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Real-Time Onboard Navigation of LEO Satellites

using GPS
O. Montenbruck, DLR/GSOC

Slide 1
Satellite Navigation Colloquium > TUM > 13 Jan 2009

Real-Time Onboard Navigation of LEO Satellites


using GPS
Navigating in Space
Mission needs ...
... and how to meet them

Real-Time Navigation Systems


Concept
Models and measurements
Filter Design

Applications
Sample Implementations
How good can we get?

Summary

Slide 2
Satellite Navigation Colloquium > TUM > 13 Jan 2009

Mission Needs ...


Timing (~ 1 s)
Synchronization of onboard clock

Local Orbital Frame (~ 10 m, ~ 1 cm/s)


Conversion of star camera attitude
Instrument pointing (nadir or other)

Geocoding (1 10 m)
Blending of payload data with position information (SAR, optical)

Autonomous Instrument and Mission Operations (1 m 100 m)


Open-loop altimeter operations
Target and ground station acqusition

Slide 3
Satellite Navigation Colloquium > TUM > 13 Jan 2009

Example: Sentinel-3 Open Loop Altimeter Operations


(R,T,N) pos rms < (3,6,6) m
(R,T,N) vel rms < (2,2,2) cm/s

Gate window 60 m
Slide 4
Satellite Navigation Colloquium > TUM > 13 Jan 2009

... and how to meet them


Adequate maturity and availability of spaceborne GPS technology
Single-frequency (navigation)
Dual-frequency (science, POD)

Conservative, bulky, costly!


Performance in LEO compatible with Standard Positioning Service
No urban canyons, lower ionosphere
Few satellites above the poles
Typical positioning accuracy of 10 (-20) m

Slide 5
Satellite Navigation Colloquium > TUM > 13 Jan 2009

Really?

Limited kinematic positioning accuracy


Pseudorange noise 0.1 m 3 m
Broadcast ephemeris errors (SISRE 1-1.5 m)
Ionospheric delays (few m)

Other issues
Insufficient velocity accuracy (few cm/s)
Lacking continuity (gaps, bad PDOP, outliers)

Theoretical accuracy potential not fully exploited


Conservative design and requirements engineering

Slide 6
Satellite Navigation Colloquium > TUM > 13 Jan 2009

Real-Time Navigation Systems

Improved accuracy (0.5-1 m 3D rms)


Reduced impact of measurement noise
Optional elimination of ionospheric delays in single-frequency processing
Partial elimination of broadcast ephemeris errors
Reduction of velocity error (long-term averaging)

Continuity and predictability


Use of dynamical trajectory model

Problems
Computational complexity (coding, verification)
Processor load

Slide 7
Satellite Navigation Colloquium > TUM > 13 Jan 2009

Real-Time Navigation Cookbook


Ingredients
Dynamical model
Numerical integration
Measurement model
Filtering

Montenbruck O., Ramos-Bosch P.; Precision Real-Time


Navigation of LEO Satellites using Global Positioning
System Measurements; GPS Solutions 12(3):187-198
(2008). DOI 10.1007/s10291-007-0080-x

Slide 8
Satellite Navigation Colloquium > TUM > 13 Jan 2009

Reference System Considerations


Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF, WGS84)
Standard for modeling of GPS orbits and observations
Baseline for modeling of Earth gravitational acceleration

Inertial Reference Frame (ICRF, EME2000)


Standard for celestial body ephemerides (Sun, Moon)
Common baseline for satellite trajectory propagation

Rigorous transformation requires full knowledge of Earth orientation


parameters
Pole coordinates
UT1-TAI time difference

Typical user needs accurate ITRF position, but relaxed ICRF accuracy

Slide 9
Satellite Navigation Colloquium > TUM > 13 Jan 2009

Earth-Fixed Formulation
ITRF formulation of real-time navigation systems
simplifies the filter design
reduces the sensitivity to EOP errors
but increases the complexity of the equation of motion
(law of conservation of trouble)

