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PRINCETON, N. J.

''«'W %

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B^ 1010 .S3

V.18

.

,^

^est, Edward wn William, i ^ 1824-

1905.

Pahlavi texts

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THE

SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST

[18]

Uonlion

HENRY FROWDE

OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS WAREHOUSE

1 PATERNOSTER ROW

/

THE

'sacred books of the east

TRANSLATED

BY VARIOUS ORIENTAL SCHOLARS

AND EDITED BY

. V

F. MAX MULLER

VOL. XVIII

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS

1882

[All rights reserved'l

PAHLAVI TEXTS

1/

\

v/

TRANSLATED BY

E. W. WEST

PART II

THE dAz^istAn-I dInIk and the epistles

OF MANt)5^lHAR

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS

1882

\_All rights reserved '\

CONTENTS. ^^:,,,^

INTRODUCTION.

>^" rvV

1. General Remarks .

 

.

2.

The

Da</istan-i Dmik

 

.

 

-Ia

xsv*^

cl^»

.

. ^fea^adtfj^^^

3. The Epistles of Manu^-z^ihar

4. The Appendix

Abbreviations used in this volume

,

o''

xiii

^^''^

xxv

xxviii

xxxi

TRANSLATIONS.

DA

A

A

ADISTAN-I

T^*

^

DiNIK

I

1. Introductory

2. Why a righteous man is better than all creatures, spiritual

3

or worldly

.11

15

.20

.22

.

23

-25

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

3. Why a righteous man is created, and how he should act .

4.

Why a righteous man is great

.

.

5. How temporal distress is to be regarded

.

.

.

.

6. Why the good suffer more than the bad in this world

7. Why we are created, and what we ought to do

.

^

8. Whether good works done for the dead differ in effect

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

from those ordered or done by themselves

 

.

.26

How far they differ

.

.

.

.

.

.

.28

The growth of good works during life .

 

.

.

-29

Whether the growth of a good work be as commendable

as the original good work

.

.

.

.

-30

Whether it eradicates sin equally well

.

.

.

'3°

Whether one is made responsible for all his sins and good works separately at the last account, or only for

their balance

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

-31

14.

The angels who take account of sin and good works, and

how sinners are punished

32

15.

The exposure of a corpse does not occasion the final

departure of Hfe, and is meritorious .

-34

36

.

,

.

16. Whether the soul be aware of, or disturbed by, the corpse

being gnawed

^

.

VI 11

CONTENTS.

17. Reasons for the exposure of corpses 18. How the corpse and bones are to be disposed of

.

.

.

.

-38

43

19.

Whether departed souls can see Auharmas^ and Aharman 44

20. Where the souls of the righteous and wicked go

.

.46

2 1

The Daitih peak, the K'mv2id bridge, and the two paths of departed souls

.

.

.

.

.

.

-47

22.

Whether the spirits are distressed when a righteous man dies 50

23.

How the life departs from the body

 

.

.

.

-Si

24.

Where a righteous soul stays for the first three nights

 

after death, and what it does next

.

 

.

.

-So

25.

Where a wicked soul stays for the first three nights after death, and what it does next

.

.

.

.

 

'55

26.

The nature of heaven and its pleasures .

 

.

.

.56

27.

The nature of hell and its punishments .

 

.

.

57

28.

Why ceremonies in honour of Srosh are performed for the three days after a death

.

.

.

.

.58

29.

Why Srosh must be reverenced separately from other angels 60

30.

Why three sacred cakes are consecrated at dawn after the third night from a death

.

.

.

.

.

 

.61

31.

How a righteous soul goes to heaven, and what it finds

and does there

63

32.

How a wicked soul goes to hell, and what it finds and

suff'ers there

33.

The position and subdivisions of hell

 

.

.

.

-74

34.

The two ways from the Daitih peak ; that of the righteous

 

to heaven, and that of the wicked to hell

.

.

-7^

35.

The continuance of mankind in the world till the resur-

rection

.

76

36.

The preparers of the renovation of the universe

 

.

.77

37.

The contest of the good and evil spirits from the creation

till the resurrection, and the condition of creation after

the resurrection

80

38.

The effect of doing more good works than are necessary

for attaining to the supreme heaven .

 

.

.

.120

39.

Reasons for wearing the sacred thread-girdle

 

.

.

.122

40.

On the sacred shirt and thread-girdle, grace before and

 

after eating, and cleansing the mouth before the after-

grace

'

.

