outflowings of soul, his feelings seem unwilling to

express themselves cold and vacant (there he sits)
; ;

and like a thirsty man before a dried-up fountain (so

am I).' 1546
distant thus (they sat), with crowding thoughts

rushing through the mind, their eyes full met,

but no responding joy each looking at the other, ;

seemed as one who thinking of a distant friend,

gazes by accident upon his pictured form 1547 .

'That you' (the king reflected) 'who of right

might rule the world, even as that Mandhatrz ra^a,
should now go begging here and there your food !

what joy or charm has such a life as this ? 1548

Composed and firm as Sumeru with marks of
' 2

beauty bright as the sunlight, with dignity of step

like the ox king, fearless as any lion, 1 549
'And yet receiving not the tribute of the world,
but begging food your body's nourish-
sufficient for
ment !' Buddha, knowing his father's mind, still
kept to his own filial purpose. 1550
And then to open out his 3 mind, and moved with
This translation is doubtful ;
there is some question as to the
correct reading.
Buddha is often called '
the golden mountain/ and in this par-
ticular, as in many others, there is in Buddhism a marked resem-

blance with traditions known among primitive races; Bel, for

example, is called the great mountain/
That is, as I understand it, to move his father's mind. It may
be understood, however, in the sense of carrying out his own

pity for the multitude of people, by his miraculous

power he rose in mid-air, and with his hands
(appeared) to grasp the sun and moon 1
Then he walked to and fro in space, and under-
went kinds of transformation, dividing his body

into many parts, then joining all in one again. 1552

Treading firm on water as on dry land, entering
the earth as in the water, passing through walls of
stone without impediment, from the right side and
the left water and fire produced
king, his father, filled with joy, now dismissed
all thought of son and father 3 then upon a lotus ;

throne, seated in space, he (Buddha) for his father's

sake declared the law. 1554
that the king's heart (is full of) love and

recollection, and that for his son's sake he adds

grief to grief; but now let the bands of love that

bind him, thinking of his son, be instantly unloosed
and utterly destroyed. 1555

Ceasing from thoughts of love, let your calmed

mind receive from me, your son, religious nourish-
ment such as no son has offered yet to father, such

do present to you the king, my father. 1556


'And what no father yet has from a son received,

now from your son you may accept, a gift miracu-
lous for any mortal king to enjoy, and seldom had

by any heavenly king !

The way superlative of life immortal 4
Here we have an account of the grotesque miracles that dis-

tinguish this part of the narrative in all Northern Buddhist books ;

see Romantic Legend, p. 352.
This is probably the twin-miracle (yamaka-pa7ihariya) referred
to by Mr. Rhys Davids, Birth Stories, p. 105 n.
That is, of the relative duties of father and son.
4 {
This phrase, the way of sweet dew,' I can only restore to

dew) I offer now the Mah^r^ia; from accumulated

deeds comes birth, and as the result of deeds comes
recompense; 1558
that deeds bring fruit, how dili-

Knowing then
gent should you be to rid yourself of worldly deeds !

how careful that in the world your deeds should

only good and gentle 1559 !


Fondly affected by relationship or firmly bound

by mutual ties of love, at end of life the soul (spirit)
goes forth alone, then, only our good deeds be-
friend us. 1560
'Whirled in the five ways of the wheel of life,
three kinds of deeds produce three kinds of birth 1 t

and these are caused by lustful hankering, each kind

different in its character. 1561
Deprive these of their power by the practice now

of (proper) deeds of body and of word by such right ;

preparation day and night strive to get rid of all

confusion of the mind and practise silent (con-
templation) ; 1562

Only this brings profit in the end, besides this

there is no reality; for be sure! the three worlds
are but as the froth and bubble of the sea. 1563
Would you have pleasure, or would you practise
that which brings it near ? then prepare yourself by

way of immortality;' of course it means 'immortality*

according to Buddhist ideas, that is, Nirvawa. Childers tells us
that 'Buddhaghosa says that Nirvawa is called amata, because not

being born it does not decay or die' (Pali Diet., sub amata m).
This definition of Nirvana is the usual one found in Chinese books,
that state which admits neither of birth nor death.'
Referring to the three inferior kinds of birth, as a beast, a
preta, or in hell.

deeds that bring the fourth birth 1 but (still) the :

five ways in the wheel of birth and death are like

the uncertain wanderings of the stars; 1564
For heavenly beings too must suffer change :

how shall we find with men (a hope of) constancy ;

Nirvana ! that is the chief rest ;composure that !

the best of all enjoyments! 1565

The five
indulgences (pleasures) enjoyed by
mortal kings are fraught with danger and distress,
like dwelling with a poisonous snake what
pleasure, ;

for a moment, can there be in such a case ? 1

The man
the world as compassed
wise sees
round with burning flames; he fears always, nor
can he rest till he has banished, once for all, birth,

age, and death. 1567

Infinitely quiet is the place where the wise man

finds his abode no need of arms (instruments) or


weapons there! no elephants or horses, chariots or

soldiers there! 1568
Subdued the power of covetous desire and angry

thoughts and ignorance, there's nothing left in the

wide world to conquer! Knowing what sorrow is,
he cuts away the cause of sorrow ; 1569
'This destroyed, by practising right means, rightly
enlightened in the four true principles he casts off ,

fear and escapes the evil ways of birth/ The king

when first he saw his wondrous spiritual power (of
miracle) rejoiced in heart; 1570
But now his feelings deeply affected by the joy
of (hearing) truth, he became a perfect vessel for

receiving true religion, and with clasped hands he

The 'fourth birth' would be as '
a man ;' but it
may refer here
to birth as '
a Deva/
That is, in the 'four truths/
breathed forth his praise Wonderful indeed the : !

fruit of your resolve (oath) 1 completed thus! 1571

Wonderful indeed the overwhelming sorrow !

passed away ! Wonderful indeed, this gain to me !

At first my sorrowing heart was heavy, but now my

sorrow has brought forth only profit 1572 !