Apparent acceleration
Coriolis and centrifugal terms
Rotation vector from ICRF-ITRF trafo
transformation and its derivative

aCC = 2 v + r
= 2 v + r

= [ ] = U U T

Practical approximation
Constant angular velocity
Polar motion offset between ITRF z-axis and rotation axis
Accuracy ~100 nm/s2

0
0

Slide 10
Satellite Navigation Colloquium > TUM > 13 Jan 2009

Gravitational Accelerations
Earth gravity field
Spherical harmonics expansion
GM
a =
r

Rn

rn

Pnm (sin )(Cnm cos m + Snm sin m )

n =0 m =0

Cunningham L. E.; On the Computation of the Spherical Harmonic


Terms needed during the Numerical Integration of the Orbital Motion
of an Artificial Satellite; Celestial Mechanics 2, 207216 (1970).

Degree and order 20 to 50


Optional: solid Earth tide (k2)

Luni-Solar Perturbations
Point mass model
Low-order analytical series of luni-solar coordinates (1 to 5)
Simplified ICRF-to-ITRF transfomation (precession, Earth rotation)

Slide 11
Satellite Navigation Colloquium > TUM > 13 Jan 2009

Non-Gravitational Accelerations

Air Drag
No r/t access to solar flux & geomagnetic indices
Simple desity model (Harris Priester)

1
A
a = CD v v
2
m

Adjustable drag coefficient

Solar Radiation Pressure


Cannon-ball model

A s
a = PSun CR 3 AU2
m s

Cyclindrical shadow model


Adjustable rad. pressure coefficient

Maneuvers
Empirical Accelerations

a = ar e r + at et + an en

Adjustable parameters
Compensation of force model deficiencies

Slide 12
Satellite Navigation Colloquium > TUM > 13 Jan 2009

Numerical Integration
Real-time navigation systems
Frequent measurement updates
Short propagation intervals (0.001 to 0.01 revs)
Limited resources
Use low order Runge-Kutta methods

h
h

2h
t0

t1

t2

RK4 with Richardson Extrapolation


Combines two RK4 steps of size h
with one step of size H=2h
Gives 5th order at 6 function calls per h

Hermite interpolation
5th order polynomial for y(t)=(r,v)
from y0, y1 , y2 , y0, y1 , y2
Gill E., Montenbruck O., Kayal H.; The BIRD Satellite Mission as a Milestone Towards GPS-based
Autonomous Navigation; Navigation - Journal of the Institute of Navigation 48/2, 69-75 (2001).
Montenbruck O., Gill E.; State Interpolation for On-board Navigation Systems; Aerospace Science
and Technology 5, 209-220 (2001). DOI 10.1016/S1270-9638(01)01096-3).
Slide 13
Satellite Navigation Colloquium > TUM > 13 Jan 2009

Measurement Model

Ionosphere-free measurements
Dual-frequency pseudorange (P12)
Dual-frequency pseudorange and carrier phase (P12 & L12)
GRAPHIC (GRoup and PHase Ionospheric Calibration) (C/A+L1)
Average of code and carrier phase measurement
Biased measurement
Noise reduced by 50%
Requires only C/A code tracking (better signal-to-noise ratio)

Broadcast ephemerides
Signal-In-Space-Range-Error ~ 1-1.5 m
ICD-GPS-200 models for GPS position, velocity, clock

Slide 14
Satellite Navigation Colloquium > TUM > 13 Jan 2009

Filter State Vector and Process Noise Model


State Vector

Parameter

Dim

Process Noise

CR
Y = CD

aemp

c
t

Position
Velocity

3
3

Maneuver-free arcs: none

Radiation pressure coeff.

None

Drag coefficient

None

Empirical accelerations

Expon. Correlated Random Vars.

