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Smart card and GPS based automatic bus ticketing system

for travelled distance


Mrs. Roopa.V.Chanashetty1 , Ambrish Doddamani2 , Manish Jadhav3 , Pavanakumar4,
Shaik Ayub Hussain5
Lecturer, Department of Electronics and Comm. Engineering, P.D.A.Engg.College, Kalaburagi, Karnataka1
Student, Department of Electronics and Comm. Engineering, P.D.A.Engg.College, Kalaburagi, Karnataka2,3,4,5

ABSTRACT:
This project is based on the concept of automatic ticket vending machine by using Smart card and GPS
receiver. In order to ensure the passenger journey with no quarrels and mesh we employ this ticket friend solution
that replaces the traditional paper ticketing by smart cards, which improves the convenience and security of
transaction. In this automated system we replace the traditional ticket system by smart card that contains all details
of the user including bank account information, which is similar to the ATM card. This project makes use of the
most secure Smart Card that will be used as prepaid travel card that stores the amount within its internal memory.
This facilitates user to board any bus. The system present in bus is made of PIC Microcontroller, Smart card reader,
Keypad, LCD display and GPS receiver. Here we are making use of GPS receiver for location and travelled distance
calculation. The project aims in designing a system which automatically measures the travelled distance by a
passenger in bus and debits the fare for travelled distance from the passenger account and automatically opens the
door for entrance and exit. This project helps in avoiding direct cash method used presently for ticketing, reduces
manpower in buses and ticket counters and safe journey can be assured without any disturbance.

Keywords: Smart card, GPS receiver, PIC Microcontroller, Smart card reader, LCD display.
Author for the Correspondence: Roopa V. Chanashetty
Email: roopachanashetty@gmail.com
Contact Number: +91 9844836687
1. INTRODUCTION
In traditional ticketing system, each and every
day lots of tickets are being printed and sealed showing
that date manually by the person sitting in the bus
stoppage counter. After finish travelling, the passengers
usually through away the used paper made tickets here
& there which ultimately pollutes the environment.
Again large number of trees is being destroyed since the
current system uses paper based ticketing and the used
tickets are just wasted. By replacing the paper tickets
into the Smart card carried out by the passengers does
everything automatically and eventually reduces above
mentioned complexities. Using automatic ticket systems
enables operators such as transferring tickets from one
person to another, sharing of tickets, to avoid
confrontation i.e. mesh between the supervisors and
passengers, safer handling of data, transportation
authorities to save time and personnel costs.

provided with a smart card. The smart card carries a


number or password. When a passenger wants to enter
into bus, initially he needs to swipe the smart card to
smart card reader which is placed nearer to the door of
the bus and he has to enter the password through keypad
then the door will open. While he exiting from bus, he
has to once again swipe his smart card and the door will
gets open. The microcontroller calculates the distance
travelled by passenger and the amount will be deducted
from the account. This feature helps in avoiding direct
cash method used presently for ticketing.
The objectives of project include:
1.

Automatic ticketing.

2.

Direct cash fare collection is avoided.

3.

Usage of smart card technology.

4.

Providing security through password.

In our project automated fare collection system


and no man power is needed. All the passengers are

2. LITERATURE SURVEY
At present we use paper tickets for public
transport which is ejected from a handy machine. This
machine is interfaced with a keypad and has ticket
papers rolled inside it. When the destination is selected
via keypad corresponding details are printed on the
th
ticket and then ejected out. This whole process needs
manpower.
This ticket
icket friend solution mainly proposed to
overcome the tricky problems in traditional ticketing
method like transferring tickets from one person to
another, sharing of tickets, to avoidd confrontation i.e.
mesh between the supervisors and passengers and safer
handling of data. This system introduces Smart card
technology which entirely eliminates the need of paper
tickets. Smart card contains all details of the user
including bank account information,
information so that the
passenger can purchase tickets in their personal account
using smartcards. Time and money are precious every
time we strive to find best way to avoid issues likewise.
When it comes to travel by the bus without carrying
change, this proposed technique
que need only one smart
card.
3. WORKING

5.

LED indicator.

6.

Smart card reader and tags.

7.

GPS receiver

8.

LCD

9.

Keypad

10. Stepper Motor


The modules in the project are: GPS receiver
which keeps track of the distance travelled by the
passenger, smart card reader which is capable of reading
the information of bank account details of passenger
when swiped, keypad to enter the password of the smart
card, LCD to display the travelled distance and fare.
The controlling device of the whole system is a
Microcontroller. GPS receiver, keypad, smart card
reader, LCD display are interfaced to the controller.
When a person boards
ards a bus, he needs to insert the smart
card to the smart card reader present at the entrance and
password should be entered by keypad. The location
coordinates at that instant given by GPS receiver will be
stored against
his smart card number in the
Microcontroller
rocontroller and when he exits the bus, he need one
more swipe of smartcard which gets the location
coordinates of exit point and the Microcontroller
calculates the distance travelled and fare and displays
them on the LCD screen. Also, the amount will be
deducted
educted from the passenger account. The
Microcontroller is programmed using Embedded C
language which provides effective environment for
performing the task.