.

.

133

41.

The sin of apostasy, and how to atone for it

.

.136

CONTENTS.

IX

CHAP.

43.

44.

45.

,

PAGE

The distance at which the fire can be addressed, the use

of a lamp, and the proper order of the propitiatory-

dedications, when consecrating a sacred cake

.

.141

Whether a skilful priest who is employed to perform

ceremonies, but is not officially the priest of the dis-

trict, should be paid a regular stipend

.

.

.145

The separate duties of priests and disciples .

.

151

46. When a priest can abandon the priesthood to obtain a

 

Hvelihood

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

i53

47.

Whether a priest who knows the A vesta, or one who

understands the commentary, be more entitled to the

foremost place at a sacred feast

 

.

.

.

'155

48.

The advantage and proper mode of celebrating the ceremonial

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

-159

49.

Whether it be lawful to buy corn and keep it long, so as

to raise the price for the sake of profit

.

.

.174

50.

Whether it be lawful to sell wine to foreigners and infidels

176

51.

The sin of drunkenness, and what constitutes immoderate

drinking

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.178

52.

Whether a man who bargains to deliver wheat in a month,

 

and takes a deposit, is bound to deliver the wheat if

 

its market-price has risen enormously

.

.

.180

53. Whether it be lawful to sell cattle to those of a different religion

182

54.

Whether a man without a son can give away his pro-

 

. perty to one daughter on his death-bed; the laws of

inheritance, and when an adopted son must be ap-

pointed, in such a case

.

.

.

.

.

.183

55.

Whose duty it is to order the ceremonies after a death .

187

56.

The laws of adoption and family-guardianship

.

.188

57. Those who are fit, or unfit, for adoption

.

.

.190

58. The three kinds of adoption

 

.

.

.

.

.191

59. The least amount of property that requires the appoint-

60.

ment of an adopted son

.

.

.

.

.192

The sin of not appointing an adopted son, or of appoint- ing a dishonest one

.

.

.

.

.

.192

61. The merit and demerit of family-guardianship

62.

The laws of inheritance

.

.

193

194

63. Whether it be lawful to seize property from foreigners

and infidels

196

CONTENTS.

CHAP.

64. The origin of Gayomar^f, Mashyaih, and Mashyayoih .

65.

66. Regarding the cost of religious rites, and whether a priest's

The origin of next-of-kin marriage

.

.

.

PAGE

197

.199

67.

68.

69.

70.

fees can be reduced when others will take less .

.

201

The cause of the rainbow

 

210

The cause of the phases of the moon

 

210

The cause of eclipses

.

.

.

.

.

.212

The

causes of river-beds

.

.

.

.

.

-213

71. What things happen through destiny, and what through

72.

exertion

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.214

The seven heinous sinners, and the necessity of avoiding

him who commits unnatural intercourse .

 

.

.216

73. Whether the stench of such intercourse reaches the sky.

220

74.

75.

76.

77.

Whether that stench disturbs the archangels

 

.

.221

Whether the angels raise such a sinner from the dead at the resurrection

.

.

.

.

.

.

.222

Whether it be a good work to kill such a sinner

.

.223

Why such intercourse is a heinous sin .

 

.

.

.224

78. Why adultery is heinous, and how one can atone for it .

79. The sin of not repeating the full grace before drinking

(when one is able to do so), and how one can atone

227

for it

233

237

237

.242

80. Regarding him who does not order ceremonies

81. About the ceremonies for the living soul

82. About him who pays for ceremonies and him who takes the money without performing them

83.

84.

.

.

Whether a priest must undertake all religious rites

.

244

Whether gifts to the priesthood for ceremonies can be

diminished or increased .

245

The advantages of increasing such gifts

.

.

.

246

The harm of diminishing such gifts

248

Why it is good to give such gifts

.

.

.

.249

About the cost of religious rites in Pars

.

.

.250

85.

86.

87.

88.

89. Whether when a man has once

resolved to go into

Pars, with gifts for the priesthood, it be lawful for

him to send another man with the gifts .

.

254

90. The seven immortal rulers in the region of Khvaniras

91.

92.

before the coming of the good religion .

.

-255

The nature and material of the sky

259

The course and benefit of the water of Arekdvisur

.

262

CONTENTS.

XI

CHAP 93. Tijtar's seizing of water from the ocean to rain it upon

PAGE

94

the earth, and his conflict with Apaosh

.