Wonderful indeed for now, to-day, I reap the!

full fruit of a
begotten son. It was right he should

reject the choice pleasures of a monarch (conqueror);

it was he should so earnestly and with diligence
practise penance 1573 ;

'It was right he should cast off his family and kin;
it was
right he should cut off every feeling of love
and affection. The old &shi kings boasting of their
penance gained no merit 1 5 74 ;

'But you, living in a peaceful, quiet place, have

done all and completed all yourself at rest now you ;

give rest to others, moved by your mighty sympathy

(compassion) for all that lives! 1575

you had kept your first estate with men, and

as a A^akravartin monarch ruled the world, pos-

sessing then no self-depending power of miracle,

how could my soul have then received deli-
verance ? 1576
'Then there would have been no excellent law
declared, causing me such joy to-day no had ;
been a universal sovereign, the bonds of birth and
death would have been unsevered
still 1577 ;

But now you have escaped from birth and death;


the great pain of

transmigration overcome, you are
able, for the sake of every creature, widely to preach
the law of life immortal (sweet dew), 1578

That is, the oath to become enlightened and a deliverer.

L'9] Q

And to exhibit thus your power miraculous, and

(show) the deep and wide power of wisdom the ;

grief of birth and death eternally destroyed, you now

have above both gods and men. 1579
risen far
You might have kept the holy state of a A*akra-
vartin monarch but no such good as this would

have resulted.' Thus his words of praise con-

cluded, filled with increased reverence and religious
love, 1580
He who occupied the honoured place of a royal
father, bowed down respectfully and did obeisance.
Then all the people of the kingdom, beholding
Buddha's miraculous power, 1581
And having heard the deep and excellent law,
seeing, moreover, the king's grave reverence, with
clasped hands bowed down and worshipped. Pos-
sessed with deep portentous thoughts, 1582
Satiated with sorrows attached to lay-life, they all

conceived a wish to leave their homes 1

. The princes,
too, of the .5akya tribe, their minds enlightened to

perceive the perfect fruit of righteousness, 1583

Entirely satiated with the glittering joys of the
world, forsaking home, rejoiced to join his company
(become hermits). Ananda, Nanda, Kin-pi (Kim-
bila) Anuruddha, 1584

Nandupananda, with ICundadana. all these prin- ,

cipal nobles and others of the 6akya family, 1585

That is, to become mendicants, or religious followers of
The conversion of Nanda &c. is referred to in Spence Hardy's

Manual of Buddhism, p. 227. I have restored Kin-pi to Kimbila

from this authority, p. 228.Perhaps also in the Romantic Legend,
p. 386, ought to have been so restored.
.ffun-/a-to-na. I do not remember having met with this name
before. It may be meant for ^andaka, see Schiefner, Lebens-
beschreibung Sakyamuni's,' p, 366.

the teaching of Buddha became disciples
and accepted the law. sons of the great The
minister of state, Udayin being the chief, 1586
With all the royal princes following in order
became recluses. Moreover, the son of Atall, whose
name was Upali, 1587
Seeing all these princes and the sons of the chief
minister becoming hermits, his mind opening for
conversion, he, too, received the law of renuncia-
tion. 1588
The royal father seeing his son possessing the
great qualities of A'ddhi, himself entered on the
calm flowings (of thought), the gate of the true law
of eternal life. 1589
Leaving his kingly estate and country, lost in

meditation, he drank sweet dew. Practising (his re-

and contemplative
ligious duties) in solitude, silent
he dwelt a royal J?zshi. 1590
in his palace,
Tathagata following a peaceable life, recognised
fully by his tribe, repeating the joyful news of
religion,gladdened the hearts of all his kinsmen
hearing him. 1591
And now, it being the right time for begging
food, he entered the Kapila country (Kapilavastu) ;

in the city all the lords and ladies, in admiration,

raised this chant of praise :
Siddhartha !has come back
fully enlightened !

again!' The news

flying quickly in and out of
doors, the great and small came forth to see
him; 1593
Every door and every window crowded, climbing
on shoulders 2 bending down the eyes, they gazed

Or, living in peaceful prosecution of his work.
Or it

may be shoulder to shoulder.'

Q 2

upon the marks of beauty on his person, shining

and glorious! 1594
Wearing his Kashaya garment outside, the glory
of his person from within shone forth, like the sun's

perfect wheel ; within, without, he seemed one mass

of splendour V 1595
Those who beheld were filled with sympathising 2

joy ;
hands conjoined, they wept (for gladness)
their ;

and so they watched him as he paced with dignity

the road, his form collected, all his organs well-
controlled! 1596
His lovely body exhibiting the perfection 4 of reli-
gious beauty, his dignified compassion adding to their
regretful joy his shaven head, his personal beauty

sacrificed his body clad in dark and sombre vest-


ment, 1597
His manner natural and his unadorned
appearance ;
his circumspection as he looked upon
the earth in walking ! 'He who ought to have

had held over him the feather-shade (they said),

'whose hands should grasp "the reigns of the
flying dragon," 1598
See how he walks in daylight on the dusty road

holding his alms-dish, going to beg Gifted enough !

to tread down every enemy, lovely enough to

gladden woman's heart, 1599

The glory of his person within and without, together, like
a mass of light.
Compassion and joy.
That is, they wept for pity and for joy.
Manifesting religious uprightness or rectitude.
This appears to be a Chinese phrase, adapted perhaps from
some expression in the Sanskrit original signifying 'supreme

With and with godlike crown
glittering vesture
reverenced he might have been by servile crowds !

