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OBJECTIVE

The objective of this experiment are to determine specific gravity of oil using hydrometer and
density meter and to compare specific gravity and API gravity of different oils.

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SUMMARY
API gravity is the most commonly used property to classify crude oil and refined petroleum
products since the early days of petroleum industry. It has also been used to predict many other
characteristics of petroleum oils. The objective of this experiment is to determine specific gravity
of oil using hydrometer and density meter and to compare specific gravity and API gravity of
different oils. In this experiment, to determine density or specific gravity of liquid were used
hydrometer and density meter. There are four types of sample used in this experiment, which are
petrol, kerosene, diesel and lubricating oil. Usually, hydrometer were used for determining oil
gravity in the oil field. Hydrometer also can be used at atmospheric pressure or at any other
pressure in a pressure cylinder. However, the portable density meter is an accurate tool to
determine the density of the sample. In this experiment, the experimenter were introduced to
determine the differences the specific gravity of oil by using hydrometer and density meter
methods.

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CONCLUSION
From this experiment can be conclude that to determine the specific gravity of oil using
hydrometer and density meter and to compare specific gravity and API gravity of different oils,
where the hydrometer and density meter that have been used to different type of samples. Based
on the results, Lubricating oil has the highest density value followed by diesel, kerosene and
petrol. It had shown the density meter is more accurate compared to hydrometer. There were
several errors were occurred in this experiment. To overcome the error is the observers eye must
squarely aligned with the pointer and scale to avoid the parallax error. Next, the density meter
must be drain and rinse to avoid a contaminant in samples.

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REFERENCES
1. Uttam Ray Chaudhuri, Fundamentals of Petroleum and Petrochemical Engineering
Chemical Industries., CRC Press, 2010 (BOOK)
2. Francis S. Manning,Richard E. Thompson (Ph.D.), Richard E. Thompson, Oilfield
Processing of Petroleum: Crude oil Jilid 2 daripada Oilfield Processing of
Petroleum,Francis S. Manning, PennWell Books, 1995. (BOOK)
3. Ulag Mahadevan, Fundamentals of Petroleum and Petrochemical Engineering, Gazelle
Book Services, 2012. (BOOK)
4. Navid Naderpour, Petrochemical Production Processes, Sbs Publishers & Distributors,
2008 (BOOK)
5. J. Matthew Neal, Specific Gravity, Lulu.com, 2008. (BOOK)

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CONTENT
INDEX
SUMMARY
OBJECTIVE
DATA AND RESULTS

ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION

CONCLUSION AND
RECOMMENDATION
TUTORIAL
REFERENCES
APPENDICES

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