 

.

.264

Conclusion

.

.

.209

Epistles of MANWi^iHAR

.

.

.277

Epistle I. To the good people of Sirkan.

1. Introductory compliments, acknowledging receipt of a

complaining epistle

.

.

.

'

^19

2. Deploring the false opinions in circulation, owing to the

3.

4.

5.

fiend, about the purification ceremonies .

.

Excusing any defects in this epistle for various reasons detailed

Deprecating the disuse of the Bareshnum ceremony, as decreed by his brother ; such disuse being contrary

to scripture and the commentaries .

.

.

.282

286

.292

Alluding to the one-sided view of the opinions of the

commentators adopted by the decree they had sent . 298

6.

Discussing the different statements of the commentators

as to the number of purifiers and washings

.

7. Discussing the proper quantities of liquids

and the 300 pebbles

to be used,

•••

8.

Regarding the stirring up of the bull's urine when fetid,

as mentioned in the Sakat/um Nask

.

.

.301

3°4

309

9. Deciding that the commentary which teaches the most

efficient mode of purification is to be followed, when

there are no special reasons for acting otherwise

.

312

10. Reserving other matters for special instructions' to the

priests, but warning them not to obey the decree now

denounced

.

.

.

.

11. Arranging for the enforcement of his decision, until he

can write further, or come himself; and concluding

with benediction and date

3^"

320

Epistle II. To his brother, Za^-sparam.

1. Acknowledging receipt of a former epistle, and announc-

ing the arrival of complaints about his brother's

reprehensible decree 2. Disapproving of the decree and its mode of dealing with

the commentaries, whose exact agreement is as un-

likely as the simultaneous occurrence of several particular conjunctions of the planets

.

.

.

.

•324

33^

xu

CONTENTS.

PAGE

3. Exhorting him not to seek for new rules, but to adhere

strictly to the old customs

4. Reasserting his opinions, and protesting against the

notion that the decree was in accordance with the

practice of all the purifiers in Iran

Commenting upon the secrecy with which the decree

5.

had been prepared, and the evil consequences re-

6.

sulting from it

.

Persuading him to remain steadfast in the faith, and

threatening him if he should not

7.

Explaining that he had previously written to Sirkan, and would shortly come there himself; but ordering the

appointment of proper purifiers

8. Mentioning his general epistle to all of the good religion

in Iran, and describing the evil consequences of

continued disobedience, including the possibility of his own retreat to foreign lands

9. Giving further instructions for satisfying the discontented,

and opposing the heterodox; and concluding with-

out date

Epistle III.

To all of the good religion in Iran.

For-

bidding the substitution of a fifteenfold washing for the

Bareshnum ceremony; and dated a.y. 250 (a. d. 881)

Appendix

I. Legends relating to Keresasp

II. The Nirang-i Kustl

.

III. The meaning of Khvetuk-das

336

341

343

348

350

352

354

359

367

369

383

389

IV. The Bareshnum ceremony .

431

V. Finding a corpse in the wilderness

455

Index

459

Corrections

479

Transliteration of Oriental Alphabets adopted for the

INTRODUCTION.

I. General Remarks.

The Pahlavi texts selected for translation in this volume are distinguished from all others by the peculiarity that both

the name and station of their author and the time in which

he lived are distinctly recorded.

His name, Manuj/^ihar, son of Yudan-Yim (or Quon-

dam), is mentioned in each of the headings and colophons

to the Da^istan-i Dinik and the three Epistles attributed to

him. He is styled simply aerpat, or ' priest,' in the head-

ings of Eps. I and II, and aerpat khurt^ai, or 'priestly

lordship,' in that of Ep. HI;

but he is called the ra^,

'pontiff, or executive high-priest,' of Pars and Kirman,

and the farma<^ar, 'director,' of the profession of priests,

in the colophons to Dd. and Ep. II ; and we learn from

Dd. XLV, 5 that the farma^ar was also the pejupat, or

'leader' of the religion, the supreme high-priest of the

Ma^-^a-worshipping faith.

Regarding his family we learn, from Ep. I, iii, lo, vii, 5, that his father, Yudan-Yim, son of Shahpuhar, had been

the leader of the religion before him ; and his own suc-

cession to this dignity indicates that he was the eldest

surviving son of his father, who, in his declining years,

seems to have been assisted by his advice (Ep. I, iii, 11).