But now, his manly beauty hidden, with heart re-

strained, and outward form subdued, 1600

Rejecting the much-coveted and glorious apparel,

his shining body clad with garments grey, what

aim, what object, now! Hating the five delights

that move
the world, 1601

Forsaking virtuous wife and tender child, loving

the solitude, he wanders friendless hard, indeed, ;

for virtuous wife through the long night 1 cherishing ,

her grief; 1602

'And now to hear he is a hermit! She enquires
not now (so lost to life) of the royal .Suddhodana if
he has seen his son or not! 1603
But as she views his beauteous person, (to think)
his altered form is now a hermit's hating his home, !

still full of love ;

his father, too, what rest for him
(they say)! 1604
'And then his loving child Rihula, weeping with
constant sorrowful desire And now to see no

change, or heart-relenting ;
and this the end of such
enlightenment ! 1 605
'All these attractive marks, the proofs of a reli-

gious calling, whereas, when born, all said, these are

marks of a " great man," who ought to receive
tribute from the four seas! 1606
'And now to see what he has come to! all these
predictive words vain and illusive/ Thus they
talked together, the gossiping multitude, with con-
fused accents. 1607
Tathagata, his heart unaffected, felt no joy and

I. e. her life of widowhood.

no regret. But he was moved by equal love to all

the world, his one desire that men should escape the

grief of lust; 1608

cause the root of virtue to increase, and for
the sake of .coming ages, to leave the marks of
behind him, to dissipate the clouds and
self-denial 1
mists of sensual desire, 1609
He entered, thus intentioned, on the town to beg.
He accepted food both good or bad, whatever came,
from rich or poor, without distinction ; having filled

his alms-dish, he then returned back to the soli-

tude. 1610


lord of the world, having converted 2 the

people of Kapilavastu according to (their several)

circumstances 3
his work being done, he went with
the great body of his followers, 161 1

And directed his way to the country of Kosala,

where dwelt
king Prasena^it (Po-se-nih). The
etavana was now fully adorned, and its halls and
courts carefully prepared 1612 ;

Thefountains and streams flowed through the

garden which glittered with flowers and fruit rare ;

birds sat by the pools (water side), and on the land

Little desire.
The expression in the original is 'having opened for con-
It is not necessarily ' according to their circumstances,' but
may also be rendered ' according to circumstances/ or ' as the
occasion required.'

they sang in sweet concord, according to their

kind; 1613
Beautiful in every way as the palace of Mount Kilas

, (such was the
etavana.) Then the noble
friend of the orphans, surrounded by his attendants,
who met him on the way, 1614
Scattering flowers and burning incense, invited the
lord to enter the etavana. In his hand he carried
a golden dragon-pitcher 2 and bending low upon his

knees he poured the flowing water 1615

As a sign of the gift of the <7etavana Vihara for
the use of the priesthood throughout the world 3 .

The lord then received it, with the prayer 4 that


overruling all evil influences it

might give the king-
dom permanent rest, 1616
And that the happiness
of Anathapi/zdada might
flow out in countless streams/ Then the king
Prasena^it, hearing that the lord had come, 1617
With his royal equipage went to the etavana to
(Having arrived) and
worship at the lord's feet .

Mount Kailasa, the fabulous residence of Kuvera ;
the paradise

of Siva.
In the Barahut sculpture there is a figure carrying a pitcher in
the act of pouring out the water ; but the figure is not kneeling.
3 '
The four quarters/ that is, ' the world/
the 'devout incantation;' it has often been
'The prayer/
' '

questioned whether prayer is possible with Buddhists the ex- ;

pression in the Chinese is the same as that used for prayer in other

books; but it may of course denote sincere or earnest desire,

coming from the heart.

There are various representations of Prasena^t going to the
Getavana in the Barahut sculptures. In plate xiii (Cunningham's
Barahut) the Vihara is represented, the wheel denoting the sermon
which Buddha preached; the waving of garments and whistling
with fingers denoting the joy of the hearers.

taken a seat on one side, with clasped hands he

spake to Buddha thus: 1618
O unworthy and obscure kingdom
that my
should thus suddenly have met such fortune For !

how can misfortunes or frequent calamities possibly

affect it, (in the presence of) so great a man? 1619
'And now that I have seen your sacred features,
may perhaps partake of the converting streams of
your teaching. A
town although it is composed of
many sections yet both ignoble and holy persons

may enter the surpassing stream 1620 ;

'And so the wind which fans the perfumed grove

causes the scents to unite and form one pleasant
breeze and as the birds which collect on Mount

Sumeru (are many), and the various shades that

blend in shining gold, 1621
So an assembly may consist of persons of dif-
ferent capacities, individually insignificant, but a
glorious body. The desert master by nourishing
the jRishi, procured a birth as the san-tsuh (three
leg or foot) star ;

Worldly profit is fleeting and perishable, religious

(holy) profit is eternal and inexhaustible ;
a man
though a king is full of trouble, a common man, who
is holy, has
everlasting rest/ 1623

I cannot be sure of this translation ; yet I can suggest no other.

2 '
The victorious stream ;
this may refer to the Rapti, on the
banks of which -Sravasti was situated. The object of the allusion
is that as both rich and poor, noble and ignoble may enter the

stream of the river, so all may seek the benefit of the stream of
religious doctrine.
I am unable to explain the reference here; nor do I know
' '
what the three-footed star can be.

Buddha knowing the state of the king's heart,

that he rejoiced in religion as .Sakrara^a
con- ,

sidered the two obstacles that weighted him, viz.

too great love of money, and of external plea-
sures 2 1624 ;

Thenseizing the opportunity, and knowing the

tendencies of his heart, he began, for the king's sake,
to preach Even those who, by evil karman 3 have

been born low degree, when they see a person of

virtuous character, feel reverence for him; 1625
How much rather ought an independent 4 king,

who by his previous conditions of life has acquired

much merit, when he encounters Buddha, to con-
ceive even more reverence. Nor is it difficult to
understand, 1626
That a country should enjoy more rest and

peace, by the presence of Buddha, than if he were

not to dwell therein 5 . And now, as I
briefly declare
my law, let the Maharaja listen and weigh my
words, 1627
'And hold fast that which I deliver! See now
the end of my perfected merit
, my life is done,
General Cunningham (Barahut Stupa, plate xiii) has re-
marked that the Preaching Hall visited by Prasena^it resembles
in detail the Palace of the reference in the text seems
-Sakrarag-a ;

to allude to this.
Reference is often made in Buddhist books to the self-indulg-
ence of king Prasena^it. Compare section xxix of the Chinese