Clock Offset

White noise

Biases

NCH

(White noise)

Maneuvers: white noise

Slide 15
Satellite Navigation Colloquium > TUM > 13 Jan 2009

Update Scheme
Time Update
Data Screening
Trajectory Integration
Time Update

State Reconfiguration

Data Screening

Measurement Update

State Reconfiguration

Trajectory Integration

Measurement Update

Interpolation

High-Rate Processing

Low-Rate Processing
Slide 16
Satellite Navigation Colloquium > TUM > 13 Jan 2009

Phoenix-XNS
Extension of DLRs Phoenix GPS receiver
32-bit ARMTDMI microprocessor @30 MHz
12 Channels L1 tracking

Real-time Kalman filtering of GPS raw


measurements
Ionosphere-free C1+L1 combination
Code noise ~ 0.4 m, carrier phase <1 mm

Complements Phoenix standard software for


GPS tracking and navigation
C++ software extension
40x40 gravity model
30s filter update rate

First in-flight demonstration on PROBA-2


Montenbruck O., Markgraf M., Santandrea S., Naudet J., Gantois K., Vuilleumier P.;
Autonomous and Precise Navigation of the PROBA-2 Spacecraft; AIAA-2008-7086;
AIAA Astrodynamics Specialist Conference, 18-21 Aug. 2008, Honolulu, Hawaii (2008).
Slide 17
Satellite Navigation Colloquium > TUM > 13 Jan 2009

Phoenix-XNS Signal Simulator Test (PROBA-2)

Slide 18
Satellite Navigation Colloquium > TUM > 13 Jan 2009

RTNav Software
DLR analysis and development tool for trade-off and design studies
Offline implementation of real-time navigation filter
RINEX observation interface
SP3 or RINEX ephemeris interface
Gravity model interface
User configurable processing parameters

Close match with XNS design


Same core models and filtering scheme
Simple RK4 integrator (no need for interpolation)

Add ons
Attitude and antenna offset modeling
Data editing
Maneuver handling

Slide 19
Satellite Navigation Colloquium > TUM > 13 Jan 2009

RTNav with Broadcast Ephemerides (GRAS)


55 cm
3D rms

Slide 20
Satellite Navigation Colloquium > TUM > 13 Jan 2009

GRAS Preformance Study


Data Type

Radial [m]

Along [m]

Cross [m]

3D rms

2F CP (& PR)

-0.01 0.24

-0.05 0.44

-0.01 0.21

0.55 m

2F PR

-0.06 0.36

+0.31 0.69

+0.01 0.67

1.08 m

1F PR & CP

-0.05 0.27

-0.23 0.69

+0.01 0.21

0.81 m

Broadcast ephemerides, 70x70 gravity field


Ephemeris

Radial [m]

Along [m]

Cross [m]

3D rms

Broadcast

-0.01 0.24

-0.05 0.44

-0.01 0.21

0.55 m

IGU predicted

+0.00 0.18

-0.03 0.28

+0.01 0.10

0.35 m

JPL R/T

+0.04 0.08

+0.03 0.08

+0.01 0.05

0.14 m

Dual Frequency Carrier Phase, 70 x 70 gravity field

Slide 21
Satellite Navigation Colloquium > TUM > 13 Jan 2009

Outlook

Galileo
Targeted SISRE 0.8 m
Improved clocks (H-Maser)
Needs to demonstrate competetivness

TDRSS Augmentation Satellite System (TASS)


Real-time transmission of precise GPS orbit and clock information via
geostationary satellite
Enables real-time navigation at the 10 cm level

Future users
Radio-occultation missions ?
SAR imaging ?
Are we too good?

Slide 22
Satellite Navigation Colloquium > TUM > 13 Jan 2009

Summary
Dynamical filtering of GPS measurements offers improved
Accuracy
Robustness
Predictability

Reference algorithms defined


Compatible with low power microprocessors
Real-time capability demonstrated (Phoenix)

Proper accuracy (0.5 m 3D rms) demonstrated


Broadcast ephemerides sufficient for current applications
Even single-frequency GPS can provide excellent performance

Next steps
Implementation in Sentinel-3 GPS receiver (RUAG)
XNS flight demonstration on PROBA-2

Slide 23
Satellite Navigation Colloquium > TUM > 13 Jan 2009