Microcontroller:

Fig.3.1: Block diagram of ticket vending


machine
The main blocks of this project are:
1.

Micro controller (PIC 16F877A)


16F877A

2.

Reset button

3.

Crystal oscillator

4.

Regulated power supply (RPS)

Fig.3.2: Microcontroller

Introduction to Microcontrollers:
Circumstances that we find ourselves in today in
the field of microcontrollers had their beginnings in the
development of technology of integrated circuits. This
development has made it possible to store hundreds
hundre of
thousands of transistors into one chip. That was a
prerequisite for production of microprocessors, and the
first computers were made by adding external

peripherals such as memory, input-output


output lines, timers
and other. Further increasing of the volume of the
package resulted in creation of integrated circuits. These
integrated circuits contained both processor and
peripherals. That is how the first chip containing a
microcomputer, or what would later be known as a
microcontroller came about.
Microprocessors and microcontrollers are widely
used in embedded systems products. Microcontroller is
a programmable device. A microcontroller has a CPU in
addition to a fixed amount of RAM, ROM, I/O ports
and a timer embedded all on a single chip. The fixed
fi
amount of on-chip
chip ROM, RAM and number of I/O ports
in microcontrollers makes them ideal for many
applications in which cost and space are critical.

REGULATED POWER SUPPLY (RPS):

Fig.3.3.1: Block diagram of RPS


RPS
Power supply is a supply of electrical power. A
device or system that supplies electrical or other types
of energy to an output load or group of loads is called a
power supply unit or PSU.A
A power supply may include
a power distribution system as well as primary or
secondary sources of energy such as conversion of one
form of electrical power to another desired form and
voltage, typically involving converting AC line voltage
to a well-regulated lower-voltage DC for electronic
devices. Following figures which shows block diagram
and circuit diagram of regulated power Supply.

Fig.3.3.2: Circuit diagram of RPS

The components mainly used in RPS are


230V AC MAINS

TRANSFORMER

BRIDGE RECTIFIER(DIODES)

CAPACITORS

VOLTAGE REGULATOR(IC 7805)

RESISTOR

LED(LIGHT EMITTING DIODE)

GPS RECEIVER:
GPS receiver calculates its position by
precisely timing the signals sent by the GPS satellites
high above the Earth. Each satellite continually
transmits messages which includes
include
The time the message was transmitted.
Precise orbital information (the
( ephemeris)
The general system health and rough orbits of
all GPS satellites (the almanac).
The receiver utilizes the messages it receives to
determine the transit time of each message and
computes the distances to each satellite. These
distances along with the satellites locations are used
with the possible aid of trilateration to compute the
position of the receiver. Many GPS units also show
derived information such as direction and speed,
spe
calculated from position changes.
Three satellites might seem enough to solve for
position, since space has three dimensions and a
position on the Earth's surface can be assumed.
However, even a very small clock error multiplied by
the very large speed of light the speed at which satellite
signals propagate results in a large positional error.
Therefore receivers use four or more satellites to solve
for the receiver's location and time. The very accurately
computed time is effectively hidden by most GPS
applications, which use only the location. A few
specialized GPS applications
cations do however use the time;
these include time transfer,, traffic signal timing, and
synchronization of cell phone base stations.
stations
Although four satellites are required for normal
operation, fewerr apply in special cases. If one variable
is already known, a receiver can determine its position
using only three satellites. (For example, a ship or plane

may have known elevation.) Some GPS receivers may


use additional clues or assumptions (such as reusing the
last known altitude, dead reckoning, inertial navigation,
or including information from the vehicle computer) to
give a degraded position when fewer than four satellites
are visible.
SMART CARD AND SMART CARD READER
SMART CARD
A smart card, chip card, or integrated circuit
card (ICC), is any pocket-sized card with embedded
integrated circuits. The smart card is a plastic card about
the size of a credit card, with an embedded microchip
that can be loaded with data, used for telephone calling,
electronic cash payments, and other applications, and
then periodically refreshed for additional use.

mobile telephone. Because the chips in financial cards


are the same Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) as in
mobile phones, programmed differently and embedded
in a different piece of PVC, chip manufacturers are
building to the more demanding GSM/3G standards. So,
for example, although EMV allows a chip card to draw
50 mA from its terminal, cards are normally well below
the telephone industrys 6 mA limit. This allows smaller
and cheaper financial card terminals.

CLK

RST
Vcc

RFU
GND

How Smart Cards Works


A smart card contains more information than a
magnetic stripe card and it can be programmed for
different applications. Some cards can contain
programming and data to support multiple applications
and some can be updated to add new applications after
they are issued. Smart cards can be designed to be
inserted into a slot and read by a special reader or to be
read at a distance, such as at a toll booth. Cards can be
disposable (as at a trade-show) or reload able (for most
applications).
An industry standard interface between
programming and PC hardware in a smart card has been
defined by the PC/SC Working Group, representing
Microsoft, IBM, Bull, Schlumberger, and other
interested companies. Another standard is called Open
Card. There are two leading smart card operating
systems: Java Card and MULTOS.
Features of smart cards:

Processor cards (and therefore memory too)


Credit card size -With or without contacts.
Cards have an operating system too.
Cards must interface to a computer or
terminal through a standard card reader.