That is, in consequence of evil deeds.
This expression 'tsze tsai,' which I render 'independent/
means '

self-sufficient/- or '
self-existing ;
the reference is
to a lord paramount (samra^).
This exordium appears intended to take down the pride of
the king.
Buddha points to himself as having gained the end of all his

there is for me no further body or spirit, but freedom

from all ties of kith or kin ! 1628
The good or evil deeds we do from first to last

(beginning to end) follow us as shadows; most

exalted then the deeds (karman) of the king of
the law l
. The prince
(son) who cherishes his
people, 1629
In the present life gains renown, and hereafter
ascends to heaven; but by disobedience and neg-
lect of duty, present distress is felt and future

misery! 1630
As Lui-'ma (lean horse) 3 ra^a, by
in old times

obeying the precepts, was born in heaven, whilst

Kin-pu (gold step) ra"a, doing wickedly, at the end
of life was born in misery. 1631
Now then, for the sake of the great king, I will

briefly relate the good and evil law (the law of good
and evil). The great requirement 4 is a loving heart !

to regard the people as we do an only son, 1632

Not to oppress, not to destroy to keep in due

check every member of the body, to forsake un-

righteous doctrine and walk in the straight path ;

not to exalt oneself by treading down others (or

inferiors), 1633
But to comfort and befriend those in suffer-

previous meritorious conduct, in the attainment of his present

Dharmara^a, an epithet of every Buddha (Eitel).
The symbol here stands for 'son;' it may mean 'prince' in
the sense of
son of the king of the law (fa wang tseu), which
is a common one in Buddhist books, and is often rendered by
Kumara bhftta/
Lui-'ma may be a phonetic equivalent of the name of the

king, or a translation of the name, viz. Knira^va. So also in the

next line Hirawyaka^ipu may be meant.
The '
great deficiency/ or
the great need/

ing ;
not to exercise oneself in false theories

(treatises),nor to ponder much on kingly dignity

(strength), nor to listen to the smooth words of
false teachers 1634

Not to vex oneself by austerities, not to exceed
(or transgress) the right rules of kingly conduct,
but to meditate on Buddha and weigh his righteous
law, and to put down and adjust all that is contrary
to religion 1635 ;

To exhibit true superiority by virtuous conduct


and the highest exercise of reason, to meditate

deeply on the vanity of earthly things, to realise
the fickleness of life by constant recollection 1636 ;

To mind
to the highest point of reflec-
exalt the
tion, to seek sincere faith (truth) with firm purpose ;

to retain an inward sense of happiness resulting from

oneself (and to look forward to) increased happiness

hereafter; 1637
lay up a good name for distant ages, this

will secure the favour of Tathagata 3 as men now ,

loving sweet fruit will hereafter be praised by their

descendants 4 .
of darkness out of light 5 there is
There is a way ,

a way of light out of darkness there is darkness ;

which follows after the gloom (signs of gloom),

1 '
In false theories and vidyas

Self-dependent happiness.
3 '
Whether the phrase '^u-lai ought to be here translated Tatha-

gata, or whether it refers simply to future generations/ is a

This again is an uncertain translation, although the meaning
plain, that those who here love
is sweet fruit,' will not set their
children's teeth on edge hereafter.
In this and the following lines the reference is apparently to
the possibility of growing worse or better by our deeds.

there a light which causes the brightening of


light. 1639
The wise man leaving first principles 1 should go

on to getlight more be repeated ;
evil words will
far and wide by the multitude, but there are few to
follow good direction 1 640 ;

'It is impossible however to avoid result of works 3 ,

the doer cannot escape if there had been no first ;

works, there had been in the end no result of

doing, 1641
reward for good, no hereafter joy but ;

because works are done, there is no escape. Let us

then practise good works 1642 ;

thoughts that we do no evil,


(Let us) inspect our

because as we sow so we reap 4 As when enclosed in .

a four-stone [stone or rock-encircled] mountain, there

is no escape or place of
refuge for any one, 1643
So within this mountain-wall of

old age, birth,

disease, and death, there is no escape for the world 6 .

Only by considering and practising the true law can

we escape from this sorrow-piled mountain. 1644
There is, indeed, no constancy in the world, the

end of the pleasures of sense is as the lightning

flash, whilst old age and death are as the piercing
bolts what profit, then, in doing (practising) ini-

quity !
1 '
San p'hin, the three sections/
from first to last, illumination/ Does
to learn it refer
to books or vidyas (ming) of instruction ?
3 '
There is not such a thing as not making fruit/ or the fruit of
not making ; but the former is the more likely.
Fruit,' of course,
refers to the result of works.
4 '
Because as we ourselves do, we ourselves receive/
For all living creatures.
6 ' '

Why then ought we to do iniquity !

(fi fa.)

'All the ancient conquering kings, who were as

gods on earth, thought by their strength to over-


come decay 2 ;
but after a brief life they too dis-
appeared .
'The Kalpa-fire will melt Mount Sumeru, the water
of the ocean will be dried up, how much less can our
human frame, which is as a bubble, expect to endure
for long upon the earth 1647 !