We also learn, from the heading of his second epistle, that

Za^-sparam was his brother, and this is confirmed by the

language used in Ep. II, vi, i, ix, 6, and by Za<^-sparam

being a son of the same father (Eps. I, heading, III, 2);

that he was a younger brother appears from the^ general

tone of authority over him adopted by Manuj-/('ihar in his'

epistles. Shortly before these epistles were written, Za^-

sparam appears to have been at Sarakhs (Ep. II, v, 3), '^^ ^<

xiv

PAHLAVI "fEXTS.

the extreme north-east of Khurasan, where he probably

came in contact with the Tughazghuz (Ep. II, i, 13) and

adopted some of their heretical opinions, and whence he

may have travelled through Nivshahpuhar (Ep. II, i, 3,

note) and Shiran- (Ep. II, v^ 3, 4) on his way to Sirkan to

take up his appointment as high-priest of the south (Eps. I,

heading, II, i, 4, v, 9, vii, i, viii,

i, Zs. I, o).

Soon after his

arrival at Sirkan he issued a decree, regarding the cere-

monies of purification, which led to complaints from the

people of that place, and compelled his brother to interfere

by writing epistles, threatening him with deprivation of

office (Ep. I, xi, 7) and the fate of a heretic (Eps. II, viii, 2, 3,

III, 17-19). That Za^-sparam finally submitted, so far as

not to be deprived of his office, appears from his still

retaining his position in the south while writing his Selec-

tions (Zs. I, o), which must have been compiled at some

later period, free

from

the excitement of active and

hazardous controversy.

The age in which Manuj-^^ihar lived is decided by the

date attached to his third epistle, or public notification,, to

the Maxr</a- worshippers of Iran ; which date is the third

month of the year 250 of Ya^c^akar^ (Ep. Ill, 21), cor-

responding to the interval between the 14th June and 13th

July A. D. 881 ; at which time, we learn^ he was an old man

(Ep. II, ix, i), but not too old to travel (Eps. I, iii, 13, xi, 4,

II, V, 5, vi, 4, 6, vii, 3, viii, 4, 5).

His writings, therefore, represent the state of the Zoroas-

trian religion a thousand years ago ; and it may be presumed,

from the importance and influentialness of his position, that

his representations can be implicitly relied upon. To detect

any differences there may be between the tenets and reli-

gious customs he describes, and those upheld by Zoroas-

trians of the present time, would require all the learning

and experience of a Parsi priest ; but, so far as a European

can judge, from these writings and his own limited know-

ledge of existing religious customs among the Parsis, the

change has been less than in any other form of religion

during the same period.

The manuscripts containing the writings of Manuj-i-ihar

INTRODUCTION.

XV

are of two classes, one represented in Europe by the codex

No. ^S of the collection of Avesta and Pahlavi manuscripts

in the University Library at Kopenhagen, the other repre- sented by No. 14 of the Haug Collection of similar

manuscripts in the State Library at Munich, which two

manuscripts are called K35 and M14, respectively, in this

volume. In the former of these classes, represented by K35, the Da^istan-i Dinik occupies the central third of the codex ; being preceded by a nearly equal extent of other

miscellaneous religious writings of rather later date, resem-

bling a Pahlavi Rivayat ; and being followed by a third

series of similar writings of about the same age and extent

as the Da<^istan-i Dinik, which includes the Epistles of

Manu^Z'ihar and the Selections of Za<3?-sparam. In the

latter class of manuscripts, from which M14 is descended, the text of the Dart'istan-i Dinik contains many variations from that in the former class, as if it had been revised by

some one whose knowledge of Pahlavi was insufficient to

decipher difficult passages, and who had freely exercised

his editorial license in altering and mutilating the text to

suit his own limited comprehension of it. The codex K35, which was brought from Persia by the late Professor Westergaard in 1 843, is one of the most impor-

tant manuscripts of the former class, and now consists of 181 folios; but it is incomplete at both ends, having lost seventy-one folios at the beginning and about thirty-five at

the end. It still includes, however, the whole of the Da^istan-i Dinik and the Epistles of Manui-^ihar ; though its date has been lost with its last folios. But this date can be recovered from an old copy of this codex existing in India (here called BK) and still containing a colophon, probably

copied from K35\ which states that the manuscript was

^ One reason for supposing that this colophon was so copied is that K35

does not seem older than the date mentioned in it.

Another reason is that

the loss of the end of this colophon in BK allows us to assume that it was

followed by another colophon, as is often the case in