SMART CARD READER


Contact smart card readers are used as a
communications medium between the smart card and a
host, e.g. a computer, a point of sale terminal, or a

RFU
Vpp
I/O

Fig.3.4: Picture of smart card


Working procedure of smart card reader:
When the power is switched on it will display
SLE 4442 on the terminal (Hyper terminal). This
indicates that the smartcard reader is ready to work.
After getting this display message on the terminal if you
insert a smartcard it will check whether it is inserted
properly or not. If not, it will display the error message
like Please insert the card properly. If you have
inserted the card properly it will prompt you to enter
password which is nothing but security code as given in
the below.
Enter password:
Now you have to enter 3byte password.
Here the password is nothing but 3 bytes reference data
in the SLE4442 smartcard. So we must enter 3byte
password (security code) here. If we enter more or less
than 3bytes of password then it will give error as given
in the below Wrong Password If the password length is
3bytes and it is a wrong password or inserted card is
blocked then it will display.

Card Error
If entered password
ord is correct then it will
display Card Accepted. Now we can perform all
operations on the inserted smartcard including read,
write and erase.
Only after a successful comparison of
verification data with the internal reference data the
memory has the identical
ntical access functionality of the
SLE 4432 until the power is switched off. After three
successive unsuccessful comparisons the Error Counter
blocks any subsequent attempt, and hence any
possibility to write and erase.

instruction. This problem is overcome by inserting


known delays into our program.
The 10k Potentiometer controls the contrast of
the LCD panel. Nothing fancy here. As with all the
examples, I've left the power supply out. We can use a
bench power supply set to 5v or use an onboard +5
regulator. Remember a few de-coupling
de
capacitors,
especially if we have trouble with the circuit working
properly.

LCD

This project is implemented using following softwares:

Some of the most common LCDs connected


to the many microcontrollers are 16x2 and 20x2
displays. This means 16 characters per line by 2 lines
and 20 characters per line by 2 lines, respectively.
Schematic:

4. SOFTWARE DESCRIPTION

Express PCB for designing circuit.


circuit
PIC C compiler - for compilation part.
part
Proteus 7 (Embedded C) for simulation part.

5. RESULTS
Smart card and GPS based bus
The project Smart
ticketing system for travelled distance
distance is designed such
that system automatically measures the traveled distance
by a passenger in bus and debits the fare for traveled
distance from the passenger account. This feature helps
in avoiding direct cash method used presently for
ticketing.
6. FUTURE SCOPE:

Fig.3.5:: Schematic diagram of LCD

Circuit Description:
Above is thee quite simple schematic. The LCD
panel's Enable and Register Select is connected to the
Control Port. The Control Port is an open collector /
open drain output. While most Parallel Ports have
internal pull-up
up resistors, there is a few which don't.
Therefore
re by incorporating the two 10K external pull up
resistors, the circuit is more portable for a wider range
of computers, some of which may have no internal pull
up resistors.
We make no effort to place the Data bus into
reverse direction. Therefore we hard wire the R/W line
of the LCD panel, into write mode. This will cause no
bus conflicts on the data lines. As a result we cannot
read back the LCD's internal Busy Flag which tells us if
the LCD has accepted and finished processing the last

The project can be extended by using wireless


camera to view the persons and also by using 3G mobile
live video can be viewed. The project can also extended
using GSM modem which can alert the authorities about
the ticketing status through SMS messages.
Conclusion:
Integrating features of all the hardware
components used have been developed in it. Presence of
every module has been reasoned out and placed
carefully, thus contributing to the best working of the
unit. Secondly, using highly advanced ICs with the
help of growing technology. Thus
Thu the project helps in
avoiding direct cash method used presently for
ticketing, reduces manpower in buses and ticket
counters and safe journey can be assured without any
disturbances.

REFERENCES:
[1]

Ameer H. Morad, GPS Talking For Blind

People, Journel of emerging technologies in web


intelligence, Vol. 2, No. 3, augest 2010.

[2] Dhruba Ningombam, Chitra, Nitashi Kalita, Vinita


Pat Pingua, An Intelligent Voice Enabled Distance to
Empty and Navigation System,International Journal of
Soft Computing and Engineering (IJSCE) ISSN: 22312307, Volume-2, Issue-3, July 2012
The sites which were used while doing this project:
1. www.wikipedia.com
2. www.allaboutcircuits.com
3. www.microchip.com
4. www.howstuffworks.com

Books referred:
1.

Raj
kamal
Microcontrollers
Architecture,
Programming, Interfacing and System Design.

2.

Mazidi and Mazidi Embedded Systems.