The fierce wind scatters the thick mists, the sun's

rays encircle (hide) Mount Sumeru, the fierce fire

licksup the place of moisture, so things are ever
born once more to be destroyed! 1648
The bodya thing (vessel) of unreality, kept
through the suffering of the long night pampered ,

by wealth, living idly and in carelessness, 1649

Death suddenly comes and it is carried away as
rotten wood in the stream ! The wise man expect-
ing these changes with diligence strives against
sloth 1650;

The dread of birth and death acts as a spur to


keep him from lagging on the road he frees himself ;

from engagements, he is not occupied with self-

pleasing, he is not entangled by any of the cares
of 1651
holds to no business, seeks no friendships,
engages in no learned career, nor yet wholly sepa-
rates himself from it ; for his learning is the wisdom

Who were as f jvaradeva.

may mean
2 ' '

Literally, to conquer emptiness ;

it to surpass
the sky to climb to heaven.
They were ground to dust and disappeared.
The suffering of the 'long night' (the period of constant

transmigration) keeps and guards it.


of not-perceiving wisdom, but yet perceiving that
which tells own impermanence 1652
him of his ;

Having a body, yet keeping aloof from defile-

ment, he learns to regard defilement as the great-
est evil. (He knows) that tho' born in the Arupa
world, there is yet no escape from the changes of
time; 1653
His learning, then, is to acquire the changeless
body for where no change is, there is
Thus the possession of this changeful body is the
foundation of all sorrow. 1654

Therefore, again, all who are wise make this their

aim to seek a bodiless condition ;
all the various
orders of sentient creatures, from the indulgence of
lust, derive pain; 1655
'Therefore all those in this condition ought to
conceive a heart, loathing lust putting away and ;

loathing this condition, then they shall receive no

more pain ; 1656

Though born in a state with or without an ex-

ternal form, the certainty of future change is the
root of sorrow; for so long as there is no perfect
cessation of personal being, there can be, certainly,
no absence of personal desire ; 1657

Beholding, way, the character of the three

in this

worlds, their inconstancy and unreality, the presence

of ever-consuming pain, how can the wise man seek
enjoyment therein ? 1658
When a tree is
burning with fierce flames how

'The wisdom of not perceiving;' the symbol <sheu' corres-
ponds with vedana,' perception, or sensation. The meaning there-

fore is that true wisdom depends not on the power of sense ; but

yet he perceives by his senses that he (his body) is impermanent.


can the birds congregate therein wise man, ? The

who is regarded as an enlightened sage, without this
knowledge is ignorant; 1659
Having this knowledge, then true wisdom dawns

without it, there is no enlightenment. To get this

wisdom is the one aim, to neglect it is the mistake
of life. 1660.
All the teaching of the schools should be centred
here ;
without it is no true reason. To recount this
excellent system is not for those who dwell in family
connection; 1661
'Nor is it, on that account, not to be said 1

religion concerns a man individually [is a private

affair]. Burned up with sorrow, by entering the
cool stream, all may obtain relief and ease; 1662
The light of a lamp in a dark room lights up

equally objects of all colours, so is it with those

who devote themselves to religion, there is no
distinctionbetween the professed disciple and the
unlearned (common). 1663
Sometimes the mountain-dweller (i. e. the reli-
gious hermit) sometimes the humble
falls into ruin,

householder mounts up to be a ^z'shi the want of ;

faith (doubt) is the engulfing sea, the presence of

disorderly belief is the rolling flood, 1664

The tide of lust carries away the world involved

in its eddies there is no escape wisdom

is the handy
boat, reflection is the hold-fast. 1665
drum-call of religion (expedients), the bar-
rier (dam) of thought, these alone can rescue from

This and the preceding line are obscure. The sense of the
whole passage seems to point to the adaptation of religion for
the life of all persons, laic or cleric.

the sea of ignorance.' At this time the king sincerely

attentive to the words of the All-wise 1 1666 ,

Conceived a distaste for the world's glitter and

was dissatisfied with the pleasures of royalty, even
as one avoids a drunken elephant, or returns to
right reason after a debauch. 1667
Then the heretical teachers, seeing that the

king was well affected to Buddha, besought the king

(mahara^a), with one voice, to call on Buddha to
exhibit his miraculous gifts. 1668
Then the king addressed the lord of the world :

'I pray you, grant their request!' Then Buddha

silently acquiesced
. And now all the different

professors of religion, 1669

The doctors who boasted
of their spiritual power,
came together a body to where Buddha was then
in ;

he manifested before them his power of miracle ;

ascending up into the air, he remained seated, 1670

Diffusing his glory as the light of the sun he
shed abroad the brightness of his presence. The
heretical teachers were all abashed, the people all
were filled with faith. 1671
for the sake of preaching to his mother, he
forthwith ascended to the heaven of the thirty-three

gods ;
and for three months dwelt in heavenly man-
sions . There he converted the occupants (Devas)
of that abode, 1672
The words of him who knew all things.
To substantiate his claim by exhibiting miraculous power.
his silence showed his acquiescence.
There is an account of Buddha's ascent to this heaven in the
Manual of Buddhism, pp. 298 seq. Also in Fa-hien, cap. xvii.
There are pictures (sculptures) of the scene of his descent in
Tree and Serpent Worship, plate xvii, and in the account of the
Stupa of Barahut.

Andhaving concluded his pious mission to his

mother, the time of his sojourn in heaven finished,
he forthwith returned, the angels accompanying
him on wing 1 he travelled down a seven-gemmed

ladder, 1673
And again arrived at
(^ambudvipa. Stepping
down he alighted on the spot where all the Buddhas
return 2 countless hosts of angels accompanied him,

conveying with them their palace abodes (as a

gift); 1674
The people of ambudvipa with closed hands
looking up with reverence, beheld him. 1675



Having instructed his mother in heaven with all

the angel host, and once more returned to men, he
went about converting those capable of it. 1676
Sula, and Kurna, the noble's
Gutika,, 6rva(ka) ,

son Ariga and the son of the fearless king

(Abhaya) 1677
Nyagrodha and the rest; .SYikutaka (or, Sri-

It would be curious, if this translation were
absolutely certain,
to find that Aj-vaghosha had heard of angels with wings.'
In the
sculptures the Devas are represented as ordinary mortals. The
Chinese may, however, simply mean * accompanying him, as if on
wing/ i.e. following him through the air.
That is, at Sankisa (Sahkajya), [see the Archaeological Survey
of India, 1862-1863.]
This I suppose is the physician <7ivaka. The names of many
of the persons in the context may be found in Spence Hardy,
M. B., passim.
For Nyagrodha, see M. B., p. 39.

[19] R

guptaka), Upali the Nirgrantha , (all these) were
thoroughly converted. 1678
So also the king of Gandhara, whose name
was Fo-kia-lo ( Pudgala ?) he, having heard the pro-

found and excellent law, left his country and became

a recluse. 1679
So also demons
Himapati and Vatagiri,
on the mountain Vibhara, were subdued and con-
verted; 1680
The BrahmaMrin Prayan(tika), on the mountain
Va^ana by the subtle meaning of half
a gatha, he convinced and caused to rejoice in
faith; 1681
The village of Danamati (Khanumat) 2 had one
Kutadanta, the head of the twice-born (Brah-
mans) ;
at this time he was sacrificing countless
victims; 1682
Tathagata by means (upaya, expedients) con-
verted him, and caused him to enter the true path.
On Mount Bhatika 3 (?) a heavenly being of eminent
distinction, 1683
Whose name was Pa#/a.nkha 4 receiving the

law, attained Dhyana ;
in the village of Vainu-

For Upali the Nirgrantha, see M. B., p. 267.
The village Danamati must be the same as that called Khanu-
mat by Spence Hardy, M. B., p. 271.
For this event, see Spence Hardy's M. B., p. 288. He calls the
mountain or rock by the name of We'd!.
For Paf^arikha and his conversion, see M. B., p. 289 ; also

Fa-hien, cap. xxviii. [I may here correct my translation of the

passage in my 'Buddhist Pilgrims' (p. no), instead of 'each one


possessing a five-stringed lute,' it should be attended by the divine

musician Pa?Ua.rikha.'] For PazUajikha, see Childers' Pali Diet.,
sub voce Pa?Tcasikho ;
also Eitel's Handbook.
Or attained rest, or a fixed mind.

sh/a, he converted the mother of the celebrated

Nanda 1
; 1684
A^^avari (Agra/avi), he subdued
In the town of
the powerful (mahabala) spirit; Bhanabhadra (pa-
.Sronadanta; 1685
malevolent and powerful Ndgas, the king
of the country and his harem, received together
the true law, as he opened to them the gate of
immortality (sweet dew). 1686
In the celebrated Viggi village (or in the village

Pavig^i) Kina and Sila, earnestly seeking to be

born in heaven, he converted and made to enter the
right path; 1687
The Angulimala 2 that village of Sumu,

through the exhibition of his divine power, he con-

verted and subdued; 1688
There was that noble's son, Puri^lvana,
rich in wealth and stores as Punavatl (punya-
Directly he was brought to Buddha (Tathdgata)
accepting the doctrine, he became vastly liberal. So
in that village of Padatti he converted the cele-
brated Pa tali 1690 (or, Potali),
And and both demons. In
also Patala, brothers,
Bhidhavali (Pi-ti-ho-fu-li) there were two Brah-
mans, 1691
One called Great-age (Mahdyus?), the other
Brahma-age (Brahmayus ?). These by the power
of a discourse he subdued, and caused them to
attain knowledge of the true law 1692 ;

The mother of Nanda was Pragapati for her conversion, see

M. B., p. 307. She was the foster-mother of Buddha.

For the history of the conversion of the Angulimala, see
M. B., p. 249.

R 2


he came to Vai^all, he converted all the
Raksha demons, and the lion (Si^ha) of the Li/-
^avis, and all the Li//^avis, 1693
Sa/^a 1 the Nirgrantha, all he caused to
attain the true law. Kama kinkhava had a demon
Potala, 1694
And another Potalaka (in) Potalagama [these
he converted]. Again he came to Mount Ala, to
convert the A
demon lava, 1695
And a second called Kumar a, and a third Asi-
daka then going back to Mount Ga^a (Gayaslrsha)

he converted the demon Ka^ana, 1696

And Kamo (kin-mau)the Yaksha, with the sister
and Then coming to Benares, he converted the
celebrated Katyayana 2 1697 ;

Then afterwards going, by his miraculous power,

to Sruvala (Sou-lu-po-lo), he converted the mer-
chants Davakin and Nikin (?), 1698
And received their sandal-wood hall, exhaling its

fragrant odours till now. Going then to M ah 1 vat I,

he converted the JZishi Kapila, 1699
And the Muni remained with him ;
his foot step-

ping on the stone, the thousand-spoked twin-wheels

appeared, which never could be erased. 1 700
Then he came to the place Po-lo-na (Pra^a),
where he converted the demon Po-lo-na; coming
to the country of Math ura, he converted the demon
Go dam a (Khadama ?) ; 1701
In the Thurakusati (? neighbourhood of Mathura)

For Sa/a the Nirgrantha, see M. B., p. 255 ;
also Dhammapada
from the Chinese, p. 126.
That Mahakatyayana. There was another Katyayana, men-

tioned by Hiouen Thsang, who lived 300 years after the Nirvawa.

he also converted Pi#dfapala (or, vara); coming

to the village of Vaira/^a, he converted the
Brahman 702 ;

In the village of Kalamasa (or Kramasa), he

converted Savasasin, and also that celebrated
1 703
Once more returning to the 6ravasti country,
he converted the Gautamas ^atisruna and
Dakatili; 1704
Returning to the Kosala country, he converted the
leaders of the heretics Vakrapali (or, Vikravari)
and all the Brahma/arins. 1705
Coming to Satavaka, in the forest retreat,
he converted the heretical 7^'shis, and con-
strained them to enter the path of the Buddha
7?/shi. 1
Coming to the country of Ayodhya, he con-
verted the Demon Nagas ; coming to the
country of Kimbila, he converted the two Naga-
ra^as; 1707
One called Kimbila, the other called Kalaka.
Again coming to the Va^i country, he converted
the Yaksha demon, 1 708
Whose name was Pish a 1 the father and mother ,

of Nagara, and the great noble also, he caused to

believe gladly in the true law. 1 709

Coming to the Kau^ambl country, he converted

Goshira 2 and the two Upasikas, Vaf uttara 1710

And Uvarl; and besides these,

her companion
many others, one after the other. Coming to the

Pi-sha, i. e. VaLrravawa, the Regent of the North: converted
by Buddha.
For Goshira, see Jul. II, 285; Fa-hieo cap. xxxiv.

country of Gandh^ra he converted the Naga

Apalala ; 1711
Thus in due order all these air-going, water-
loving natures he completely converted and saved,
as the sun when he shines upon some dark and
sombre cave. 1712
At this time Devadatta
seeing the remarkable

excellences of Buddha, conceived in his heart a

jealous hatred losing all power of thoughtful ab-

straction, 1713
ever plotted wicked schemes, to put a stop to
the spread of the true law ascending the Gr/dhra- ;

ku/a (Ghi^aku/a) mount he rolled down a stone to

hit Buddha 3 1714 ;

The stone divided into two parts, each part

passing on either side of him. Again, on the royal
highway he loosed a drunken, vicious elephant 1715 ;

With his raised trunk trumpeting as thunder (he

ran), his maddened breath around raising a cloud
him, his wild pace rushing wind to be
like the
avoided more than the fierce tempest; 1716
His trunk and tusks and tail and feet, when
touched only, brought instant death. (Thus he ran)
through the streets and ways of Ra^agriha, madly
wounding and killing men 1717 ;

Their corpses lay across the road, their brains

For the conversion of Apalala, see Jul. II, 135.
Devadatta, the envious he was the son of Suprabuddha, the

father-in-law of Buddha, M. B., p. 61.

This event is related by Fa-hien, cap. xxix, p. 115 (Bud-
dhist Pilgrims). Fa-hien says, '
The stone is there/ but he

does not say that it was divided. See also M. B., p. 383, where the
account somewhat differs.
This story of the drunken elephant is related in nearly all the
lives of Buddha.' The sculptures at Amaravati and Barahut also
include this episode. See also Fa-hien, p. 113.

and blood scattered afar. Then all the men and

women filled with fear, remained indoors ; 1718
Throughout the city there was universal terror,
only piteous shrieks and cries were heard beyond ;

the city men were running fast, hiding themselves

in holes and dens. 1719

Tathdgata, with five hundred followers, at this

time came towards the city from tops of gates and

every window, men, fearing for Buddha, begged him

not to advance; 1720
Tathdgata, his heart composed and quiet, with
perfect self-possession, thinking only on the sorrow
caused by hate, his loving heart desiring to appease
it, 1721
Followed by guardian angel-ndgas, slowly ap-
proached the maddened elephant. The Bhikshus
all deserted him , Ananda only remained by his

side; 1722
Joined by every tie of duty, his steadfast nature
did not shake or quail. The drunken elephant,
savage and spiteful, beholding Buddha, came to him-
self at once, 1723
And bending, worshipped at his feet
just as a
mighty mountain falls to earth. With lotus hand
the master pats his head, even as the moon lights
up a flying cloud. 1724
And now, as he lay crouched before the master's
feet, on his account he speaks some sacred words :

The elephant cannot hurt the mighty dragon
it is to fight with such a one 1725 ;

1 '
It is said, in the later accounts, that they rose into the air.'
See Tree and Serpent Worship, plate Iviii ;
also Burgess'
Western Caves, plate xvii.
Buddha was also called the great Naga or dragon.

elephant desiring so to do will in the end
obtain no happy state of birth deceived by lust, ;

anger, and delusion, which are hard to conquer, but

which Buddha has conquered. 1726

then, this very day, give up this lust, this

anger and delusion! You! swallowed up in sorrow's
mud if not now given up, they will increase yet

more and grow.' 1727

The elephant, hearing Buddha's words, escaped
from drunkenness, rejoiced in heart; his mind and
body both found rest, as one athirst (finds joy) who
drinks of heavenly dew. 1628
elephant being thus converted, the people
around were filled with joy they all raised a cry of ;

wonder at the miracle, and brought their offerings of

every kind. i7 2 9
scarcely-good arrived at middle-virtue, the
middling-good passed to a higher grade, the unbe-
lieving now became believers, those who believed
were strengthened in their faith. 1730
A^ata^atru, mighty king, seeing how Buddha
conquered the drunken elephant, was moved at
heart by thoughts profound then, ;
filled with joy, he
found a twofold growth of piety. 1731
Tathagata, by of virtue, exhibited all
kinds of spiritual powers thus he subdued and ;

harmonised the minds of all, and caused them in

due order to attain religious truth ; 1732
And through the kingdom virtuous seeds were
sown, as at the first when men began to live

e. were Devadatta,
first created). But mad
with rage, because he was ensnared by his own
wickedness, 1733

At first by power miraculous able to fly, now

fallen, dwells in lowest hell .



The lord of the world having finished his wide

work of conversion conceived in himself a desire
(heart) for Nirvana. Accordingly proceeding from
the city of Ra^agr/ha, he went on towards the town
of Pa-lin-fo (Pa/aliputra) 3 1735 .

Having arrived there, he dwelt in the famous

Pa/ali /etiya 4
. Now this (town of Pa/aliputra) is

For a full account of the deeds and punishment of Devadatta,
see M. B., pp. 328, 329. We are told that Suprabuddha, the father
of Devadatta, also went to M. B., p. 339 seq.
This lady is called Ambapali, the courtezan, in the southern
Pa/aliputra, so called, as it seems, from a flower, pa/ali (Big-
nonia suaveolens). It was otherwise called Kusumapura, the city
of flowers.' The Palimbothra of the Greeks, Arrian, Hist. Ind.
p. 324 (ed. Gronovii) ; supposed to be the modern Patna. The
story found in the text, viz. that the place was an unfortified village
or frontier station of Magadha when Buddha was
seventy-nine years
old, compared with the statement that in the time of Megasthenes
it was one of the
largest and most prosperous towns of India
(Arrian, as above), seems to show that some considerable time had
elapsed between the Nirvawa and the period of the Greek con-
quest. It is singular however (as I stated in Buddhist Pilgrims,

p. Ixiv) that Fa-hien in his account of this town (cap. xxvii)

makes no allusion to the Buddhist council said to have been held
there under Dharma-roka. (For further notice of Pa/aliputra,
compare Sacred Books of the East, vol. xi, pp. 16, 17; also
Bigandet, p. 257, and Spence Hardy, passim.)
There is no mention of the Pa/ali etiya (unless the rest-house
is the same as the Aetiya hall) in the Maha-parinibbana-Sutta,
but in Bigandet, p. 257, it is stated that the people prepared the
dzeat/ or hall, for his use. This dzeat had been erected by '

the frontier town of Magadha, defending the out-

skirts of the country. 1736

Ruling the country was a Brahman

of wide
renown and great learning in the scriptures (sutras) ;

and (there was also) an overseer of the country, to

take the omens of the land with respect to rest or
calamity. 1737
At this time the king of Magadha sent to that
officer of inspection (overseer) a messenger to warn
and command him to raise fortifications in the
neighbourhood (round) of the town for its security
and protection. 1738
And nowthe lord of the world, as they were
raising the fortifications, predicted that in conse-

quence of the Devas and spirits who protected and

kept (the land), the place should continue strong
and free from calamity .(destruction). 1739

king A^atajatru for receiving the "Likkhwi princes of Vaijali, who

had come to a conference at this place to settle their affairs with
the king. This
hall is probably represented at A^anta, Cave xvi

(see Burgess' Report, vol. i, plate xiii, fig. 2 ; also Mrs. Speirs*
Ancient India, p. 197); at least it would seem so from the exact
account left us of the position Buddha took on this occasion, he '

entered the hall and took his seat against the central pillar of the
hair (Rhys Davids and Bigandet in loc.) Does this hall, built
by king A^ata-ratru, and called in our text a JSTetiya hall,' bear

any resemblance to a Basilica ?

Rhys Davids (Sacred Books of the East, vol. xi, p. 18)
tells us that 'the chief magistrates of Magadha Sunidha and
Vassakara were building a fortress at Pa/aligama to repel the

Vaggians I have therefore in my translation supposed the

; <u '

' '
kwo and the yang kwan to be the two officers referred to. It

' '
would seem that these titles ruling the country and overseer
' <

were recognised at the time. The text, however, would bear

another translation, making the Brahman ruler the same as the

omen-taking overseer.

On overseer greatly rejoiced 1

this the heart of the ,

and he made religious offerings to Buddha, the law,

and the church. Buddha now leaving the city gate
went on towards the river Ganges. 1 740
The overseer from his deep reverence for Buddha
named the gate (through which the lord had passed)
the 'Gautama gate 2 Meanwhile the people all by

the side of the river Ganges went forth to pay

reverence to the lord of the world. 1741
They him every kind of religious
prepared for
offering, and each one with his gaudy boat (deco-
rated boat) 3 invited him to cross over. The lord
of the world, considering the number of the boats,
feared lest by an appearance of partiality in ac-

cepting one, he might hurt the minds of all the

rest. 742 1

Therefore in a moment by his spiritual power

he transported himself and the great congregation
(across the river), leaving this shore he passed at
once to that, 1743
Signifying thereby the passage in the boat of
wisdom (from world to Nirvana), a boat large

enough to transport all that lives (to save the world),

even as without a boat he crossed without hindrance
the river (Ganges). 1

The account here given is less exact than that of the Maha-
parinibbana-Sutta, and it would seem as if it were borrowed from
a popular form of that work.
This is in agreement with the Southern account (see Rhys
Davids, Sacred Books of the East, vol. xi, p. 21).
3 '
There is no mention here made of the river being brimful
and overflowing as in the Southern books, nor of the search for
rafts of wood or basket-work.
Compare the account given by Rhys Davids (Sacred Books
of the East, 21) and the verse or song there preserved.
vol. xi, p.

Then all the people on the bank of the river,

with one voice, raised a rapturous shout 1 and all ,

declared this ford should be called the Gautama

ford. 745 1

the city gate is called the Gautama gate,
so this Gautama ford is so known through ages ;

and shall be so called through generations to

come 2 . 1 746
Then Tathagata, going forward still, came to that
celebrated Kuli where he preached and
converted many; again he went on to the Nadi 4
village, 1747
Where many deaths had occurred among the
people. The friends of the dead then came (to the
lord) and asked, Where have our friends and rela-

tives deceased, now gone to be born, after this life

ended 5 ?'1748
Buddha, knowing well the sequence of deeds,
answered each according to his several case. Then
forward to Vai^ali ,
he located himself in the
mra grove
f^ing 7
The celebrated Lady Amra, well affected to Bud-
dha, went to that garden followed by her waiting

shouted out, " miraculous
' '
Or rather !"
Is there any name corresponding to the 'Gautama' ford
known near Patna?
No doubt the same as Ko/igama (op. cit., p. 23) called Kanti-
kama by Bigandet, p. 259.
4 '
Come, Ananda, let us go to the villages of Nadika,'
Davids, p. 24.
The names of the dead are given in the Pali ; the account here
is evidently an abstract only.
6 '
Come, Ananda, let us go on to Vesali,' Rh. D., p. 28.
7 '
And there at Vesali the Blessed One stayed at Ambapali's
grove,' Rh. D., p. 28.

women, whilst the children from the schools 1

her respect. 1750
Thus with circumspection and self-restraint, her
person lightly and plainly clothed, putting away all
her ornamented robes and all adornments of scent
and flowers, 1751
As a prudent and virtuous woman goes forth to
perform her religious duties, so she went on, beau-
tiful to look upon, like any Devi in appearance. 1752

Buddha seeing the lady in the distance

ing, spake thus to all the Bhikshus 2
'This woman :

is indeed exceedingly beautiful, able to fascinate the

minds (feelings) of the religious ;
Now then, keep your recollection straight ! let
wisdom keep your mind in subjection ! Better fall

into the fierce tiger's mouth, or under the sharp

knife of the executioner, 1754
Than to dwell with a woman and excite in your-
selves lustful thoughts. A woman is anxious to
exhibit her form and shape